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**Concavity and the Second Derivative Test
**

You are learning that calculus is a valuable tool. One of the most important applications of diﬀerential calculus is to ﬁnd extreme function values. The calculus methods for ﬁnding the maximum and minimum values of a function are the basic tools of optimization theory, a very active branch of mathematical research applied to nearly all ﬁelds of practical endeavor. Although modern optimization theory is considerably more advanced, its methods and fundamental ideas clearly show their historical relationship to the calculus. In this tutorial you will review how the second derivative of a function is related to the shape of its graph and how that information can be used to classify relative extreme values.

Some First Derivative Facts If you have not already done so, you should review the tutorial on the First Derivative. Click here to see a picture that summarizes the First Derivative Test.

Concavity The Second Derivative Test provides a means of classifying relative extreme values by using the sign of the second derivative at the critical number. To appreciate this test, it is ﬁrst necessary to understand the concept of concavity. The graph of a function f is concave upward at the point (c, f (c)) if f (c) exists and if for all x in some open interval containing c, the point (x, f (x)) on the graph of f lies above the corresponding point on the graph of the tangent line to f at c. This is expressed by the inequality f (x) > [f (c) + f (c)(x − c)] for all x in some open interval containing c. Imagine holding a ruler along the tangent line through the point (c, f (c)): if the ruler supports the graph of f near (c, f (c)), then the graph of the function is concave upward. The graph of a function f is concave downward at the point (c, f (c)) if f (c) exists and if for all x in some open interval containing c, the point (x, f (x)) on the graph of f lies below the corresponding point on the graph of the tangent line to f at c. This is expressed by the inequality f (x) < [f (c) + f (c)(x − c)] for all x in some open interval containing c. In this situation the graph of f supports the ruler . This is pictured below:

Inﬂection Points Notice in the example above. Thus. f (x) > 0 if x > 1 and f (x) < 0 if x < 1. The following result connects the concept of inﬂection points to the derivatives properties of the function: .Concavity and the Second Derivative The important result that relates the concavity of the graph of a function to its derivatives is the following one: Concavity Theorem: If the function f is twice diﬀerentiable at x = c. Let’s determine where the graph of f is concave up and where it is concave down. Points on the graph of f where the concavity changes from up-to-down or down-to-up are called inﬂection points of the graph. we use the result given above and ﬁrst determine that f (x) = 6(x − 1). By the Concavity Theorem. the graph of f is concave up for x > 1 and concave down for x < 1. f (c)) if f (c) > 0 and concave downward if f (c) < 0. then the graph of f is concave upward at (c. Since f is twice-diﬀerentiable for all x. Example Suppose f (x) = x3 − 3x2 + x − 2. that the concavity of the graph of f changes sign at x = 1.

The Second Derivative Test: Suppose that c is a critical point at which f (c) = 0. the test is not informative. We ﬁnd that f (x) = 3x2 − 6x + 1. If f (c) exists at the inﬂection point. then f (c) = 0. the Inflection Point Theorem veriﬁes that the graph of f has an inﬂection point at x = 1. √ Notice that c1 < 1 and that f (c) < 0. Thus f has a relative maximum at x = 3 − 6. the Second Derivative Test informs us that f has a relative ) minumum at x = 3 + 6. that f (x) exists in a neighborhood of c. where f (x) = x3 − 3x2 + x − 2. then the point (c.Inflection Point Theorem: If f (c) exists and f (c) changes sign at x = c. f (c)) is an inﬂection point of the graph of f . . Example Let’s ﬁnd and classify the extreme values for the function f with values f (x) = x3 − 3x2 + x − 2 that was introduced above. extreme values. and so there are two critical numbers where f (c) = 0: √ √ c1 = 3 − 6 and c2 = 3 + 6. Then f has a relative maximum value at c if f (c) < 0 and a relative minimum value at c if f (c) > 0. The Second Derivative Test The Second Derivative Test relates the concepts of critical points. and that f (c) exists. since f (1) = 0. and concavity to give a very useful tool for determining whether a critical point on the graph of a function is a relative minimum or maximum. If f (c) = 0. If we return to our example. Since c2 > 1 and f (c2√ > 0.

] [I need to review more. then the graph of f is concave upward at (c. [I’m ready to take the quiz. and that f (c) exists. the test is not informative. that f (x) exists in a neighborhood of c. • The Second Derivative Test: Suppose that c is a critical point at which f (c) = 0.] [Take me back to the Tutorial Page] . Then f has a relative maximum value at c if f (c) < 0 and a relative minimum value at c if f (c) > 0. f (c)) if f (c) > 0 and concave downward if f (c) < 0. If f (c) = 0.Key Concepts • Concavity Theorem: If the function f is twice diﬀerentiable at x = c.

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