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WORLD WAR II

Organized Crime?

Part 2: The Establishment of a ‘New World Order’
By William P. Litynski

Order Out of Chaos: Establishment of a New World Order

The establishment of a “new world order” in the Eternal City: Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson (front row, far left, in blue suit), U.S. Army General Mark Clark (front row, third from left), and other American officers and officials salute to the American flag in the plaza in front of the Piazza Venezia during an official flag lowering ceremony shortly after their arrival in Rome, Italy on July 4, 1944. The city of Rome once served as the capital of the Roman Empire. Henry L. Stimson was a graduate of Yale University (B.A. Yale 1888), a member of the Council on Foreign Relations (1924-1929, 1934-1950), and a member of Skull & Bones. (Photo by Carl Mydans/Time Life)

Federal Reserve bankers, left to right: Beardsley Ruml, Marriner S. Eccles, and Allan Sproul Beardsley Ruml (left), who created the idea of the pay-as-you-go income tax (also known as withholding tax) in 1943, was the Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York from 1941 to 1946 and Treasurer of R.H. Macy & Co. (Macy’s department store) from 1934 to 1945. Beardsley Ruml earned a Ph.D. at University of Chicago in 1917. Allan Sproul (right) was the President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York from 1941 to 1956. Marriner S. Eccles (center) was the Chairman of the Federal Reserve from 1934 to 1948; Marriner S. Eccles was a member of the board of directors of Planned Parenthood World Population. Beardsley Ruml and Allan Sproul were members of the Council on Foreign Relations.

Graeme K. Howard, the author of America and A New World Order, was the Vice President of General Motors during World War II, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations from 1938 to 1961, and a supporter of Adolf Hitler.

An FBI file on Graeme K. Howard (Source: http://rationalrevolution.net/war/american_supporters_of_the_europ.htm)

U.S. Army Chief of Staff Gen. George C. Marshall (L) reviews a map with Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson in 1942. (Photo: Thomas D. McAvoy/Time Life)

Northwest exposure of the Pentagon's construction underway on July 1, 1942. (Photo: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers)

The United Nations, located in New York City, was established in 1945.

The World Bank, located in Washington D.C., was established in 1944.

International Monetary Fund headquarters, located in Washington D.C., was established in 1944.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), located in Brussels, Belgium, was established in 1949. (NATO Photo)

The European Communities was established after World War II.

The World War II Institutions: • United Nations • World Bank • International Monetary Fund (IMF) • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) • European Communities (later European Union) • U.S. Department of Defense (Pentagon) • Central Intelligence Agency

The modern Department of Defense (The Pentagon), located outside Washington, D.C., was established in 1947.

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), located in Langley, Virginia, was established in 1947.

The Danger of American Fascism
By

Vice President Henry A. Wallace
The New York Times From Henry A. Wallace, Democracy Reborn (New York, 1944),

edited by Russell Lord, p. 259.
Sunday 09 April 1944 On returning from my trip to the West in February, I received a request from The New York Times to write a piece answering the following questions: What is a fascist? How many fascists have we? How dangerous are they? A fascist is one whose lust for money or power is combined with such an intensity of intolerance toward those of other races, parties, classes, religions, cultures, regions or nations as to make him ruthless in his use of deceit or violence to attain his ends. The supreme god of a fascist, to which his ends are directed, may be money or power; may be a race or a class; may be a military clique or an economic group; or may be a culture, religion, or a political party. The perfect type of fascist throughout recent centuries has been the Prussian Junker, who developed such hatred for other races and such allegiance to a military clique as to make him willing at all times to engage in any degree of deceit and violence necessary to place his culture and race astride the world. In every big nation of the world are at least a few people who have the fascist temperament. Every Jew-baiter, every Catholic hater, is a fascist at heart. The hoodlums who have been desecrating churches, cathedrals and synagogues in some of our larger cities are ripe material for fascist leadership. The obvious types of American fascists are dealt with on the air and in the press. These demagogues and stooges are fronts for others. Dangerous as these people may be, they are not so significant as thousands of other people who have never been mentioned. The really dangerous American fascists are not those who are hooked up directly or indirectly with the Axis. The FBI has its finger on those. The dangerous American fascist is the man who wants to do in the United States in an American way what Hitler did in Germany in a Prussian way. The American fascist would prefer not to use violence. His method is to poison the channels of public information. /With a fascist the problem is never how best to present the truth to the public but how best to use the news to deceive the public into giving the fascist and his group more money or more power. If we define an American fascist as one who in case of conflict puts money and power ahead of human beings, then there are undoubtedly several million fascists in the United States. There are probably several hundred thousand if we narrow the definition to include only those who in their search for money and power are ruthless and deceitful. Most American fascists are enthusiastically supporting the war effort. They are doing this even in those cases where they hope to have profitable connections with German chemical firms after the war ends. They are patriotic in time of war because it is to their interest to be so, but in time of peace they follow power and the dollar wherever they may lead. American fascism will not be really dangerous until there is a purposeful coalition among the cartelists, the deliberate poisoners of public information, and those who stand for the K.K.K. type of demagoguery. The European brand of fascism will probably present its most serious postwar threat to us via Latin America. The effect of the war has been to raise the cost of living in most Latin American countries much faster than the wages of labor. The fascists in most Latin American countries tell the people that the reason their wages will not buy as much in the way of goods is because of Yankee imperialism. The fascists in Latin America learn to speak and act like natives. Our chemical and other manufacturing concerns are all too often ready to let the Germans have Latin American markets, provided the American companies can work out an arrangement which will enable them to charge high prices to the consumer inside the United States. Following this war, technology will have reached such a point that it will be possible for Germans, using South America as a base, to cause us much more difficulty in World War III than they did in World War II. The military and landowning cliques in many South American

countries will find it attractive financially to work with German fascist concerns as well as expedient from the standpoint of temporary power politics. Fascism is a worldwide disease. Its greatest threat to the United States will come after the war, either via Latin America or within the United States itself. Still another danger is represented by those who, paying lip service to democracy and the common welfare, in their insatiable greed for money and the power which money gives, do not hesitate surreptitiously to evade the laws designed to safeguard the public from monopolistic extortion. American fascists of this stamp were clandestinely aligned with their German counterparts before the war, and are even now preparing to resume where they left off, after "the present unpleasantness" ceases: The symptoms of fascist thinking are colored by environment and adapted to immediate circumstances. But always and everywhere they can be identified by their appeal to prejudice and by the desire to play upon the fears and vanities of different groups in order to gain power. It is no coincidence that the growth of modern tyrants has in every case been heralded by the growth of prejudice. It may be shocking to some people in this country to realize that, without meaning to do so, they hold views in common with Hitler when they preach discrimination against other religious, racial or economic groups. Likewise, many people whose patriotism is their proudest boast play Hitler's game by retailing distrust of our Allies and by giving currency to snide suspicions without foundation in fact. The American fascists are most easily recognized by their deliberate perversion of truth and fact. Their newspapers and propaganda carefully cultivate every fissure of disunity, every crack in the common front against fascism. They use every opportunity to impugn democracy. They use isolationism as a slogan to conceal their own selfish imperialism. They cultivate hate and distrust of both Britain and Russia. They claim to be super-patriots, but they would destroy every liberty guaranteed by the Constitution. They demand free enterprise, but are the spokesmen for monopoly and vested interest. Their final objective toward which all their deceit is directed is to capture political power so that, using the power of the state and the power of the market simultaneously, they may keep the common man in eternal subjection. Several leaders of industry in this country who have gained a new vision of the meaning of opportunity through co-operation with government have warned the public openly that there are some selfish groups in industry who are willing to jeopardize the structure of American liberty to gain some temporary advantage. We all know the part that the cartels played in bringing Hitler to power, and the rule the giant German trusts have played in Nazi conquests. Monopolists who fear competition and who distrust democracy because it stands for equal opportunity would like to secure their position against small and energetic enterprise. In an effort to eliminate the possibility of any rival growing up, some monopolists would sacrifice democracy itself. It has been claimed at times that our modern age of technology facilitates dictatorship. What we must understand is that the industries, processes, and inventions created by modern science can be used either to subjugate or liberate. The choice is up to us. The myth of fascist efficiency has deluded many people. It was Mussolini's vaunted claim that he "made the trains run on time." In the end, however, he brought to the Italian people impoverishment and defeat. It was Hitler's claim that he eliminated all unemployment in Germany. Neither is there unemployment in a prison camp. Democracy to crush fascism internally must demonstrate its capacity to "make the trains run on time." It must develop the ability to keep people fully employed and at the same time balance the budget. It must put human beings first and dollars second. It must appeal to reason and decency and not to violence and deceit. We must not tolerate oppressive government or industrial oligarchy in the form of monopolies and cartels. As long as scientific research and inventive ingenuity outran our ability to devise social mechanisms to raise the living standards of the people, we may expect the liberal potential of the United States to increase. If this liberal potential is properly channeled, we may expect the area of freedom of the United States to increase. The problem is to spend up our rate of social invention in the service of the welfare of all the people. The worldwide, agelong struggle between fascism and democracy will not stop when the fighting ends in Germany and Japan. Democracy can win the peace only if it does two things: * Speeds up the rate of political and economic inventions so that both production and, especially, distribution can match in their power and practical effect on the daily life of the common man the immense and growing volume of scientific research, mechanical invention and management technique * Vivifies with the greatest intensity the spiritual processes which are both the foundation and the very essence of democracy.

The moral and spiritual aspects of both personal and international relationships have a practical bearing which so-called practical men deny. This dullness of vision regarding the importance of the general welfare to the individual is the measure of the failure of our schools and churches to teach the spiritual significance of genuine democracy. Until democracy in effective enthusiastic action fills the vacuum created by the power of modern inventions, we may expect the fascists to increase in power after the war both in the United States and in the world. Fascism in the postwar inevitably will push steadily for Anglo-Saxon imperialism and eventually for war with Russia. Already American fascists are talking and writing about this conflict and using it as an excuse for their internal hatreds and intolerances toward certain races, creeds and classes. It should also be evident that exhibitions of the native brand of fascism are not confined to any single section, class or religion. Happily, it can be said that as yet fascism has not captured a predominant place in the outlook of any American section, class or religion. It may be encountered in Wall Street, Main Street or Tobacco Road. Some even suspect that they can detect incipient traces of it along the Potomac. It is an infectious disease, and we must all be on our guard against intolerance, bigotry and the pretension of invidious distinction. But if we put our trust in the common sense of common men and "with malice toward none and charity for all" go forward on the great adventure of making political, economic and social democracy a practical reality, we shall not fail. [END] From “The Danger of American Fascism”, originally published in The New York Times, 1944; an excerpt from Democracy Reborn, by Henry A. Wallace ( New York, 1944 ), edited by Russell Lord, p. 259 Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888-November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941-1945), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933-1940), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945-1946). Source: http://www.masters-of-war.org/friendlyfascism.html

Allied Conferences & Interventions

President Franklin D. Roosevelt meets with King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia on board USS Quincy (CA-71) in the Great Bitter Lake, Egypt, on February 14, 1945. King Ibn Saud is speaking to the interpreter Colonel William A. Eddy, USMC (the man kneeling in front of the King). Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, USN, the President’s Aide and Chief of Staff, is at left. William A. Eddy was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the U.S. Minister to Saudi Arabia from 1944 to 1946.

September 1, 1939 – Adolf Hitler and the Nazi German armed forces invade Poland, beginning World War II. May 10, 1940 – Nazi Germany invades France, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg May 17, 1940 – Nazi Germany occupies all of Netherlands May 27-June 3, 1940 – Great Britain evacuates British and French troops at Dunkirk, France June 22, 1940 – French government under Prime Minister (Marshal) Philippe Pétain signs an armistice ending war with Nazi Germany September 14, 1940 – first peacetime military draft in American history is approved March 11, 1941 – Lend-Lease Act is signed into law June 22, 1941 – Nazi Germany invades Soviet Union May 2-31, 1941 – Great Britain invades Iraq in the Anglo-Iraqi War and overthrows the pro-Nazi Iraqi Prime Minister Rashid Ali al-Gailani June 8, 1941 – British and Free French forces invade Syria. August 25 –September 17, 1941 – United Kingdom and Soviet forces invading Iran. September 16, 1941 – Shah Reza Pahlavi of Iran is forced to resign in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran (“The Shah” who went into exile in America in 1979), under pressure from the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. December 7, 1941 – Imperial Japanese Navy attacks Pearl Harbor. June 10, 1943 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs pay-as-you-go income tax bill July 1-22 1944 – Bretton Woods Conference is held in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire establishing IMF, World Bank, and GATT August 21-October 7, 1944 – Dumbarton Oaks Conference is held in Washington, D.C., establishing the United Nations February 4-11, 1945 – Yalta Conference is held in the Soviet Union April 25-June 26, 1945 – United Nations Conference on International Organization is held in San Francisco June 26, 1945 – Foreign “dignitaries” sign the United Nations Charter July 17-August 2, 1945 – Potsdam Conference is held in Potsdam, Germany, outside Berlin

The British War Cabinet poses for a group portrait in London on November 8, 1939, during the beginning of World War II. Left to right, standing: Home Secretary, Sir John Anderson; Minister without Portfolio, Lord Hankey; Secretary of State for War, Mr. Leslie Hore-Belisha; First Lord of the Admiralty, Mr. Winston Churchill; Secretary of State for Air, Sir Kingsley Wood; Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs, Mr. Anthony Eden; and Secretary to the War Cabinet, Sir Edward Bridges. Seated, left to right: Foreign Secretary, Lord Halifax; Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir John Simon; Prime Minister, Mr. Neville Chamberlain; Lord Privy Seal, Sir Samuel Hoare; and Minister for Co-ordination for Defence, Lord Chatfield. (Image: © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS)

The War Cabinet and ministers pose in a special photograph taken at No. 10 Downing Street in London on October 16, 1941. Left to right (Sitting):- Mr. Ernest Bevin, Lord Beaverbrook, Sir Anthony Eden, Major C. Attlee, Sir Winston Churchill, Sir John Anderson, Mr. Arthur Greenwood and Sir Kingsley Wood. (Standing): - Sir Archibald Sinclair, Mr. A V Alexander, Lord Cranbourne, Mr. Herbert Morrison, Lord Moyne, Captain Margesson, and Mr. Brendan Bracken. (Image: © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS)

The British War Cabinet in the ground of 10 Downing Street, London, the official residence of the Prime Minister, on October 19, 1941. Seated left to right: the Home Secretary, Sir John Anderson, the Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, the Lord Privy Seal Major C. Attlee, and the Foreign Secretary, Mr. Anthony Eden. Standing left to right: Minister without Portfolio, Mr. Arthur Greenwood, Minister of Labour and National Service, Mr. Ernest Bevin, Minister for Aircraft Production, Lord Beaverbrook and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir Kingsley Wood. (Image: © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS)

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill has a dinner with King Ibn Saud at the Auberge Hotel on Lake Karoun near Cairo in February 1945.

Atlantic Charter Conference, 10-12 August 1941. Conference leaders during Church services on the after deck of HMS Prince of Wales, in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland. American President Franklin D. Roosevelt (left) and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill are seated in the foreground. Standing directly behind them are Admiral Ernest J. King, U.S. Navy; General George C. Marshall, U.S. Army; General Sir John Dill, British Army; Admiral Harold R. Stark, U.S. Navy; and Admiral Sir Dudley Pound, Royal Navy. American envoy Harry Hopkins (far left) is seen talking with Union Pacific Railroad chairman and special envoy William Averell Harriman in the background. (Donation of Vice Admiral Harry Sanders, USN (Retired), 1969; U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph) Source: http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h67000/h67209c.htm

“Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him all Europe may be freed and the life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new dark age, made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duty, and so bear ourselves that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, ‘This was their finest hour.’” – Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of Great Britain, in a speech in the House of Commons on June 18, 1940, the day of the French capitulation to Nazi Germany

Averell Harriman, a partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., signs the first Lend-Lease Protocol (Agreement) after negotiating with Josef Stalin in 1941. From left to right: Lord Beaverbrook, Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav M. Molotov, Laurence Steinhardt (standing behind Harriman), Admiral William H. Standley, and Charles Thayer.

Lend-Lease Program U.S. planes stand ready to be picked up at Abadan Field, Iran in 1942, which in the rainy season was reported as being the “damnedest gumbo you ever saw.” Five principal types of aircraft were delivered to Russia, three of which are shown here. Of the total, about 20% were P-40s, 25% P-39s, 49% A-20s, 5% B-25s and 1% AT-6s. (U.S. Air Force photo)

British troops observe Baghdad, Iraq on June 11, 1941. The British army invaded Iraq beginning on May 2, 1941 to overthrow the pro-Nazi Iraqi Prime Minister Rashid Ali al-Gailani and to secure the oil fields in Iraq. (Photo: No. E 3464 from the Imperial War Museum collection)

The British army (above) and the Soviet Red Army invade Iran beginning on August 25, 1941, just two weeks after British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met with U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt aboard HMS Prince of Wales in Newfoundland. Britain and Soviet Union proceeded to remove Shah Reza Pahlavi on September 16, 1941 and installed the Shah’s son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (the “Shah” who would evacuate to America in 1979). Britain and Soviet Union invaded Iran to secure a supply line from the Persian Gulf to Soviet Russia and to secure Iran’s oil for Allied military needs. Iran remained neutral at the time of the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran in August 1941. (Source: Catherine Legrand, Jacques Legrand: Shah-i Iran. Creative Publishing International (Farsi edition), Minnetonka, MN 1999, S. 41. IR/RR) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Brtitishtroopsiran.jpg

With terrain typical of the region in the background, Maj. Gen. A. S. Allen (center), Commander of the Australian 7th Division, inspects some of his men at Hammana, Lebanon in September 1941. British Commonwealth units garrisoned Lebanon and Syria for several months, following the end of the campaign. (Photographer: Frank Hurley) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:AWM_010546_allen_lebanon.jpg

The fall of Damascus (Syria) to the Allies in late June 1941. A car carrying the Free French commanders, General Georges Catroux and Major-General Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme, enters Damascus in June 1941. They are escorted by Vichy French Circassian cavalry (Gardes Tcherkess). Lebanon became an independent state on November 8, 1943; Lebanon declared war on Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan on February 27, 1945. Syria became independent on January 1, 1944; Syria declared war on Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan on February 26, 1945.

Left to right: Josef Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill in Teheran, Iran on November 29, 1943 (Photo: Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library)

Soviet dictator Josef Stalin, American President Franklin Roosevelt, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill appear at The Tehran Conference in Tehran, Iran on November 29, 1943. Standing from left to right: Secretary of Commerce Harry Hopkins, Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, Averell Harriman, Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, and Anthony Eden. (Photo: Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library)

T.V. Soong (L), the Foreign Minister of the Republic of China, and U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull sign a lend lease agreement between the United States of America and the Republic of China in 1942. (Photo: Myron Davis/Time Life)

The new Pacific War Council meets at the White House in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. on April 1, 1942 to discuss the strategy of the United Nations to defeat Japan. From left to right: Republic of China’s Foreign Minister T.V. Soong, New Zealand Foreign Minister Walter Nash, Australia’s Minister of External Affairs Herbert Evatt, British Ambassador Lord Edward Halifax, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Canada’s Counselor Hume Wrong, Dutch Foreign Minister Alexander Loudon, and American advisor Harry Hopkins. (© Bettmann/CORBIS)

Left to right: China’s Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, America’s President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Madame Chiang Kai-shek are seated outside during the Cairo Conference in Cairo, Egypt on January 1, 1944. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

Statesmen and diplomats stand together for a portrait at the Cairo Conference in 1943. Seated from left to right: Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Madame Chiang Kai-shek. Standing form left to right: Sir Alexander Cadogan, Anthony Eden, Laurence Steinhardt (in hat), John G. Winant, Harold Macmillan, Dr. Wang Chung-hui, R.G. Casey, Lord Killearn, Major Desmond Morton, American Ambassador to Soviet Union W. Averell Harriman, Lewis W. Douglas, Lord Leathers, John McCloy, and Harry Hopkins. (Source: Special Envoy to Churchill and Stalin 1941-1946 by W. Averell Harriman and Elie Abel)

Allied leaders sit together for a portrait at the Cairo Conference in 1943. Seated from left to right: Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Britain's Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Madame Chiang Kai-shek (who served as her husband’s interpreter). Back row from left to right: General Chang Chen (China), General Ling Wei (China), U.S. Army General Brehon Burke Somervell, Joe Stilwell, U.S. Army Air Force General Hap Arnold, British Field Marshal Sir John Dill, British Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten, and British Major General Carton de Wiart, Viscount. Decisions made at this summit were quickly abandoned after the meeting with Soviet dictator Joe Stalin in Teheran, Iran a few days later. General Joe Stilwell once ordered his subordinate officer to create plans for assassinating Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek during World War II. (U.S. Naval Institute Photo Archive) http://www.honorablesurvivor.com/photosChina1.asp

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, the President of the Republic of China, and his wife Madame Chiang Kai-shek visit India’s patriot and independence activist Mahatma Gandhi (center) near Calcutta, India on February 18, 1942. Chiang met with Gandhi to ensure that Gandhi would not disrupt China’s supply line with India during World War II and to informally support the independence of India after World War II.

The Second Cairo Conference of December 4–December 6, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed Turkey's possible contribution to the Allies in World War II. The meeting was attended by President Franklin Roosevelt of the United States (left), President İsmet İnönü of the Republic of Turkey (center), and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom. Ismet Inonu was the President of Turkey from 1938 to 1950. Turkey remained neutral throughout most of World War II and declared war on the Axis in early 1945. (Photo: http://forum.paradoxplaza.com/forum/showthread.php?423182-Eurogeddon-Thunderbolts-of-War/page21)

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill secretly meets with Turkey’s President Ismet Inonu inside a train wagon at the Yenice Station 23 kilometers outside of Adana, Turkey on January 30, 1943.

Joseph C. Grew, Under Secretary of State for the United States and foreign officials and representatives signing the declaration by United Nations and lend-lease agreements in Washington, D.C. in February 1945. Joseph C. Grew was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Photo: Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Photograph Collection/Library of Congress) http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/owi2001043221/PP/?sid=ae127098f5034ff95eb5ddfb89d42b08

Under Secretary of State Joseph C. Grew signs the French lend-lease and reverse lend-lease deal in January 1945. Left to right: Henri Bonnet, French Ambassador, Joseph C. Grew, Undersecretary of State and Jean Monnet. (Photo: Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Photograph Collection/Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division) http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/owi2001043229/PP/?sid=cc8fe1be2ce5b5278f3a4025638411ac

Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, and Josef Stalin meet at Yalta in February 1945. Standing from left to right: Anthony Eden, Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius Jr., Commerce Secretary Harry Hopkins, Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, and U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union Averell Harriman.

Original caption: "Conference of the Big Three at Yalta makes final plans for the defeat of Germany. The "Big Three" sit on the patio together during the Yalta conference in February 1945. Left to right: British Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Soviet Premier Josef Stalin. (U.S. Army photo)

Delegates to the Yalta Conference in February 1945 included the "Big Three", British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (in foreground and out of focus, in profile), American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (center right) and Soviet strongman Josef Stalin (far center left). Also present are Anthony Eden (right of Churchill), U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes (one man right of Roosevelt), Adm. William D. Leahy (one person left of Roosevelt), and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov and Voroshilov (left and right of Stalin, respectively). (Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS)

American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (right) appears with Admiral William D. Leahy and General George C. Marshall at the Yalta Conference in Yalta, Soviet Russia in February 1945. Soviet Russia’s strongman Marshal Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) (left of center at the table) and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (1874-1965) (with his back to the camera) are also among those present at the Yalta Conference. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

In a triple handshake, President Harry S. Truman (center) holds the hands of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (left) and Soviet Russian dictator Josef Stalin (right) at Cecilienhof Palace during the Potsdam Conference on July 23, 1945. (Photo: Harry S. Truman Presidential Library)

British Prime Minister Clement Attlee, American President Harry S. Truman, and Soviet Russian Commissar Josef Stalin pose for a portrait at the Potsdam Conference in 1945.

President Harry Truman (seated, center) appears with British Prime Minister Clement Attlee (seated, left), Soviet despot Joseph Stalin (seated, right), and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov (standing, far right) at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945.

Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meet at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. From left to right, first row: Stalin, Truman, Soviet Ambassador Andrei Gromyko, Secretary of State James F. Byrnes, and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov. Second row: Truman confidant Harry Vaughan, Russian interpreter Charles E. Bohlen, Truman naval aide James K. Vardaman, Jr., and Charles Griffith Ross (partially obscured). (Photo: U.S. Army, Harry Truman Presidential Library) http://www.trumanlibrary.org/photographs/view.php?id=392

Charles E. Bohlen is seen standing behind Josef Stalin and President Harry Truman at the Potsdam Conference in 1945.

Gen. Dwight Eisenhower (left) and Gen. Lucius Clay (second from left) laugh as they meet with Soviet generals Georgi Zhukov and Vassily Sokolovsky (right) in 1945. Clay received the Order of Kutuzov from the Soviets during a ceremony before this photo was taken.

U.S. Army General Dwight Eisenhower and Soviet Red Army General Vassily Skolovsky inspect the Soviet Army in Berlin on June 10, 1945.

Left to right: Soviet Red Army General Vassily Sokolovsky, Commissar Sobolov, U.S. Army General Lucius Clay, and American envoy Robert D. Murphy pose for a group portrait at a party. Lucius Clay and Robert D. Murphy were members of the Council on Foreign Relations.

U.S. Army General Dwight Eisenhower rides in the back of a motorcade in Leningrad (St. Petersburg) with Soviet Marshal Georgi Zhukov in August 1945.

Marshal Zhukov decorates Field Marshal Montgomery with the Russian Order of Victory as Allied chiefs who attend the ceremony at Gen. Dwight Eisenhower’s Headquarters at Frankfurt, Germany on June 5, 1945 are about to drink a toast. Center from left to right: Field Marshal Montgomery, Gen. Dwight Eisenhower, Marshal Zhukov, and Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder. (U.S. Office of War Information)

Site of the Potsdam Conference in Germany in 1945

Tehran Conference (November 1943) Preparations for trans-Atlantic invasion (Operation Overlord (D-Day/Normandy)) by America and Britain Establishment of the United Nations Cairo Conference (December 1943-January 1944) The island of Taiwan returned to China (Republic of China) Eventual restoration of Korea Yalta Conference (February 4-11, 1945) Surrender and occupation policy for Germany – Four military occupation zones Adjustment of territories and borders of Poland and Germany Soviet Russian declaration of war against Japan Potsdam Conference (July 17-August 2, 1945) Adjustment of the territories and borders of Poland and Germany Surrender and occupation policy for Japan Soviet declaration of war against Japan and occupation of Manchuria Partition of Korea (38th Parallel)

Bretton Woods Conference and The Establishment of The World Bank & IMF

Harry Dexter White (left) talks to British economist John Maynard Keynes (right) at the Bretton Woods Conference in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire in July 1944. Harry Dexter White served as an Assistant to the Secretary of the Treasury and a Director of Monetary Research in the Treasury Department under Franklin Delano Roosevelt; White was a known Communist agent. White, Keynes, and other delegates at the Bretton Woods Conference established the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes were the “founding fathers” of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. (Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/imfphoto/3577537758/)

American delegates attend the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, also known as the Bretton Woods Conference, in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire on July 2, 1944. The 10 delegates are (left to right, standing): Assistant Secretary of Treasury Harry Dexter White, Fred M. Vinson, Dean Acheson, Edward E. Brown, Federal Reserve Chairman Marriner S. Eccles, and Michigan Congressman Jesse P. Wolcott. Front row, seated left to right: Senator Robert F. Wagner, Kentucky Congressman Brent Spence, Secretary of Treasury Henry Morgenthau Jr., and New Hampshire Senator Charles W. Tobey. The conference, which included delegates from 34 nations, resulted in the creation of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

American and Soviet delegations to the Bretton Woods Conference, July 1944. Seated (left to right): Mabel Newcomer (U.S.); Edward E. Brown (U.S.); Fred M. Vinson (U.S.); Henry Morgenthau Jr. (U.S.); M. S. Stepanov (U.S.S.R.); Brent Spence (U.S.); P. A. Maletin (U.S.S.R.); Charles W. Tobey (U.S.). Standing (left to right): E. M. Bernstein (U.S.); A. P. Morazov (U.S.S.R.); Dean Acheson (U.S.); A. A. Arutiunian (U.S.S.R.); Harry D. White (U.S.); Jesse P. Wolcott (U.S.); N. F. Chechulin (U.S.S.R.); F. B. Bystrov (U.S.S.R.); I. D. Zlobin (U.S.S.R.); M. M. Idashkin (U.S.S.R.); Ansel F. Luxford (U.S.).

Dumbarton Oaks Conference & The Establishment of the United Nations

Secretary of State Edward Stettinius Jr., Alger Hiss (sitting to the right of Stettinius), and Nelson Rockefeller were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. Soviet delegates included Vyacheslav Molotov and Andrei Gromyko (second person to the left of Molotov). This photo was published in the book Thy Will Be Done, The Conquest of the Amazon: Nelson Rockefeller and Evangelism in the Age of Oil by Gerard Colby.

Members of the American delegation at luncheon on the Orangery terrace at Dumbarton Oaks. In the foreground (left to right): James Clement Dunn; Admiral Arthur J. Hepburn; Dr. Isaiah Bowman; and Leo Pasvolsky. In the background (left to right): Henry P. Fletcher; Breckinridge Long; and Green H. Hackworth. Dunn, Hepburn, Bowman, Pasvolsky, and Fletcher were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Photo: Stettinius Papers [2723], Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library) http://www.doaks.org/about/the_dumbarton_oaks_conversations.html

Informal meeting in the Study at Dumbarton Oaks. Seated (left to right): Peter Loxley; Sir Alexander Cadogan; Edward R. Stettinius, Jr.; Andrei A. Gromyko; Arkadii A. Sobolev; Valentin M. Berezhkov. Standing (left to right): James Clement Dunn and Leo Pasvolsky. (Photo: National Archives, Washington, D.C.) http://www.doaks.org/about/the_dumbarton_oaks_conversations.html

Leading members of the Chinese delegation at the opening of the second phase of the Dumbarton Oaks Conversations, September 29, 1944, together with the American and British delegations. Left to right: Dr. Wei Tao-ming; Dr. V.K. Wellington Koo; Dr. H.H. Kung; Cordell Hull; the Earl of Halifax; Sir Alexander Cadogan; Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. (Photo: National Archives, Washington, D.C.) http://www.doaks.org/about/the_dumbarton_oaks_conversations.html

Opening session of the Dumbarton Oaks Conversations. Seated in the Music Room are the American, British, and Soviet delegations with, at the center table (left to right), Sir Alexander Cadogan; the Earl of Halifax; Cordell Hull; Andrei A. Gromyko; and Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. (Photo: National Archives, Washington, D.C.) http://www.doaks.org/about/the_dumbarton_oaks_conversations.html

American and Soviet diplomats prepare to establish the United Nations at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in Washington, D.C. on August 21, 1944.

Photograph of Dumbarton Oaks mansion, 3101 R Street, Northwest, Georgetown, Washington, D.C., USA (National Park Service/Library of Congress)

Left to right: Charles Bohlen, Leo Pasvolsky, Secretary of State Edward Stettinius, and Joseph C. Grew meet privately at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in 1944. All four men were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Source: Turbulent Era: A Diplomatic Record of Forty Years 1904-1945, Volume 2 by Joseph C. Grew)

Edward Reilly Stettinius, Jr., U.S. Secretary of State, Chairman of the delegation from the United States, signing the UN Charter at a ceremony held at the Veterans’ War Memorial Building in San Francisco on 26 June 1945. At left is President Harry S. Truman. (Photo: UN Photo/Yould http://kotenik.wordpress.com/category/history-of-the-foreign-relations-of-the-republic-of-china/)

Alger Hiss (left), the Secretary General of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, is shown shaking hands with President Harry S. Truman at the UN Conference in San Francisco on June 26, 1945. At the right is Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. Following the President is Maj. Gen. Harry Vaughan, Truman's military aide. Alger Hiss and Edward Stettinius were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

Dr. Herbert V. Evatt (Australia), and Alger Hiss (United States). 25 April 1945. San Francisco, United States. (Photo: UN Photo; http://kotenik.wordpress.com/category/history-of-the-foreign-relations-of-the-republic-of-china/)

San Francisco Conference, last public session: U.S. Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (left) and Soviet envoy Andrei A. Gromyko. (Photo: http://kotenik.wordpress.com/category/history-of-the-foreign-relations-of-the-republic-of-china/)

San Francisco Conference, Fifth Plenary Session: Nelson Rockefeller (left), Assistant Secretary of State of the United States, chats with Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (right), United States Secretary of State and Chairman of the delegation of the United States. Both men were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. Edward R. Stettinius Jr. served as U.S. Secretary of State from December 1, 1944 to June 27, 1945. (Photo: http://kotenik.wordpress.com/category/history-of-the-foreign-relations-of-the-republic-of-china/)

Council on Foreign Relations & World War II

Harold Pratt House, the headquarters of the Council on Foreign Relations, in New York City Directors of the Council on Foreign Relations before and during World War II 1921-1950 President of Johns Hopkins University (1935-1948) 1921-1928 Editor of Foreign Affairs magazine (1922-1928) 1921-1940 Chairman of the board of Westinghouse Electric Corp. (1927-1929); Chairman of The Economic Club of New York (1936-1938) 1921-1955 Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed [law firm] (1921-1955) 1921-1944 President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1936-1944); Chairman of American Red Cross (1938-1944) 1921-1950 Director of Institute of International Education (1919-1946) 1921-1929 Associate Editor of the New York Times (1921-1937) 1921-1945 Professor of Economic History at Harvard University (1924-1936) 1921-1927 U.S. Secretary of Agriculture (1913-1920); Secretary of the Treasury (1920-1921) 1921-1934 Partner of Kuhn, Loeb, & Co. [banking firm in New York City] (1897-1934) 1921-1943 Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed [law firm] (1914-1943) 1921-1966 Treasurer of the Council on Foreign Relations (1933-1941) 1921-1927 Seth Low Professor of History at Columbia University (1926-1934) 1921-1932 Vice Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1916-1918) 1921-1936 Member of Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft [law firm] (1914-1936) 1927-1969 Secretary of the Council on Foreign Relations (1933-1944); OSS agent 1927-1960 Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. [banking firm] (1923-1950) 1927-1953 Senior Partner of Price, Waterhouse & Co. public accountants (1911-1961) 1927-1934 Professor of Economics at Columbia University 1927-1940 Chairman of the board of General Electric Co. (1922-1939, 1942-1944) 1928-1972 Editor of Foreign Affairs magazine (1928-1972) 1929-1931 Member of Howland, Murray & Prentice and Murray, Prentice & Howland [law firm in New York City] (1900-1921) 1932-1937 Columnist for New York Herald Tribune 1932-1935 Chairman of the board of American Radiator Company 1934-1972 Chairman of General American Investors Co., Inc. 1934-1942 Professor of International Law at Columbia University (1934-1946) 1935-1943 President of Princeton University (1933-1957) 1936-1945 Chairman and President of Bank for International Settlements (1933-1935) 1937-1964 Dean of Graduate School of Public Administration at Harvard; Vice President of Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1936-1947) 1940-1964 President of Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York (1940-1947) 1940-1949 Member of the Civil Aeronautics Board (1939-1945) 1942-1953 Treasurer of CFR (1942-1951); Vice President of New York Trust Co. 1943-1959 Personal Representative to the Vatican City (1939-1950) 1943-1967 President of Brown University (1937-1955) 1944-1967 Secretary of the Air Force (1950-1953); U.S. Representative to NATO (1961-1965)

Isaiah Bowman Archibald Cary Coolidge Paul D. Cravath John W. Davis Norman H. Davis Stephen P. Duggan John H. Finley Edwin F. Gay David F. Houston Otto H. Kahn Frank L. Polk Whitney H. Shepardson William R. Shepherd Paul M. Warburg George W. Wickersham Allen W. Dulles Russell C. Leffingwell George O. May Wesley C. Mitchell Owen D. Young Hamilton Fish Armstrong Charles P. Howland Walter Lippmann Clarence M. Woolley Frank Altschul Philip C. Jessup Harold W. Dodds Leon Fraser John H. Williams Lewis W. Douglas Edward Warner Clarence E. Hunter Myron C. Taylor Henry M. Wriston Thomas K. Finletter

Active Members of the Council on Foreign Relations in Time of War (List does not include individuals who joined the Council on Foreign Relations after serving in the U.S. government.)
World War II (1939-1945): Name CFR Membership (Year) Primary Occupation

Henry L. Stimson John J. McCloy Nelson A. Rockefeller William J. “Wild Bill” Donovan Sumner Welles G. Howland Shaw Nelson A. Rockefeller William L. Clayton Herbert Feis William A.M. Burden Theodore P. Wright Edward Warner W. Averell Harriman Joseph C. Grew William Phillips William E. Dodd Alexander W. Weddell Norman Armour George S. Messersmith William C. Bullitt Leland Harrison Stanley K. Hornbeck Lithgow Osborne John Van A. MacMurray Lincoln MacVeagh Arthur Bliss Lane Spruille Braden John Campbell White Charles Evans Hughes Felix Frankfurter Learned Hand Herbert H. Lehman Elliott V. Bell Adm. Arthur J. Hepburn Rear Adm. Clark H. Woodward Rear Adm. Harry E. Yarnell Lt. Gen. Hugh A. Drum Maj. Gen. Haywood S. Hansell Jr. Maj. Gen. Sherman Miles Maj. Gen. Frank R. McCoy Adm. William H. Standley Vice Adm. Adolphus Andrews Lt. Gen. George Grunert

1924-1929, 1934-1950 1940-1989 1938-1978 1932-1957 1934-1959 1938-1965 1938-1978 1935-1965 1930-1971 1938-1984 1940-1969 1932, 1934-1957 1923-1986 1928-1959 1931-1967 1936-1939 1935-1944 1938-1977 1938-1959 1936-1954 1935-1950 1932-1966 1942-1976 1931-1959 1935-1971 1936-1955 1935-1966 1939-1966 1930-1946 1932-1964 1925-1944 1921-1963 1944-1968 1934-1957 1938-1958 1940-1953 1939-1951 1942-1972 1942-1946 1938-1953 1938-1947 1942-1948 1944-1945

Secretary of War (1940-1945) Assistant Secretary of War (1941-1945) Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs (1944-1945) Director of Office of Strategic Services (OSS) (1942-1945) Under Secretary of State (1937-1943) Assistant Secretary of State (1941-1944) Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs (1944-1945) Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs (1944-1946) Assistant Secretary of Commerce (1942-1944) State Department Adviser on International Economic Affairs (1937-1943) Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Air (1943-1947) Administrator of Civil Aeronautics Administration (1944-1948) Member of the Civil Aeronautics Board (1939-1945) U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1943-1946) U.S. Ambassador to Imperial Japan (1932-1941) Under Secretary of State (1944-1945) U.S. Ambassador to Fascist Italy (1936-1941) U.S. Ambassador to Nazi Germany (1933-1937) U.S. Ambassador to Fascist Spain (1939-1942) U.S. Ambassador to Argentina (1939-1944) U.S. Ambassador to Fascist Spain (1945) U.S. Ambassador to Cuba (1940-1942) U.S. Ambassador to Mexico (1942-1946) U.S. Ambassador to France (1936-1940) U.S. Minister to Switzerland (1937-1947) U.S. Ambassador to the Netherlands (1944-1947) State Department Adviser on Political Relations (1937-1943) U.S. Ambassador to Norway (1944-1946) U.S. Ambassador to Turkey (1936-1941) U.S. Ambassador to Greece (1933-1941, 1943-1947) U.S. Minister to South Africa (1942-1943) U.S. Minister to Yugoslavia (1937-1941) U.S. Ambassador to Colombia (1942-1944) U.S. Ambassador to Poland (1944-1947) U.S. Ambassador to Colombia (1939-1942) U.S. Ambassador to Haiti (1941-1944) Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1930-1941) Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1939-1962) U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit [New York City] (1924-1961) Governor of New York (1933-1942) Superintendent of Banks of the State of New York (1943-1949) Commander-in-Chief of the United States Fleet (1936-1938); Commandant of 12th Naval District [San Francisco] (1938-1941) Chairman of the General Board (1942-1945) Commandant of Brooklyn Navy Yard (1937-1941); Commandant of Third Naval District (1937-1941) Commandant of Pearl Harbor Naval Station (1933-1936); Commander-in-Chief of Asiatic Fleet (1936-1939) Commander, Hawaiian Department (Honolulu) (1935-1937); Commanding General, Eastern Defense Command (1940-1943) Commander, First Bomb Wing of the Eighth Air Force (1942-1943); Deputy Commander, Allied Expeditionary Air Force (1943); Commander, XXI Bomber Command (1944-1945) Chief of Military Intelligence (G-2) Division, War Department (1941) Member of the Roberts Commission (1941-1942) Member of the Roberts Commission (1941-1942); U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1942-1943) Member of the Pearl Harbor Navy Court of Inquiry (1944) Member of the Army Pearl Harbor Board (1944)

World War II (1939-1945): Name Thomas H. McKittrick Winthrop W. Aldrich Thomas W. Lamont Russell C. Leffingwell Gordon S. Rentschler Harold Stanley E. Roland Harriman Frederick M. Warburg John M. Schiff Benjamin J. Buttenwieser Beardsley Ruml George L. Harrison Allan Sproul Thomas J. Watson Owen D. Young Gerard Swope George H. Bucher Alfred P. Sloan Jr. Donaldson Brown B. Edwin Hutchinson Eugene G. Grace Irving S. Olds Juan Terry Trippe Francis B. Davis Jr. Lewis W. Douglas John W. Davis Frank L. Polk Allen Wardwell Ralph M. Carson John Foster Dulles Eustace Seligman Allen W. Dulles Arthur H. Dean Henry de Forest Baldwin Allen T. Klots Thomas D. Thacher Arthur Hays Sulzberger Eugene Meyer William S. Paley Henry R. Luce Edward R. Murrow William L. Shirer Cass Canfield Raymond B. Fosdick Norman H. Davis Edward C. Carter James R. Angell Walter H. Mallory Hamilton Fish Armstrong Charles Seymour James B. Conant Harold W. Dodds Henry M. Wriston Edmund E. Day Isaiah Bowman Ray Lyman Wilbur Ernest M. Hopkins Stanley King Kenneth C.M. Sills James P. Baxter III Karl T. Compton Halford L. Hoskins John H. Williams Donald K. David Carl W. Ackerman Philip C. Jessup Sr.

CFR Membership (Year) 1944-1968 1927-1973 1921-1947 1921-1959 1930-1947 1925-1959 1933-1969 1933-1970 1938-1986 1942-1991 1927-1959 1929-1953 1935-1955 1924-1955 1921-1940 1924-1950 1939-1947 1933-1965 1933-1946 1927-1960 1925-1958 1935-1962 1933-1976 1944-1949 1935-1973 1921-1955 1921-1943 1921-1953 1938-1969 1921-1959 1926-1976 1927-1969 1938-1987 1928-1947 1934-1964 1935-1950 1927-1968 1930-1958 1936-1989 1934-1966 1934-1964 1942-1992 1923-1985 1921-1971 1921-1944 1927-1954 1928-1948 1928-1979 1921-1972 1921-1961 1934-1976 1934-1968 1926-1978 1932-1944 1921-1950 1929-1948 1930-1953 1934-1950 1938-1953 1938-1971 1936-1953 1938-1966 1934-1972 1942-1975 1940-1953 1928-1981

Primary Occupation President of the Bank for International Settlements (1940-1946) Chairman of Chase National Bank (1934-1953) Chairman of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1943-1948) Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1923-1950) Chairman of National City Bank of New York [Citibank] (1940-1948) Partner of Morgan Stanley & Co. (1941-1955) Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1978) Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1931-1973) Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1931-1977) Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1932-1977) Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1942-1946) President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1928-1940) President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1941-1956) President of International Business Machines Corp. (1914-1949) Chairman of the board of General Electric Co. (1922-1939, 1942-1944) President of General Electric Co. (1922-1940, 1942-1945) President of Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. (1938-1946) Chairman of the board of General Motors Corp. (1937-1956) Vice Chairman of the board of General Motors Corp. (1937-1946) Vice President of Chrysler Corp. (1925-1953) President of Bethlehem Steel Corp. (1916-1945) Chairman of the board of United States Steel Corp. (1940-1952) President of Pan American World Airways, Inc. (1927-1964) Chairman of U.S. Rubber Co. [later Uniroyal] (1929-1949) President of Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York (1940-1947) Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed [law firm] (1921-1955) Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed [law firm] (1914-1943) Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed [law firm] (1909-1953) Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed [law firm] (1935-1977) Member of Sullivan & Cromwell [law firm] (1911-1949) Member of Sullivan & Cromwell [law firm] (1923-1976) Member of Sullivan & Cromwell [law firm] (1926-1951); OSS agent Partner of Sullivan & Cromwell [law firm] (1929-1976) Member of Lord, Day & Lord [law firm] (1900-1947) Member of Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts [law firm] (1921-1965) Partner of Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett [law firm] (1914-25, 1933-1943) Publisher of The New York Times (1935-1961) Publisher of The Washington Post (1933-1946) President of Columbia Broadcasting System [CBS] (1928-1946) Editor-in-Chief of Time magazine (1923-1964) CBS war correspondent (1939-1945) CBS war correspondent (1939-1945) President of Harper & Brothers [later Harper & Row] (1931-1945) President of The Rockefeller Foundation (1936-1948) President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1936-1944) Chairman of American Red Cross (1938-1944) Secretary General of the Institute of Pacific Relations (1933-1946) President of the English-Speaking Union of the U.S. (1939-1946) Executive Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1927-1959) Editor of Foreign Affairs magazine (1928-1972) President of Yale University (1937-1950) President of Harvard University (1933-1953) President of Princeton University (1933-1957) President of Brown University (1937-1955) President of Cornell University (1937-1949) President of Johns Hopkins University (1935-1948) President of Stanford University (1916-1943) President of Dartmouth College (1916-1945) President of Amherst College (1932-1946) President of Bowdoin College (1918-1952) President of Williams College (1937-1961) President of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1930-1948) Dean of Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts Univ. (1933-1944) Dean of Grad. School of Public Administration at Harvard Univ. (1937-1947) Dean of Harvard Business School (1942-1955) Dean of Graduate School of Journalism at Columbia University (1931-1956) Professor of International Law at Columbia University (1934-1946)

The War and Peace Studies of The Council On Foreign Relations (1939-1945)
The War and Peace Studies of The Council On Foreign Relations 1939-1945, The Harold Pratt House 58th E. 68th Street, NY, 1946, pg. 2-3; Appendix A (pgs. 19-24) lists the personnel and dates of service of the War and Peace Studies group members as: STEERING COMMITTEE Officers: Norman H. Davis, Chairman (December 1939-July 1944) Isaiah Bowman, (December 1939-became Chairman, March 1945) Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Vice Chairman, (December 1939-September 1945) Walter H. Mallory, Secretary (December 1939-September 1945) Paul F. Jones, Administrative Secretary, (January 1940-November 1940) Francis P. Miller, Administrative Secretary, (December 1940-February 1942) Dwight E. Lee, Administrative Secretary, (September 1942-September 1943) Julius W. Pratt, Administrative Secretary, (September 1943-September 1944) Richard C. Snyder, Administrative Secretary, (October 1944-February 1945) William Edwin Diez, Administrative Secretary, (March 1945-September 1945) Members: Hanson W. Baldwin (July 1940-September 1945) Isaiah Bowman (December 1939-Chairman, March 1945) Allen W. Dulles (December 1939-December 1943) Carter Goodrich (August 1942-September 1945) Alvin H. Hansen (December 1939-September 1945) Whitney H. Shepardson, (December 1939-June 1942) Jacob Viner, (December 1939-September 1945) Edward P. Warner, (January 1944-September 1945) Henry M. Wriston, (June 1942-September 1945) SECURITY AND ARMAMENTS GROUP: Rapporteurs: Allen W. Dulles, Rapporteur (02/40-06/40); Joint Rapporteur (07/40-12/43) Hanson W. Baldwin, Joint Rapporteur (07/40-09/45) Edward P. Warner, Joint Rapporteur (01/44-09/45) Research Secretaries: William M. Franklin (02/40-05/41) Grayson Kirk (06/41-09/45) Members: Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Betts (07/40-12/43) Maj. Gen. Clayton Bissell (01/44-09/45) Rear Adm. Ralph Davison (07/41-12/43) Edward M. Earle (03/45-09/45) Maj. George Fielding Eliot (02/41-09/45) Joseph C. Green (11/43-09/45) Brig. Gen. Haywood S. Hansell (07/41-07/42) Stacy May (07/40-02/45) Maj. Gen. Frank R. McCoy (04/40-09/45) Col. James F. Olive (02/43-02/44) Adm. William V. Pratt, Ret. (04/41-02/45) David N. Rowe (03/45-09/45) Capt. Richard W. Ruble (11/43-05/45) Harold F. Sheets (07/42-09/45) Harold Sprout (02/44-09/45) Adm. William H. Standley, Ret. (02/40-11/40) Maj. Gen. George V. Strong (07/44-09/45) Edward P. Warner (02/40-11/44) Brig. Gen. John Weckerling (01/44-09/45) Hugh R. Wilson (02/41-11/42) Theodore P. Wright (02/41-09/45)

ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL GROUP Rapporteurs: Alvin H. Hansen, Joint Rapporteur (02/40-09/45) Jacob Viner, Joint Rapporteur (02/40-09/45) Economic and Financial Group Research Secretaries: Arthur R. Upgren (02/40-07/40) William Diebold Jr. (08/40-09/43) Arthur D. Gayer (10/43-09/45) Economic and Financial Group Members: Percy W. Bidwell (02/40-09/45) Edwin F. Chinlund (11/43-09/45) Benjamin V. Cohen (09/41-09/45) Lauchlin Currie (02/43-09/45) Ralph E. Flanders (07/42-11/40) Heman Greenwood (03/45-09/45) Leon Fraser (02/40-11(40) Calvin B. Hoover (01/44-09/45) Winfield W. Riefler (02/40-03/42) William H. Schubart (07/42-12/44) Harold F. Sheets (02/40-05/42) Allan Sproul (02/41-12/43) Eugene Staley (02/40-09/45) Arthur R. Upgren (07/40-09/45) Jacob Viner (02/40-09/45) John H. Williams (02/40-11/40) POLITICAL GROUP Rapporteurs: Whitney H. Shepardson (02/40-06/42); Henry M. Wriston, Rapporteur, July 1942; Joint Rapporteur (08/42-09/45) Carter Goodrich, Joint Rapporteurs (08/42-09/45) Research Secretaries: Walter Langsam (02/40-02/41) Walter R. Sharp (02/41-09/45) Members: Frank Altschul (03/45-09/45) Hamilton Fish Armstrong (02/40-09/45) James P. Baxter III (11/43-02/45) Charles W. Cole (03/45-09/45) John Foster Dulles (02/40-09/40) Maj. George Fielding Eliot (02/40-09/45) Thomas K. Finletter (03/45-09/45) Carter Goodrich (09/41-became Joint Rapporteur 08/42) William Langer (03/45-09/45) Owen Lattimore (03/45-09/45) Dwight E. Lee (03/45-09/45) Francis P. Miller (05/40-05/43) Philip E. Mosely (09/42-02/45) Lindsay Rodgers (02/41-09/45) David N. Rowe (11/43-02/45) James T. Shotwell (02/40-02/43) Arthur Sweetser (02/41-09/45) Payson S. Wild (03/43-09/45) Henry M. Wriston (05/40-became Rapporteur 07/42)

TERRITORIAL GROUP Rapporteur: Isaiah Bowman (02/40-02/45) Research Secretaries: Philip E. Mosely (03/40-09/41 & 08/42-02/45) William P. Maddox (09/41-06/42) Members: Hamilton Fish Armstrong (02/40-02/45) H. Foster Bain (02/44-02/45) Charles H. Behre Jr., (06/42-02/45) Charles W. Cole (05/42-02/45) John C. Cooper Jr., (02/40-11/40) Rupert Emerson (05/43-02/45) A. Whitney Griswold (09/41-01/42) John Gunther (02/41-08/41) Bruce C. Hopper (02/40-02/45) Owen Lattimore (04/40-02/45) Frank W. Notestein (11/43-02/45) Walter H. Voskuil (09/43-02/45) William L. Westermann (02/40-02/45) PEACE AIMS GROUP Chairman: Hamilton Fish Armstrong (06/41-02/45) Research Secretaries: Philip E. Mosely (06/41-09/41) Mose L. Harvey (11/41-05/42) Dwight E. Lee (09/42-02/45) Members: Jay Allen (11/41-09/42) Frank Altschul (06/41-02/45) Percy W. Bidwell (06/41-02/45) Crane Brinton (09/42-12/42) Allen W. Dulles (06/41-02/45) Frank D. Graham (10/43-02/45) John Gunther (06/41-11/45) Bruce C. Hopper (06/41-02/45) Tracy B. Kittredge (06/41-04/42) William L. Langer (06/41-02/45) James G. McDonald (06/41-02/45) Philip E. Mosely (09/41-02/45) Winfield W. Riefler (06/41-02/45) Lindsay Rodgers (06/41-02/45) Whitney H. Shepardson (06/41-02/45) William L. Shirer (10/43-02/45) George N. Shuster (06/41-02/45) Oscar C. Stine (06/41-02/45) Arthur Sweetser (09/42-02/45) Max W. Thornburg (06/41-11/41) Jacob Viner (10/42-03/43) John K. Wright (11/42-02/45)

Harvard University & World War II

Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., near Boston

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (A.B. Harvard 1904) shakes hands with Henry L. Stimson (M.A. Harvard 1889) at the White House on July 10, 1940 after the Senate confirmed his nomination as Secretary of War. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

Prominent Harvard Students & Their Occupation during World War II

William Phillips A.B. Harvard 1900 U.S. Ambassador to Fascist Italy (1936-1941)

Joseph C. Grew A.B. Harvard 1902 U.S. Ambassador to Imperial Japan (1932-1941)

Franklin D. Roosevelt A.B. Harvard 1904 President of the United States (1933-1945)

Francis Biddle A.B. Harvard 1909; LL.B. Harvard 1911 U.S. Attorney General (1941-1945)

Sumner Welles A.B. Harvard 1914 Under Secretary of State (1937-1943)

Leland Harrison A.B. Harvard 1907 U.S. Minister to Switzerland (1937-1947)

Thomas H. McKittrick A.B. Harvard 1911 President of the Bank for International Settlements (1940-1946)

Joseph P. Kennedy A.B. Harvard 1912 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1938-1940)

Lincoln MacVeagh A.B. Harvard 1913 U.S. Minister to Greece (1933-1941, 1943-1947)

Leverett Saltonstall A.B. Harvard 1914 Governor of Massachusetts (1939-1945)

Cass Canfield A.B. Harvard 1919 President of Harper & Brothers (1931-1945)

Roger Nash Baldwin A.B. Harvard 1904 Founder and Director of American Civil Liberties Union (1917-1950)

James B. Conant A.B. Harvard 1913; Ph.D. Harvard 1916 President of Harvard University (1933-1953)

Wallace Brett Donham A.B. Harvard 1898; LL.B. Harvard 1901 Dean of Harvard Business School (1919-1942)

Learned Hand A.B. Harvard 1893; LL.B. Harvard 1896 Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (1924-1951)

T.V. Soong A.B. Harvard 1915 Foreign Minister of the Republic of China (1942-1945)

Shigeaki Ikeda [formerly Seihin Ikeda] A.B. Harvard 1895 Governor of the Bank of Japan (1937); Finance Minister of Japan (1938-1939)

Ernst “Putzi” Hanfstaengl A.B. Harvard 1909 Adolf Hitler’s personal adviser

J. Robert Oppenheimer A.B. Harvard 1925 Atomic bomb scientist

Walter S. Gifford A.B. Harvard 1905 President of American Telephone and Telegraph Co. [AT&T] (1925-1948)

James P. Warburg A.B. Harvard 1917 Vice Chairman of the board of Bank of Manhattan

Frederick M. Warburg A.B. Harvard 1919 Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1931-1973)

Winthrop W. Aldrich A.B. Harvard 1907 LL.B. Harvard 1910 Chairman of Chase National Bank (1934-1953)

Thomas W. Lamont A.B. Harvard 1892 Chairman of the board of J.P. Morgan & Co., Inc. (1943-1948)

James H. Perkins A.B. Harvard 1898 Chairman of the board of National City Bank of New York (1933-1940)

Percival F. Brundage A.B. Harvard 1914 Partner of Price Waterhouse & Co. [accounting firm in New York City] (1930-1954)

Clarence Dillon A.B. Harvard 1905 Chairman of Dillon, Read & Co.

J.P. “Jack” Morgan Jr. A.B. Harvard 1889 Chairman of the board of J.P. Morgan & Co., Inc. (1913-1943)

Henry S. Morgan A.B. Harvard 1923 Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co., Inc. (1928-1935)

Junius S. Morgan A.B. Harvard 1914 Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1919-1940)

Peter Goelet Gerry A.B. Harvard 1901 U.S. Senator (D-Rhode Island, 19171929; 1935-1947)

Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. A.B. Harvard 1924 U.S. Senator (R-Mass., 1937-1944, 1947-1953)

George Wilhelm Merck A.B. Harvard 1915 President of Merck & Co., Inc. (1925-1950)

Richard B. Wigglesworth A.B. Harvard 1912 U.S. Congressman (R-Mass., 1928-1958)

Roger D. Lapham A.B. Harvard 1905 Mayor of San Francisco, California (1944-1948)

Harvard alumni Ernst “Putzi” Hanfstaengl (left) appears with Adolf Hitler

Prominent Harvard University Graduates and Their Occupation during World War II
Augustus Noble Hand (A.B. 1890, LL.B. 1894) – Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (1928-1953) Francis Gordon Caffey (A.B. 1891) – Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York (1929-1947) Thomas W. Lamont (A.B. 1892) – Chairman of the board of J.P. Morgan & Co., Inc. (1943-1948); Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1911-1948) David Gray (A.B. 1892) – U.S. Minister to Ireland (1940-1947) Learned Hand (A.B. 1893, LL.B. 1896) – Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (1924-1951) George H. Tinkham (A.B. 1894) – U.S. Congressman (Republican-Massachusetts, 1915-1943) Shigeaki Ikeda [formerly Seihin Ikeda] (A.B. 1895) – Governor of the Bank of Japan (1937); Finance Minister of Japan (1938-1939); Member of the Imperial Privy Council (1941) Allan Forbes (A.B. 1897) – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1938-1950) Wallace Brett Donham (A.B. 1898; LL.B. 1901) – Dean of Harvard Business School (1919-1942) James H. Perkins (A.B. 1898) – Chairman of the board of National City Bank of New York (1933-1940) Henry James (A.B. 1899; LL.B. 1904) – Chairman of the board of Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association [TIAA] (1934-1947) Edward C. Carter (A.B. 1900) – Secretary General of Institute of Pacific Relations (1933-1946); President of the Russian Relief (1941-1950) William Phillips (A.B. 1900) – U.S. Ambassador to Fascist Italy (1936-1941) Peter Goelet Gerry (A.B. 1901) – U.S. Senator (Democrat-Rhode Island, 1917-1929; 1935-1947) Lawrence Lewis (A.B. 1901, LL.B. 1909) – U.S. Congressman (Democrat-Colorado, 1933-1943) Joseph C. Grew (A.B. 1902) – U.S. Ambassador to Imperial Japan (1932-1941); Under Secretary of State (1944-1945) Arthur Stanley Pease (A.B. 1902, A.M. 1903, Ph.D. 1905) – Professor of Latin at Harvard University (1932-1950) George Robb Ellison (A.B. 1903) – Justice of the Supreme Court of Missouri (1931-1957) Franklin Delano Roosevelt (A.B. 1904) – President of the United States (1933-1945) Roger Nash Baldwin (A.B. 1904) – Founder and Director of American Civil Liberties Union (1917-1950) Francis Joseph William Ford (A.B. 1904, LL.B. 1906) – Judge of the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts (1938-1972) Harry Bertram Higgins (A.B. 1904) – Executive Vice President (1942-1944) and President (1944-1955) of Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. Walter S. Gifford (A.B. 1905) – President of American Telephone and Telegraph Co. [AT&T] (1925-1948), Trustee, Rockefeller Foundation (1936-1950) Arthur W. Page (A.B. 1905) – Vice President of American Telephone and Telegraph Co. [AT&T] (1927-1947) Nicholas Kelley (A.B. 1905, LL.B. 1909) – Vice President and General Counsel of Chrysler Corp. (1937-1957) Clarence Dillon (A.B. 1905) – Chairman of Dillon, Read & Co. Roger D. Lapham (A.B. 1905) – Mayor of San Francisco, California (1944-1948) Winthrop W. Aldrich (A.B. 1907; LL.B. 1910) – Chairman of Chase National Bank (1934-1953); Trustee, Rockefeller Foundation (1935-1951) Clarence H. Haring (A.B. 1907; Ph.D. 1916) – Robert Woods Bliss Prof. of Latin American History and Economics at Harvard Univ. (1923-53) Harrison Clifford Dale (A.B. 1907) – President of University of Idaho (1937-1946) John Campbell White (A.B. 1907) – U.S. Consul General in Morocco (1940-1941); U.S. Ambassador to Haiti (1940-1944) Leland Harrison (A.B. 1907) – U.S. Minister to Switzerland (1937-1947) Ernst Franz “Putzi” Hanfstaengl (A.B. 1909) – Adolf Hitler’s personal adviser Edmund Maurice Burke Roche (A.B. 1909) – British Member of Parliament (1924-1935, 1943-1945); grandfather of Princess Diana of Wales Francis Biddle (A.B. 1909; LL.B. 1911) – U.S. Attorney General (1941-1945) Hamilton Fish (A.B. 1910) – U.S. Congressman (Republican-New York, 1920-1945) Thomas H. McKittrick (A.B. 1911) – President of the Bank for International Settlements (1940-1946) William Clark (A.B. 1911, LL.B. 1915) – Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit (1938-1943) Philip C. Nash (A.B. 1911) – President of University of Toledo [Ohio] (1933-1947) Richard B. Wigglesworth (A.B. 1912) – U.S. Congressman (Republican-Massachusetts, 1928-1958) Joseph P. Kennedy (A.B. 1912) – U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1938-1940) Lincoln MacVeagh (A.B. 1913) – U.S. Minister to Greece (1933-1941, 1943-1947) James B. Conant (A.B. 1913; Ph.D. 1916) – President of Harvard University (1933-1953) Leverett Saltonstall (A.B. 1914) – Governor of Massachusetts (1939-1945) Sumner Welles (A.B. 1914) – Under Secretary of State (1937-1943) Junius S. Morgan (A.B. 1914) – Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1919-1940) Paul Myer Mazur (A.B. 1914) – Partner of Lehman Brothers [banking firm in New York City] (1927-1969) Percival F. Brundage (A.B. 1914) – Partner of Price Waterhouse & Co. [accounting firm in New York City] (1930-1954) David Mordecai Levy (A.B. 1914, M.D. University of Chicago 1918) – consulting psychiatrist in personnel, Office of Strategic Services (1944-1945); Director of Information Control Division, Screening Center in Germany (1945-1946) Robert Winthrop Kean (A.B. 1915) – U.S. Congressman (Republican-New Jersey, 1939-1959) William L. Langer (A.B. 1915; Ph.D. 1923) – Coolidge Professor of History at Harvard University (1936-1964) George Wilhelm Merck (A.B. 1915) – President of Merck & Co., Inc. [pharmaceutical company] (1925-1950) G. Howland Shaw (A.B. 1915) – Asst. Secretary of State (1941-1944); Chief of State Dept. Division of Foreign Service Personnel (1937-1941) T.V. Soong (A.B. 1915) – Foreign Minister of the Republic of China [Nationalist China] (1942-1945) R. Henry Norweb (A.B. 1916) – U.S. Ambassador to Peru (1940-1943); U.S. Ambassador to Portugal (1943-1945) Crane Brinton (A.B. 1919) – Professor of History at Harvard University (1942-c.1967) Cass Canfield (A.B. 1919) – President of Harper & Brothers [later Harper & Row] (1931-1945) Frederick M. Warburg (A.B. 1919) – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. [banking firm in New York City] (1931-1973) Joseph Clark Baldwin (A.B. 1920) – U.S. Congressman (Republican-New York, 1941-1947); Member of New York City Council (1937-1941) Amory Houghton (A.B. 1921) – Chairman of the board of Corning Glass Works (1941-1961) John A. Payne (A.B. 1921, M.B.A. 1925) – President of Consolidated Coppermines Corp. [New York City] (1940-1947) Jack I. Straus (A.B. 1921) – President of R.H. Macy & Co. [Macy’s Department Store] (1940-1956) Robert Bruce Chiperfield (A.B. 1922) – U.S. Congressman (Republican-Illinois, 1939-1963) Henry S. Morgan (A.B. 1923) – Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co., Inc. (1928-1935); Treasurer of Morgan Stanley & Co. (1935-1941) Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (A.B. 1924) – U.S. Senator (Republican-Massachusetts,1937-1944, 1947-1953) Charles Poletti (A.B. 1924, LL.B. 1928) – Governor of New York (1942); Lieutenant Governor of New York (1939-1942); Senior Civil officer, Allied Military Government in Sicily, Italy (July 1943-1944); Senior Civil officer, Allied Military Government in Naples, Italy (1944) J. Robert Oppenheimer (A.B. 1925) – Atomic bomb scientist Charles E. Wyzanski Jr. (A.B. 1927, LL.B. 1930) – Judge of the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts (1941-1971)

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (left) and Harvard President James B. Conant are seen wearing cap and gown at Harvard University in 1943. (Photo: Ralph Morse/Life Magazine)

YALE UNIVERSITY & WORLD WAR II

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. partners (from left to right) Thatcher M. Brown, Ray Morris, H. D. Pennington, Prescott S. Bush, Thomas McCance, and Knight Woolley pose for the camera at their office in New York City in July 1945. (Photo: Herbert Gehr/Time Life) Ray Morris, Prescott S. Bush, and Knight Woolley were members of Skull & Bones at Yale University. Thatcher M. Brown and Thomas McCance were members of Wolf’s Head at Yale University.

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. partner Averell Harriman appears with J.P. Morgan & Co. banker Thomas W. Lamont (left) and Wall Street attorney Allen Wardwell (right) at a Russian War Relief dinner in 1941. Averell Harriman and Allen Wardwell were Yale graduates; Thomas W. Lamont was a Harvard graduate. (Source: The Ambassador from Wall Street: The Story of Thomas W. Lamont, J. P. Morgan’s Chief Executive by Edward M. Lamont)

PROMINENT YALE GRADUATES

Eugene Meyer, Russell C. Leffingwell, Frank L. Polk, Allen Wardwell, Juan T. Trippe

Dean Acheson, Alfred L. Aiken, William V. Griffin, W. Stuart Symington, Robert A. Taft

Prominent Yale Undergraduates & World War II Government Officials: *Henry L. Stimson (B.A. 1888, S&B 1888) – Secretary of War (1940-1945); U.S. Secretary of State (1929-1933) Homer S. Cummings (Ph.B. 1891) – U.S. Attorney General (1933-1939) *W. Averell Harriman (B.A. 1913, S&B 1913) – U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1943-1946) *Hugh R. Wilson (B.A. 1906, S&B 1906) – U.S. Ambassador to Nazi Germany (1938); U.S. Minister to Switzerland (1927-1937) *William Christian Bullitt (B.A. 1912, S&K 1912) – U.S. Ambassador to France (1936-1940); U.S. Ambassador to Soviet Union (1933-1936) *Spruille Braden (Ph.B. 1914) – U.S. Ambassador to Colombia (1939-1942); U.S. Ambassador to Cuba (1942-1945); U.S. Ambassador to Argentina (1945) *Arthur Bliss Lane (B.A. 1916) – U.S. Minister to Yugoslavia (1937-1941); U.S. Ambassador to Colombia (1942-1944); U.S. Ambassador to Poland (1944-1947) *Robert A. Lovett (B.A. 1918, S&B 1918) – Assistant Secretary of War for Air (1941-1945) *Artemus L. Gates (B.A. 1918, S&B 1918) – Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air (1941-1945) *Harvey H. Bundy (B.A. 1909, S&B 1909) – Special Assistant to the Secretary of War (1941-1945) *Archibald MacLeish (B.A. 1915, S&B 1915) – Asst. Sec. of State for Public and Cultural Relations (1944-45); Librarian of Congress (1939-44) *Dean G. Acheson (B.A. 1915, S&K 1915) – Under Secretary of State (1945-1947) John W. Hanes (B.A. 1915, S&K 1915) – Under Secretary of the Treasury (1938-1939) *Wayne Chatfield-Taylor (B.A. 1916, S&K 1916) – Asst. Secretary of the Treasury (1936-1939); Under Secretary of Commerce (1940-1945) Stanley Woodward (B.A. 1922, S&B 1922) – Chief of Protocol for the White House (1944-1950) Arthur B. Van Buskirk (B.A. 1918) – Deputy Administrator of Lend-Lease Administration (1942-1943) *William Vincent Griffin (B.A. 1912, S&K 1912) – Assistant Administrator of Lend-Lease Administration (1942-1944) Elbridge Durbrow (Ph.B. 1926) – Chief of Eastern European Division at the U.S. State Department (1944-1946) J. Graham Parsons (B.A. 1929) – Vice Consul at U.S. Consulate General in Mukden, Manchuria (1938-1940) Harold H. Tittmann Jr. (B.A. 1916) – Secretary of the U.S. Embassy in Rome, Italy (1925-1936); U.S. Consul-General in Geneva, Switzerland (1939-1940); State Department Assistant Chief of Division for European Affairs (1936-1939) Robert A. Taft (B.A. 1910, S&B 1910) – U.S. Senator (R-Ohio, 1939-1953) John Anthony Danaher (B.A. 1920) – U.S. Senator (R-Connecticut, 1939-1945) John Taber (B.A. 1902) – U.S. Congressman (R-New York, 1923-1963) James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr. (B.A. 1898, S&B 1898) – U.S. Congressman (R-New York, 1933-1951) James Andrew Shanley (B.A. 1920) – U.S. Congressman (D-Connecticut, 1935-1943) Horace Jeremiah (Jerry) Voorhis (B.A. 1923) – U.S. Congressman (D-California, 1937-1947) John Martin Vorys (B.A. 1918, S&B 1918) – U.S. Congressman (R-Ohio, 1939-1959) John Crain Kunkel (B.A. 1916) – U.S. Congressman (R-Pennsylvania, 1939-1951, 1961-1966) Charles S. Dewey (B.A. 1904) – U.S. Congressman (R-Illinois, 1941-1945) Stanley F. Reed (B.A. 1906) – Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1938-1957) Thomas Walter Swan (B.A. 1900) – Judge of U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (1926-1953) Charles Edward Clark (B.A. 1911) – Judge of U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (1939-1963) John Munro Woolsey (B.A. 1898, S&K 1898) – Judge of U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York (1929-1943) Alfred Conkling Coxe Jr. (B.A. 1901) – Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York (1929-1951) Carroll Clark Hincks (B.A. 1911) – Judge of the U.S. District Court for the District of Connecticut (1931-1953) John Joseph Smith (B.A. 1925) – Judge of the U.S. District Court for the District of Connecticut (1941-1960) John Foster Symes (Ph.B. 1900) – Judge of the U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado (1922-1950) William Josiah Tilson (B.A. 1894) – Judge of the U.S. Customs Court (1928-1949) Morris Hadley (B.A. 1916, S&B 1916) – Deputy Director of Office of War Information (1941-1942) Richard K. Sutherland (B.A. 1916) – U.S. Army Lieutenant General during World War II; Chief of Staff to Gen. Douglas MacArthur (1939-1945) Ernest Knaebel (B.A. 1894, LL.B. 1896) – U.S. Supreme Court Reporter of Decisions (1916-1944) Prentiss Bailey Gilbert (B.A. 1907) – State Department Chief of Division of Western European Affairs (1924-1929); U.S. Consul in Geneva, Switzerland (1930-1937); Counselor at U.S. Embassy in Berlin, Nazi Germany (1937-1939) Wilmarth Sheldon Lewis (B.A. 1918, S&K 1918) – Chief of information division, Office of Strategic Services (1942-1943) William M. Maltbie (B.A. 1901, LL.B. 1905) –Chief Justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court of Errors (1930-1950) Patrick Brett O’Sullivan (B.A. 1908) – Judge of the Connecticut Superior Court (1931-1950) Mortimer R. Proctor (B.A. 1912, S&K 1912) – Governor of Vermont (1945-1947); Lieutenant Governor of Vermont (1941-1945) Morgan Bulkeley Brainard Jr. (B.A. 1927) – Member (1938-1944) and President (1942-1944) of the Board of Police Commissioners of the City of Hartford, Connecticut

Businessmen: *Alfred L. Aiken (B.A. 1891) – Chairman of the board (1940-1942) and President (1936-1940) of New York Life Insurance Co. Morgan B. Brainard (B.A. 1900, LL.B. 1903) – President of Aetna Life Insurance Co. [Hartford, Connecticut] (1922-1957) *Irving S. Olds (B.A. 1907) – Chairman of the board of United States Steel Corp. (1940-1952) *W. Averell Harriman (B.A. 1913, S&B 1913) – Chairman of Union Pacific Railroad Co. (1932-1946) Henry Stuart Hotchkiss (Ph.B. 1900) – Chairman of the board of General Latex and Chemical Company (1940-1947) *Morehead Patterson (B.A. 1920, S&B 1920) – Chairman (1943-1962) and Pres. (1941-1943, 1947-1958) of American Machine & Foundry Co. *W. Stuart Symington (B.A. 1923) – Chairman of the board of the Emerson Electric Manufacturing Co. (1938-1945) H. Neil Mallon (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – President of Dresser Industries, Inc. (1929-1958) *Frank Ford Russell (B.A. 1926, S&B 1926) – President of National Aviation Corp. (1939-1954) H. Mansfield Horner (B.S. 1926) – President of United Aircraft Corporation (1943-1956) *Juan Terry Trippe (Ph.B. 1921) – President of Pan American World Airways, Inc. (1927-1964) Leroy A. Lincoln (B.A. 1902) – President of Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. (1936-1951) *Ellsworth Bunker (B.A. 1916) – President of National Sugar Refining Co. (1940-1948) *Henry John Heinz II (B.A. 1931, S&B 1931) – President of H.J. Heinz Company (1941-1959) Francis Fitz Randolph (B.A. 1911, S&B 1911) – Senior Partner of J&W Seligman & Co. (1940-1973) George Herbert Walker Jr. (B.A. 1927, S&B 1927) – General Partner of G.H. Walker & Co. (1929-1974) *J. Irwin Miller (B.A. 1931) – Executive Vice President of Cummins Engine Co. (1944-1947) Louis S. Rothschild (Ph.B. 1920) – President of Rothschild & Sons, Inc. [Kansas City, Missouri] (1942-1955) Robert Upjohn Redpath Jr. (B.A. 1928) – life underwriter for Lawyers Mortgage Co. [New York City] (1933-1987) Reuben Buck Robertson (B.A. 1900) – Executive Vice President of Champion Papers, Inc. (1935-1946) Frederick E. Weyerhaeuser (B.A. 1896, S&B 1896) – President of Weyerhaeuser Timber Co. (1937-1945) Robert W. Huntington Jr. (B.A. 1889, S&K 1889) – Chairman of the board of Connecticut General Life Insurance Co. (1936-1949) Ashbel Barney Newell (B.A. 1890, S&K 1890) – President of Toledo Terminal Railroad Company (1914-1950) Walter Paul Paepcke (B.A. 1917) – President of Container Corp. of America (1926-1946) Solomon Albert Smith (B.A. 1899) – President of Northern Trust Co. of Chicago (1914-1957) Howard MacGregor Tuttle (B.A. 1904) – President of National Casket Company, Inc. [Boston] (1943-c.1958) Henry Eldredge Perry (B.A. 1912) – Vice President of Commercial Solvents Corp. [New York City] (1938-1946) Carle C. Conway (B.S. 1899) – Chairman of the board of Continental Can Company, Inc. during World War II; Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1942-1948) Bankers: *Russell C. Leffingwell (B.A. 1899) – Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1923-1950) *George L. Harrison (B.A. 1910, S&B 1910) – President of Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1928-1940); President of New York Life Insurance Co. (1941-1948) Walter Seth Logan (B.A. 1910, S&B 1910) – Vice President and General Counsel of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1928-1953) Roger B. Shepard (B.A. 1908, S&B 1908) – Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis (1940-1953) Ross P. Wright (Ph.B. 1896) – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland (1917-1949) Chester Arthur Phillips (B.A. 1908, Ph.D. 1919) – Economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (1937-1942) *Harold Stanley (B.A. 1908, S&B 1908) – President of Morgan, Stanley & Co. (1935-1941); Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1928-1935) *Harry [Henry] P. Davison Jr. (B.A. 1920, S&B 1920) – Partner (1929-1940) and Vice President (1940-1942) of J.P. Morgan & Co. *Pierre Jay (B.A. 1892, S&B 1892) – Chairman of the board of Fiduciary Trust Company [New York City] (1930-1945) Mortimer Norton Buckner (B.A. 1895, S&B 1895) – Chairman of the board of New York Trust Company (1921-1942) Samuel Sloan Colt (B.A. 1914, S&K 1914) – President of Bankers Trust Co. (1931-1957); Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1944-1946) *Artemus L. Gates (B.A. 1918, S&B 1918) – President of New York Trust Co. (1929-1941) *John E. Bierwirth (B.A. 1917) – President of New York Trust Co. (1941-1949) Charles Jacob Stewart (B.A. 1918, S&B 1918) – Vice President of New York Trust Co. (1935-1949) *Frank P. Shepard (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – Vice President of Bankers Trust Co. (1934-1960) *Boylston Adams Tompkins (B.A. 1915, S&K 1915) – Vice President of Bankers Trust Co. (1921-1955) *Charles Albert Wight (B.A. 1922, S&K 1922) – Vice President of Bankers Trust Co. (1936-1948) *Elisha Walker (B.A. 1900) – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1933-1950) *John M. Schiff (B.A. 1925) – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1931-1977) Alfred Ernest Hamill (B.A. 1905) – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1932-1948) Joseph Albert Thomas (B.A. 1928, S&K 1928) – Partner of Lehman Brothers (1937-1977) *W. Averell Harriman (B.A. 1913, S&B 1913) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1946) *E. Roland Harriman (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1978) Prescott S. Bush (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1972) *Knight Woolley (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1982) *Robert A. Lovett (B.A. 1918, S&B 1918) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1940, 1946-1947, 1949-1950, 1953-1986) *Ray Morris (B.A. 1901, S&B 1901) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1956) Thacher M. Brown (B.A. 1897) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1954) Moreau Delano Brown (B.A. 1926) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1939-1974) *Charles S. McCain (B.A. 1904) – Senior Partner of Dillon, Read & Co. (1939-1951) Gardner Dominick Stout (B.A. 1926) – Partner of Dominick & Dominick [investment firm in New York City] (1926-1968) Everett Smith (B.A. 1915) – Fiscal agent for Federal Home Loan Banks (1937-1962) Edward Starr, Jr. (B.A. 1922, S&K 1922) – Partner of Drexel & Co. [investment bank in Philadelphia (1937-c.1966)

Lawyers: *Henry Waters Taft (B.A. 1880, S&B 1880) – Partner of Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft (1899-1945) *Henry DeForest Baldwin (B.A. 1885, S&B 1885) – Member of Lord, Day & Lord (1900-1947) Allen Evarts Foster (B.A. 1906) – Partner of Lord, Day & Lord (1919-c.1970) Sherman Baldwin (B.A. 1919, S&B 1919) – Member of Lord, Day & Lord (1929-1969) *Frank L. Polk (B.A. 1894, S&K 1894) – Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed (1914-1943) *Allen Wardwell (B.A. 1895, S&K 1895) – Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell (1909-1953) Graham Sumner (B.A. 1897, S&B 1897) – Member of Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett (1904-1946) *Thomas D. Thacher (B.A. 1904, S&B 1904) – Partner of Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett (1933-1943) *Allen T. Klots (B.A. 1909, S&B 1909) – Member of Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts (1921-1965) James William Husted (B.A. 1918) – Partner of Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts (1930-1969) *Charles M. Spofford (B.A. 1924, S&B 1924) – Member of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1940-1950, 1952-1973) Chauncey Brewster Garver (B.A. 1908, S&K 1908) – Partner of Shearman & Sterling (1917-1973) Frederick Trowbridge Kelsey (B.A. 1907) – Member of Kelsey, Waldrop & Spalding [law firm in New York City] (1941-1957) Frederic Burnham (B.A. 1902) – Partner of Mayer, Meyer, Austrian & Platt [law firm in Chicago] (1917-1942) Merrill Shepard (B.A. 1925) – Partner of Pope, Ballard, Kennedy, Shepard & Fowle [law firm in Chicago] (1936-c.1986) Marcien Jenckes (B.A. 1921, S&B 1921) – Member of Choate, Hall & Stewart [law firm in Boston] (1927-1971) George Frederick Baer Appel (B.A. 1924, S&B 1924) – Partner of Townsend, Elliott & Munson [law firm in Philadelphia] (1938-1970) John Herron More (B.A. 1924) – Partner of Taft, Stettinius &Hollister [law firm in Cincinnati] (1935-1970) Henry Cornick Coke (B.A. 1926, LL.B. 1929, S&B 1926) – Member of Coke & Coke [law firm in Dallas, Texas] (1930-1977) Anthony Lee Michel (B.A. 1926, S&B 1926) – Partner of Gardner, Carton, Douglas, Chilgren & Waud [law firm in Chicago] (1942-1966) Richard Marden Davis (B.A. 1933, S&B 1933) – Partner of Davis, Graham & Stubbs [law firm in Denver] (1937-c.1982) John Caldwell Parsons (B.A. 1922; LL.B. 1926) – Partner of Robinson, Robinson & Cole [law firm in Hartford, Connecticut] (1931-1973) James Earnest Cooper (B.A. 1895) – General Counsel of Stanley Works [hardware, tool, steel manufacturers in New Britain, CT] (1921-1943) Darius Edward Peck (B.A. 1898) – Vice President and General Counsel of General Electric Company (1929-1944) Roger Benton Hull (B.A. 1907) – Managing Director and General Counsel of The National Association of Life Underwriters (1927-1942) Louis S. Weiss (B.A. 1915) – General Counsel of Chicago Sun-Times (1941-1948) Leonard Bacon Smith (B.A. 1894) – General Counsel of American Can Company (1933-1946) Journalists: *Eugene Meyer (B.A. 1895) – Publisher of The Washington Post (1933-1946) *Henry R. Luce (B.A. 1920, S&B 1920) – Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1923-1964); founder of Time and Life magazines *Charles Merz (B.A. 1915) – Editor of The New York Times (1938-1961) *Walter Millis (B.A. 1920) – staff writer for New York Herald Tribune (1924-1954) Ogden Mills Reid (B.A. 1904, LL.B. 1907) – Editor of New York Herald Tribune (1913-1947) William H. Cowles (B.A. 1887, S&B 1887) – Publisher of Spokane Spokesman-Review (1893-1946) College Administrators and Professors: *Charles Seymour (B.A. 1908, Ph.D. 1911, S&B 1908) – President of Yale University (1937-50); Trustee of World Peace Foundation (1939-45) Robert M. Hutchins (B.A. 1921) – President of University of Chicago (1929-1945) Robert L. Johnson (B.A. 1918) – President of Temple University (1941-1959) Paul Dwight Moody (B.A. 1901) – President of Middlebury College (1921-1942) Ashbel Green Gulliver (B.A. 1919) – Dean of Yale Law School (1940-1946) August Sidney Lovett (B.A. 1913, S&B 1913) – Chaplain of Yale University (1932-1958) Ralph Henry Gabriel (B.A. 1913, M.A. 1915, Ph.D. 1919) – Professor of History at Yale University (1928-1958) *Charles Cheney Hyde (B.A. 1895) – Hamilton Fish Professor of International Law and Diplomacy at Columbia University (1925-1945) Roland George Dwight Richardson (B.A. 1903, Ph.D. 1906) – Dean of the Graduate School at Brown University (1926-1948) Miscellaneous: *Russell C. Leffingwell (B.A. 1899) – President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1944-1946) *Frank L. Polk (B.A. 1894, S&K 1894) – Vice President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1940-1943) *Percy W. Bidwell (B.A. 1910, Ph.D. 1915) – Director of Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations (1937-1953) Edwin R. Embree (B.A. 1906) – President of Julius Rosenwald Fund (1928-1948) John Williams Andrews (B.A. 1920; LL.B. 1926) – Chief of Federal State Relations Section at the U.S. Department of Justice (1942-1948) Walbridge Smith Taft (B.A. 1907) – Chairman of the board of Salvation Army Association in New York (1940-1951); member of the national board of director of United Service Organizations during World War II Nicholson Joseph Eastman (B.A. 1916) – Obstetrician-in-Chief at Johns Hopkins Hospital (1935-1960) Lewis Hill Weed (B.A. 1908, S&K 1908) – Director of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (1929-1946); Trustee of Carnegie Institution of Washington (1935-1952) Charles Latimer Stillman (B.A. 1926) – Treasurer (1930-1960) and Vice President (1939-1949) of Time, Inc. [Time magazine] Charles Larrabee Street (B.A. 1914) – Priest-in-charge of Christ Church in Dallas, Texas (1941-1945) Note: *=Member of the Council on Foreign Relations; S&B = Skull & Bones; S&K = Scroll & Key

SKULL & BONES AND WORLD WAR II

Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson (left) entertains his assistants John J. McCloy (center), the Assistant Secretary of War (1941-1945) and Robert A. Lovett (right), the Assistant Secretary of War for Air (1941-1945), in 1941. Henry L. Stimson and Robert A. Lovett were members of Skull & Bones at Yale University. (Photo: Time Magazine/The Wise Men by Walter Isaacson and Evan Thomas)

MEMBERS OF SKULL & BONES

Harold Stanley, W. Averell Harriman, Prescott Bush, Henry L. Stimson, Robert Lovett, E. Roland Harriman

Henry R. Luce, Hugh R. Wilson, George L. Harrison, Harvey H. Bundy, Artemus L. Gates, Archibald MacLeish

Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON (left) and Army Chief of Staff George C. Marshall examine a globe in December 1944. (Photo by George Skadding, Time Life Pictures/Getty Images) Note: CAPS=Member of Skull & Bones

American ambassadors to major European countries held another conference with President Franklin Delano Roosevelt at the White House in Washington, D.C. on December 6, 1938. The subject discussed was not made public by the White House. Left to right: William C. Bullitt, U.S. Ambassador to France; Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles; U.S. Ambassador to Nazi Germany HUGH R. WILSON, and William Phillips, U.S. Ambassador to Fascist Italy. All four men were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. Hugh R. Wilson was a member of Skull & Bones, a secret society at Yale University. (Photo: Harris & Ewing Collection/Library of Congress) http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/hec2009012237/?sid=8799ebba1c8fa99f0125d5ce03a9c914

Reichsbank President and Nazi German Economics Minister Hjalmar Schacht (left), former U.S. President Herbert Hoover (center), and American Ambassador to Nazi Germany HUGH R. WILSON (right) dress for the occasion at a reception held in Berlin on March 8, 1938. Herbert Hoover and Hugh R. Wilson were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. HUGH R. WILSON was a member of Skull & Bones at Yale University; Herbert Hoover was a member of the Bohemian Grove in California. (Austrian Archives/CORBIS)

While U.S. Secretary of State HENRY L. STIMSON looks on, Japanese Ambassador Katsuji Debuchi (left) signs the Kellogg-Briand Pact an hour prior to the ratification ceremony on July 24, 1929. (CORBIS)

Benito Mussolini (left), the dictator of Fascist Italy, rides in a motorboat with U.S. Secretary of State HENRY L. STIMSON in Italy in January 1931. (Photo by New York Times Co./Getty Images)

Secretary of State HENRY L. STIMSON (left) visits Benito Mussolini, the dictator of Fascist Italy, in Rome in 1931. (Source: Turmoil and Tradition: A Study of the Life and Times of Henry L. Stimson by Elting E. Morison)

Secretary of State HENRY L. STIMSON (right) appears with President Herbert Hoover (left) and Fascist Italy’s Foreign Minister Dino Grandi. (Source: Turmoil and Tradition: A Study of the Life and Times of Henry L. Stimson by Elting E. Morison)

Members of the United States delegation on board the passenger liner George Washington while en route to the London Naval Conference in January 1930. Those present are (from left to right): Admiral William V. Pratt, Secretary of State HENRY L. STIMSON, Senator David A. Reed, George Washington's Master, and Secretary of the Navy Charles Francis Adams. (U.S. Navy photo)

British Foreign Secretary Sir John Simon speaks with Secretary of State HENRY L. STIMSON in Geneva, Switzerland in 1932. (Lucien Aigner/CORBIS)

Government officials from England, the United States of America, and France meet in Paris on July 16, 1931 for the AngloFranco American Conference. L-R: Andre Francois Poncet, Walter Edge, Secretary of State HENRY L. STIMSON, Aristide Briand, Arthur Henderson, Pierre Laval, Pierre-Etienne Flandin, and William Tyrrell. (Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS)

U.S. Secretary of State HENRY STIMSON visits British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald in Great Britain. On the far left is Henry Stimson’s wife Mabel Stimson, and the woman next to her is Ramsay MacDonald’s wife Ishbel MacDonald. (Source: Turmoil and Tradition: A Study of the Life and Times of Henry L. Stimson by Elting E. Morison)

Secretary of State HENRY STIMSON (left) meets with Pierre Laval (center) in a railroad car in France. Laval would go on to become the head of Vichy France and would be executed by the French for collaborating with the Nazis. (Source: Turmoil and Tradition: A Study of the Life and Times of Henry L. Stimson by Elting E. Morison)

Stimson appears before Senate Military Affairs Committee. Washington, D.C., July 2, 1940. Henry L. Stimson (left) appears with U.S. Senator Morris Sheppard, chairman of the Senate Military Affairs Committee, before whom Stimson testified regarding his qualifications to be Secretary of War in Washington, D.C. on July 2, 1940. (Photo: Harris & Ewing Collection/Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division) http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/hec2009015561/?sid=56a382a3cb0e9d907875c500bb239a85

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt shakes hands with HENRY L. STIMSON at the White House on July 10, 1940 after the Senate confirmed his nomination as Secretary of War. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON (far left) and Army Gen. George C. Marshall (second from right) watch as President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Draft Bill in the Oval Office in Washington, D.C. on September 16, 1940. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

(From left to right) Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON, Chairman of the House Military Affairs Committee Andrew J. May, U.S. Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall, and Chairman of the Senate Military Affairs Committee Morris Sheppard watch as President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Conscription Bill at the White House on October 23, 1940. (Photo by Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)

Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON picks a draft number from a container on October 29, 1940.

Colonel William J. “Wild Bill” Donovan (left) sits beside Librarian of Congress ARCHIBALD MacLEISH in 1941. (Photo: John Phillips/Time Life)

HENRY L. STIMSON is seen testifying at the Neutrality Hearing in Congress in 1939. (Photo: Thomas D. McAvoy/Time Life)

HENRY L. STIMSON is seen laughing at the Neutrality Hearing in Congress in 1939. (Photo: Thomas D. McAvoy/Time Life)

Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON meets with other Cabinet members in August 1941.

AVERELL HARRIMAN, a partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., signs the first Lend-Lease Protocol (Agreement) after negotiating with Josef Stalin in 1941. From left to right: Lord Beaverbrook, Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav M. Molotov, Laurence Steinhardt (standing behind Harriman), Admiral William H. Standley, and Charles Thayer.

AVERELL HARRIMAN (second from left), the Chairman of the board of Union Pacific Railroad and Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., sits next to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (left) and Soviet Commissar Josef Stalin in 1942. Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov is seated on the far right. (Photo: Library of Congress)

AVERELL HARRIMAN sits next to Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall.

Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON (left), Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau Jr. (center), and Secretary of State Cordell Hull meet privately.

U.S. Navy Admiral Dewitt Ramsey (left), IBM President Thomas J. Watson Sr. (center), and Ray Plunkett watch Under Secretary of the Navy for Air ARTEMUS L. GATES shoot objects on a screen at a laboratory in 1944. (Photo by Eileen Darby//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)

Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov (left) talks to Josef Stalin while AVERELL HARRIMAN is seen chatting with an unidentified dignitary.

PRESCOTT S. BUSH (far right) was the chairman of the executive committee of the National War Fund in the spring of 1945 during World War II. From left to right: unknown, unknown, unknown, Bernard Baruch, unknown, unknown, National City Bank Chairman Gordon Rentschler, unknown, unknown, National City Bank banker William G. Brady Jr., Brown Brothers Harriman partner ROLAND HARRIMAN, Chase National Bank Chairman Winthrop Aldrich, John D. Rockefeller Jr., and Brown Brothers Harriman partner PRESCOTT S. BUSH.

Time Editor-in-Chief HENRY LUCE (above) and H. H. Kung appear at the opening of China House. H. H. Kung was the Nationalist Chinese Minister of Finance and the Governor of the Central Bank of China during World War II. Kung was married to Soong Ai-ling; Kung’s brother-inlaws were Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek. (Photo: Luce and His Empire by W.A. Swanberg)

Time Editor-in-Chief HENRY LUCE appears with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek (left), the President of the Republic of China. (Photo: Luce and His Empire by W.A. Swanberg)

President Harry S. Truman greets Nationalist China’s Foreign Minister T. V. Soong. From left to right: Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON, Secretary of the Navy James V. Forrestal, Truman, Soong, and Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius Jr. Stimson, Forrestal, and Stettinius were members of the Council on Foreign Relations.

HARVEY H. BUNDY (left, wearing glasses) and Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON talk to Major General C. R. Huebner in France in July 1944 during World War II. Harvey H. Bundy was the father of McGeorge Bundy and William P. Bundy. (Photo: The National Archives)

Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON watches British Prime Minister Winston Churchill deliver a speech at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. From left to right: Field Marshal Sir John Dill, General Sir Hastings Ismay, Gen. George C. Marshall, HENRY STIMSON (wearing a safari hat), and General Sir Alan Brooke (the Chief of Imperial Staff of Great Britain). (U.S. Army Photo) (Source: Turmoil and Tradition: A Study of the Life and Times of Henry L. Stimson by Elting E. Morison)

Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON (right) visits Gen. Omar Bradley (left) and other soldiers in France during World War II. (U.S. Army Photo; Source: Turmoil and Tradition: A Study of the Life and Times of Henry L. Stimson by Elting E. Morison)

McGEORGE BUNDY receives a badge from Admiral Alan G. Kirk. (Photo: The National Archives)

State Department officials stand in front of a camera in December 1944. From left to right: Will L. Clayton, Dean G. Acheson, Joseph C. Grew, Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius Jr., ARCHIBALD MacLEISH, Nelson Rockefeller, and James C. Dunn. All seven men in this photo were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Photo: Library of Congress) (Source: Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War by Robert L. Beisner)

Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON (left), Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (center), and Secretary of the Navy James V. Forrestal meet at the White House in April 1945. All three men were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Photo by George Skadding, Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)

Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON (left) greets General Dwight Eisenhower in 1945. General Dwight Eisenhower was involved in Operation Keelhaul, an operation in which anti-Communist Russian soldiers were forcibly repatriated to the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic.

AVERELL HARRIMAN appears with Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov (left) and Winston Churchill.

American and Soviet diplomats meet in January 1945. Second from left is Vishinsky, fourth from left is U.S. Ambassador to Soviet Union AVERELL HARRIMAN, fifth from left is Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, sixth from left is British Foreign Minister Anthony Eden, seventh from left is U.S. Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius Jr., eighth from left is Cadogan, and on right (wearing a bow tie) is Alger Hiss. (Photo: Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library)

President Franklin D. Roosevelt meets with his Cabinet in early 1945. From left to right around the table: Secretary of Agriculture Claude Wickard, Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins, Secretary of Commerce Henry A. Wallace, unidentified, Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes,

unidentified, Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON, Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius Jr., President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau Jr., Attorney General Francis Biddle, unidentified.

Charles Bohlen (left) watches U.S. Ambassador to Soviet Union AVERELL HARRIMAN shake hands with Soviet despot Josef Stalin during a meeting at Yalta in 1945.

U.S. Army General Dwight Eisenhower, Soviet dictator Josef Stalin, and U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union AVERELL HARRIMAN receive a “hero’s welcome” in Moscow as they review a Soviet parade from a platform on top of Lenin’s tomb on August 12, 1945.

Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON (front row, center, in suit) marches with U.S. Army General Mark Clark (front row, right) in Rome on July 4, 1944. (Photo: Carl Mydans/Time Life)

President Franklin D. Roosevelt (left) delivers a speech at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in 1944. Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON (center) and Herbert H. Lehman (right) are seen applauding.

Generals reviewing troops during the Potsdam Conference on July 20, 1945. John McCloy, Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON, and General George S. Patton. On December 9, 1945, a day before he was due to return to the United States, General George S. Patton was severely injured in a road accident. General Patton died on December 21, 1945. (Harry S. Truman Presidential Library photo)

Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON talks to Assistant Secretary of War John McCloy (left) and HARVEY H. BUNDY (center) at the Potsdam Conference in Germany on July 20, 1945. (Harry S. Truman Presidential Library photo)

President Harry S. Truman rewards outgoing Secretary of War HENRY L. STIMSON on September 21, 1945. Henry L. Stimson advised Truman to use the atomic bombs against the Japanese in the final days of World War II. The woman in the middle is Henry Stimson’s wife Mabel Stimson. (Source: Turmoil and Tradition: A Study of the Life and Times of Henry L. Stimson by Elting E. Morison)

Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson observes a globe.

U.S. Ambassador Hugh R. Wilson’s Letter to U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Memorandum of the Conversation between U.S. Ambassador Hugh R. Wilson and Joseph Goebbels

AMERICAN POLITICS DURING WORLD WAR II

Former President Herbert C. Hoover visits Herbert H. Lehman (left), former Governor of New York, in December 1942. Both men were members of the Council on Foreign Relations at the time this photo was taken. (Photo: William C. Shrout/Time Life)

Former Governor of New York Herbert H. Lehman talks to Dean Acheson at the First Council Session of UNRRA in Atlantic City, New Jersey in November 1943.

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Madame Chiang Kai-shek welcome Clare Boothe Luce, the wife of Time Editorin-Chief Henry Luce, in April 1942. (Library of Congress)

U.S. Vice President Henry A. Wallace, Owen Lattimore, John Carter Vincent, and John N. Hazard visit Nationalist China in June 1944. Lattimore and Hazard were members of the Council on Foreign Relations.

Sumner Welles (left), U.S. Undersecretary of State, shown with George F. Kennan, attaché at the U.S. Embassy at Berlin, during Welles' European tour on March 22, 1940. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

Army General Dwight Eisenhower talks to President Franklin Roosevelt on December 8, 1943.

Secretary of State Cordell Hull (left) and Under Secretary Sumner Welles arrive at the White House on May 9, 1940 for a luncheon with the President. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was continuing his intensive study of the latest foreign developments and is believed to have discussed the European situation with Secretary Hull and Under Secretary Welles. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

Nelson Rockefeller, U.S. Vice President Henry A. Wallace, U.S. Senator William Smathers, and Percy Douglas prepare to play tennis during World War II. Rockefeller and Douglas were members of the Council on Foreign Relations.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt examines the globe in 1942. (Photo: George C. Marshall Research Library)

President Franklin D. Roosevelt smiles for the camera at a party.

America During and After World War II

A demonstration against Nazi Germany takes place at Madison Square Garden in New York City on March 15, 1937. (Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram & Sun Newspaper Collection. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division) (Photo: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/haventohome/haven-home.html)

U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt greets Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau Jr. at a press conference in 1941. (Photo: http://historysideshow.blogspot.com/2008_03_01_archive.html)

President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the joint congressional resolution declaring that a state of war exists between the United States and Japan in the executive office of the White House at 4:10 p.m. on December 8, 1941. (Photo: © Bettmann/CORBIS)

President Franklin D. Roosevelt holds the resolutions that put America at war with Italy and Germany, which he signed late this afternoon at the White House on December 11, 1941. They were both made laws only one minute apart, with the one for war with Germany being signed first. (Photo: © Bettmann/CORBIS)

U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill are shown as they sat on the big forward deck of H.M.S. Prince of Wales to relax, chat and breathe a bit of salt air during their Atlantic meeting on August 15, 1941. Behind the two at right are: Admiral E.J. King, U.S. Atlantic Fleet Commander, and Gen. George C. Marshall (extreme right). In the more distant background (center) stands Sumner Welles, U.S. Under Secretary of State and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. (© Bettmann/CORBIS)

Prime Minister of Great Britain Winston Churchill and President Franklin D. Roosevelt hold the first joint press conference of the heads of the two nations at the White House in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. on December 23, 1941. (Photo: © Bettmann/CORBIS)

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's special board of inquiry to investigate the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor meets in full for the first time in Washington, D.C. on December 18, 1941. Left to right: Brigadier General Joseph T. McCarney, Admiral William H. Standley, Supreme Court Justice Owen J. Roberts, Chairman of the Board; Rear Admiral Joseph M. Reeves, Major General Frank B. McCoy and Walter Bruce Howe, recorder for the board. Standley and McCoy were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. (© Bettmann/CORBIS)

The third day of the trial of 8 Nazi saboteurs opened on the fifth floor in the Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. on July 11, 1942. The officers seated on the seven-man commission trying the Nazis. From left to right they are: Brig. Gen. John T. Lewis; Maj. Gen. Lorenzo D. Gasser; Maj. Gen. Walters S. Grant; Maj. Gen. Frank R. McCoy, President of the commission; Maj. Gen. Winship; Brig. Gen. Guy V. Henry and Brig. Gen. John T. Kennedy. Major General Frank R. McCoy was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. (© Bettmann/CORBIS)

President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered Americans of Japanese ancestry to move to concentration camps in 1942.

Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument No. 160, located in Inyo County, CA. One of ten WWII relocation centers for JapaneseAmericans, Manzanar held 10,000 people beginning in March 1942. The inscription reads, "Memorial to the Dead." (Flickr)

Armed with clubs, pipes and bottles, this self-appointed posse of uniformed U.S. Navy sailors was all set to settle the Zoot Suit War in Watts, California near Los Angeles on June 11, 1943 when the Navy Shore Patrol stepped in and broke it up. The angry servicemen were out to get all wearers of oversize clothing to avenge buddies who were attacked. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

Police officers take this zoot suit clad youngster into custody on June 11, 1943 after the sixth day of undeclared war on the zoot suit in Los Angeles. More than 112 persons have been injured, some of them seriously, in the frequent clashes between wearers of the zoot suit and servicemen. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

An angry white mob surrounds a street car with African American passengers stopped due to the race riots in Detroit on June 20-22, 1943. The mob assaults an African American man who attempts to leave the street car near the front of the trolley. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

A mob of angry rioters topple an automobile owned by a black man during a race riot in Detroit, Michigan on June 1, 1943. The riot was sparked when a black man reportedly slapped a white woman. The violence had claimed 25 lives by the time the military entered the scene. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

A black man (center) has just been slugged by young white hoodlums, in Detroit's race riot on June 22, 1943 and is frantically trying to escape before they hit him again. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

An African American man, the victim of assault during Detroit's race riot, tries to escape from a mob on June 22, 1943 before further violence ensues. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

An overturned car, owned by a Negro, blows up and showers burning gasoline on a passenger-packed trolley car in Detroit, Michigan on June 21, 1943 during the race riot which still continues in spite of armed troops ordered to assist police. A "state of emergency" has been declared in hopes of quelling the fierce mob fighting between Negroes and whites. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

Two gun bearing M.P.'s offer protection to a workman cleaning up the window of a store wrecked during the rioting of whites and blacks in Detroit on June 23, 1943. This store was located in the black district of the motor city. Twenty nine persons lost their lives and hundreds of others were injured in one of the nation's worst race riots. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

Madame Chiang Kai-Shek, visiting Los Angeles during her Chinese War Relief fundraising tour, sits with dignitaries at the Hollywood Bowl in Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. in 1943 following her speech on the subject of Congress's Chinese Exclusion laws. (Photo: Department of Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library, U.C. Los Angeles) http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb4v19p0d5/?layout=metadata&brand=calisphere

Madame Chiang Kai-shek gives a speech at the Hollywood Bowl in Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. in 1943. (Source: Daily News (Los Angeles, Calif. : firm), Publisher/Dept of Special Collections/UCLA Library) http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb7v19p20v/

Left photo: Madame Chiang Kai-shek appears on the rostrum of the U.S. House of Representatives in Washington, D.C. on January 18, 1943. Seated behind her is Speaker of the House Sam Rayburn. (Bettmann/CORBIS) Right photo: Soong Mei-ling, right, the wife of Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, and Eleanor Roosevelt, wife of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, sit on the White House lawn in Washington, D.C. circa 1945. Soong Mei-ling was raised in Macon, Georgia and was educated at Wellesley College. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

Soong May-ling (right) [Madame Chiang Kai-shek], wife of China's Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, conveys her thanks at the White House in Washington, D.C., on August 29, 1945 to U.S. President Harry S. Truman (left) for the hospitality she received while she underwent eleven months of medical treatment in the United States of America during World War II. She left America one day later to be reunited with her husband in Nanking, China. Madame Chiang Kai-shek would spend the remaining years of her life at an apartment in New York City after her husband’s death in 1975. Madame Chiang Kai-shek died at the age of 105 in 2003. (Photo: AFP/Getty Images)

Averell Harriman (left) and John McCloy (center) meet West Germany’s Chancellor Konrad Adenauer.

President Dwight Eisenhower shakes hands with French President Charles de Gaulle at Rambouillet Castle.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower (second from left) walks with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek (right) and Madame Chiang Kai-shek during his visit to Taiwan, Republic of China in June 1960. Council on Foreign Relations member Henry Kissinger and George H.W. Bush would abandon the Republic of China and give aid and comfort to the Chinese Communists in Beijing. The United States government maintained diplomatic relations with the Republic of China during World War II and after World War II until President Jimmy Carter severed diplomatic relations with the Republic of China in 1978. (Photo by Hank Walker/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)

An Anglo-American meeting takes place aboard USS Williamsburg in January 1952. Seated from left to right: British Foreign Minister Anthony Eden, Winston Churchill, President Harry Truman, Secretary of State Dean Acheson, Treasury Secretary John W. Snyder, and Defense Secretary Robert Lovett. Standing from left to right: Ambassador to Great Britain Walter Gifford, Gen. Omar N. Bradley, Sir Oliver Franks, Lord Cherwell, Lord Ismay, and Averell Harriman. Acheson, Gifford, Lovett, and Harriman were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Photo: Truman Library)

Eugene Meyer, President of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development [also known as The World Bank], confers with President Harry S. Truman at the White House in Washington, D.C. on June 19, 1946. (© Bettmann/CORBIS)

U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs the G.I. Bill of Rights at the White House in Washington, D.C. on June 22, 1944, which provides broad benefits for veterans of World War II. The ceremony was witnessed by members of the Senate and House and members of the American Legion and Veterans of Foreign Wars. Left to right, front row in rear of President: Senator Bennett Champ Clark of Missouri; Congressman J. Hardin Peterson of Florida; Congressman John Rankin of Mississippi; and Edith Nourse Rogers of Massachusetts. Leaning back over the President: Senator Walter F. George of Georgia. In back of Mrs. Rogers, Senator Robert F. Wagner Sr. of New York, and Senator Alben Barkley of Kentucky. (© Bettmann/CORBIS)

A group of ex-soldier college students wait in line to collect their GI Bill of Rights benefits on January 28, 1945. Books and notebooks, as well as tuition and other fees, up to a total of $500 for an ordinary school year, were furnished to the veterans under the GI Bill of Rights passed by Congress in1944. (© Bettmann/CORBIS)

A “Levittown” suburb in the United States of America. Modern American suburbs and the urban sprawl began after World War II. Modern American families who live in the suburbs usually borrow money from the local banks (which borrow money from the Federal Reserve) and make a typical 30-year mortgage payment, including interest, on their houses. The 30-year mortgage plan was developed during the Great Depression and expanded after World War II.

Fast-food restaurants such as McDonald’s were established throughout the United States of America after World War II.

American War Bonds Posters during World War II

Post-World War II Conflicts & Warfare: Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace

Nuclear tests in Nevada, U.S.A.: BADGER was a 23 kiloton tower shot that was fired on April 18, 1953 at the Nevada Test Site, as part of the Operation Upshot-Knothole nuclear test series. (http://picdit.wordpress.com/2008/07/21/8-insane-nuclear-explosions/)

Truman and Eisenhower administrations authorized nuclear tests in the Pacific Ocean in the late 1940s and early 1950s. (Photo: http://picdit.wordpress.com/2008/07/21/8-insane-nuclear-explosions/)

Allied Occupation Zones of Germany and Austria in 1945

German children wave to an airplane as the airplane prepares to land at Tempelhof Airport in West Berlin. The American military delivers food and supplies to the German people living in West Berlin during the Berlin Airlift and the Soviet blockade of West Berlin from June 1948 until May 1949.

Map of NATO and Warsaw Pact nations

Independence of Indonesia: Indonesian nationalist leader Sukarno (June 6, 1901-June 21, 1970), accompanied by Mohammad Hatta, declares the independence of Indonesia, a former Dutch colony known as the Dutch East Indies, at 10:00 A.M. on Friday, August 17, 1945, at Pegangsaan Timur 56 (now Jalan Proklamasi) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Sukarno was the President of Indonesia from August 18, 1945 until his “resignation” on March 12, 1967. (Photo: Wikipedia)

Independence of Vietnam & Vietnam War: Vietnamese communists Vo Nguyen Giap (left) and Ho Chi Minh (right, formerly Nguyễn Ái Quốc, May 19, 1890-September 3, 1969) pose for a portrait in Hanoi, Vietnam [Indochina] in 1945. Ho Chi Minh declared the independence of Vietnam shortly after the end of World War II despite the French government’s attempt to reestablish its colonial rule in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh was the President of “North” Vietnam from September 2, 1945 until his death on September 3, 1969.

Chinese Civil War and the Establishment of Communist China: U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of China Patrick J. Hurley (front row, left) appears with Republic of China’s President Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek (front row, center), Communist terrorist Mao Tse-tung (front row, right), and Chiang Kai-shek’s son Chiang Ching-kuo (back row, left) in Chungking, China in September 1945 during the failed American attempt to negotiate between the Chinese Nationalists and the Communist terrorists. (Photo: Jack Wilkes/Time Life)

Korean War: A group of American U.S. Army infantrymen march into the Naktong River region on August 11, 1950, as they pass a line of fleeing Korean refugees. The North Korean army under the command of North Korea’s “Dear Leader” Kim Il Sung invaded South Korea (Republic of Korea) on June 25, 1950 and overran the capital city of Seoul three days later. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

Arab-Israeli Wars and the Establishment of the State of Israel: Arab terrorists wage war on Israel and Israeli civilians in 1948.

Indo-Pakistani Wars and the establishment of India and Pakistan: Indian Muslim leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah (left, December 25, 1876-September 11, 1948) appears with his political rival Indian Hindu leader Mohandas K. “Mahatma” Gandhi (right, October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) in Bombay, British India in September 1944. Jinnah would serve as the first “President” (Governor-General) of Pakistan when Pakistan became independent on August 15, 1947. Jinnah favored a separate state for the Muslims living in British India; India and Pakistan has waged war over Kashmir on three separate occasions (1947, 1965, 1971). Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated in India on January 30, 1948. Both India and Pakistan became independent on August 15, 1947. Jawaharlal Nehru was the Prime Minister of India from August 15, 1947 until his death on May 27, 1964.

The stand-off between U.S. Army M48 tanks and Soviet T55 tanks at Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin during the border dispute of late October 1961. (Photo: http://warandgame.wordpress.com/2007/12/05/checkpoint-charlie-october-1961/)

Vietnam War (1954-1975): South Vietnam’s General Nguyen Ngoc Loan (left), South Vietnam’s Chief of National Police, executes Viet Cong terrorist and suspected child-killer Captain Nguyen Van Lem (right) in Saigon during the Tet Offensive on February 1, 1968. General Loan would later move to Virginia after the Vietnam War; General Loan died of cancer in Virginia in 1998. (Eddie Adams, Associated Press/Wide World Photos)

Lebanese Civil War (1958, 1976-1990): Between 800 (according to the Kahane commission) and 1500 (according to Palestine Liberation Organization) Palestine Arab refugees were massacred by the Christian Lebanese Forces between September 14 and 17, 1982. The Israeli army, positioned around the two camps, did not react. Corpses of refugees lie in their blood. Lebanon is a former French trustee colony and a former province of the Ottoman Empire. (© Michel Philippot/Sygma/Corbis)

The Korean De-Militarized Zone at Panmonjoum. The division of Korea into two countries began at the Potsdam Conference during World War II. (Photo: http://www.ndu.edu/CAPSTONE/)

Germans in West Berlin destroy the infamous Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989. The division of Germany into two countries during the Cold War began during the Yalta and Potsdam conferences during World War II. Germany has since been reunified.

EXTRA WORLD WAR II PHOTOS

Field Marshal Erwin Rommel is seen standing with captured British soldiers in France in 1940. (Photo: http://historyimages.blogspot.com/2009/12/fall-of-france-may-1940.html)

Nazi German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel (left) speaks with Fascist Italy’s dictator Benito Mussolini at the Italian Government Headquarters in January 1944. (Source: Wikimedia)

Minister President of Norway Vidkun Quisling (left) meets with Adolf Hitler, circa 1942-1945.

Left photo: Vidkun Quisling (center), the Minister President of Norway, visits Nazi SS chief Heinrich Himmler (left) and Albert Viljam Hagelin (Secretary of State for the Home Office 1940-1944) in Berlin on February 14, 1942. Right photo: Adolf Hitler visits Vidkun Quisling. (Source: http://ivarfjeld.wordpress.com/category/vatican-and-fascism/)

Heinrich Himmler visits Norway in 1941. Seated (from left to right) are Quisling, Himmler, Josef Terboven, the Nazi gauleiter who was the effective ruler of Norway during the occupation, and General Nikolaus von Falkenhorst, the commander of the German forces in Norway. Vidkun Quisling was the Minister President of Norway from February 1, 1942 to May 9, 1945 and Norway’s Minister of Defense from 1931 to 1933. (German Federal Archive)

Celebration in the Vatican. Italy’s fascist dictator Benito Mussolini appears with a Cardinal and their staff. (Photo: http://ivarfjeld.wordpress.com/category/vatican-and-fascism/)

Dead civilians killed by German artillery are seen lying in the streets of Leningrad [St. Petersburg] in late 1941. (Photo: Hassadar. http://www.olive-drab.com/od_history_ww2_ops_battles_1941leningrad.php)

Left: Adolf Hitler meets with Finland's Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim and Finland’s President Risto Ryti in Imatra, Finland, 200 km north-west of Leningrad, on June 4, 1942. (Published in Suomen Kuvalehti 1942, republished 2006) Right: Captured German soldiers under Red Army guard are escorted through the streets of Leningrad in August 1942. (Photo: Hassadar. http://www.olive-drab.com/od_history_ww2_ops_battles_1941leningrad.php)

Russian POW's on the way to German prison camps. Image printed in the 60's from Polish Archive negative, now in Marek Tuszyński's collection of WWII prints. Most likely photo taken by Germans which was latter acquired by documentation cell of Armia Kraj. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Russian_POW_(1941).jpg

A column of Soviet Red Army prisoners-of-war captured near Minsk [Belarus] is marched to a prison camp on July 2, 1941. (German Federal Archives)

Soviet ski troops advance to the front lines as they visit Leningrad [St. Petersburg], Soviet Russia in 1943.

Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus (left), with his chief of staff, Generalleutnant Arthur Schmidt (middle) and his aide, Wilhelm Adam (right), after their surrender on January 31, 1943. Paulus surrendered to Soviet forces in Stalingrad on January 31, 1943, a day after he was promoted to the rank of Generalfeldmarschall by Adolf Hitler. Hitler expected Paulus to commit suicide, citing the fact that there was no record of a German field marshal ever surrendering to enemy forces. Whilst in Soviet captivity during the war he became a vocal critic of the Nazi regime and joined the Russian-sponsored National Committee for a Free Germany. He was not released until 1953. (German Federal Archives)

Surrender of Major-General Alfons Hitter and Lieutenant-General Friedrich Gollwitzer to Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Vasilevsky and Field Marshal Ivan Chernyakhovsky after the battle of Vitebsk during Operation Bagration on June 28, 1944. (Russian State Archive)

From left to right: General K. Rokossovsky, Marshal of Artillery N. Voronov, translator captain Diatlenko, and Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus, who was taken prisoner by the troops of 64th army under General N. Shumilov on January 31, 1943.

Members of the NKFD in 1943, from the left: Col. van Hooven, Lt. Graf Einsiedel, Maj. Hetz, Gen. von Seydlitz, Prv. Zippel, Erich Weinert, Col. Steidle, Gen. Lattmann. The National Committee for a Free Germany (German: Nationalkomitee Freies Deutschland, or NKFD) was a German anti-Nazi organization that operated in the Soviet Union during World War II. (Photo: German Federal Archives)

The anti-Nazi NKFD Headquarters in Russia during World War II

German prisoners from the Fourth Army are marched through the streets of Moscow on July 17, 1944 after their capture in Minsk. (Russian State Archive) http://victory.rusarchives.ru/index.php?p=31&photo_id=258

Soviet Red Army soldiers march through Budapest, Hungary in March 1945. The Soviet Red Army looted Budapest, attacked foreign embassies, raped women, and killed civilians after they defeated the Nazi German army in Budapest. The Siege of Budapest lasted from December 29, 1944 to February 13, 1945, when the Nazi German army withdrew from the city on February 13, 1945.

Soviet soldiers hosting the Soviet flag on the balcony of Hotel Adlon in Berlin, Germany in May 1945 after the Battle of Berlin. The Battle of Berlin lasted from April 16, 1945 until May 2, 1945, when the Nazi German army capitulated the city. (Photo: German Federal Archives)

American invasion troops of the 7th Infantry Division approach a landing area code-named Beach Red in the western arm of Holtz Bay, on Japanese-occupied Attu Island in Alaska on May 11, 1943. (AP Photo)

April 18, 1942: A B-25 Mitchell bomber takes off from the USS Hornet's flight deck for the initial air raid on Tokyo, Japan, a secret military mission U.S. President Roosevelt referred to as Shangri-La. (AP Photo)

June 4, 1942: The U.S. aircraft carrier Yorktown, left, and the other fighting ships of a United States task force in the Pacific, throw up an umbrella of anti-aircraft fire to beat off a squadron of Japanese torpedo planes attacking the carrier during the battle of Midway. (AP Photo)

June 1942: The USS Lexington, U.S. Navy aircraft carrier, explodes after being bombed by Japanese planes in the Battle of the Coral Sea in the South Pacific during World War II. (AP Photo)

August 3, 1942: After hammering Port Moresby for two days, Japanese bombers finally sank this Australian transport which sends up a cloud of smoke. She drifted onto a reef and heeled over. Flaming oil can be seen at left. The men in a small boat, foreground, are looking for victims. (AP Photo)

U.S. Marines approach the Japanese occupied Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands in August 1942 during World War II. (AP Photo)

U.S. Marines, with full battle kits, charge ashore on Guadalcanal Island from a landing barge during the early phase of the U.S. offensive in the Solomon Islands in August 1942 during World War II. (AP Photo)

Aug. 29, 1942: After landing in force, U.S. Marines pause on the beach of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands before advancing inland against the Japanese during World War II. (AP Photo)

Oct. 29, 1942: U.S. Marines man a .75 MM gun on Guadalcanal Island in the Solomon Islands during World War II. (AP Photo)

Nov. 3, 1942: Pushing through New Guinea jungles in a jeep, General Douglas MacArthur inspects the positions and movements of Allied Forces, who would push the Japanese away from Port Moresby and back over the Owen Stanley Mountain range. (AP Photo)

January 1943: While on a bombing run over Salamau, New Guinea, before its capture by Allied forces, photographer Sgt. John A. Boiteau aboard an army Liberator took this photograph of a B-24 Liberator during World War II. Bomb bursts can be seen below in lower left and a ship at upper right along the beach. (AP Photo/U.S. Army Force)

January 1943: The bodies of three American soldiers, fallen in the battle for Buna and Gona, lie on the beach of the island in the Papua New Guinea region during World War II. (AP Photo)

November 2, 1943: A B-25 bomber of the U.S. Army 5th Air Force strikes against a Japanese ship in the harbor at Rabaul, New Britain during an air raid on the Japanese-held air and naval base. (AP Photo)

November 11, 1943: A supply ship, one of two that the Japanese were able to work through U.S. Air attacks, explodes in Rangoon Harbor (center) after a direct hit by a bomb from a Tenth U.S. Air Force Plane. Hits also were scored on port facilities, seen smoking (top center). Note numerous small craft moored at docks and offshore, (right). (AP Photo)

January 1944: These U.S. Marine Raiders, with the reputation of being skillful jungle fighters, pose in front of a Japanese stronghold they conquered at Cape Totkina, Bougainville. (AP Photo)

The first wave of U.S. Infantrymen leaves their higgins boats and race through the surf for the beach during the invasion of Wakde Island, Dutch New Guinea in May 1944 during World War II. (AP Photo/U.S. Army Signal Corps)

U.S. Army Gen. Douglas MacArthur wades ashore during initial landings at Leyte, Philippines in October 1944. (National Archives/U.S. Army Signal Corps)

A Japanese kamikaze pilot crashes into USS Essex near the Philippines on November 25, 1944.

American Marines raise the American flag on Iwo Jima on February 23, 1945. (Joe Rosenthal/Associated Press photo)

U.S. Marine reinforcements wade ashore to support the beachhead on Okinawa, Japan on March 31, 1945.

A group of Japanese (or Korean) prisoners in Okinawa, Japan who preferred capture to suicide wait to be questioned by American officers. (Photo: http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/okinawa/chapter18.htm#p4)

At 1443 on 11 April 1945, one of the most famous photos of the Pacific War was taken. This image shot aboard USS MISSOURI freezes the moment in time that Setsuo Ishino struck USS MISSOURI; it came to symbolize the desperate nature of the fighting against Kamikaze attacks. The plane broke apart in a glancing impact and threw debris onto the deck, igniting a fire forward. (U.S. Navy photo reproduced from Wikimedia Commons, http://mighty90.com/Kikusui_Number_2.html)

Surrender instructions to surviving Japanese soldiers were broadcast by this “converted” Japanese from an LCI standing off the rocky cliff near Hill 89 in Okinawa, Japan in 1945. (Photo: http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/okinawa/chapter18.htm#p4)

American soldiers raise the American flag in Okinawa, Japan on June 22, 1945 as organized Japanese resistance ended that day. (Photo: http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/okinawa/chapter18.htm#p4)

Third Fleet Raids on Japan, July 1945. U.S. Navy carrier aircraft attack the Japanese battleship Haruna at her moorings near Kure, Japan on July 28, 1945. Photographed from a USS Intrepid (CV-11) plane. (Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.) http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-fornv/japan/japsh-h/haruna.htm

World War II Joint Chiefs of Staff at a luncheon meeting, circa 1943. Present are (from left to right): General Henry H. Arnold, Chief of Staff, U.S. Army Air Forces; Admiral William D. Leahy, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff; Admiral Ernest J. King, Chief of Naval Operations and Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet; and General George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff, U.S. Army. (Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives) http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-k/ej-kng.htm

OVERLORD commanders meeting, January 1944. Left to right: Omar Bradley, Bertram Ramsay, Arthur Tedder, General Eisenhower, Bernard Montgomery, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Walter Bedell Smith. (Eisenhower Presidential Library/National Archives)

"Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower gives the order of the Day. 'Full victory-nothing else' to paratroopers in England, just before they board their airplanes to participate in the first assault in the invasion of the continent of Europe." Moore, June 6, 1944. (National Archives)

D-Day Invasion at Normandy, France on June 6, 1944

Crowds of French patriots line the Champs Elysees to view Free French tanks and half tracks of General Leclerc's 2nd Armored Division passes through the Arc du Triomphe, after Paris was liberated on August 25, 1944 (Library of Congress)

American troops of the 28th Infantry Division march down the Champs Elysees, Paris, in the Victory Parade on August 29, 1944. (Photo: http://history.sandiego.edu/GEN/WW2Index/picindex5.html)

Concentration camp survivors and Allied soldiers alike celebrate after Mauthausen concentration camp near Linz, Austria was liberated in 1945.

An infantryman is on guard on Grassy Knoll in Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands on January 26, 1943 during World War II. (AP Photo)

Right Shoulder Arms. A squad of Japanese-American soldiers are here shown in the action of obeying this command during routine practice on the Camp Shelby drill field at Camp Shelby, Mississippi in July 1943. The 442nd combat team at Camp Shelby is composed entirely of Americans of Japanese descent who volunteered for services in the armed forces. This unit of approximately 8000 men is undergoing intensive training in all branches of combat duty, and they are looking forward with eagerness to actual services at the front. (Photographer: Charles E. Mace) (Contributing Institution: The Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley)

Left photo: Tuskegee Airmen during World War II. (Photo: http://www.blackarchives.org/node/83) Right photo: Madame Chiang Kai-shek, the wife of Nationalist China’s leader Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, celebrates V-J Day in August 1945 as she displays an American newspaper with the headline “Complete Surrender”.

A group of American soldiers and Japanese men pose for a photograph in front of the Urakami Cathedral in Nagasaki, Japan after World War II. (Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/afigallo/1099664736/in/set-72157602132535519/)

Company "B" commemorative plaque at Maywood, IL Veterans Memorial Park. A tablet to commemorate the people who fought in Bataan

American generals: seated left to right are William H. Simpson, George S. Patton, Jr., Carl Spaatz, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Courtney H. Hodges, and Leonard T. Gerow; standing are Ralph F. Stearley, Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Walter Bedell Smith, Otto P. Weyland, and Richard E. Nugent. Circa 1945. (National Archives)

Left photo: U.S. Army Gen. George S. Patton, Jr. (November 11, 1885 – December 21, 1945). On December 9, 1945, a day before he was due to return to the United States, General George S. Patton was severely injured in a road accident. Right photo: U.S. Army Gen. Douglas MacArthur

U.S. Army Lieutenant General Jonathan Wainwright (L), a former prisoner-of-war, chats with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in Chungking, China on September 7, 1945 after Wainwright’s release from a Japanese prison at Sian, China days earlier. Chiang Kai-shek spoke no English. (Photo: Jack Wilkes/Time Life)

General of the Army Douglas MacArthur and Lt. Gen. Jonathan Wainwright greet each other at the New Grand Hotel, Yokohama, Japan on August 31, 1945, in their first meeting since they parted on Corregidor more than three years before. (Army/National Archives)