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PUNJAB AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY Synopsis of Thesis Problem of Post-Graduate Student: Ph.D.



SONU Zoology Dr. (Mrs.) G.K. Sehgal

Admission No. Minor Subject

: :

L-2010-BS-72-D Biochemistry

Major Subject : Major Advisor :

1. Title of the research problem EFFECTS OF SOME ALTERNATIVE DIETARY LIPID SOURCES ON FATTY ACID PROFILES AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF COMMON CARP, Cyprinus carpio (Linn.). 2. Introduction Demand for fish is constantly increasing as humans are becoming more and more health conscious. They prefer to consume nutritious food with added health benefits. Fishes possess both these qualities and are, therefore, considered as health or functional food. Fishes are the best source of longchain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly the n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. The n-3 PUFAs are known to be cardio-protective (Sanderson et al, 2002), anti-atherosclerotic (Givens et al, 2006), antithrombic (Calder, 2004) and anti-arrythmatic (Givens et al, 2006). Besides, they have high protein content (15-25%), which is required for maintenance and growth of human body. Fishes are rich in vitamins A, D, E and K and minerals (calcium, phosphorus and iron). Compared to beef, mutton and chicken, fish meat is more digestible as it contains much less connective tissue (Calder, 2004). The increased demand of fish can be met from aquaculture as the capture fisheries is towards decline. World capture fisheries decreased from 92.4 million metric tonnes (mmt) in 2004 to 90 mmt in 2009. The world aquaculture production, on the other hand, markedly increased from 15.3 mmt in 2004 to 21 mmt in 2009 (FAO, 2010). Therefore, aquaculture, with per capita supply increasing from 0.7 kg in 1970 to 7.8 kg in 2008, with an average annual growth rate of 6.6% (FAO, 2010), is the only hope. However, aquaculture largely depends upon capture fisheries for fish meal and fish oil used in aquafeeds. Fish oil has a high level of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA), particularly, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have high health value for fish and human beings. Since aquaculture is expanding and capture fisheries is contracting, the supply of fish meal and fish oil is becoming limited and hence more expensive. It has created pressure on the aquafeed manufacturers to 1

replace these ingredients with some sustainable alternatives (Pickova & Morkore, 2007). Vegetable oils have potential to replace substantial amount of fish meal/fish oil in the diets of many fish species without affecting their growth and feed efficiency. However, their effect on nutritional value of fish in terms of fatty acid profiles and proximate composition of flesh is largely unknown, although oils derived from unicellular algae, pelagic organisms or benthic invertebrates containing high amounts of n-3 HUFA have been identified and tested in aquafeeds (Hertrampf & Piedad-Pascual 2000, Carter et al, 2003 and Olsen et al, 2004). Nevertheless, their prices are still too high to be commonly used in aquafeeds (Turchini et al, 2009). Thus, it is important to study the impact of vegetable oils and animal fats on the growth performance and, more importantly, on the fatty acid and proximate compositions of the edible part of the fish fed these oils/fats. Realizing the need for the use of vegetable oils and/or animal fats as fish feed ingredients, some work in this direction has been done quite recently. The fish species which have been studied include rainbow trout (Brown et al 2010, Guler and Yildiz 2011 and Trushenski et al, 2011a), cobia (Trushenski et al, 2011c), pike perch (Kowalska et al, 2011), Oncorhynchus mykiss (Twibell et al 2011), Atlantic salmon (Menoyo et al 2005), Huso huso (Hosseini et al 2010), Litopenaeus vannamei (Gonzalez-Felix et al 2010). No such study has been done on carps, which are important freshwater food fishes forming about 86% of the Asian aquaculture, which contributes more than 85% to world fish production. The present study is therefore, proposed to identify a vegetable oil and/or animal fat which is capable of completely or partially replacing fish meal/fish oil without compromising with nutritional quality and fatty acid composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linn.), an important freshwater food fish. Knowledge gaps There is scanty information on the alternative lipid sources including vegetable oils/animal fats which can replace fish meal/fish oil from aquafeeds. This information is completely lacking with respect to carps, which are one of the important freshwater food fishes cultured in Asia, India and Punjab. Objective To identify alternative lipid source(s) for complete/partial replacement of fish meal/fish oil from the feed of common carp without compromising with the growth performance, and nutritional quality (fatty acid profiles and proximate composition) of the fish.


Results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA were essential and a value of at least 0. Over the entire production cycle. Groups of fish were fed diets 3 . Berge et al (2004) examined effects of different levels of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth and body composition of 0. HUFA synthesis in hepatocytes and enterocytes was significantly higher in fish fed VO. 4. The changes in fatty acid metabolism induced by high dietary oil and VO replacement contributed to altered flesh lipid content and fatty acid compositions. with peak activities in winter and low in summer and at seawater transfer. Expected new knowledge New knowledge on whether or not vegetable oils and/or animal fat can completely/partially replace fish meal/fish oil from carp feed. poultry fat—PF. while total cholesterol was not affected. This study showed that alternative lipid sources could be used effectively for oil coating extruded diets for brown trout. whereas βoxidation was unaltered by either of the dietary oil content or type. The fatty acid composition of muscle largely reflected that of the diets.3. mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capabilities and sensory characteristics in brown trout (Salmo trutta L. The best growth was observed in fish fed the C diet whereas the PL diet fed fish had the best feed utilization. tissue chemical composition. The PG production in seawater was lower in fish fed the high-oil diets with the lowest PG production generally observed in fish fed high VO. The twin problems of fish oil (FO) replacement with vegetable oil (VO) and high energy diets in salmon throughout the entire production cycle was investigated Tocher et al (2003). without affecting its growth performance and nutritional quality (fatty acid profiles and proximate composition). Similarly. interrupted by a large peak in activity at seawater transfer. The contents of n-3 HUFA in fish linearly increased with increasing dietary squid liver oil.) over 70 days at 14. Turchini et al (2003) evaluated the effects of alternative dietary lipid sources (fish oil as control—C. body composition and blood chemistry of juvenile starry flounder was investigated by Lee et al (2003). Gill cell prostaglandin (PG) production showed a possible seasonal trend. shall be generated. The effects of dietary lipid source and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) level on growth.9% of n-3 HUFA in the diet could be recommended for optimum growth and efficient feed utilization of juvenile starry flounder. HUFA synthesis in hepatocytes showed a decreasing trend with age. Fatty acid compositions of liver. canola oil—CO.4 °C. and oleine oil—OO) on performance. pork lard—PL.6±0. intestinal tissue and gill were altered by the diets with increased proportions of C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased proportions of n-3 HUFA in fish fed VO compared to those fed FO.7 g Atlantic salmon fry. Review of literature Studies on the use of alternative dietary lipid source and their efficiency to replace fish meal/fish oil from aquafeeds have been conducted quite recently on non carp species.

5 mg g−1lipid). Proportion of unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 fatty acids increased as feeding duration increased from 0 to 9 week. The deposition ratio (RD) values of 14:0. The fatty acid composition was strongly affected by diet. Muscle -tocopherol of fish fed the HVE diet continuously increased through 9 weeks of feeding.3% and 0.based diets supplemented with either nothing (FO). None of the 3-thia FA diets affected lipid content of the salmon muscle. while the fillet of Murray cod fed the LO diet was high in α-linolenic acid (LnA) (107.1±6. The liver index was significantly higher and the total liver fat content was lower in the TTA group than in the FO group. and 9 weeks was conducted by Jittinandana et al (2006). Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were lower in frozen-refrigerated fillets produced from fish fed the HVE diet.2±10. 1. Dietary CLA also affected the deposition of other fatty acids. while those of 16:1 and 18:1 fatty acids decreased. in response to increasing levels of CLA in the diets. An experiment in which fillets of trout fed a diet containing either 200 (low vitamin E [LVE] diet) or 5000 (high vitamin E [HVE] diet) mg a-tocopheryl acetate/kg for 0.5%. Suitability of two plant based lipid sources. as alternatives to fish oil for juvenile Murray cod was determined by Francis et al (2006).4% to 0.0% CLA for a period of 12 weeks. especially that of 22:6n-3. Dietary CLA caused a significant increase in the RD values of total n-3 fatty acids. 0. The results showed that dietary CLA may alter fatty acid metabolism and bone mineralization. Kleveland et al (2006) investigated effects of in vivo administration of 3-thia fatty acids (FAs) on lipid metabolism in muscle and liver of Atlantic salmon.6% of the 3-thia FAs dodecylthioacetic acid (DTA) and tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) respectively. CLA did not have a significant effect on the growth rate or on the proximate composition of salmon fry.9%). These fillets were evaluated fresh and after 6 months of frozen storage. The fatty acid composition of Murray cod fillet was reflective of the dietary lipid source. and increased muscle redness and fat were observed in frozen-refrigerated fillets compared with fresh fillets. Frozen fillets were thawed and stored for 3 days at 1 °C before analyses. CLA also caused a higher concentration of phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca).0% or 2. even though there was a trend towards higher final weight in the fish fed the 1% CLA diet. or 0.containing 0%. This suggested that FO can be replaced by up to 100% with canola oil and by up to 50% with linseed oil in Murray cod diets with no significant effect on growth. canola oil (CO) and linseed oil (LO).7 mg g lipid−1). Fish fed the CO diet had high concentrations of oleic acid (OlA) (192. Reduced muscle -tocopherol and moisture. This suggests that CLA causes a reduction in D-9 desaturase activity. 4. 16:0 and 18:0 fatty acids increased. and a lower P/Ca ratio in the fish. Arachidonic acid (ArA) and DHA. The fish were fed fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) . CLA was deposited in the fish. Fillet of fish fed the FO had highest EPA. There were no major differences 4 . Both DTA and TTA were incorporated into the lipid fraction of muscle and liver (0.

However. body composition and liver morphology of common carp. 20%) on growth performance and fatty acid (FA) composition in fillet and liver was conducted by Xue et al (2006). Growth performance of fish fed diet containing 8. In addition. or liver and flesh lipid contents in either population. Yilmaz and Genc (2006) conducted 60 days feeding trial to determine the effect of increasing alternative dietary lipid [soyacid oil (SAO) and yellow grease (YG)] levels on growth performance. feed intake and hepatosomatic index (HSI) of fish fed the experimental diets were not significantly different. 18:3n−3 (Alpha-Linolenic Acid). poultry fat. liver 5 . whereas 20:4n−6 (Arachidonic Acid) was only significantly reduced in flesh. 60%. Seven isonitrogenous practical diets were formulated to contain 4. 20%. beef tallow. daily feed intake. protein and. energy consumption.02 g) to study the effects of replacement of fish oil with six alternative lipid sources: pork lard.5. Dietary Echium oil (EO) had no detrimental effect on growth performance and feed the total FA composition of liver and muscle between the dietary groups. 18:4n−3 (Stearidonic Acid). However. No improvement was found in growth parameter in SAO-fed groups. Significant differences in carcass moisture and lipid contents of carcass and liver were observed among fish with different dietary treatments. corn oil. The fatty acid composition of fish fillets and livers reflected the dietary FA composition. 18:3n−6 (Gamma-Linolenic Acid). with HUFA synthesis only stimulated by EO in the piscivorous Rannoch morphotype. which showed lower activities in fish fed FO.5.5% YG showed the best weight gain and was similar to the control group in respect to feed conversion. Weight gain (WG). CO.) was examined by Tocher et al (2006). Effect of diets enriched with Δ6 desaturated fatty acids (18:3n−6 and 18:4n−3). feed conversion ratio (FCR). piscivorous Rannoch charr morphotype. except for a small increase of n-3 PUFAs in liver of the DTA group. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) in fish fed the PF diet was significantly lower than in those fed SO and CO diets. 13% YG and the control diet without supplementation with dietary oil. PF. mortalities. In fish fed FO.87±0. fish oil. BT. on growth. SO. specific growth rate (SGR). the percentages of 20:5n−3 (Eicosapentanoic Acid) and 22:6n−3 (Docosahexanoic Acid) were reduced by EO both in liver and flesh in both strains. HUFA synthesis from both [1-14C] 18:3n−3 and [1-14C] 20:5n−3 (EPA) was significantly higher in the planktonivorous Coulin charr compared to the demersal. 8. 18% SAO and 4. 13. soybean oil. PL. Similarly. 8. but not in Coulin charr. HUFA synthesis was increased by EO in Rannoch charr. and a mixed-fat (MF: tallow. soy oil. 20:3n−6 (Dihomo-Gamma-Linolenic Acid) and 20:4n−3 (Arachidonic Acid) in total lipid in both liver and flesh were increased by dietary EO in both populations. The proportions of 18:2n−6 (Linoleic Acid). Dietary EO had differential effects in the two populations of charr. A Ten-week experiment on Japanese sea bass (5. fatty acid composition and HUFA synthesis in two populations of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.

either homogenised or non-homogenised were tested in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) microdiets. or a partial substitution of fish oil by vegetable oil. The results confirmed that the fatty acid profile of the cuttlefish digestive gland clearly reflects the profile of its recent diet. An increased proportion of 18:2n-6 (Linoleic Acid) and 18:3n-3 (Lenolenic Acid) in the diet of Eurasian perch. tissue fatty acid composition and hepatic ultrastructure of Eurasian perch. the quantity of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 in the SLO (Cod liver oil/Safflower oil/Linseed oil) diet (0. The effects of dietary canola oil (CO) level on growth. 20:1ω9 (Oleic Acid). On the otherhand. Ganuza et al (2008) produced two single cell heterotrophs as alternative sources of DHA to fisheries-derived oils. 18:1ω9 (Oleic Acid).64 LnA/LAratio) seems to be more suitable than in the SO diet (0. 6 . 22:4ω6 (Arachidonic Acid) and 22:5 ω3 DPA3 (Docasapentanoic Acid) than those fed on crustaceans. 18:2ω6. does not appear to compromise growth performance of juvenile perch. 20:5 ω3 EPA (Eicosapentanoic Acid) and 20:2ω6 (Eicosadienoic Acid) than those fed on fish. may cause an apparent deficiency in 18:3n-3. CO was found to be an excellent and cost-effective source of supplemental dietary lipid for culture of juvenile fall chinook salmon during freshwater residency. the fatty acid profile of the cuttlefish digestive gland reflected that of the new diet within 14 days. Feeding experiment using crustacean and fish as prey for the European cuttlefish Sepia offcinalis to evaluate the effect of prey fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of this marine predator was conducted by Fluckiger et al (2008). fatty acid composition and osmoregulatory ability of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was examined by Grant et al (2008). 22:5 ω6 DPA6 (Docasapentanoic Acid). underlying the effect of Linoleic Acid (LA) and Lenolenic Acid (LnA) levels. Schizochytrium G13/2S or Crypthecodinium cohnii biomasses. 18:1 7 (CisVaccenic acid). The results indicated that common carp did not efficiently utilize SAO and YG as alternative dietary lipid source.lipoid degeneration (steatosis) was observed in fish fed with the highest dietary lipid content. 20:4 ω6 (Arachidonic Acid). Blanchard et al (2008) evaluated the effect of different n-3 to n-6 ratios. Cuttlefish fed a crustacean diet for 29 days prior to the switch in diet were comparatively higher in 17:1ω8 (Haptodecanoic Acid). Whole body fatty acid compositions were influenced strongly by the dietary fatty acid compositions. Following a change in diet. The results showed the potential of single cell heterotrophs as alternative DHA sources for fish oil in microdiets for gilthead seabream but also point out the necessity of EPA sources to completely replace fisheries-derived oils. Consequently. on growth performance. Cuttlefish fed a fish diet for 29 days prior to the switch in diet were comparatively higher in 16:0 (Palmitic Acid).03 LnA/LA ratio) to promote Arachidonic Acid (ArA) biosynthesis. Analyses of tissue FA profiles indicated that a minimum level of EPA and DHA has to be incorporated into the diets to comply with the EFA requirement of this species and that the overabundance of 18:2n-6 observed in SO (Cod liver oil/Safflower oil) fed fish.

However. SDA) in diets. EPA and ArA (Arachidonic Acid) in all tissues. the increased HUFA biosynthesis activities were unable to compensate for the inferior hepatic ArA. relatively lower concentrations of ArA and EPA were also obtained with diet LO. ovary and egg reflected profiles of the corresponding dietary treatment. and fatty acid profile was determined by Wassef et al (2009). Fatty acid (FA) profiles of tail muscle from shrimp fed the various lipid sources in general 7 . a source of Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) or Fish oil (FO) that provides (n-3) LC-PUFA. Miller et al (2008) conducted an experiment in which echium oil (EO) was fed to seawater Atlantic salmon for 12 weeks and compared with fish fed a diet containing canola oil (CO). body composition. The impact of dietary replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils (VO) on gilthead seabream (Sparusaurata)’s growth performance. Similarly. The study showed that female zebrafish reproduction benefits from the supply of dietary HUFA during reproductive stages. Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (1.55 g) were stocked into 650 L circular tanks at 26 shrimp tank−1 and fed 13 experimental diets over a 58-day growth trial. dietary precursors affected the FA concentrations of direct biosynthetic products in all tissues. The increased gene expression in the EO fed fish was reflected by an increased concentration of EPA in the liver compared with the CO fed fish. which was supported by increased expression of hepatic desaturase and elongase mRNAs. There was no significant difference in EPA and ArA levels in eggs. muscle. Gonzalez-Felix et al (2010) evaluated replacement of marine fish oil (MFO) with alternative oils in a plant based diet. Gene expression of liver Fatty Acid (FA) elongase and Fatty Acid Desaturase 5 (FAD5) was upregulated in EO fed fish compared with FO fish. Consumption of VO for 20 weeks did not significantly alter the major nutrient composition of fish. The results showed no statistically significant differences in final mean weight. the high concentrations of LC-PUFA (n-3) found in seawater Atlantic salmon fed diets rich in FO were not attained via biosynthesis from precursors (ALA or Stearidonic acid. as well as elevated levels of Lenoleic acid (LA) and lenolenic acid (LNA) compared with fish fed the FO were noticed. Liver fatty acid profile implied increasing biosynthesis activities during feeding of low dietary HUFA levels. survival or FCR values of shrimp fed various diets. despite possessing ability to increase transcription of desaturase and elongase in various tissues during low dietary HUFA intake. Results also showed an increasing trend of ovarian desaturase and elongase gene expression during low dietary HUFA levels. nutritient utilization. In muscle and ovary tissues. which imply accumulation of EPA and ARA in eggs. However. growth. but the muscle fatty acid profile was significantly altered compared to the reference fish oil (FO) diet fed fish. Increasing levels of dietary linseed oil lowered deposition of DHA. EPA and DHA levels of fish fed diet Linseed oil (LO). Comparatively reduced levels of EPA and DHA. Results showed that fatty acid profiles of liver.Effect of different levels of dietary HUFAs on tissue fatty acid profiles and reproductive performance in female zebrafish was studied by Jaya-Ram et al (2008). Furthermore.

Hosseini et al (2010) investigated effect of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E) and oil sources on fish flesh quality characteristics of Huso huso during frozen storage. three diets with different lipid sources. both LA and ALA contents were significantly higher in pmCOR compared to amCOR and CT. fish oil (FO). 2010). However. Whole-body moisture significantly decreased and lipid increased when dietary lipid levels were increased to 10 or 14%. with increasing fish oil levels. Lim et al (2010) determined the effect of increasing dietary levels of fish oil on vitamin E requirement and their effect on growth performance. and feed efficiency ratio were not affected by dietary levels of fish oil. am canola oil ration (amCOR). Fillet fatty acid profile was modified by associated feeding schedules and was generally reflective of dietary fatty acid profile. continuously fed Mix). Fish received either the CO diet in the am or pm feeds and those received the FO diet at the opposite time. Over a period of 12 weeks. control treatment (CT.conformed to the lipids of the feed. feed intake. fish oil (FO) or a 50/50 blend of the two oils (Mix). Similarly. which also influenced the FA composition during frozen storage. but MUFAs and n-6 decreased and increased. No significant increases in n−3 LCPUFA deposition were observed. with 19. whereas MUFAs decreased with increasing dietary levels of fish oil. 8 . and hence identified possible innovative feeding strategies towards more efficient use of dietary fish oil.07 mg g−1 wet tissue) and DHA (2. The results suggested existence of cyclical circadian patterns in fatty acid deposition in rainbow trout (Brown et al. pm canola oil ration (pmCOR). vitamin E.81 mg of linolenic acid per gram of diet had the highest amount of this FA in shrimp tail muscle (5. were fed to H. continuously fed FO). were alternated daily and fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchusmykiss).15. Practical-type diets containing 0 or 250 mg vitamin E kg−1 with three lipid sources.61 mg g−1 wet tissue) and a relatively high n3/n-6 ratio of 1. Fatty acid composition of whole body and liver reflected that of dietary lipid but was not influenced by dietary levels of vitamin E. Six treatments were administered to fish. Replacement of FO by SO and CO in diets for H. Lipid content of liver was not influenced by dietary levels of fish oil and vitamin E or their interaction. canola oil (CO). Dietary fatty acid deposition was affected by the time of feeding. or their interaction. A significant increase in growth and feed consumption was noted in the pmCOS treatment. Dietary vitamin E had a significant effect on muscle vitamin E content and lipid oxidation during storage. huso significantly altered the fatty acid (FA) profile. soybean oil (SO) and canola oil (CO). Weight gain.04 mg g−1 wet tissue) among the dietary treatments. liver vitamin E status. am canola oil satiation (amCOS) and pm canola oil satiation (pmCOS). Shrimp fed diet 11. practically the lowest content of EPA (4. huso for 120 days. Whole-body saturates increased. respectively. Liver saturates were not affected by fish oil levels. and tissue proximate and fatty acid compositions of channel catfish. but at the same time. reference treatment (REF. Fillet samples were analysed fresh or after storage at −18 ± 1 °C for 12 months. Dietary vitamin E levels had no effect on body proximate composition.

Results showed that an increased dietary ALA/LA ratio did not impair growth performance or the tissue lipid concentration of the fish. The highest level of EPA and DHA concentrations were recorded in fish fed the FO diet and the lowest in those fed 100% cottonseed oil diet. the fillets of fish fed higher ALA/LA ratios (hence receiving more dietary ALA) recorded significantly higher concentrations of EPA and DHA. the n-3 PUFA levels decreased with increasing cottonseed oil levels in the diets. The dietary ALA/LA ratio had significant impact on the final fatty acid make-up and nutritional quality of the fish fillet. High dietary LA content. 18:1n-7 (cis-Vaccenic Acid). The amounts of 15:0 (Pentadecanoic Acid). specific growth rate. The lipid source influenced weight gain. The n-6 PUFA concentration increased with increasing cottonseed oil levels in the diets. In particular. longifilis produced fillets with low concentrations of long chain n-3 PUFA. Only 10% of the total EPA and DHA provided during the finishing period via the fish oil-based diet was retained and deposited into the fish fillet. fatty acid (FA) composition and histology of Heterobranchus longifilis. 18:2n-6 (Linoleic Acid) and 22:5n-3 (DPA) significantly increased. The results of this study show that alternative lipid sources could be used in H. but MUFA and PUFA did not change with increasing dietary SSM. Cyprinus carpio. 17:0 (Haptodecanoic Acid). The effect of different dietary Alfa Linolenic Acid (ALA) to Linoleic Acid (LA) ratios. inclusion of PKO or SBO in the diet of H. however. sheabutter oil (SBO) and sunflower oil (SFO)] as the dietary lipid sources on the growth performance. 18:3n-3 (Linolenic Acid) and 20:1 n-9 (Eicosenoic Acid) significantly decreased with increasing dietary SSM. but liver stored much higher levels of these fatty acids. nutrient digestibility. In contrast. Fillet fatty acid composition reflected dietary fatty acid composition. epatosomatic index and nutrient digestibility. but total n-3 PUFA were not 9 . while employing 100% fish oil deprived diets. the effects of dietary fish oil replacement by cottonseed oil on growth performance and fatty acid composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was investigated by Guler and Yildiz (2011). Total n-6 PUFA increased with increasing dietary SSM.Total n-3 and n-3 HUFA in both the tissues increased with increasing fish oil levels in diets. two terrestrial animal fats. but 16:0 (Palmitic Acid). Fatty acid analysis showed that saturated fatty acids in fish muscle significantly decreased. However. longifilis diets. Babalola et al (2011) investigated the influence of fish oil (FO). was shown to have negative impacts on the efficiency of a finishing strategy. on growth performance and flesh fatty acid composition of Murray cod was evaluated by Senadheera et al (2010). 18:1n-9 (oleic Acid). pig lard (PL) and poultry fat (PF) and three vegetable oils [palm kernel oil (PKO). Fish previously fed high LA diets deposited significantly lower amounts of these fatty acids in comparison to the fish previously fed a diet rich in ALA. The deposition of EPA and DHA during the finishing period was shown to be affected by previous feeding history. feed conversion ratio. And Gumus (2011) examined the effect of replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets with sand smelt meal (SSM) on fatty acid composition of carp fry. Moreover.

palm oil (PALM). After 7 weeks. or LO-ALA-CAN did not impair growth efficiency but did alter the fillet FA profile. despite an approximate 50% reduction in dietary LC-PUFA intake. including the control diet. The results indicated that feeds containing a blend of FO and novel soy. Two saturated fatty acids (SFA)-enriched lipids derived from the processing of cottonseed (SFA-COT) or soybean (SFA-SBO) was also evaluated as 50% FO substitutes. In pools. rich in medium-chain [MC] PUFAs). PALM. COCONUT. CO feed exclusively. Administering the FO and CO feeds exclusively or in alternation did not significantly affect production performance. growth performance was largely unaffected by dietary lipid source. LOALA-SBO. Subsequent bacterial challenges with Flavobacterium columnare were conducted separately for fish in pools that received the 4% PF and 10% PF diets. respectively. 10 . hydrogenated soybean oil (HYD-SBO). Sunshine bass were fed practical feeds (~45% protein.or cottonseed-derived lipids yielded equivalent growth performance and fillet LC-PUFA content in rainbow trout. Fillet FA profile changed little for fish that received the exclusive FO and CO regimens and essentially became slightly more FO-like and CO-like. SFA-SBO. weight gain was higher in goldfish that received the 10% PF diets or the 4% PF diet with prebiotic than in fish that were fed the 4% PF diet without prebiotic. or low-18:3(n-3) canola oil (LO-ALA-CAN). The use of STD-SBO. Results indicated that the dairy–yeast prebiotic has some potential to protect stressed goldfish against F.changed in muscle of fish fed the experimental diets. Fillet LC-PUFA and MC-PUFA levels were comparable in the alternating FO-to-CO and CO-to-FO groups at harvest. Preliminary feeding trials with goldfish Carassius auratus by using four practical diets with 4% or 10% supplemental poultry fat (PF) and 0% or 2% dairy–yeast prebiotic was conducted by Lochmann et al (2011). Lipid and dry matter were higher in goldfish that were given 10% PF diets than in fish that were given 4% PF diets. or switching from one feed to the other halfway through the trial (from CO to FO or from FO to CO). columnare infection. Whether the sequence of dietary LC-PUFA provision affected tissue composition of sunshine bass and whether profile change was similar after a switch to or from LC-PUFA-rich feed was investigated by Trushenski et al (2011b). Fillet levels of long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) among fish that received the HYD-SBO. The ratio of n-3 to n-6 was not affected significantly in muscle of fish fed the experimental diets containing different proportions of SSM. standard soybean oil (STD-SBO). Trushenski et al (2011a) also conducted an experiment in which rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were reared on feeds containing FO or a 50:50 blend of FO and coconut oil (COCONUT). and SFA-COT feeds were equivalent to levels in fish that received the FO feed. Feeding was done according to four regimens: FO feed exclusively. ~14% lipid) containing FO (rich in LC-PUFAs) or corn oil (CO. low-18:3(n-3) (alpha-linolenic acid) soybean oil (LOALA-SBO).

16:1 (Palmitoleic Acid).patentoffice. and wheat gluten) and lipid (canola oil and flaxseed oil). and oxidative stability of Atlantic salmon and concluded that LO can totally replace FO in Atlantic salmon feed without affecting growth performance and muscle susceptibility to lipid oxidation. respectively. 18:2(n-6) (Linoleic Acid). promoting glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity and eicosatetraenoic acid accumulation. eggs and larvae of Acanthopagruslatus was investigated by Zakeri et al (2011). 20:5(n-3) Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA). blood meal. canola.getthepatent. Fatty acid metabolism was affected by LO.) meal and pollock (Pollachius virens) liver oil as the primary sources of protein and lipid. The experimental diet (terrestrial diet) contained only terrestrial sources of protein (poultry by-product meal. 20:1(Eicosenoic Acid) . Oncorhynchus mykiss was conducted by Twibell et al (2011). Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) concentrations on spawning performance and fatty acid composition of broodstock. Results indicated that flax oil has potential for use as an alternative to menhaden fish oil in diets for female white bass broodstock without altering phospholipid LC-PUFA content. Menoyo et al (2005) studied effect of dietary fish oil substitution with linseed oil (LO) on growth performance. Moronechrysops was determined by Lewis et al (2011) by evaluating growth performance and the fatty acid (FA) profiles of ovum lipid classes. www. fish-oil-free diet for use with first-feeding steelhead. The marine-based control diet (marine diet) contained sardine (Sardinops spp. a 100% LO replacement decreased concentrations of EPA and DHA in salmon muscle. tissue fatty acid profile. IPR search has been made on the following sites: 1. and 20:4(n-6) (Arachidonic Acid) relative to fish that were given the terrestrial diet.A 12-week feeding trial to evaluate a fish-meal-free. metabolism. 16:0 (Hexadecanoic Acid). 22:5(n-3) Docosapentanoic Acid (DPA). corn gluten. www.nic. Similarly.html 2. After 2 weeks of feeding. www. The results showed that the n-3 HUFA concentrations of lipids in broodstock diet had a considerable effect on the quality and fatty acids composition of egg and larvae in A. 18:3(n-6) (GLA).com 11 .in/ipr/patent/patents. 3. and 22:6(n-3) (DHA) fatty acids but significantly lower carcass concentrations of 18:1(cis-Vaccenic Acid) .freepatentsonline. The extent to which flax oil can replace fish oil in diets fed to female broodstock of white bass. Steelhead that received the marine diet exhibited significantly higher carcass concentrations of 14:0 (Tetradecanoic Acid). www. 18:3(n-3) (ALA).google. 4.

sunflower oil. iii. ii.three. Ludhiana. Methodology: Effects of each alternative dietary lipid source (soybean oil. Punjab Agricultural University. fatty acid profiles and proximate composition of common carp. Experiment 2 i. 50%. Punjab Agricultural University. Observations to be recorded: Observations will be made on fatty acid profiles of the alternative dietary lipid sources mentioned above following the method of AOAC (2000).Five dietary treatments (0%.5. Name of the experiment: Study on fatty acid profiles of some alternative dietary lipid sources. v. Methodology: Replicated samples of some alternative dietary lipid sources including 3 vegetable oils (soybean oil.). canola oil. 12 . 75% and 100% replacement of fish meal/fish oil with an alternative lipid source). poultry fat and mutton fat) will be studied as given below:a) Treatments. Ludhiana. b) Replications. College of Basic Sciences and Humanities. iv. Cyprinus carpio (Linn. 25%. Technical Programme Experiment 1 i. Statistical analysis: The data will be analyzed by ANOVA to determine the significance of differences in the fatty acid composition of the alternative lipid sources. ii. iii. Name of the experiment: Effects of some alternative dietary lipid sources on growth performance. College of Basic Sciences and Humanities.60 days. Location/place of work: Department of Zoology. canola oil and sunflower oil) and two animal fats (poultry fat and mutton fat) will be analyzed for their fatty acid profiles by Gas Chromatography. Location/place of work: Department of Zoology. c) Rearing period.

c) Fatty acid profiles and proximate composition of the fish fed different experimental diets on zero day and after 60 days of feeding by following the methods of AOAC (2000). (ii) Feeding fish with diet containing the animal fat (that resulted in best fatty acid profile) for the first 40 days and the one containing only fish meal/fish oil for the remaining 20 days of the 60 day feeding. ii. 13 . on weekly basis. Ludhiana.three. DO. Analysis will be done as per the standard methods of APHA (1991). Location/place of work: Department of Zoology. Statistical analysis: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique will be applied to determine the significance of differences in the water quality parameters. iii.iv. alkalinity. on weekly basis. Name of the experiment: Study on finishing effect of fish meal/fish oil on growth performance. fatty acid profiles and proximate composition of Cyprinus carpio (Linn. growth performance. v. (iii) Feeding fish with the diet containing only fish meal/fish oil for 60 days. Methodology: a) Treatments. b) Replications. ammonia and total hardness. b) Growth performance in terms of net weight gain. salinity. Punjab Agricultural University. Experiment 3 i. Observations to be recorded: The observations will be made on: a) Water quality in terms of pH.three (i) Feeding fish with diet containing the vegetable oil (that resulted in best fatty acid profile) for the first 40 days and the one containing only fish meal/fish oil for the remaining 20 days of the 60 day feeding.). College of Basic Sciences and Humanities. and fatty acid profiles of the fish fed different experimental feeds. temperature. average daily growth and specific growth rate.

Statistical analysis: As in experiment 2 14 .60 days. 2. Observations to be recorded: As in Experiment No. iv.c) Rearing period. v.

materials for research.6. rearing. standardization of methods for the estimation of water quality. 3 and samples analyses Data collection and compilation Statistical analysis Thesis writing Rough thesis submission Final thesis submission ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ JFMA…. proximate composition and handling. Collaboration with other departments: Nil 15 . 7. fatty acid profiles. D refers to name of the month. No. 2 and samples analyses Experiment No. Schedule Programme of Work Sr. feeding and sampling of common carp Experiment No. 1 and samples analyses Experiment No. Activity Semester II (2011) J A Semester III (2012) M J Semester IV (2012) J A S O N D Semester V (2013) J F M A M J Semester VI (2013) J A S O N D S O N D J F M A I II III IV V VI VII Collection of relevant literature Preparation and submission of synopsis Procurement of common carp.

Makombu JG and Kestemont P (2008) Influence of different dietary 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio on growth performance. Aquaculture 309: 152-158. Babalola TO. Blanchard G. Fatty acid composition and histology of African catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis) fingerlings. Bransden MP. Vega-Orellana O.8. González-Félix ML. Kliem KE and Gibbs RA (2006) The role of meat as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the human diet. fatty acid composition and hepatic ultrastructure in Eurasian perch. Aquaculture 277: 109–116. Maccullochella peelii peelii. Jackson GD. C. Francis DS. American Public Health Association. Marine Biotechnology 5: 480–492. Givens DI. pp 1193. Food and Nutrition Sciences 2. Morris TC.fao.08. Brown TD. Nichols PD (2003) Potential of Thraustochytrids to partially replace fish oil in Atlantic salmon feeds.2011). Jones PL and De Silva SS (2006) Effects of dietary oil source on growth and fillet fatty acid composition of Murray cod. Washington D. Benítez-Santana T. Ganga R and Izquierdo MS (2008) Crypthecodinium cohnii and Schizochytrium sp. Meat and meat products Ch. Davis DA. Apata DF. effects on fish performance. Digestibility. Meat Sci 74: 209-18. proximate composition. 11-21. 16 . Ganuza E. Daw A and Wotherspoon S (2008) An experimental study of the effect of diet on the fatty acid profiles of the European Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis). References AOAC (2000) Official Methods of Analysis (17th Edition). Maryland 20877-2417 USA. Turchini GM. Nichols P. Perca fluviatilis. Turchini DM (2010) Can Dietary Lipid Source Circadian Alternation Improve omega-3 Deposition in Rainbow Trout? Aquaculture 300: 148-155. APHA (1991) Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water (18th Edition). da Silva FSD. Carter CG. Omotosho JS and Adebayo MA (2011) Differential Effects of Dietary Lipids on Growth Performance. Samocha TM. Ruyter B and Asgard T (2004) Conjugated linoleic acid in diets for juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Perez-Velazquez M (2010) Replacement of Fish Oil in Plant Based Diets for Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquaculture 237: 365–80.pdf (Accessed on 17. Aquaculture 284: 144–50. Wilkenfeld JS. fatty acid and mineral content. 481 North Frederick Avenue Gaithersburg. Francis DS. as potential substitutes to fisheries-derived oils from seabream (Sparus aurata) microdiets. Calder PC (2004) n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases: evidence explained and mechanisms explored. Aquaculture 253: 547– 56. Mar Biol 154:363–372. FAO (2010) The State of World Fisheries & Aquaculture www. Berge GM. pp: 3. Virtue P. Atalah E. Clinical Sci 107: 1-11. Fluckiger M. Lewis TE.

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and Tissue Histology in First-Feeding Steelhead Fed a Fish-Meal. Yu Y and Pearl G (2006) Effects of six alternative lipid sources on growth and tissue fatty acid composition in Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Wu X. ________________________ Signature of the Student 19 .google.and Fish-Oil-Free Diet. Gannam AL. Ren Z. Luo L. Acanthopagrus latus. 73 (2): 230-38. Wassef EA. Saleh NE and El-Hady HAE (2009) Vegetable oil blend as alternative lipid resources in diets for gilthead seabream.patentoffice. Turkish J Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 6: 37-42. Aquaculture 260: 206–214. eggs and larvae in yellowfin sea bream. Ostrand SL.html Xue M. Marammazi JG and Yavari V (2011) Effects of dietary n-3 HUFA concentrations on spawning performance and fatty acids composition of www. Zakeri M. Aquacul tInt 17: 421–35. Sparus aurata. Carcass Fatty Acid Concentrations. Kochanian P. North American Journal of Aquaculture.nic. Gao P. Aquaculture 310: Poole JB (2011) Altered Growth Rates.Twibell RG.freepatentsonline. Holmes JSA. www. Yilmaz E and Genc E (2006) Effects of Alternative Dietary Lipid Sources (Soy-acid oil and Yellow grease) on Growth and Hepatic Lipidosis of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) Fingerling: A Preliminary Study.

Postgraduate Studies 20 . Javed Designation Associate Professor Department Signature Maths. Thind Plant Breeding and Genetics Food Technology ___________ Member Professor ___________ Nominee of Dean PGS Dr. S. K. Statistics ___________ and Physics _________________________ Head of the Department Memo No. Khera Professor Zoology ___________ Forwarded five copies to the Dean. (Mrs.) G. Name Consultant Statistician Dr. for approval by the Synopsis Approval Committee.K. (Mrs.S.) A.K. Sehgal Associate Professor Professor & Liaison Officer Senior Biochemist Zoology ___________ Member Zoology ___________ Member Dr.S.ADVISORY COMMITTEE Name Designation Department Signature Major Advisor Dr.S. Postgraduate Studies.: Dated: ______________________ Dean. Sehgal Dr. Atwal Dr. H. M.