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Chapter I


Introduction Education serves a major role in the Philippine economy. A person who went to school has a higher chances of being successful compared to a person who has not been to a school. Education in the Philippines changed radically from the US and Spain system but then moved to various ways which includes the modular system. Education has been compulsory with the social environment. Various government branches regulate and guide different Colleges and Universities in order to maintain and uphold the standards of education. Each person has different levels of learning and also learns from different ways or methods. As future nurses, the researchers recognize their role in the society to alleviate the problems in increase drop-out rate in different colleges and the teaching methods used. Background Information Human Anatomy and Physiology has been the least favored subject in the Nursing Course. This has been tagged as the most difficult one and is hard to be processed by most students. Various surveys revealed that in the entire

Philippines, the subject that causes highest drop-out rate is Human Anatomy and Physiology. Failure with this subject results in retention and not being able to move forward in the nursing career. Various teaching methods have already been established that will aid and help nursing students to pass and fully understand the Human Anatomy and Physiology which also includes Modular Studies. In this study, the researchers will evaluate on how effective the various teaching methods used in teaching Human Anatomy and Physiology in various nursing students. Conceptual Framework It is indicated in blogs that most often Nursing students fail in their Human Anatomy and Physiology subjects. ( Since this subject has been the most difficult one, students tend to drop-out or fail the subjects and just fail to find the best and alternative way to easily absorb and understand the course outline for this subject. Effective teaching method has a significant factor towards students learning and absorption of the topic. This plays a major role in the lecture and knowledge retention process.


sleeping patterns. This shows how the Demographic Profile. Lifestyle. Hobbies indulged in.The lifestyle of the respondent.g. 3 . the diet. e. activities in daily living and exercise would also tend to affect learning process of the respondents. Figure 1 below depicts the conceptual framework of this study using the Schematic Diagram model. and teaching method will greatly affect the passing rates of the different Nursing Students.

Demographic Profile and Lifestyle -age . Schematic Diagram Statement of the Problem 4 .Classroom .educational attainment Lifestyle Teaching Method .Modular N U R S I N G S T U D E N T S CLASS STATUS Figure 1.civil status .

The data gathered if found alarming may trigger the teaching staff to find ways to improve the concerns of their students. What are the strategies or recommendations to improve understanding process? Significance of the Study The result of this study may benefit the following: The nursing students may benefit from the study through finding the most effective way for knowledge absorption and decreasing the drop-out rate. 5 . b. What is the profile of the students in terms of a. it sought to answer the following questions: 1. Age. Specifically.The study aims to find out on which teaching method will be effective for the Nursing Students in Salazar Colleges of Science and Institute of Technology. What is the Lifestyle practiced by the respondents? 3. Gender 2. they may help in developing higher chances of reducing the drop-out rate of their students for the said course. The findings of this study can help triangulate the previous problems of the quality of education provided to different Nursing students throughout the country. The parents may become aware of the importance of following-up their students. Thus.

In this investigation. the following terms are operationally defined. Definition of Terms For clarity of understanding. four and five. Hypothesis Problem number one is hypotheses free. three. the population or respondents covered are the 10 randomly selected Human Anatomy and Physiology students from Salazar Colleges of Science and Institute of Technology. For problems two. HO2: There is significant difference between the levels of learning towards the teaching method used among the selected students of Salazar Colleges of Science and Institute of Technology. Scope and Delimitation Subject Delimitation. Time Delimitation. 6 . The time coverage of the study falls on the first semester of the school year 2011-2012.The result of this study may serve as a springboard for future researchers to conduct parallel studies with a wider scope and more variables to consider. the following hypotheses have been derived: HO1: There is no significant difference between the modes of teaching specifically classroom setting and modular class among the students of Salazar Colleges of Science and Institute of Technology.

Nursing Student are students who takes up the course nursing which is a medical related course. Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES 7 . Human Anatomy and Physiology is a subject that is offered in the Nursing Course which has been believed to be the most difficult one. Modular Setting is a mode of teaching wherein students receives modular handouts that they can study at their own convenience and only appears in school for exams and topic clarification. instructor or teacher. Classroom Setting is a mode of teaching wherein students need to be in the classroom where lectures and laboratory works are being done in the presence of a professor.Bacalso Cebu City which houses the cream of the crop nursing students in the Philippines. Nursing is a course mostly offered by different Colleges and Universities throughout the country.Salazar Colleges of Science and Institute of Technology is a College which is located in N.

However. maintain. The American Nurses Association (ANA) states nursing is the protection. and populations. and advocacy in the care of individuals. and many of the traditional regulations and provider roles are changing. and this traditional role has come to shape the historic public image of nurses as care providers. families. training. families. and optimization of health and abilities. or recover optimal health and quality of life. nurses are permitted by most jurisdictions to practice independently in a variety of settings depending on training level. promotion. nurse education has undergone a process of diversification towards advanced and specialized credentials. Nurses practice in a wide diversity of practice areas with a different scope of practice and level of prescriber authority in each. Literature and Studies Nursing is a profession within the healthcare sector focused on the care of individuals. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care. prevention of illness and injury. and scope of practice. and communities so they may attain.This chapter presents a review of related literature and studies obtained from local libraries and surfed from the Internet. In the post-war period. communities. 8 . alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response. Many nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians.

and State enrolled nurse) works independently or with a Registered nurse. and spiritual needs. psychological. while maintaining their credentials. A Licensed practical nurse (LPN) (also referred to as a Licensed vocational nurse. There are a number of educational paths to becoming a professional nurse. all nurses hold one or more credentials depending on their scope of practice and education. and competencies. nursing theory. social. The most significant differentiation 9 . all involve extensive study of nursing theory and practice as well as training in clinical skills. Nurses care for individuals of all ages and cultural backgrounds who are healthy and ill in a holistic manner based on the individual's physical. social science. The profession combines physical science. In almost all countries. emotional.The authority for the practice of nursing is based upon a social contract that delineates professional rights and responsibilities as well as mechanisms for public accountability. and continuing their education. code of ethics. and entrance to the profession is regulated at the national or state level. standards. Enrolled nurse. registered practical nurse. which vary greatly worldwide. and technology in caring for those individuals. In order to work in the nursing profession. intellectual. nursing practice is defined and governed by law. The aim of the nursing community worldwide is for its professionals to ensure quality care for all.

nurses have 10 . Registered nurses may earn additional credentials or degrees. RN's may also pursue different roles as advanced practice registered nurses. A Registered nurse (RN) provides scientific. junior colleges. the passing of which is required for the nursing license. granted by a tertiary education university or similarly accredited school. multiple educational paths will qualify a candidate to sit for the licensure examination as a registered nurse. and bachelor's degree-granting colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years. technical colleges. graduates are eligible to sit for the licensing examination to become a nurse. in any setting. Around the world. After completing either the LPN or either RN education programs in the USA. In the USA. Nurses may follow their personal and professional interests by working with any group of people. Canada requires a bachelor’s degree for the RN and a twoyear diploma for the LPN. which determines entitlement for their scope of practice. Some nurses follow the traditional role of working in a hospital setting. and technological knowledge in the care of patients and families in many health care settings. For example. at any time. The BSN is awarded to the nurse who has earned an American four-year academic degree in the science and principles of nursing.between an LPN and RN is found in the requirements for entry to practice. psychological. The ADN is awarded to the nurse who has completed a two-year undergraduate academic degree awarded by community colleges.

sick or well and in all settings. and Italy. over 20% of nurses are male. Advocacy. This ratio is represented around the world. nursing has continued to be a female-dominated profession. Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy. the Democratic Republic of Congo. and the care of ill. Congo. Cameroon. in countries such as Spain. promotion of a safe environment. and education are also key nursing roles. or anthroponomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be 11 . Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. For instance. participation in shaping health policy and in patient and health systems management. which all have more male than female nurses.been traditionally female. In Europe. Ivory Coast. prevention of illness. Gabon. Mali. disabled and dying people. these nursing organizations offer the following definitions: "Nursing encompasses autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages. Notable exceptions include Francophone Africa. Nursing includes the promotion of health. Czechoslovakia. Burkina Faso. groups and communities. the male-tofemale ratio of nurses is approximately 1:19 in Canada and America. Chad. Senegal. research." Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the human body. Djibouti. families. Guinea. Rwanda. Portugal. Despite equal opportunity legislation. regional anatomy. and Togo. Mauritania. Niger. Although nursing practice varies among both specialties and countries. which includes the countries of Benin.

that consist of organs. comparative anatomy and comparative embryology. for example. advancing from examination of animals through dissection of fresh and preserved cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century. and can be traced from very early embryos. through common roots in evolution. much of the human body maintains the ancient segmental pattern that is present in all vertebrates with basic units being repeated. Anatomy. human physiology (the study of function). which includes histology (the study of the organization of tissues). and biochemistry (the study of the chemistry of living structures) are complementary basic medical sciences that are generally together (or in tandem) to students studying medical sciences. which is particularly obvious in the vertebral column and in the ribcage. The human body consists of biological systems.seen by the naked eye. and cytology (the study of cells). 12 . that consist of cells and connective tissue. Methods have also advanced dramatically. by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes. over a long period of time. The history of anatomy has been characterized. that consist of tissues. In some of its facets human anatomy is closely related to embryology.

The highest honor 13 . textbooks. organs. The major anatomy textbook. This includes how organisms. respectively. especially surgeons. Human anatomy. and doctors working in some diagnostic specialities. diagrams.Generally. learn gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy from anatomical models. dentists. Physiology is the science of the function of living systems. which are generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school. in line with modern teaching. and biochemistry are basic medical sciences. and tutorials. physicians. organ systems. such as the nervous or respiratory systems. physiotherapists. lectures. and bio-molecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. and in addition. Human anatomy can be taught regionally or systemically. nurses. that is. studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest. such as histopathology and radiology. cells. A thorough working knowledge of anatomy is required for all medical doctors. radiographers. or studying by specific systems. skeletons. and students of certain biological sciences. physiology. The study of microscopic anatomy (or histology) can be aided by practical experience examining histological preparations (or slides) under a microscope. Gray's Anatomy. paramedics. photographs. medical and dental students generally also learn anatomy with practical experience of dissection and inspection of cadavers (dead human bodies). has recently been reorganized from a systems format to a regional format.

The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems within systems. Human physiology is the science of the mechanical. this was in the form of a blackboard but these are becoming less common in wellequipped schools. Many classrooms also have TVs.awarded in physiology is the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. and the cells of which they are composed. Pencils. 14 . Classrooms are found in educational institutions of all kinds. including public and private schools. and physiology is the study of function. their organs. whiteboards and interactive whiteboards. home schools. physiology and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum. awarded since 1901 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Much of the foundation of knowledge in human physiology was provided by animal experimentation. maps. physical. charts. corporations. anatomy is the study of form. A classroom is a room in which teaching or learning activities can take place. books. Physiology is closely related to anatomy. and religious and humanitarian organizations. The classroom attempts to provide a safe space where learning can take place uninterrupted by other distractions. Most classrooms have a large writing surface where the instructor or students can share notes with other members of the class. and are replaced by flipcharts. and biochemical functions of humans. Due to the frequent connection between form and function. Traditionally.

adequate information and insight into the conduct of their present study. the information on the factors contributing to occurrence of drop-out in the Nursing Course are very useful to the researchers’ current study wherein they are tasked to measure effectiveness 15 . New learning technologies and mobile devices make it possible for learning to take place at any time. specifically on the identification of effective teaching pattern. and (perhaps most importantly) at any pace that the learner desires. Instead of isolating learners in a classroom. Course Modules help instructors select and sequence material for use as part of a course. Each module represents the thinking of subject matter experts about the best materials to assign and how to organize them to facilitate learning. the flexibility of classroom instruction is often called into question. being nursing students. Furthermore. Whenever possible at least one alternative item for each main recommendation is included. as well as suggested supplemental readings that may provide a broader conceptual context.monographs and LCD projectors for presenting information and images from a computer. many teachers are experimenting with integrating learning into a student's daily life. While the classroom is clearly the dominant setting for learning. The foregoing related literature and studies had given the researchers. at any place.

by mail through a questionnaire or by phone (Fraenkel and Wallen 1994). defined descriptive investigation as a method used in research study which includes all those that present facts concerning the nature and status of anything. 16 . a set of conditions. Chapter III METHODS AND PROCEDURE This chapter presents the research design. a class of events. research setting. sources of data. a system of thought. a number of objects. Best (1998). data gathering and statistical treatment of data gathered in the pursuit of the objectives of the study. a group of persons.of teaching method among nursing students in Salazar Colleges of Science and Technology. or any kind of phenomena which one may wish to study. Research Design The descriptive survey research design was used in this study. respondents of the study. In this study. the questionnaire-checklist and interview technique were used to elicit responses and to obtain the pertinent data needed by the researchers. Survey research involves researchers asking respondents questions about a particular topic or issue and can be in a number of ways – face to face.

Distribution of Student Respondents by Age and Gender Age 20 . Bacalso Cebu City. Philippines.Sources of Data The data were derived from the responses to the questionnaire-checklist constructed by the researchers and obtained through interview of the Nursing Students taking up Human Anatomy and Physiology course work. Table 1.25 26 . Respondents of the Study The respondents of this study were consisting of 10 students who enrolled in Human Anatomy and Physiology in Salazar Colleges of Science and Technology.up Total Male 3 2 0 5 Female 2 2 1 5 Total 5 4 1 10 Percentage 50% 40% 10% 100% Research Setting The study will be conducted among 10 selected students in Salazar Colleges of Science and Technology located in N. Data Gathering A questionnaire-checklist survey form was constructed to gather the pertinent data needed to answer the specific questions outlined in Chapter 1 17 .30 31 . Table 1 shows the distribution of respondents and gender.

Revisions were done. The research instrument was content-validated by their adviser and some professors of the college. The final draft of the manuscript was prepared for oral defense on the prescribed schedule. Upon approval of the final draft. secured the necessary permission from the school and local authorities and conducted the study in pursuit of the objectives of the study. percentage 18 . percentage Frequency. organized and were descriptively analyzed using the statistical tools described in Chapter 3 in consultation with a statistician.using the interview technique. Comfort Zone 3. percentage and rank Frequency. the researchers proceeded to the research setting. Profile of the respondent 2. Statistical Treatment of Data The data gathered were analyzed using the following descriptive statistical tools: Analysis 1. Lifestyle of the respondent Statistical Tools Frequency. The data gathered were encoded.

The findings revealed that 50 percent of the students were within the range of 20 – 25 years old followed by those with ages 26 – 30 and 31 – up each 19 .1 Distribution of Respondents who fail According to Age Age 20 – 25 26 – 30 31 – up Did not Fail Total Frequency 3 0 1 5 10 Percentage 30% 0% 10% 50% 100% Rank 2 4 3 1 Table 2.Formulas Used: Percentage = (Frequency / Total No. of Respondents) x 100 Average or Mean = (Sum of all Observations / Total No. What is the profile of the respondents? Table 2. The findings are presented according to the sequence of the specific questions outlined in Chapter 1.1 describes the distribution of students according to age. of Respondents) Chapter IV PRESENTATION. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents analyses and interprets the data gathered in determining the effectiveness between classroom setting and modular coursework in 10 students of Human Anatomy and Physiology in Salazar Colleges of Science and Technology. Problem 1.

2 shows the distribution of respondents in terms of gender. The average age of the students is within 20 – 25 years old.2 Distribution of Respondents who fail according to Gender Gender Male Female Did not Fail Total Frequency 3 2 5 10 Percentage 30% 20% 50% 100% Table 2. According to John R. however. 2009) One of the survey findings. Lukacs entire Philippines. as it showed that classrooms in schools are the best place at which to institutionalize learning.contributing 40 and 10 percent respectively to the total respondent students of 10. Several pilot modular classes conducted in the country have shown that implementing modular coursework could also reduce drop-out rate in the Human Anatomy and Physiology. offered hope. Table 2. Since the sampling design used was purposive following a 1:1 male to female ration. According to (Zalwiczek. 20 . equal percentage of male and female has been observed. This was done to have variant representation of male and female respondents. the subject that causes highest drop-out rate is Human Anatomy and Physiology.

however. offered hope. According to (Zalwiczek. 2009) one of the survey findings. They just do not tend to give importance towards schooling.Table 2.3 Distribution of Respondents According to Lifestyle Lifestyle Type A (Productive) Type B (Sedentary) Total Frequency 6 4 10 Percentage 60% 40% 100% In terms of Lifestyle. as it showed that students who concentrates in their schooling has higher chances in passing either they are in a classroom setting or modular coursework. 21 . there are higher chances of failing for Respondents who have Type B lifestyle.

4 that 90 percent of the students fail with Modular Coursework. Recommendations In the light of the conclusions arrived at. It is also noted that most of the students who fail are those who are observing the Happy-Go-Lucky lifestyle wherein they do not tend to give importance towards their class and lessons.Table 2. Conclusions Based on the findings and objectives of this study. it is concluded that students who are enrolled in modular classwork are most likely to fail in Human Anatomy and Physiology due to the fact that there are less interactions with the instructors which results to less understanding of the topic. it is recommended that students should enroll in a classroom setting for this subject for increase 22 . About 10 percent only fails in the classroom setting.4 Distribution of Respondents who fail According to Mode of Teaching Mode Classroom Modular Total Frequency 1 4 5 Percentage 10% 90% 100% It could be gleaned from Table 2.

23 .chances of passing due to higher time interacting with Instructors and fellow Students. It is further recommended that parallel studies should be undertaken by other researchers with a wider scope and more variables in order to affirm or negate the findings of this study.