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Road Crossings Design of Simply Supported Slab Length of slab Span of the slab, lx mm Breadth of the slab mm Slab

Thickness Grade of concrete N/mm2 Grade of reinforcement steel N/mm2 Dia of main bar Concrete cover Effec depth of slab mm Distance top of road to top of pipe 1.2 m 150 kN Heavy veicle wheels 75 kN = = 25.0 75.0 = 350 = = = 13400 = = 450 = 60.0 = 460.0 mm mm 5400 1000.0 mm mm

75 kN

45o

48' dia. Pipe

Schemetic drawing showing typical axle load & vehicle dimensions on heavy-duty r oad 4 m 2m

2m

95 fy z 0.5 = 2.m + d ( Asreq .45 kN/m2 0.f.15 kN/m2 = = m2 = 37.8 + 1. d Assuming modification factor For heavy duty slab Try effective depth.5 ( kN * 0.95 M / 0.4 * 22. Mmax lx = Bending reinforcement k z 0.f.00 3.40 496.5 kN/m2 = kN/m2 1 450 * * 0.5 8 336 * 37.8 = ) * 5. h Dead load due to slab 24 = Dead load due to soil 18 = Dead load due to pavement * 20 = Total dead load Distance from top of premix to neutral axis of slab Wheel load dispersion area + 0. 150 * kN = m.046 d { 0. d Overall depth of slab.8 = = = = 350 = 0.25 = Live load on slab from vehicle kN/m2 Total ultimate design load. p 1.0 = 22.150 kN 20 = 270000 m.6 ( For 1.25 k / 0. Moment.4 = p kN. span Minimum effective depth.9 1.9 = = = ) 1/2 } = = M / bd2fCU 0.8 9 10.0 width of slab) Max.

98 = = v = 496.16 BS 8110. Span / Effective Depth / 350 = Thus d is adequate Check on shear At the face of support Shear.9375 mm2/m mm centres 150 2. v 248.79/1.4 = 350 18. .0 OK = 2.71 Shear Stress.928 Limiting . Span / Effective Depth 20 * 0.40 = >1 OK 1.74 = = From table 3.8 â fcu (OK) bd Design Concrete Shear Stress Vc (N/mm2) A = 400 / d = B = 100*Asprov / (b*d) = C = fcu / 25 Vc = 0. Ñ < 0.14 = 0.25*(A)1/4*(B)1/3*(C)1/3 0. no further shear check or reinforcem ent are required.= We try bar spacing mm Asprov = = ( OK ) To provide T Check on span-effective depth ratio M / bd2 = 25 2322 = 7 3437 @ * mm2/m 150 490.87 <3.10 BS 8110. since Ñ < Vc. the span-effective depth modification factor 0.6 = 5400 mm = = = According to table 3.4 15.2 kN 2 0.928 = Actual .

1 22. h m Effec.bottom in tension .02 = ) } { ( + 521. depth Pile cap.8 26.Pile design We try ng 300 mm dia.9 0.80 Capacity of pile in compression 400 kN Total no of pile Width of pile cap. Lfz m Depth of pile cap.4 339. pile with 1200 mm spaci = = = = 24 0.40 m 521.0 kN = 14.4 + = kN Load transferred to each ( PASS ) pile 13.Under compressive load .0 0. Steel pile 900 14000 Use Beam Bending Analysis Bottom Reinforcement Design .9 = = = Total load of pile cap kN + Total service load 37.5 ) * ( 5. defc m * Length of Pile cap 2 side Pile Cap Design Curtain wall RC slab Pilecap 300mm dia.8 = 13.

Under tension load .k/0.( PSOIL * s/2 ) 373.4( PPC *s/2) = = .9 )1/2] 0.25 . Pile tensile Load = Weight of Soil = Weight of Pilecap S Tension 120 mm . dEF M / (0.99 dEF . Load = Weight of Soil = Weight of Pilecap Weight of RC slab S Psb Psoil Ppc Pcu Tension s/2 + e Pcu Take Momen about centreline of pilecap and allow 75 mm of error in plan position of piles. M 1.PCU PSOIL PPc Psb = = Ult.95 dEF use z = 0.top is in tension PTU PSOIL PPc = Ult.011 dEF [ 0.95 Asreq = mm2 Provide 6 mm2 (Asprov > As OK) Clear spacing = Top Reinforcement Design . Pile Comp.5 + ( 0.87 fy z) T 25 = As prov = = 1229 2946 > 0.70 kNm PCU ( s/2 + e ) ( PSb * s/2 ) Area of steel required k = = z = = M b * dEF 2 * fCu 0. Ignored stump weight Ultimate.

87 fy z) .30 kNm PTU ( S/2 + e ) + ( PSb * s/2 ) Area of steel required k = = z = = use z = Asreq = 1435 mm2 (Asprov > As OK) Clear spacing = Shear reinforcement design Check shear at critical section in accordance with BS 8110 Part 1 clause 3. Ignored stump weight Ultimate.25 . 0. Vz = = 120 mm mm2 Provide 6 T 25 = As prov = 2946 M b * dEF 2 * fCu 0.4( PPC *s/2) = = + ( PSOIL * s/2 ) + 436.99 dEF .5 + ( 0.95 > dEF = 0.9 Shear Force.9 )1/2] 0. vz V / (Lfz * dEF) = 0.010 dEF [ 0.78 For critical section z-z = 0.k/0.PSOIL PPC S/2 + e PTU PTU Take Momen about centreline of pilecap and allow 75mm of error in plan p osition of piles.11.95 dEF M / (0.4 Lfz 1.4 * PCU = = N/mm2 560 kN Shear at critical section. M 1.

4 * PCU = = N/mm2 = 6160 For critical section x-x = 13.79 100 As 1/3 400 1/4 < 3 < 1 OK 1 = Design concrete shear stress vc.Lfz 1.4 Shear Force. the design shear stress a t the perimeter of the concentrated load Design stress * 560 * 1000 2 * 13949.4. vc can be increased to vc(2d/av). enhancement factor * vc / av 15.2 pile diameter Distance av iameter 2 dEF = vc. thus no reinforcement is required.5. the desig n concrete shear stress.4.20 N/mm2 Design concrete shear stress. vc 100 As bd 400 d fCU 30 vc fCU 1/3 1.50 2 0. Vx = = kN Shear at critical section. Form clause 3.59 N/mm2 Shear enhancement: cl 3.8(fcu)1/2 6.11.8 Within a distance of 2d from a support or a concentrated load. 0.78 N/mm2.59 Check 0.25 bd d 30 = = = = 0.5. vz V / (Lfz * dEF) = 0. The distance av is measured fr om support or concentrated load to the section being design plus 0. to check punching shear.41 0.3 = 11 .77 N/mm2 = 60 = mm y + 20% pile d = This value is greater than v = 0.

8(fCU)1/2 N/mm2 or 5.35 1. ( 0.35 ) = Ultimate Bending Moment.20 Value less than 0.30 ) = b = = 1.* 775 = 0.46 + 1.4 * ( 0.225 = * Ultimate Shear Force.53 M 0.00 Design of abutment curtain wall Coefficient of active pressure 0.07 + 0.46 0.4 kN = kNm/m * .2025 * h2 Ka = Pa = = 0.25 Ma 0.52 1000 = 1.46 0.07 = Ka = * = 39 1/2 0.15 = = * Live Load Q 0.0 * 0.50 0.25 ( for angle of friction. à 0 ) * * Active earth pressure Ka * γ 18 * 0.35 0. PASS 6. 1.30 V 2.25 * * h ( Existing earth on top) 12.45 Ps * = = Ma 0.28 N/mm2 = N/mm2 whichever is lower.

53 N/mm2 > v ( OK ) .15 547. 0.25 = bd d 30 = = = = 0.095890411 V b* 0.28 1.10 2 0.5 1005 Provide 5 mm2 T 16 = As prov (Asprov > As OK) Clear spacing = Shear check Ñ = = Design concrete shear stress.d 10 = = 450 365 0.004 - 75 M b* To provide nominal steel 100 b* = d2 N/mm2 *As d As = = = 0.79 100 As 1/3 400 1/4 < 3 > 1 OK 1. vc 100 As bd 400 d fCU 30 vc fCU 1/3 1.007 d N/mm2 193 mm Design concrete shear stress vc.