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W.

;a mdvï yd
m%;i
s kaOdkh ms<n
s |
fldñifï ks¾foaY
(LLRC)

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

1

2

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

W.;a mdvï yd m%;sikaOdkh ms<sn|
fldñifï ks¾foaY (LLRC)

ixialrKh

kS;s{ tia' Ô' mqxÑfyajd

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

3i

W.;a mdvï yd m%;sikaOdkh ms<sn| fldñifï ks¾foaY
m%:u uqøKh ( wf.daia;= 2012
ISBN : 978-955-1655-87-7
mß.Kl ieleiau ( jdlHd rE ÿ'we' 011-2708377
uqøKh ( .af,daí ms%kaáka j¾laia ÿ'we' 011-2329739
m%ldYkh ( úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh hkq iajdëk foaYmd,k
mCIjdÈ;ajfhka f;dr ixúOdkhla jk w;r th
uQ,sl jYfhka rdcHlrKh iy .egqï ksrdlrKh yd
ine¢ .eg¨ flfrys ish wjOdkh fhduq lrhs' 1996
§ úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh msysg jkq ,enqfha uyck
m%;sm;a;Ska ms<sn|j jQ l;sldj; i|yd isú,a iudcfha
iÔú odhl;ajh w;HjYH jk njg yd th Yla;su;a
l< hq;=j mj;sk njg jk ±ä úYajdih fmr±ß fldg
f.k h' uyck m%;sm;a;Ska úfõpkd;aul úu¾Ykhg
Ndck lrk" úl,amhka y÷kd .kakd yd tajd jHdma;
lrk m¾fhaIK yd n,mEï lsÍfï jevigyka fjkqfjka
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh lemù isà'

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4

,smskh

( 24$2" 28 jeks mgqu."
msg; u,a mdr" fld<U 07'

ÿrl:k

( +94 (11) 2565304/5/6

*elaia

( +94 (11) 4714460

fjí wvúh

( www.cpalanka.org

Bfï,a

( info@cpalanka.org

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

fmrjok
2009 jif¾§ hqoaOh ksudùfuka miq
.;jQ ld,h;=< ksl=;ajQ fldñIka iNd
jd¾;d w;=ßka W.;a mdvï iy m%;sikaOdk
fldñifï (LLRC) jd¾;dj fnfyúkau
jeo.;a jQ jd¾;dj fõ' tfukau fuu
jd¾;dj 1990 .kkaj, ;reK fldñIka
iNd jd¾;dj iuÕ .;al, ksoyfika
miq j;auka YS% ,xldj ms<sn|j jQ jvd;au
jeo.;a ,shú,a,la jkafkahehs hful=g
;¾l l< yelsh' kuq;a wjdikdjlg
fuka fuu jd¾;dj md¾,sfïka;=j fj;
bÈßm;a fldg udi 7la .;jk fuu
ld,fha§j;a th rfÜ rdcH NdIdjka jk
isxy, yd fou< NdIdjkag ks, jYfhka
yd iïmQ¾Kfhka mßj¾;kh ù fkdue;'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh (CPA) úiska tu
jd¾;dfõ ks¾foaYhka we;=<;a jk 9 jk
mßÉfþoh isxy, iy fou< NdIdjkag
mßj¾;kh lrkq ,en we;' tfukau wms
fuu LLRC ks¾foaYhka ms<sn|j újrKhlao
iys; iq.u iy lshùug myiq fmd;a msxp
m%ldYhg m;a lrkafka uQ,sl jYfhkau
tys jeo.;alu i,lñka fukau LLRC
jd¾;dfõ wka;¾.;h ±k.ekSfï whs;shla
furg mqrjeishkayg we;ehs hk ±ä
úYajdifhka o hq;=jh' tfukau YS% ,dxflah
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

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5

rch úiska furg fukau úfoaYhka ys o
jQ ;u wdOdrlrejka fukau úfõplhka
ygo iaÒrf,iu lshd isáfha rcfha udkj
ysñlï jd¾;dj yd tys W,a,x>khka iy
wvqmdvq ms<sn|j lghq;= lsÍug rchg we;s
lemùu ms<sn|j jQ ish¨ iel ixld" m%Yak
yd úfõpkhka yg LLRC jd¾;dfjka
ms<s;=re ,efnk njhs'
LLRC jd¾;dj iy tys ks¾foaYhka
ls%hd;aul lsÍfï w;sYh m%uqLjQ jeo.;alu
ms<sn|j rgmqrd ixjdohla isÿùu iu.s
ikaOdk ls%hdoduhg fukau rfÜ tluq;=
njgo fnfyúka u jeo.;afõ' ks¾udKYS,s
yd ±kqj;aNdjfhka hq;=jQ ixjdohla rgmqrd
we;súh yels jkafka jd¾;dj yd tys
ks¾foaYhka ms<sn|j rfgys mqrjeishka
±kqj;aj isákafka kï muKls'
LLRC jd¾;dfõ kj fjks mßÉfþoh
b;d ir, NdIdfjka ixialrKh l<
kS;s{ tia' Ô' mqxÑfyajd uy;dg;a" fmdf;a
wdlD;sh ms<sn| woyia m< l< ish¿
fokdg;a wmf.a ia;=;sh ysñ fõ'
LLRC ks¾foaYhka ir,j f;areï .ekSug
fuu m%ldYkh WmldÍ fõhehs úl,am
m%;sm;a;s flakaøh wfmaCId lrhs'
wdpd¾h mdlHfida;s irjkuq;a;=
úOdhl wOHCI
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

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iv

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

mgqk
fldñifï j.;=. 1
W.;a mdvï fldñifï jd¾;dj yd tys wka;¾.;h
ms<sn| igykla 5

W.;a mdvï fldñifï ksÍCIK yd ks¾foaY
9 jeks mßÉfþoh 15
uQ,sl ksßCIK yd ks¾foaY
idrdxYh
fojeks mßÉfþoh

igka úrdu .ssúiqu iïnkaO ksßCIK 15
;=kajeks mßÉfþoh

isÿùï ud,djla muKs' 16
y;rjeks mßÉfþoh

.egqfï wjidk Nd.hg wod< jQ udkqIjd§ kS;s .eg¨
ms<sn| ksßCIK yd ks¾foaY 16
hqo uqla; l,dm (No Fire Zones) 17
isú,a jeishka ñh hdfï fyda ;=jd, ùfï
úfYaIs; wjia:d 18
frdaay,a$;djld,sl frday,a 19
.egqï m%foaY j,ska isú,a jeishkag wdydr yd T!IO
we;=¿ udkqISh iyk iemhSu 20
ffjoH fiajd iemhqï 22
ndr ùfuka$w;a wvx.=jg m;aùfuka miq w;=reoyka ù
we;s njg fpdaokd 23
t,aàáfha yeisÍu 24
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

7v

cd;Hka;r .egqï Wfoid cd' udkqI jd§ kS;s Ndú;h
.ek ksßCIK 26
wdmodjg m;ajQjka ms<sn| ksßCIK iy ks¾foaY 28
pek,a 4 ùäfhda mgh iïnkaO ksßlaIK iy
ks¾foaY 30
miajeks mßÉfþoh

udkj whs;sjdislï ms<sn| ksßlaIK iy ks¾foaY 32
mqoa.,hka ke;sùu" w;=reoka ùu iy meyer .ekSu
ms<sn| uQ,sl fpdaokd 33
/|úhkag ie,lSu 39
ks;s úfrdaê ikakoaO lKavdhï 42
nd,jhialdrejka hqoaOhg n|jd .ekSu' 43
myiqfjka úm;g f.dÿre úh yels lKavdhï
^idudkH& 45
ia;S%yq 46
<uhs 49
jeäysáfhda 50
wNHka;rj wj;ekajQfjda 51
W;=re iy kef.kysr uqia,sï m%cdj
iïnkaO ldrKd 54
woyia m%ldY lsÍfï ksoyi iy f;dr;=re ,nd
.ekSfï whs;sjdislu 55
w;S; mÍlaIK fldñiï jd¾;d .ek miq úmrula 58
yhjeks m¾Éfþoh

bvï .eg¨
;u bvïj,g wdmiq hdu iy h<s mÈxÑùu 58
8
vi

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

y;ajeks mßÉfþoh

ysñlu wdmiq ,nd§u $ jkaÈ iyk ms<sn|
ksÍlaIK iy ks¾foaY 70
wgjeks mßÉfþoh

1 jeks fldgi
hqoaOfhka miq iu.sikaOdkh ms<sn| ksÍlaIK 75
wgjeks mßÉfþoh

2 jeks fldgi
iu.s ikaOdkh ms<sn| ksÍlaIK iy ks¾foaY 79
fou< ckhdf.a ÿla .ekú,s 83
Y%S ,xldfõ nyq;r - iq¿;r in|;djkaf.a
ft;sydisl miqìu 83
uqia,sï ck;djf.a ÿla .ekú,s 85
.egqï m%foaY wdikak .ïj, ðj;a jQ isxy, ckhdf.a
ÿla.ekú,s 86
bka§h iïNjhla we;s fou< ckhdf.a
ÿla .ekú,s' 87
úiÿï fiùu iy iu.s ikaOdkh iïnkaO .eg¨ kS;sfha wdêm;Hh meje;aùug fkdyelsùu 88
md,klrKh iïnkaO .eg¨ 94
mqrjeis ÿla.ekú,s úi£ug úfYaI wdh;khla 94
fjk;a l%shdud¾. 96
n,h fnod yod .ekSfï wjYH;djh 98
NdId m%;sm;a;sh 102
wOHdmkh 106
iudk wjia:d 106
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

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9

idu wOHdmkh 107
vhiafmdardj 108
wka;¾ wd.ñl lghq;= iu.s ikaOdkh flfrys
wd.ïj, ld¾hNdrh 112
l,dj yd ixialD;sh iu.s ikaOdkh j¾Okh lsÍfï
fuj,ï f,i
NdIduh yd ixialD;sl in|lï 114
ckj¾. w;r wfkHkH in|;dj 117
foaYmd,k tlÕ;ajhl wjYH;dj 119
W.;a mdvï fldñifï ks¾foaYhkays wdikak
b;sydih 123
tlai;a cd;Skaf.a uyf,alïjrhdf.a WmfoaYl lñgq
jd¾;dj ^oreiaudka jd¾;dj& 125
foaYfm%auh yd wêrdcH úfrdaOh 127
hqfrdamSh fldñifï ks¾foaY 129
ðkSjd fhdackd 132
n,h leálr .ekSfï foaYmd,kh 134

² fmrjok iy úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøfha mqj;a m;a ksfõokh
bx.%Sisfhka isxy,g mßj¾;kh lf<a wfidal fyar;a úisks'

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viii

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Frontline India

fldñIka jd¾;dj ckdêm;sjrhdg ms<s.kajñka'''

fldñifï j.;=.
ku ( W.;a mdvï yd m%;sikaOdkh ms<sn|
jQ ckdêm;s mßlaIK fldñIka iNdj
(Commission of Inquiry on Lessons Learnt
and Reconciliation - LLRC)
kS;sh ( mßlaIK fldñIka iNd mkf;a 2
j.ka;sh
m;a l< Èkh ( 2010 uehs 15 Èk .re
ckdêm;s;=ud úiska
w;=re jd¾;dj ndr§fï Èkh ( 2010 fkdje' 11
jd¾;dj ndrÿka Èkh ( 2011 fkdje' 15
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

1

Photo source: Dreamstime.com

jd¾;dj md¾,sfïka;=jg bÈßm;a l< Èkh(
2011 foieïn¾ 17
W.;a mdvï yd m%;sixOdk fldñifï
idCIs
1' ,enqk ksfhdackhka
^weuqKqï 1'2&

.Kk

-266

2' fldñiu úiska jdÑl idCIs fok f,i
wdrdOkd l< m%udKh-49 ^weuqKqï 1'3&
3' ,sÅ; b,a,Sï lr fld<U§ jdÑl idCIs
ÿka m%udKh-138 ^weuqKqï 1'3&
4' fldñiu fld<ôka msg; ieisjdr
meje;ajQ ia:dk .Kk-47^weuqKqï 1'4&
mßCIKhg ,la jQ ld, iS u dj ( 2002
fmnrjdß 21 is g 2009 uehs 19 ola j d
isÿùï'
mejereKq ld¾hh ( 2002'02'21 isg 2009'05'19
Èk ola j d my; i|yka lreKq ms < s n |
mßlaIK mj;ajd jd¾;djla bÈßm;a lsÍu'
tu lreKq fufia h'
I'

2002'02'21 l%shdjg kexjQ igka úrdu
.súiqu wid¾:l ùug fya;= jQ lreKq
yd isÿùï iu. bkamiq 2009'05'19 olajd
isoaê ud,dj'

II' tu isÿùï iïnkaOfhka hï mqoa.,hl="
fyda lKavdhula fyda jl%j j.lsh hq;=
o@
2

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Daily Mirror / Photo Courtesy of
Sri Lanka Guardian Website

fldñifï idudðlhska

III' tu isÿùï j,ska wmg W.; yels mdvï
iy h<s;a tjeks fohla isÿ fkdùu
i|yd wm fidhd ne,sh hq;= lreKq'
IV' tu isÿùï ksid ydkshg m;a mqoa.,hl=
fyda Tyqf.a hefmkakka fyda
Wreulrejka h:d ;;a;ajhg m;a l<
yels l%ufõoh'
V' tjeks isÿùï wkd.;fha h<s we;s fkdùu
i|yd iy is h ¨ ck fldgia w;r
tlafiai;alu yd cd;sl iu.s ikaOdkh
j¾Okh ls Í u i|yd fuu jrm;% h
hgf;a mßCIKhg ,la l<
lreKq .ek lrk fjk;a ks ¾ foa Y
i|yd .;hq;= wdh;ksl" mßmd,kuh
iy kS;suh mshjrhka fudkjd o@
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

3

fldñifï idudðlhka
1'

iS' wd¾' o' is,ajd uy;d - ckdêm;s
kS;S{" iNdm;s
2' wdpd¾h ta frdydka fmf¾rd uy;d
3' uydpd¾h lreKdr;a k yÕj;a ;
uy;d
4' iS' pkauq.ï uy;d
5' tÉ' weï' Ô' isßmd, m,sylaldr uy;d
6' ufkdaydÍ rdukdoka uy;añh
7' tï' mrdl%u mrK.u uy;d ^f,alï&
8' tï' à' tï' n*Sla uy;d

4

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Ceylon-Ananda Blog

fldñiu bÈßfha idCIs ,ndfok wjia:djla'''

m<uqjeks mßÉfþoh

W.;a mdvï fldñifï jd¾;dj yd
tys wka;¾.;h ms<sn| igykla
ye¢kaùu iy l%ufõoh
-

-

fldñiug mejÍ we;s ld¾hNdrh
^wka ;ekl m<fõ&
,sÅ; iy jdÑl jYfhka idlaIs ,nd
.ekSfï l%uh Ndú; lrk nj
;uka leu;s NdIdjlska idlaIs
Èh yels nj iy wjidk jd¾;dj
bx.S%isfhka m<lrk nj
úfYaI ±kqu we;s mqoa.,hka fldñiu
úiska le|jk nj'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

5

fojeks mßÉfþoh

igka úrdu .súiqu
I
II

6

2002'02'21 isg 2009'05'19 olajd
igka úrdu .súiqfï n,mEu'
igk we;sùug fya;= idlaIsj,§
bÈßm;aùu(
wd¾Ól msßySfuka jQ l,lsÍu
fjkiafldg ie,lSu
w' wOHdmkfha § yd / lshdjkays§
fjkialï isÿùu'
wd' NdId m%;sm;a;sh ls%hd;aul
fkdùu
we' n,h fnod yeÍfï § W;=rg
iy kef.kysrg m%udKj;a
n,;, fkd§u'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Lanka Standard website / Courtesy of The Hindu

nKavdrkdhl - fp,ajkdh.ï .súiqu w;aika ;nd'''''

Photo source: Associated Press Photo by Gurinder Osan

uqia,sï ck;dj .ek wjOdkh fhduq fkdùu'''

wE' 1950 mufKa isg úi÷ï
fiùug .;a W;aidyhka
wid¾:l ùu'
b' .súiqu ls%hd;aul lsÍfï §
foaYmd,k yd hqouh jYfhka
ÿ¾j, md,khla ;sîu
B' uqia,sï ck;dj .ek wjOdkh
fhduq fkdùu
t' myiqldrlhdf.a ld¾hh
wid¾:lùu
ta' foaYmd,k mlaIj, wiu. sh'
T' t,aààh tu wjia:dfjka
m%fhdack .ekSu
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

7

Photo source: Ministry of Defence

t,aààBh úiska orejka igkalrejka lsÍu''''

;=kajeks mßÉfþoh

wdrlaIl yuqod ls%hdkaú;hka
ms<sn| úu¾Ykhla'
-

-

-

8

igka úrdu .súiqfuka miq
foaYmd,k úi÷ulg ;snQ bvlv
iSudùu'
kef.kysr ls%hdkaú;h jYfhka
udú,a wdre fidfrdõj h<s w;am;a
lr .ekSu'
2007 fmn' jkaks ls%hdkaú;h
wdrïNùu'
jjqkshd ukakdrï m%foaYj,g miq
2009'04'05 mqÿlal=ä bremamq m%foaYh
ksoyia lsÍu'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Jananibarathy.wordpress.com

udkqISl kS;s W,a,x>Kh .ek úu¾IKh

-

2006 isg 2009 olajd yuqodfõ
5556lao t,aààfÜ 22247la o
ñhf. dia we;s nj'

y;rjeks mßÉfÊoh

udkqISh kS;sh ms<sn| .eg¨
-

wka;¾ cd;sl udkqIjd§ kS;s
uQ,O¾u'

-

1949 w;aika lr we;s ðkSjd iïuq;s
y;r iy úfYaI iïuq;s fol ^1977&
<uhska hqo lghq;= i|yd n|jd
.ekSu .ek iïuq;sh ^2000&

-

wNHka;r .egqï ms<sn| fmdÿ
j.ka;sh ^3&

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

9

Photo source: riyasewana.com

-

-

iqÿ jEka NS;sldjg
;s;la ;nuqo'''@

-

10

wka;¾ cd;sl udkqIjd§ kS;sfha §
igkalrejkaf.ka isú,a ck;dj
fjkafldg y÷kd .ekSu' ^2000
t'cd' ;Skaÿj&
isú,a ia:dk iy yuqod b,lal
fjkafldg y÷kd .ekSu'
iudkqmd;sl Ndjfha uQ,O¾uh
ms<sme§u - tkï n,dfmdfrd;a;=
úh yels m%ydrhka blaujd isú,a
ck;djg ydkslr m%;sm%ydr ;ykï
nj
hqo uqla; l,dm m%ldYhg m;a
lsÍu'
fjä yqjudrefõ§ >d;k isÿùu
frday,a $ ;djld,sl frday,aj,g
m%ydr t,a,ùu
wdydr" fnfy;a we;=¿ udkqISh
wdOdr iemhSu'
2009 ckjdß isg ;;ajh'
wj;eka jQ ck;dj ms<sn| ixLHd
yd o;a;'
ffjoH myiqlï iemhSu
udkqIjd§ kS;s W,a,x>kh .ek
úu¾Ykh
uqod.;a m%foaYj,g isú,a ck;dj
iy igkalrejka meñKSfï §
wdrlaIl yuqodfõ yeisÍu'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Centre for Human Rights

mia jeks mßÉfþoh -

udkj whs;sjdislï
-

YS% ,xldfõ wdKavq l%u jHjia:dj úOdhl yd mßmd,k m%;sl¾u yd

-

wka;¾cd;sl iïuq;s 7la hgf;a
udkj whs;sjdislï /lSug wdKavqj
ne£ isák nj'

-

.egqfuka mek k.sk udkj
whs;sjdislï .eg¨ - meyer .ekSï"
w;=re oykaùï iy hg;a jqjka@

-

iqÿ jEka m%Yakh

-

kS;s úfrdaë ikakoaO lKavdhï

-

ia;S%ka" <uhska iy jeäysáhka
uqyqKmdk .eg¨

-

wdndO iys; jqjka iy wNHka;r
wj;eka jQjka ms<sn| .eg¨

-

W;=re - kef.kysr uqia,sï ck;dj
ms<sn| .eg¨

-

woyia m%ldYkfha iy f;dr;=re
,nd .ekSfï whs;sjdislu'

-

weoySfï" hdfï Bfï iy ixúOdk
meje;aùfï ksoyi

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

11

Photo source: Website of the Ministry of Resettement

yhjeks mßÉfþoh - bvï .eg¨"

wdmiq meñKSu iy h<s mÈxÑ lrùu
-

12

.egqu ksid bvï wysñ jQfjda
ñksia m,syg f.dÿre jqjka iy
hdmkfhka jkakshg hdug
n,lrkq ,enqfjda'
kef.kysr bvï meyer .ekSï
ksid jdi N+ñ wysñ jQfjda'
kef.kysr isá isxy, ck;djf.a
f.dú ìï wysñùu
W;=frka m,jd yßkq ,enQ uqia,sï
jeisfhda
wdmiq meñKSu iy h<s mÈxÑ lrùu
wê wdrlaIl l,dm j, bvï
wysñjQfjda
bvï f,aLk ke;sùu" jHdc f,aLk
u.ska bvï whs;s lr .ekSu'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Courtesy of CPA

y;ajeks mßÉfþoh - h:d ;;ajhg

m;a lsÍu iy jkaÈ iyk ie,iSu
-

mßmd,k m%;sl¾u fh§u

wgjeks mßÉfþoh

iu.s ikaOdkh
-

hqoaOfhka miq ms<smeÈh hq;=
uQ,O¾u
h<s mÈxÑ lrùu ksjdi iy
Ôjfkdamdh
W;=re kef.kysr wOHdmk
wjYH;d
ëjr" lDIsl¾u myiqlï
bvï .eg¨ ksrdlrKh lsÍu
ffjoH myiqlï iemhSu
kef.kysr uqia,sï ck;dj
h<smÈxÑ lrùu

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

13

Photo source: IRIN News

ìï fndaïn bj;a lsÍu

-

wê wdrlaIl l,dm iy wdrlaIl
yuqod ksid we;s ndOd bj;a lsÍu'
ìïfndaïn bj;a lsÍu
hqoaOfhka miq vhiafmdard .eg¨
fou< ck;djf.a ÿla .ekú,s .ek
ixfõ§ ùu
n,h fnod yod .ekSfï wjYH;dj
NdId m%;sm;a;sh ls%hd;aul lsÍu
iudk wjia:d iy idu wOHdmkh

kj jeks mßÉfþoh

ks¾foaY 285
by; i|yka mßÉfþo j,ska
lshejqKq lreKq j,g wod<
ks¾foaY fï mßÉfþofha m<fõ'

14

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh


W.;a mdvï fldñifï
ksÍCIK yd ks¾foaY
uQ,sl ksßCIK yd ks¾foaY
idrdxYh
^fu;eka isg ±lafjkafka fuu jd¾;dfõ
tla tla mßÉfþohka w.g olajd ;snqKq
ks ß CIK yd ks ¾ foa Y iuQ y hhs ' fojeks
mßÉfþofha isg wgjeks mßÉfþoh olajd
we;s ksßCIK yd ks¾foaY tlg .;a úg
ixLHdj 285 ls' ta ish,a, 9 jeks mßÉfþoh
jYfhka i|yka h' ksßCIK yd ks¾foaY
fláfhka ±lafõ'
fojeks mßÉfþoh

igka úrdu .sú
s iqu iïnkaO ksßCIK
9'1

fld;rï wia:djr yd m, rys; jqj o"
igka úrdu .súiqu" ish¨ md¾Yjhka
úis k a idlÉPd u.s k a úi÷ulg
meñKSug mokula ±ó h' tfy;a th
id¾:l fkdù h'

9'2

wjfndaOfha iy l%shdldß;aj
wvq mdvq l ï o" idu l% s h d j,s k a
myiqldrlhd jQ fkda¾fõ rdcHfha ys
ÿn, yd foìä meje;au ksid rdcH
yd rdcH fkdjk md¾Yj folla

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

wjfndaOfha
iy
l%shdldß;aj
wvq mdvqlï
o" idu
l%shd j,ska
myiqldrlhd
jQ fkda¾fõ
ys ÿn,
yd foìä
meje;au
ksid rdcH
yd rdcH
fkdjk
md¾Yj
folla w;r
;sridr idu
l%shdj,shla
we;s lsÍu
id¾:l
fudv,hla
fkdjk nj
Tmamq úh'

15

Photo source: AsiaTribune Website

w;r ;sridr idu l%shdj,shla we;s
lsÍu id¾:l fudv,hla fkdjk
nj Tmamq úh'
9'3

rks,a úl%uisxy uy;d igka
úrdu .súiqu w;aika ;eîfuka
miq'''

igka úrdu .s ú iq f ï wvq m dvq l ï
j,s k a o iuyr j.ka ; s j,s k a o
t,aààh Wmßu m%fhdack .ksñka
kS;s úfrdaê wdhqO ndr§u fkdl<
w;r wú wdhqO msáka f.kaùu isÿ
lf<a h' udkj whs;sjdislï ne£ï
lv l< w;r <ud fid,a o dÿjka
n|jd .ekSu lf<a h'

;=kajeks mßÉfþoh

isÿùï ud,djla muKs'
y;rjeks mßÉfþoh

ta ish,a,
9 jeks
mßÉfþoh
jYfhka
i|yka h'
ksßCIK
yd ks¾foaY
fláfhka
±lafõ'

16

.egqfï wjidk Nd.hg wod<
jQ udkqIjd§ kS;s .eg¨ i|yd
ksßCIK yd ks¾foaY
9'4

udkq I jd§ kS ; s W,a , x>kh .ek
fpda o kd úuid ne,S f ï§ i;= g g
m;aúh yels h' hqo yuqodj isú,a
ck;djf.a wdrCIdjg m%uqL;dj §
we;' isú,a ck;djg isÿúh yels
ydks je<elaùug fyda wju lsÍug
wdrCIl yuqod wjika wjia:dfõ
ukao.dój m%ydr isÿlr we;'

9'5

yuqod fufyhqfï m%Odk m%;m
s ;a;h
s la
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

^4'106 isg 4'111 olajd isú,a jeishkaf.a
idlaIs i|yka fõ' kdjql yuqodfõ
m%ydrhlska o" fjk;a yuqod m%ydr
j,ska o msßila ñh.sh nj mejfia'
ta ;eka j , t,a à àB idudðlhka
isá nj fukau ;=jd,lrejkag;a
Tjqkag;a rcfha yuqod ie,l+ nj o
tu idCIsj, i|yka fõ'&
hqo uqla; l,dm (No Fire Zones)
9'6

by; i|yka lreKq iy idlaIs wkqj"
fjä yqjudreùfï § isú,a jeishkag
úm;a isÿù we;' tfy;a th is;d
u;d isú,a jeishkag t,a, lsÍula
fkdjk nj fldñifï ks.ukhhs'
.egqï ksid m,d hdug ;e;a lsÍfï
§ t,aààh úiska >d;kh lssÍu" ìï
fnda ï n" kka È lvd,a l,mq f jka
tf;r ùfï wk;=re wdÈh isú,a
jeis h ka g uq y q K mEug is ÿ úh'
t,aààB hqo wú msysgqjd we;s m%foaY
j,g m% y dr t,a , ls Í u hq o a O fha
iudkq m d;s l uQ , O¾uhg mgyeks
fkdfõ'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: AFP

jkafka isú,a jeishkaf.a Ôú; wdrCId
lsÍu h' 4 jeks mß II fldgfia" 4'106
isg 4'111 olajd idlaIs u.ska" isú,a
jeishka ys;du;d b,lal lr we;ehs
;yjqre fkdfõ'

t,aààB kdhl m%Ndlrka
igka úrdu .súiqug
w;aika ;nñka'''


fjä
yqjudreùfï
§ isú,a
jeishkag
úm;a isÿù
we;'

17


9'7
tjeks
isÿùï l=uk
;;a;ajhla
hgf;a
isÿúh yels
±hs fidhd
ne,Su rdcH
md¾Yjfha
j.lSu
neúka
tys§" jro
l< jqkag
o~qjï §u;a"
ydksjQjkaf.a
mjq,a
j,g jkaÈ
f.ùu;a
.ek is;d
ne,sh
hq;= h'


18

9'8

by; ks.ukhg meñKsh o"
iudkqmd;sl uQ,O¾uh blaujd f.dia
weoao hkq fidhd ne,Su o fldñiug
mejßK' tfy;a wjia:dfõ mej;=Kq
ixlS¾K;djka ksid .; yels ish¨
wdrCIl mshjrhka yuqodj úiska
f.k we;s nj;a" Bg jvd m%dfhda.sl
hula l< fkdyels nj;a fldñiu
ks.ukh lrhs'
cd;Hka;r wêlrK úiska fmkajd §
we;s lreKla fuys § isysm;a lruq'
zhqo fufyhqï j,§ isÿjk urK"
;=jd, foam< ydks isÿjQ wdldrh
Widúhla bÈßfha m%;k
s ¾
s udKh lsÍu
l< fkdyels ;rïZ fohla nj h'

isú,a jeishka ñh hdfï fyda
;=jd, ùfï úfYaIs; wjia:d
9'9

by; i|yka 4'106 - 4'111 olajd
idlaIs wkqj isú,a jeishkaf.a Ôú;
ydks isÿjQ wjia:d m%;s ks¾udKh
lsÍfï ÿIalr;djg fldñiu uqyqK
ÿkafka h' wdrlaIl yuqod is;d u;d
ydks fkdl<d jqj o" tjeks isÿùï
l=uk ;;a;ajhla hgf;a isÿúh yels
±hs fidhd ne,Su rdcH md¾Yjfha
j.lSu neúka tys§" jro l< jqkag
o~q j ï §u;a " ydks j Q j ka f .a mjq , a
j,g jkaÈ f.ùu;a .ek is;d ne,sh
hq;= h'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: inaccnet.com

t,aààB md,kfhka ñ§ yuqod md,k m%foaYhg meñfKk isú,a ckhd

frday,a$;djld,sl frday,a
9'10

Ôú; yd f.dvke.s,s ydks isÿlrñka
frday,aj,g fI,a fjä t,a, ù we;s
nj fldñiu ms<s.kS' tfy;a ,enqKq
f;dr;=re wkqj fjä t,a, jQ Èidj
yd ia:dkh ms<sn| wjq,a ;;a;ajhla
mj;S'

9'11

ienE idlaIs u; Bg j. lsh hq;a;ka
;SrKh lsÍu fldñiu uqyqK ÿka
ÿIalr;djls'

9'12

tu ÿIalr;dj kï .egqï m%foaY
yd .egqfï W.%;djh wkqj laIKsl
mßlaIKhla ke;sùu iy bÈßm;a

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

19


wdKavqj
w;jYH fiajd
uyflduidßia" 9'13
cd;Hka;r
wdh;k yd
iafõÉPd
9'14
ixúOdk
m%YxikSh
fiajdjla
bgqlr we;'

20

jQ idlaIs j,ska fIa,a fjä t,a,
jQfha l=uk md¾Yjfhka ±hs meyeÈ,s
fkdùu h' fomd¾Yjh u fIa,afjä
t,a, l< njg idlaIs we;'
ks i s uQ , s l idla I s ys Õ lu ks i d
j.lsh hq;= md¾Yjh ks.ukh l<
fkdyelsh'
tfy;a fI,a fjä ksid isÿjq Ôú;
ydks iy ;=jd, fjkqfjka ksis jkaÈ
f.ùula isÿúh hq;f
a ;a udkqIh
S l%h
s djla
f,i;a " iu.s i ka O dk ms h jrla
f,i;a h'

.egqï m%foaY j,ska isú,a
jeishkag wdydr yd T!IO
we;=¿ udkqISh iyk iemhSu
9'15

t,aààBh hgf;a isá isú,a jeishkag
f.dvìï ud¾. j,s k a ms < s . ;a
m%udKfha wdydr iemhqfKa 2009
ckjdß olajd h' .egqï W.%ùu;a
iu. uqyqÿ ud¾.h o fhdod .eksK'
tfy;a 2009 fmnrjdß is g uehs
ui ueo olajd tu m%udKh wvqúh'
f;dr;=re wkqj udkqISh iemhqï
isÿjQfha uy;a m%dfhda. sl ÿIalr;d
ueo nj fldñiug meyeÈ,s fõ'

9'16

.egqfï W.% ;;a;ajh hgf;a iemhsh
yels wydr m%udKh mjd hejqfKa
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: REUTERS

wjika igfka wjia:djla'''''

uq y q f oks ' ta i|yd Èidm;s j reka "
wdrlaIl yuqod" r;=l=reih" f,dal
wdydr jevigyk iy ia f õÉPd
ixúOdk Èúmrÿjg ;nd fufyjr
l< nj fldñiu ms<s.kS'
9'17

.egqfï W.%lu ksid iSñ; iemhqu
mjd idOdrK f,i fnod yeÍug
t,aààfhka isÿjQ ndOdjka fkd;ld
tu wjika i;s lSmfha" wdKavqj
w;jYH fia j d uyflduidßia "
cd;Hka;r wdh;k iafõÉPd
ixúOdk m%YxikSh fiajdjla bgqlr
we;'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

21


9'18

tn÷ uy;a mßY%u w;r mjd isú,a
jeishka m%udKj;a wdydr ke;slfuka
mSvdjg m;aj we;'

mqoa.,hka
yuqod ndrhg
9'19 fldgqù isá isú,a jeishkag wdydr
m;a jQ njg
fnfy;a iy w;jYH øjH ,nd §ug
weiska ÿgq
cd;Hka;r m%cdfõ iy úúO wdh;k
whf.a
j, iyfhda.fhka mshjr f.k ;snQ
idlaIs we;'
nj fldñifï woyi h'
tfy;a Tjqka
w;=reoyka lr 9'20 hqo uqla; l,dm ;=< t,aààB m%dK
we;akï" tu
wemfha isá isú,a jeishka f.a m%udK
l%shdj o~qjï
.ek ks Y a Ñ ; idla I s ,eî ke;'
,eìh yels
flfia fj;;a hqo Wml%uhla f,i
jrols' ta .ek
jeishka yduf;a ;eîug is;d u;d
úNd. fldg
ixLHdj wdKa v q j úis k a wvq f jka
jerÈlrejkag
olajd we;ehs fldñiug wkqudk
o~qjï l< hq;=
l< fkdyels h'
nj fldñiu
wjOdrKh
ffjoH fiajd iemhqï
lrhs'
9'21 4 mß II fldgfia lshejqKq mßÈ T!IO iy ffjoH myiqlï iemhSï
m% u dKj;a fkdjQ nj fmfkhs '
tfy;a .egqfï W.%lu iy .egqug
wdika k j frda y ,a ms y s à u .ek
ie,ls,a,g .; hq;= h'

9'22

22

isú,a jeishkag ffjoH myiqlï
iemhSu iïnkaOfhka fldñiug
bÈß m;ajQ lreKq m%udKj;a ke;'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: UN Photo/Eskinder Debebe

tfy;a th udkq I S h fya ; = u;
;jÿrg;a úNd. l< hq;= lreKls'
tys§ ;=jd, jQ isú,a jeishka ixLHdj"
;=jd,hkays iajNdjh" m%;l
s dr lsÍug
;snQ yelshdj" m%;sldr ,enQ t,aààB
idudðl ixLHdj wdÈh ie,ls,a,g
.; hq;= h'

isú,a
jeishkag
ffjoH
myiqlï
iemhSu
iïnkaOfhka
fldñiug bÈß
m;ajQ lreKq
m%udKj;a ke;'

ndr ùfuka$w;a wvx.=jg m;aùfuka miq
w;=reoyka ù we;s njg fpdaokd
9'23 ^mß II fldgfia 4'242 isg 4'258
ola
jd& mqoa.,hka yuqod ndrhg m;a
jQ njg weiska ÿgq whf.a idlaIs wkqj
Tjqka w;=reoyka lr we;akï" tu l%shdj
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

23


cd;Hka;r
yd udkqISh
kS;s oreKq
f,i lv
l< t,aààB
idudðlhkag
tfrysj ksis
mßÈ fpdaokd
ke.Sug
wjYH
jd¾;d
,nd.;
hq;= h'

o~qjï ,eìh yels jrols' ta .ek úNd.
fldg jerÈlrejkag o~qjï l< hq;= nj
fldñiu wjOdrKh lrhs' ndrùfï
l%shdj,sfha § yuqodj ,nd we;s lS¾;s kduh
lSm fofkl=f.a l%shd ksid flf,iSug bv
fkd;eìh hq;= h'
t,aàáfha yeisÍu
9'24

t,aàáh úisska udkj whs;sjdislï
ms<sn| nrm;, W,a,x>khka udkj
whs;sjdislï mßÉfþofhka o"

9'25

t,aààh úiska wka;¾cd;sl udkqIjd§
kS;s nrm;, f,i W,a,x>kh lsÍï
.ek 4 mß II fldgiska o úia;r
fõ' tfy;a wjika ksßCIK lSmhla
fufia h'
w'

isú,a jeishka ñksia m,syla lr
.ekSu'

wd' is ú ,a uOHia : dk j, yuq o d
WmlrK ;eîu'
we' wdrCIs; m%foaY j,g m,d hk
jeishkag fjä ;eîu'
wE' wjidk .egqfï§ mjd nd,hka
n|jd .ekSu'
b'

24

.egqï l,dmfhka msg; mjd
ìï fndaïn iy laIKsl msmqreï
WmlrK iú lsÍu
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Daily News File Photo

jfhdajDO ldka;djla hqo ìfuka /f.k tk yuqod finf,la''''

9'26

B

.egqug isú,a jeishka nf,ka
fhdojd .ekS u - ta ks i d
fjkafldg y÷kd .ekSu wmyiq
ùu'

W'

isú,a jeishkag ydks lrñka
È.g u urdf.k uefrk wh
fhoùu'

cd;Hka;r yd udkqIjd§ kS;s oreKq
f,i lv l< t,aààB idudðlhkag
tfrysj ksis mßÈ fpdaokd ke.Sug
wjYH jd¾;d ,nd.; hq;= h'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

25


rdcHhka
w;r
.egqï j,g
n,mdk
kS;sj, fmdÿ
uQ,O¾u
±kg;a
rdcH
fkdjk
lKavdhï
flfrys
o ±kg;a

26

cd;Hka;r .egqï Wfoid cd'
udkqISh kS;s Ndú;h .ek
ksßCIK
9'27

wNHka;r .egqï j, rdcH fkdjk
ikakoaO lKavdhï iïnkaO kS;s
ksis f,i w¾: olajd ke;s ksid
tu lKa v dhï is ú ,a jeis h ka f .a
wdrla I dj fkd;ld l% s h d lrhs '
wdrlaIs; l,dm" igka i|yd fhdod
.ekSu" isú,a jeishka m,syla f,i
fhdod .ekSu ksid m%;m
s h
s jr .ekSfï
§ isú,a jeishkag wk;=re isÿùu
je<elaùu wiSre fjhs'

9'28

fmr fkdjQ mßÈ isú,a jeishka f.a
wdrlaIdjg tjeks l,dm fjka lsÍu
i|yd tu lKavdhï tlÕ fkdjk
w;r ta l md¾Yùhj m% l dY l<
úg tu l,dm igka i|yd fhdod
.ekSu;a" ñksia m,syla lsÍu yd m%;s
m%ydr §u hk WNf;dafldaálhlg
uqyqK fohs'

9'29

ta l md¾Yùhj hq o uq l a ; l,dm
m%ldY lsÍu ksid isú,a jeishka
isák iSudjg t,aààhg meñKSug
wjia:dj ie,iqjdo hkqfjka ielhla
u;=fldg we;'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Guardian.co.uk

t,aààB igkaldóka l=vd orejka iu.'''''

9'30

hqo uqla; l,dmhka ms<sn| udkqIjd§
kS;sh wdrlaId lsÍfï§ ikakoaO
lKavdhï l%shdjka .ek fiùu;a"
wNHka;r .egqï j,§ tu kS;shg
t,a , jk wNs f hda . j,g úi÷ï
fiùug ks i s m% ó ;S k a iy l% s h d
mámdá j¾Okh l< hq;= h'

9'31

rdcHhka w;r .egqï j,g n,mdk
kS;sj, fmdÿ uQ,O¾u rdcH fkdjk
lKa v dhï flfrys o wod< fõ'
tfy;a tu lKavdhï j,ska udkqIjd§
kS ; s h g jeä wjk;Ndjhla ,nd
.ekSug tu kS;s j¾Okh lsÍug
tla i ;a cd;S k a we;= ¿ wfkl= ; a
wdh;k" wjOdkh fhduq l<
hq;= h'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

27


9'32'
lK.dgqjg
lreK kï
.egqfuka ñh
.shjqka yd
;=jd,lrejka
.ek ienE
ixLHd yd
o;a;hka lsisu
ks, jd¾;djl
i|yka
fkdùu h'

wdmodjg m;ajQjka ms<sn|
ksßCIK iy ks¾foaY
9'33

fldñiug ,enqKq Rcq iy
úYajdij;a f;dr;=re wkqj"
yuqod wdrlaIdj blaujd hqo
uqla; m%foaYj,g Wäka fjä
yq j udreùfuka is ú ,a jeis h ka g
Ôú; ydks iy ;= j d, is ÿ jQ nj
meyeÈ,sh'

9'34

ñksia m,sylg jix jQ urdf.k
uefrk msßilg uqyqK §u wdrlaIl
yuq o djg ixlS ¾ K wNs f hda . hla
úh' tfiau zu<l|ka .Kka lsÍu
fkdj Ôú; fírd .ekSuZ yuqodfõ
m%;sm;a;sh ùu w.h lruq' tfy;a
lK.dgqjg lreK kï .egqfuka
ñh .shjqka yd ;=jd,lrejka .ek
ienE ixLHd yd o;a;hka lsisu ks,
jd¾;djl i|yka fkdùu h' úúO
wdh;k j,ska úúO ixLHd olajd
we;'

28

.egqï j,ska úm;g m;ajj
Q ka flfrys
wka;¾cd;sl m%cdj fj; mejfrk
ksYaÑ; j.lSu jkafka tn÷ kS;s
rduqjla ilia lsÍu h' ta i|yd Y%S
,xldfõ ;sia wjqreoaola wysxil ñksia
Ôú; ydksùu jeo.;a mdvuls'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

9'35

úm;g m;ajQjkaf.a
ixLHd ms<sn|j
jerÈ ks j erÈ lr
.ekSfï l%ufõohla
fkd;sîu ksid
ta .ek we;a f ;a
wkqudk lrk ,o
f;dr;=re muKs'

9'36

weis k a ÿgq j ka f .a
idlaIs wkqj .egqfï
wjika ld,fha
isú,a jeishka iEfyk ixLHdjlg
ydks isÿù we;snj fldñiu ta;a;=
.kS' t,aààBh isú,a jeishka .ek
fkd;ld .egqfï fh§u yd fjä
yqjudre ksid tu ydks isÿ ù we;'

9'37

isú,a jeishkag isÿ jQ foa ms<sn|
ksis mÍCIKhla l< hq;=hs'

ta .ek fldñiu my; ks ¾ foa Y
olajhs'
w'

isú,a jeishkag is;d u;d m%ydr
t,a, lsÍu .ek ksis mßlaIK
mj;ajd jrog o~qjï §u'

wd' is ú ,a jeis h ka g is ÿ jq Ôú;
ydks ;=jd, iy foam< ydks
.ek jD;a ; S h fõ§ka u.s k a
iólaIKhla isÿ lsÍu'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

29

pek,a 4 ùäfhda mgh
iïnkaO
ksßlaIK
iy ks¾foaY
9'38
w'
ienE
ke;akï fndre jqk;a tu
ùäfhda mgfha isoaê ms<sl=,a
h' ìysiqKq h'
wd'
wdKa v q j ls h ka f ka
th lD;% s u ks m oùula nj
h' tfy;a tlai;a cd;Skaf.a
;dlaIK úfYaI{hka lshkafka"
w;awvx.=jg m;a wh urd ±óu yd
,sx.sl ysxid lsÍu .ek idlaIs
imhk njhs' tys ;dlaIKsl
.eg¨ we;s nj fomd¾Yjhu
ms<s.kS'

pek,a f*da kd,sldj bÈßm;a l<
wdkafoda,kd;aul jd¾;d Ñ;%mgfha
o¾Ykhla

we' ;dCIK úfYaI{hka mjikafka"
tys i;H;dj ms<sn| meyeÈ,s
ielhla we;s nj h'

30

b'

tys Ys,amSh iy wêlrK
ffjoHuh .eg¨ we;s nj
fldñiu ms<s.kS' tfy;a
flfkl= ksIamdokh lr ndr
§ we;ehs lshd o fkdms<s.kS'

B'

Bg jvd mq¿,a f;dr;=re iemhSula
úldYlhkaf.ka isÿ fkdù h'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

mj;a k d f;dr;= r e wkq j i;H
;yjqre lsÍu i|yd wdKavqj iajdëk
mßCIKhla l< hq;= nj fldñiu
ks¾foaY lrhs'

9'40'

fï l%shdud¾.h wjYH fya;=
folls'

w'

úfYaI{hka f.a u;h wkqj thska w;a
wvx.=jg m;a jQjka >d;kh iy ia;%S
ÿIK lsÍfï yelshdj fmkajhs' tfia
kï mßCIK mj;ajd jrolrejkg
o~qjï Èh hq;= h' th wdKavqfõ
j.lSu jkafka yuqodfõ jD;a;Sh
lS¾;skduh wdrlaId lsßu;a oyia
.Kka Èú leml< fid,aodÿjkaf.a
f.!rjh /lSu;a wjYH ksid h'

wd'

fjk;a úfYaI{hka g wkqj tu
rEm ud,dj lD;%su f,i ksmojk
,oa o la kï" ys ; d u;d nrm;,
fndre m%pdrh lsÍu .ek úldY
l< wh j.lSug hg;a l< hq;= h'
th Y%S ,xldfõ ck;djgo yuqodjg
o nrm;, widOdrKhls ' woyia
m%ldYkfha ksoyig mrdchla fukau
iu.s ikaOdkh f.dv ke.Sug o
ndOdjls'

9'41

tfyhska i;H ;yjqre lsÍug ke;akï
fpda o kd wkq j kS ; s u.s k a l% s h d
lsÍug Y%S ,xldfõ wdKavqj iajdëk

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: www.tamilvoice.dk

9'39

pek,a f*da Y%S ,xld ls,sx *S,aâia
jd¾;d jevigyfka wOHCI
le,ï ul%S

31


irKd.;hkaf.a
whs;j
s dislï"
myiqfjka
úm;g
f.dÿre úh
yels ia;%Ska"
orejka"
wdndO iys;
jQjka .ek
o f;dr;=re
±laúK'

32

mßCIKhla l< hq;= h' f;dr;=re
fok wh wdrlaId lsÍug jeä ÿrg;a
iyfhda.h fok f,i úldYkh l<
ixúOdkfhka fldñiu b,a,d isà'
miajeks mßÉfþoh

udkj whs;sjdislï ms<sn| ksßlaIK
iy ks¾foaY
9'42

.egq ï ks i d ck;djf.a uQ , s l
whs;sjdislï iy iajdëk;d
W,a , x>kh jQ njg fldñiug
fndfyda meñKs , s ,eìK' meyer
.ekSï" n,y;aldr w;=reoka lsÍï"
w;a;fkdau;sl r|jd .ekSï" nd,hka
hq o lghq ; = j ,g n|jd .ekS ï "
kS;sfhka ndysr urK o~qjï §u"
m%ldYkfha .uka ìuka' hdfï" tla
/ia ùfï" weoySfï iy udOH ksoyi
W,a,x>kh lsÍï .ek meñKs,s ta w;r
fõ' irKd.;hkaf.a whs;sjdislï"
myiqfjka úm;g f.dÿre úh yels
ia;%Ska" orejka" wdndO iys; jQjka
.ek o f;dr;=re ±laúK' tfyhska
fï udkj whs;sjdislï iïnkaO
ks¾foaY" iu.s ikaOdk l%shdj,shg
w;sYhska wod< hhs fldñiu woyia
lrhs'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Sri Lankan Guardian website

mqoa.,hka ke;sùu" w;=reoka
ùu iy meyer .ekSu ms<sn|
uQ,sl fpdaokd
9'43

uQ , s l whs ; s j dis l ï iy ia j dëk
W,a,x>khka ms<sn| ,enqKq idlaIs
úYd, ixLHdfjka fldñiu
lkiai,a,g m;a úh' t,aààh l<
meyer .ekSï w;=reoka lsÍï m%udKh
úYd, h' iuyr úg jir .Kkl
isg wd .sh ;ekla fkdokakd wh
.ek meñKs,s ;sìK'

9'44

tn÷ jerÈ isÿùï je<elaùu iu.s
ikaOdkhg w;HjYH nj fndfyda
fokd m% l dY l<y' ths k a mdvï

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

33


W.kakd nj iy;sl lsÍu wjYH nj
fldñiu wjOdrKh lr we;'
n,hg
m;a lsisu
wdKavqjla
tajd
l%shd;aul
fkdlsÍu
ksid
wdKavqj
m;a lrk
fldñIka
iNd .ek
úfõpk
iy iel
u;=fjhs'
fuu W.;a
mdvï
fldñiug
o tu
ielfhka
ñÈh
fkdyels h'


34

9'45

uyck idla I s j,s k a mejeiq f Ka
foa Y md,k n,mEï ks i d wmrdO
mßCIK" kS ; s h l% s h d;a u l ls Í u"
fmd,sia mßmd,kh ÿ¾j, ù we;s
nj;a" túg wmrdO hqla;sh .ek
úYajdi ì| jefgk nj;a h'

9'46

w;= r eoyka ls Í ï" meyer .ekS ï "
r|jd ;eîï" .ek fmd,sishg" udkj
ysñlï fldñiug" r;=lr
= eihg ±kqï
§ we;s njg fndfyda idlaIs ;sìK'
l,ska mßlaIK fldñIka iNd j,g
l< meñKs,s o h<s;a ,eìK' tfy;a
tu mqoa.,hka ;ju;a wd.sh ;ekla
ke;' fï meñKs,s .ek úNd. fldg
okajd we;'

9'47

ndrùfuka fyda w;a wvx.= j g
.ekS f uka rcfha Ndrhg m;a j Q
mqoa.,hkag wdrCIdj ie,iSu rdcH
j.lS u nj fldñiu wjOdrKh
lrhs'

9'48

w;=reoyka ùï ms<sn| .eg¨j ljr
iu.s ikaOdk l%shd ud¾.hlg jqjo
nrm;, ndOlhls' tjeks isÿùï
.ek w;S; fldñIka iNd úiska
úi÷ï bÈßm;a lr we;;a n,hg
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Agence France Presse

isú,a ck iydh r;= l=rei ixúOdkh ueÈy;a ù'''''

m;a lsisu wdKavqjla tajd l%shd;aul
fkdlsÍu ksid wdKavqj m;a lrk
fldñIka iNd .ek úfõpk iy
iel u;=fjhs' fuu W.;a mdvï
fldñiug o tu ielfhka ñÈh
fkdyels h'
9'49

yuq o dfõ fyda t,a à àfha fyda
l%shdjkag f.dÿre jqj o fidhd.;
fkdyels mqoa.,hka .ek f;dr;=re
Tjqkaf.a mjq,a j,g ,nd .ekSfï"
jkaÈ ,nd .ekSfï" kS;suh mshjr
.ekSfï whs;sjdislu we;s lrhs'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

35


n,Odßka
úiska
w;awvx.=jg
.ekSfï
§ ßisÜ
m;la §u"
r|jd isák
ia:dkh .ek
f;dr;=re
iemhSu l<
hq;= h'

9'50

tu mqoa.,hka fidhd .ekSug r;=
l=reih we;=¿ wdh;k iu. kS;sfha
wdh;k úiska ish¨ mßY%u ±ßh hq;=
w;r ta .ek Tjqkaf.a mjq,aj, wh
±kqïj;a l< hq;= h'

9'51

w;= r e oyka ùfï .eg¨j b;d
ixlS ¾ K h' tfy;a fidhd n,d
kS;sm;sjrhdg f;dr;=re ieliSu
mßla I K iy kvq lghq ; = i|yd
m<mqreÿ ks,Orfhla m;a l< hq;= h'
úúO wdh;k j, mj;sk f;dr;=re
tla ;eklg /ia l< hq;= h'

9' 52 urK iy;sl §u yd uqo,a jkaÈ f.ùu
.ek ie,ls,a, fh§u iqÿiq h' urK
,shdmÈxÑ lsÍfï mk; ixfYdaOkh
fldg ta .ek m%isoaêhla ,nd Èh
hq;= h'
9'53

f,aLk.; fkdfldg w;a wvx.=jg
.ekSï .ek fpdaokd /ila
fldñiug ,eìK' wod< n,Odßka
úiska w;awvx.=jg .ekSfï § ßisÜ
m;la §u" r|jd isák ia:dkh .ek
f;dr;=re iemhSu l< hq;= h'

9'54

udkj whs;sjdislï kS;sfha j.lSï
wkqj
w'

36

w;a wvx.=jg .ekqKq mqoa.,hka
jydu ufyaia;%d;ajrhl= fj;
bÈßm;a l< hq;= h'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Lanka Standard website

w;awvx.=jg .ekSu yd myr§u W;=f¾ fukau ol=fKa;a jerÈ mQ¾jdo¾Y'''

wd' /|jq ï ia : dkh fjkia ùï
mjqf,a whg;a" udkj ysñlï
fldñiug;a jydu ±ka ú h
hq;= h'
we' ufya i a ; % d ;a j reka tu ia : dk
j,g udislj hd hq;= h'
wE' ksoyia lsÍu Widúfhka l< hq;=
h'
9'55

w;a wvx.=j" r|jd .ekSu iy udre
lsÍu jd¾;d fkdlsÍu" meyer .ekSï
.ek meñKs , s ,s h d fkd.ekS u "
mÍlaIK fkdmeje;aùu jrols' Bg
tfrysj kS;sfhka l%shd l< hq;= h'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

37


wjqreÿ
.Kkla
mjqf,a
Wmhkakd
wysñj
isàfï
ixfõokdj
iukh
lsÍug
Tjqkag
uqo,ska o"
kS;sfhka o
iydh Èh
hq;= h'

38

9'56

fya;= ke;sj w;a wvx.=jg .ekSu"
yÈis kS;s hgf;a r|jd ;nd .ekSu
.ek meñKs,s fldñiug ,eî we;'
kS;sfha wdêm;Hh iu.s ikaOdkh
we;s lsÍu Wfoid yÈis kS;sh bj;a
lsÍu hym;a mshjrls' tys jdish
ck;djg ,nd Èh hq;= w;r w¨;a
kS;s u.ska Bg ndOd fkdlrkq we;ehs
fldñiu n,dfmdfrd;a;= fjhs'

9'57

È.=l,a r|jd ;eîï .ek meñKs,s
/ils' ;%ia;jdoh je<elaùfï mk;"
uyck wdrla I l mk; hgf;a
mekefjk kS;s wkqj isÿjk foa
.ek ksßCIKhg iajdëk WmfoaYl
lñgqjla m;a l< hq;= h'

9'58

wjqreÿ .Kkla mjqf,a Wmhkakd wysñj
isàfï ixfõokdj iukh lsÍug
Tjqkg
a uqo,ska o" kS;f
s hka o iydh Èh
hq;= h'

9'59

tjeks w;= r eoka ls Í ï h<s is ÿ
fkdùug mj;sk kS;s h<s ilia l<
hq;= hhs fldñiu ±ä f,i ks¾foaY
lrhs'

9'60

w;S;fhka mdvï W.;a nj iy;sl
lsÍu w;HjYH h' h<s fkdisÿùu
Wfoid rgmq r d mdi,a orejka "
wdrla I l yuq o d" iy fmd,s i s h
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

±kqïj;a lsÍfï udkj whs;sjdislï
wOHdmkhla §u wjOdrKh lrkq
,efí'

9'61

mqkre;a;dmk uOHia:dk lSmhlu
jevigyka meje;ajqKq wdldrh b;d
i;=gqodhl h' thska we;sjk yeÕSu
ksielj u iu.s ikaOdkhg iydh
jkq we;'

9'62'

nQiai /|jqï uOHia:dkfha fhdjqka
fka j dis l hka l< m% l dY wkq j
Tjq k a t,a à àhg n,y;a l drfhka
n|jd f.k we;' fpdaokd ke;sj
ta iuyreka r|jd ;ndf.k we;'
fï isoaê úNd. fldg ksis mshjr
.ekS u g úfYa I jev ms < s f j,l
wjYH;dj w;=re ks¾foaY j,ska o
olajd we;'

9'63'

r|jd isák whf.a f;dr;=re
,eîu Tjq k a f .a mjq , a j , whf.a
whs;sjdisluls' Tjqka ms<sn|
myiqfjka f;dr;=re ,nd .ekSfï
l%uhla ;sìh hq;= h'

9'64

/|úhkag wod< ks¾foaY wvq ke;sj
l%shd;aul lrùug wdKavqj Wkkaÿ
lsÍu fldñiu lrkq we;'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Photobucket.com

/|úhkag ie,lSu

kS;sh yd hqla;sh mis|,Su
i¾j idOdrK úh hq;=hs'
tfia isÿfõo'''''

39


/|úhkaf.a
iqnidOkhg
jev
ms<sfj,la
wjYH nj
ks¾foaY
lruq'

9'65'

/oúhka yuqùu ta mjq,a idudðlhkaf.a
whs ; s j dis l uls ' iuyr f;dr;= r e
m%udKj;a fkdjQ wjia:d we;' ÿr
neyer isg meñKsh o uqqK .eiSug
fkdyels jQ wjia:d o we;' r;=l=rei
jeks wod< ixúOdk j, iydh we;sj
ta mjq,aj, whg meñKSfï myiqlï
iemhSu fhda.H h'

9'66

nQiafia iy ´ukaf;a wê wdrlaIs;
ia : dk j, /|úhka yuq ù ug;a "
r;=l=rei ixúOdkhg Tjqka .ek
lghq;= lsÍug;a fhdod we;s myiqlï
w.h l< hq ; = h' /|úhka f .a
iqnidOkhg jev ms<sfj,la wjYH
nj ks¾foaY lruq'

9'67'

ish¨ /|jqï ia:dk n,h ,;a ia:dk
úh hq;= h' w;awvx.=jg .ekSfï §
l=ú;dkaishla §u" r|jk ia:dk .ek
f;dr;=re iemhSu .ek kS;s ms<m
s eÈh
hq;= h'

9'68'

fhdjqka /|úhkaf.a wOHdmkh ì|
jeàu ksid Tjqka .ek úfYaI jev
ms < s f j,la fhÈh hq ; = h' iuyr
/|úhkag cd;sl úNd. j,g u.
fmkaùu w.h l< hq;= h'

9'69

<uhska" wdndO iys; jQjka" ;=jd,
iqj fjñka isák wh .ek isÿùï"

40

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Lankapuvath

t,aààB igkaldóka mqkre;a:dmkh fjñka

ffjoH ueÈy;aùï y÷kd .ekSug
mßlaIK jev ms<sfj,la wjYH h'
iuyrekag WmfoaYk fiajd iemhsh
hq;= h'
9'70

fldñifï wka ; ¾jdr ks ¾ foa Y
wkq j /|úhka iEfyk ms ß ilg
wdKavqj fiajd iemhSu fldñiu
w.h lrhs ' tfia jq j o È.= l ,a
r|jdf.k is á k whg fpda o kd
bÈßm;a lsÍu fyda ksoyi ,nd §u
i|yd ;S r Kd;a u l ms h jr .;
hq;=h'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

41


9'71
ish¨ kS;s
úfrdaê
ikakoaO
lKavdhï
ksrdhqO
l<hq;= njg
fldñiu
l<
wka;¾jdr
ks¾foaY h<s
isysm;a lruq

42

mqkre;a:dmkhg m;a jQ wh idudkH
is ú ,a Ôú;hg iïnka O ls Í ug
jevigyka ;sìh hq;= h' ta i|yd
isú,a iudc ixúOdk u.ska úYd,
jevfldgila l< yels h'

ks;s úfrdaê ikakoaO lKavdhï
9'72

i|yka ld, iSudj ;=< kS;s úfrdaê
ikakoaO lKavdhï j, l%shdjka
ksid uyck;dj ìhg m;aj isá w;r
jrog o~qjï fkd,nk jgmsgdjla
úh' tu lKavdhï lr we;s kS;s
úfrda ê l% s h d uQ , s l whs ; s j dis l ï
W,a,x>kh lsÍu h'

9'73

m%udKj;a idlaIs we;súg §
Tjqkag tfrysj fpdaokd bÈßm;a
ls Í ug ks i s mßla I K meje;a ú h
hq;= h'

9'74'

ish¨ kS;s úfrdaê ikakoaO lKavdhï
ksrdhqO l<hq;= njg fldñiu l<
wka ; ¾jdr ks ¾ foa Y h<s is y s m ;a
lruq ' ls i s ÿ ms h jrla fkd.ekS u
.ek fldñiu lK.dgq fjhs '
tfia l%shdl<d kï Wohka mqj;a
mf;a l;=jrhdg t,a, jQ m%ydrh
isÿfkdjkakg ;sìKs' iu.s ikaOdkh
Wfoid tu mshjr w;HjYH h'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Photo from BBC

nd,jhialrejka hqoaOhg
n|jd .ekSu'
9'75

foudmshkaf.a idlaIs wkqj nf,ka
hqo lghq;=j,g n|jd .;a orejka
fndfyda fofkl= wd.sh w;la ke;'
th .egqï iufha § t,aààh l<
nrm;, wmrdOhls'

9'76

t,a à àh yer fjk;a lKa v dhï
o tfia <uhska hqo lghq;= i|yd
n|jdf.k ;sìK' tfy;a TMVP
f,i" mqkre;a:dmk flduidßia yd
hqksfi*a ish¨ <uhska ksoyia lsÍug
.súiqula w;aika l< nj i|yka l<
hq;= h'

9'77'

hqoaOhg miqj wdKavqfõ m%uqL;dj
úhhq;af;a ysgmq <ud fid,aodÿjka

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

43


<uhska
nf,ka
igka i|yd
n|jd .ekSu
.ek idlaIs
;sfnk úg
wod< whg
tfrysj
kS;sh
ls%hd;aul
l< hq;= h'

44

mqkre;a:dmkh lsÍu h' wdKavqj tu
ld¾h i;=gqodhl f,i lr we;' ta
i|yd ;jÿrg;a úúO rdcH fkdjk
ixúOdk j, iydfhka tu m%cduQ,
jevigyk l%shd;aul l< hq;= h'
9'78

mqkre;a:dmk jev igyka ksujQ
jydu tu <uhskag ish mjqf,a wh
iu. Ôj;aùug" Ôjk ud¾.hla ,nd
.ekSug" wOHdmkhg bv ie,iSu
l< hq;= h'

9'79

<uhska nf,ka igka i|yd n|jd
.ekSu .ek idlaIs ;sfnk úg wod<
whg tfrysj kS;sh ls%hd;aul l<
hq;= h' tu ms<sfj; u;= we;s fkdùu
i|yd kS;suh mshjr jeo.;a fõ'

9'80

tu <ud fid,aodÿjkag /lshd wjia:d
iemhSug fm!oa.,sl wxYfha iydh
,nd.; yels h' /lshdjl fhfok
w;f¾o wOHdmk myiqlï iemhsh
hq;= h'

9'81

ikakoaO .egqug ueÈ jQ <uhska h<s
ish mjq,a iu. tluq;= lsÍfï jev
ms<sfj<la i|yd wka;¾ cd;sl iy
foaYSh ixúOdk j, iydh ,nd.;
hq;= h'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Global Peace Support Website

9'82

t,a à àB ielldr <uhs k a ms < s n |
fjk fjku úNd. fldg
fkdmudj kS;sfhka ls%hd lsÍu fyda
mqkre;a:dmkh fyda ksoyia lsÍu
l< hq;= h'

myiqfjka úm;g f.dÿre úh yels
lKavdhï
^idudkH&
9'83

ia;S%ka" <uhska" irKd.;hka" wdndO
iys; jQjka hk whg hqo .egqfuka
fndfyda ÿla fõokd we;s fldg
;sfí' miq hqo iufha fuu msßig
uQ,sl wjYH;d imqrd,Su yd úi÷ï
fiùï wdKavqfõ m%uqL;djla úh

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

45


hq;= h' thska f;drj ;srdir iu.s
ikaOdkhla we;s l< fkdyels h'
Tjqyq ujqmshka
/ln,d
.ks;s' Tjqkag
iqrlaI;
s Ndjh
iy udkj
.re;ajh
iy;sl
lsÍug ls%hd
l<
hq;= h'

9'84

.egqfï m%Odk m%ydrhg f.dÿre ù
we;af;a ia;S%ka" <uhska iy uy,a,ka
h' fndfyda ia;k
%S a f.a iajdñ mqreIhka
wysñ ù we;' tjka ÿIalr;d ueo
Tjqyq ujqmh
s ka /ln,d .ks;'s Tjqkg
a
iqrlaIs;Ndjh iy udkj .re;ajh
iy;sl lsÍug ls%hd l< hq;= h'

9'85

fufia úm;g fndfyda fokd ;u
mjqf,a kEoEhka Ôj;aj isákjdo hkq
±k.ekSfï wdYdfjka isá;s' ke;akï
wjika hq;=lï bgqfldg wjidkhla
olSug n,dfmdfrd;a;= fj;s' th bgq
lsÍu iqjm;aùug o" w¾:dkaú; iu.s
ikaOdkhlg o fya;=jls'


ia;S%yq

46

9'86

wdKavqfõ ixLHdj 59000la jQ ia;S%
uQ,sl l=gqïnhka fj; iqn idOkh
ie,iSu hqoaOfhka miq úi÷ï fiúh
hq ; = wNs f hda . hla fuka u iu.s
ikaOdkhg o fya;=jls'

9'87

fndfyda ia;S%kaf.a iajdñ mqreIhka
ñh f.dia h' ke;akï wd.sh w;la
ke;' wúksYaÑ; ld,hla iuyre
l|jqrej, isá;s' tjeks ÿla fõokd
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: International Crisis Group website

;sìh§;a Tjqka tu l=gï
q nfha <uhsk"a
jeäysáhka /l n,d.; hq;= h'
tfyhska Tjqkag Ôjk ud¾.hla"
wdodhï Wmhk l% u hla ie,is h
hq;=h'
9'88

tu ldßfha § wka;¾ cd;sl iy foaYh
S
isú,a ixúOdkhkays ±kqu yd iïm;a
,nd .ekSug wdKavqj uq,aúh hq;= h'
m<d;a md,k foaYmd,k kdhl;ajhg
iy isú,a iudc ixúOdkj,g fï
úm;g m;a msßif.a udkisl iqjh
Wfoid úi÷ï fiùug myiq l ï
ie,lsh hq;= h'

9'89

È.a .eiqKq hqoaOh yd mjqf,a msßñka
wysñùu ksid wOHdmkh lvdlmam,a
jQ ia;S%yq isá;s' Tjqkag úêu;a fyda
fkdúêu;a wOHdmk myiq l ï

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

47


ia;S%kag
;uka
iqrlaIs;
nj;a"
;u udkj
.re;ajh
/flk
nj;a ta;a;=
.ekaúh
hq;= h'

,nd §u;a" jD;a;Sh mqyqKqjla fyda
Ôjk ud¾.hla ie,iS u ;a l<
hq;= h'
9'90

tu ia;k
%S g
a ;uka iqrlaI;
s nj;a" ;u
udkj .re;ajh /flk nj;a ta;a;=
.ekaúh hq;= h' iu.s ikaOdkfha
mQ ¾ jdjYH;djla jYfhka tjeks
jgd msgdjla we;s lsÍu wdKavqfõ
j.lSula nj fldñifï woyi h'

9'91

mq o a . ,hla wd.s h w;la ke;s ù u"
meyer .ekSu" w;a;fkdau;sl fyda
È.=l,a r|jd ;eîu" w;=reoyka lsÍu
wdÈh ia;S%kag Rcqju n,md we;af;a
Bg f.dÿre jQfha ;u Ôúldj /l
ÿka ieñhka" mshjreka" mq;=ka fyda
ifydaorhka neúks' ;u wdorKShhka
isák ;ekla ke;akï" i;Hh yd
kS;u
s h m%;l
s ¾u ,nd .ekSu Tjqkf
a .a
mq r jeis whs ; s j dis l uls ' iduQ y s l
iu.s ikaOdk m%h;akhlg th mQ¾j
wjYH;djls'

9'92

fuu .eg¨j,g l,a mj;sk úi÷ï
fidhd.; yelafla wka;¾ wdh;ksl
mßY%uhlska nj fldñifï woyi h'
by; i|yka úm;g f.dÿre jQ ish¨
fldgia iïnkaO úi÷ï fiùug;a"
wjYH iyk iemhSug;a yels ld¾h
n,ldhla fkdmudj msysgqúh hq;=h'

48

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Photo by Campana.cz

<uhs
9'93

<uhskag wOHdmk myiqlï iemhSu
fldñiu ;Èka u ks ¾ foa Y lrhs '
mdi,a" .=refiajd" mdi,a WmlrK"
uQ , H myiq l ï fuka u Ys I H;a j
l%uhla we;s lsÍu jeo.;a fõ' ish¨
<ud ks j di j,g o ta myiq l ï
iu. fi!LH iy uQ , H Wmldr
w;HjYH h'

9'94

m%pKav .egqfï § ;u uj
fyda mshd wysñ jQ orefjda
±ä lïmkfhka ÿla mSvd
ú¢;s' wOHdmkh o ì|jeà we;' isú,a
ixúOdk iydh f.k Tjqka y÷kd
.ekSug;a" úi÷ï fiùug;a Wkkaÿ
úh hq;= h'

9'95

wdKavqj" m<d;a md,k wdh;k" isú,a
ixúOdk wdÈhg ks¾foaY lrkafka"

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

49


mdi,a" fi!LH fiajd" úfkdao ls%hd
iys; <uhskg
a ys;lr mßirhla we;s
lrk f,i h'

tu mjq,aj,
;;ajh jeä
ÈhqKq lsÍfuka jeäysáfhda
jhia.;hkaf.a 9'96 .egqug f.dÿre jQ jhia.; jQfjda
nr ieye,a¨
wmuK ÿla ú¢;s' ;u ore uqKqmqrka
lsÍu" úúO
ñKsmsßhka ke;sùu ksid Tjqkaf.a
fi!LH .eg¨
mjq,a /l n,d .ekSfï nr megù
flfrys o
we;' Tjq k a f .a ldhs l udkis l
wjOdkh fhduq
ÿIa l r;d y÷kd.; hq ; = h' tu
l< hq;= h'
mjq,aj, ;;ajh jeä ÈhqKq lsÍfuka
jhia.;hkaf.a nr ieye,a¨ lsÍu"
úúO fi!LH .eg¨ flfrys o
wjOdkh fhduq l< hq;= h'

50

9'97

Tjqka ú¢k lïmkhg úi÷ï
fiùug wOHd;añl yd ixialD;sl
jev igyka Wmfhda.S lr .; yels
h' fï iïnkaOfhka isú,a ixúOdk
iy wd.ñl wdh;kj,g jeä
fufyjrla bgq l< yels h' wdKavqj
Bg myiqlï iemhsh hq;= h'

9'98

mjq,aj, bmehSfï fh§ isá fndfyda
fokd ±ka wdndOj,g ,laj isá;s'
Tjqkag Wmldrùu yÈis wjYH;djls'
wka ; ¾cd;s l ixúOdk j,s k a Bg
iydh ,nd.; hq;= h' Tjqkf
a .a wd¾Ól
wjYH;d flfrys ±ä wjOdkhla
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Ngaire Lawson

fhduq l< hq;= h' ixialD;sl yd
wOHd;a ñ l wjYH;d flfrys o
wjOdkh fhduqúh hq;= h'
9'99 T j q k a g m % c d l K a v d h ï f , i
ixúOdkh ùug Èß.ekaúh hq;= h'
9'100 wdndO iys; whf.a whs;sjdislï
ms<sn| cd;sl kS;s tlai;a cd;Skaf.a
iïuq;s wkqj ilia l< hq;= nj
ks¾foaY lrhs'
wNHka;rj wj;ekajQfjda
9'101 .egq f ï wjika Nd.fha § jeä
fofkla wj;eka jQy' Tjqkf
a .ka jeä
fokl= fï jkúg h<s mÈxÑ lrjd
;s î u .ek fldñiu i;= g q f jhs '
mÈxÑ lrjkq ,enQ whf.a wjYH;d
;j ÿrg;a mj;S' Tjqkaf.a Ôú; h<s
f.dv ke.Su .ek wjOdkh fhduqúh
hq;= h'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

51


m%udKj;a
mdi,a"
mdrj,a"
frday,a
jeks há;,
myiqlï
j¾Okh
úh hq;= h'
iafõÉPd
yd isú,a
ixúOdk
Bg Wkkaÿ
lrúh
hq;= h'

9'102 Tjqka wdmiq heùfï ls%hdj,sh o
fndfyda ÿrg iïmQ¾K lsÍu .ek
wdKavqjg;a fiiq iydhlhskag;a
m%Yxidj ysñ fõ' Tjqkaf.a wLKav
wjYH;d o iïmQ¾K l< hq;= h'
9'103 wdmiq ksfjia n,d tk whf.a tu
ksjdi h:d ;;ajhg m;a lr .ekSug
wfkHdkH Y% u odk jev igyka
fhÈh yels h' m%udKj;a mdi,a"
mdrj,a" frday,a jeks há;, myiqlï
j¾Okh úh hq;= h' iafõÉPd yd
isú,a ixúOdk Bg Wkkaÿ lrúh
hq;= h'
9'104 h<s mÈxÑ jk whf.a bvï kS;suh
f,i ksrjq,alr §u wjYH h'
9'105 h < s Ô ú ; f . d v k . d . e k S u
i|yd my< uÜgfï is g m% c d
ixj¾Ok jev i|yd Èß .ekaúh
hq;= h'
9'106 uq,a ia:dkj, h,s mÈxÑùu i|yd
wka;¾cd;sl m%;sm;a;s wkqj hdfï
Bfï ksoyi ;yjqre úh hq;= h' ta
.ek wdKavqfõ m%;sm;a;sh o meyeÈ,s
lsÍfuka jerÈ jegySï ;=rka jkq
we;'
9'107 wdrlaIdj we;=¿ uyck wjYH;d
imqrd,sh hq;f
a ;a NS;h
s iy wúYajdih

52

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Opportunity for All website

hqoaOfhka miq kj mdi,a werö'''

ke;s jgdms g djl h' ienE iu.s
ikaOdkhlg t<ôh yelafla tjeks
;;ajhla ;=< muKs'
9'108 wj;eka ù bkaÈhdfõ isák whg
leue;af;ka h<s YS% ,xldjg meñKSfï
§ ish¨ wjYH;d iemhsh hq;= h'
foaYSh wj;eka jQjka yd Tjqka w;r
fjkiafldg ie,lSula fkd;sìh
hq;= h' meñKSu i|yd ys;d u;d
;SrKhla .ekSug bkaÈhdj iu.
oaúmd¾Yaùh tlÕ;djla we;s lr .;
hq;= h'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

53


W;=re iy kef.kysr uqia,sï
m%cdj iïnkaO ldrKd
uqia,sï
wj;eka
jQjka ms<sn|
.eg¨j
h<s mÈxÑ
lrùu
ms<sn|
fjkia
fkdjk
rdcH
m%;sm;a;shla
u.ska úi¢h
hq;= h

9'109 1990 isg t,aààBfha ;¾ck ksid
hdmkh" ukakdru" ls,sfkdÉÑh"
uq,;sõ" jjqkshd hk m%foaYj,ska
wj;eka jQ uq i a , s ï m% c dj ms < s n |
.eg¨j m% O dk wNs f hda . hls ' th
iu.s ikaOdkh flfrys o fnfyúka
n,mdhs'
9'10

fuu .eg¨j fkdúi÷jfyd;a "
wiu. shg yd u;fNaohg yd
u;fNaohg fya;=úh yels h'

9'11

È.a . eiq K q hq o a O fha m% ; s M ,hla jQ
uqia,sï wj;eka jQjka ms<sn| .eg¨j
h<s mÈxÑ lrùu ms < s n | fjkia
fkdjk rdcH m%;s m;a;shla u.ska
úi¢h hq;= h' i;aldrl m%cdjka w;r
fyda ;u uq,a ia:dkj, mÈxÑ ùug
Tjqkag bv ie,ish hq;= h'

9'112

tjeks rdcH m%;sm;a;shlg uQ,Huh
iy øjHuh iydh lÜg,hla ;sìh
hq;= h'

9'113

ta i|yd wj;eka jQjkaf. ka woyia
,ndf.k lsh
% d lsÍug úfYaI lñgqjla
m;a l< hq;= h'

54

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Eelanatham.info website

Wohka mqj;a m;g t,a, jQ m%ydrh fy<d olsk udOHfõ§ Woaf>daIKhla'''

woyia m%ldY lsÍfï
ksoyi iy f;dr;=re ,nd
.ekSfï whs;sjdislu
9'114 udOH lrejkag myr§u" urd
±óu" udOH wdh;k úkdY lsÍu
jeks isÿùï .ek mÍlaIK fldg
jrolrejkag o~qjï §fï j.lSu
;ju;a tfiau mej;Su .ek fldñiu
±ä lkiai,a,g m;a fõ' fldñiu
/ia j k úg§u Wohka mq j ;a m f;a
ixialdrlg myr§u .ek lïmd jk
w;r th fy,d olsuq' ta .ek mÍlaId
fldg jrolrejkag kvq fkdmejÍu
iu.s ikaOdk ls%hdj,shg yd kS;sfha
wdêm;Hhg ndOdjls'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

55

9'115

udOH
lrejkag
iy
wdh;kj,g
myr§u
je<elaùug
mshjr .;
hq;= h'

woyia m% l dYkfha ks o yi ljr
iu.s ikaOdkhlg jqjo w;HjYH
h' uQ,sl whs;sjdislï ne£ï wkqj
udOH ksoyi ÈhqKq l< hq;= h' th
iSud lsÍu ckjd¾.sl msßi w;r
ìh;a wúYajdih;a we;s lsÍuls' iu.s
ikaOdkh je<elaùfï tu ls%hdj,sh
±kg;a isÿfjñka mj;S' my; i|yka
ks¾foaY ta ksid h'
w'

udOH lrejkag iy wdh;kj,g
myr§u je<elaùug mshjr .;
hq;= h'

wd' wmrdO hq l a ; s h .ek uyck
úYajdih we;s lsÍug tu jro
l< jqkag tfrysj kS;sh
ls%hd;aul l< hq;= h'
we' läkñka mÍlaIK yudr lsÍug
mshjr .; hq;= h'
wE' W;=rg iy kef.kysrg udOH
lrejka g hdu Bfï ks o yi
;yjqre l< hq;= h'
b'

9'116

56

f;dr;=re ,nd .ekSfï
whs;sjdislu iy;sl jk kS;s
mekúh hq;= h'

ljr ;sridr iu.s ikaOdk
lsh
% dj,shlg jqjo" ksoyfia weoySfï"
ixúOdk meje;aùfï" .uka ìuka
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Global Peace Support Website
Photo Courtesy of Steve Chao

wd.ñl ksoyig;a yuqod wdrCIdj''''

hdfï jd;djrKhla wjYH h'
lsisu rdcH wdh;khlska" wdrlaIl
yuqodj,ska fmd,sisfhka th iSud
fkdlrk njg iy;sl úh hq;= nj
fldñiu wjOdrKh lrhs'
9'117

wê wdrla I l l,dm we;= ¿ yeu
m%foaYhl u we;s wd.ñl ia:dkj,g
hdu" ìï fndaïn bj;a lsÍfï § yer
iSud fkdl< hq;= h'

9'118

iSud mekùfuka f;drj W;aij iy
/iaùï ixúOdkhg ksoyi ;sìh
hq;= h'

9'119

iSud mekùula ke;sj" h<s mÈxÑ jQ
m%foaYj, kEhka ñ;=rka yuqùug
tfia hk whg bv ;sìh hq;= h'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

57

w;S; mÍlaIK fldñiï
jd¾;d .ek miq úmru
9'120 2006 ;sl
% K
= du,fha YsIHhka mia fokd
m<d;l
>d;kh iy 2006 rdcH fkdjk
ck.yk rgdj
ixúOdkhl 17 fokl= >d;kh
wiajdNdúl
.ek fiùug m;a l< fldñiïj,
f,i fjkia
lsÍu wdKavqfõ
ks¾foaY wkqj jrolrejkag tfrysj
bvï m%;sm;a;sh
kS;suh mshjr .; hq;= nj fldñiu
fkdúh hq;= h'
±ä f,i ks¾foaY lrhs' thska iu.s
ikaOdk ls%hdj,shg Èßhla ,efnkq
we;'

yhjeks m¾Éfþoh

bvï .eg¨ ( ;u bvïj,g wdmiq
hdu iy h<s mÈxÑùu
9'121

È. .egqulska miq rg h:d ;;ajhg m;a
lsÍu myiq ke;;a kS;s úfrdaë bvï
meyer .ekSu iaÓr meje;aula lsÍu
iy th wdh;k.; lsÍu je<elaùu
jeo.;a h' th fkdúi÷fkd;a
wkd.; .egqïj,g h<s uq, msÍula
jkq we;'

9'122 mYapd;a .egqï wjia:dfõ h<s mÈxÑ
lrùfï § bvï .eg¨ m%uqL fõ'
ñks i q k a bvïj,g whs ; s j dis l ï
lSu yd w;am;a lr .ekSu ixlS¾K
58

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: TamilNewsNetwork Website

>d;khg ,la jQ ;s%lKdu,fha isiqka mia fokd'''

.eg¨jla fõ' tfyhska .egqug fmr
;;ajh we;s lsÍu wiSre fõ'
9'123 by; lS ;;ajhg YS% ,xldj o uqyqK
md we;' fldñifï ks ¾ foa Y ta
;;ajh u; mokï fõ'
9'124 YS % ,xldfõ ´kEu mq r jeis h l= g
rfÜ kS ; s Í;s j,g wkq j bvï
w;am;a lr .ekSug;a" ;uka leu;s
;ekl n,mEula ke;s j jdih
ls Í ug;a we;s whs ; s h wys ñ l<
fkdyels h' hï m<d;l ck.yk
rgdj wia j dNdúl f,i fjkia
ls Í u wdKa v q f õ bvï m% ; s m ;a ; s h
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

59


YS% ,xldfõ
´kEu
mqrjeishl=g
rfÜ kS;s
Í;s j,g
wkqj bvï
w;am;a lr
.ekSug;a"
;uka leu;s
;ekl
n,mEula
ke;sj
jdih
lsÍug;a
we;s whs;sh
wysñ l<
fkdyels h'

fkdúh hq;= h' bvï fnod yeÍu
l< hq;af;a wdKavq l%u jHjia:dj
wkqj h'
9'125 wj;eka jQ j ka wdmiq hdfï §"
h<s mÈxÑ lrùfï § wdKa v q j
±rE bvï m%;sm;a;sh w.h lruq'
bvï f,a L k.; fldg ks r jq , a
lsÍu i|yd fhfok 2011 cQ,s jev
igyk o w.h lruq ' ld¾hd,
yd Widú ÿIalr;d j,ska ksoyia
hdka;%Khla fh§ug W;aidy .ekSu
fhda.Hh'
9'126 tfy;a fuu jev igyk" bvï Tmamq
ke;s wj;eka jQ j ka i|yd njg
ckhd ±kqïj;a l< hq;= h' th j,x.=
bvï Tmamj
q la wj,x.= lsÍfï l%uhla
fkdúh hq;= h'
9'127 fldñifï ks¾foaY fufia h'
9'128 ie,iqï l< mßÈ ljr .eg¨jla jqjo
id¾:l f,i wm%udoj úi|k nj
iy;sl lsÍfï" foaYmd,kfhka f;dr
tfy;a foaYmd,k wêIaGdkfhka hq;a
msúiqula fhdod.; hq;= h' wjYH
udkj yd uQ,H iïm;a wdKavj
q úiska
iemhsh hq;= h'
9'129 jev igyka j, wmlaImd;s;ajh iy
idOdrK;ajh iy;sl lsÍug n,j;a

60

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Courtesy of CPA

mßmd,k lemùula wjYH h' th
wëlaIKh wod< Èidm;s jrekag
o" tys .=Kd;aul Ndjh ksÍlaIKh
bvï ms<sn| uyflduidßia jrhdg
o mejßh hq;= h'
9'130 jev igyk id¾:l úh yelafla"
foa Y md,lhka " ls % h dldÍka " rdcH
ks,OdÍka" m%cdkdhlhka iy
m%;s,dNSka tys mrud¾: yd l%ufõoh
ks i elj jgyd .ekS u wkq j h'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

61


foaYmd,k
m%o¾Yk j,ska
f;drj" kj
jev igyk
.ek ksjerÈ
woyila
§ug bvï
9'131
flduidßia
fckrd,a
fomd¾;fïka;j
=
úiska udOH
iïuka;%Khla
meje;aùu
iqÿiq h'
9'132


9'133

62

hym;a is;ska l<;a fuf;la m<
ù we;s f;dr;=re wkqj mrud¾:h
yd l% u fõoh .ek meyeÈ,s lr
ke;' udOHh iy foa Y md,lhka
ksjerÈ f;dr;=re m< fkdlsÍfuka"
j¾;udkfha ls%hd;aul fjk;a bvï
lghq ; = iu. l,jïùu;a ks i d
jHdl+, f;dr;=re m;< ù we;'
foaYmd,k m%o¾Yk j,ska f;drj"
kj jev igyk .ek ks j erÈ
woyila §ug bvï flduidßia
fckrd,a fomd¾;fïka;=j úiska
udOH iïuka ; % K hla meje;a ù u
iqÿiq h'
bvï flduidßia fckrd,a
fomd¾;fïka;=j iy Èidm;sjreka
yjq,a ù ks,Orhkag iy
m%cdkdhlhkag ie,iqï l<
mq y q K q j la ,ndÈh hq ; = h' .eg¨
úi£u" isoaê wOHhk" mqyqKq l%u
iys; ir, w;afmd;la u; mqyqKqj
mokï úh hq;= h' fï i|yd úfYaI{
wdh;khla fhdod.; yels h'
jev igyfkka iemefhk fiajdjka
.ek wj;eka jQjkag wjfndaOhla
§ug Tjqka úiska l=ula flfia l<
hq;= o lshd ir, fou< niska yd
isxyf,ka ixksfõok jev ms<f
s j,la
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Colombo Telegraph.com

wdrlaIl yuqod isú,a
mßmd,kfhka jyd bj;a úh
hq;= nj fldñiu ks¾foaY
lrhs'

Èh;a l< hq ; = h' ths k a m% ; s , dN
,eîug fmrg taug Tjqkag th Wojq
jkq we;'
9'134 wdrlaIl yuqod isú,a mßmd,kfhka
jyd bj;a úh hq;= nj fldñiu
ks¾foaY lrhs' we;eï bvï wdrlaIl
yuqod m%fhdackhg .ekSu wdrlaIl
wjYH;d i|yd jqj;a mÈxÑ ùug
uyckhdg bv ie,iSfï m%;m
s ;a;h
s g
m%uqL;dj Èh hq;= h' tu bvï yels
Wmßuh uqod yeÍu blaukska l<
hq;=j we;'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

63


9'135
bvï
flduidßia
fomd¾;fïka;=jg
ksmqK;d
iys;
úY%dñlhka
f.ka
m%fhdack .;
yels h'

jev igyfka § m%cd Wmfoia ,nd
.ekS f ï wjia : djla ;s î u w.h
fldg i,luq ' m% d foa Y S h f,a l ï
m%foaYj, mÍlaIK lñgq ;eîug
fmr —m% c d Wmfoia úuiq ï ˜ /
iaùï meje;aúh hq;= h' h<s meñKs
yd mÈxÑ jQ ckhdg ;uka f.a
.eg¨ bÈßm;a lrñka mÍla I K
ls%hdj,sh ÈhqKq l< yels h' bvï
.eg¨ úif|k wdldrh;a" ;ukag
weyqï lka fok njg úYajdih;a
ths k a we;s fõ' Wmfoia úuiq ï
/ia ù ï j, § idïm% o dhs l bvï
lÉfÉß l% u h Wmfhda . S lr.;
yels h'

9'136 m% c djf.a fhda c kd i,ld ne,S u
i|yd hdka;%Khla msysgqúh
hq;= h'
9'137 jev igyk ld¾hlaIu yd m,odhl
lr .ekSu Wfoid bvï flduidßia
fomd¾;fïka;=jg ksmqK;d iys;
úY%dñlhkaf. ka m%fhdack .; yels
h'
9'138

64

by; i|yka ks ¾ foa Y ls % h d;a u l
ls Í ug w;s f ¾l uq o ,a yd ld,h
wjYH h' tfy;a thska jev igyk
Yla;u
s ;a jk w;r ck;djg m%;,
s dN
jeä fõ'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Centre for Human Rights

fldñiu bÈßfha idCIs fok wjia:djla - ;s%l=Kdu,h

9'139 W;= r e kef.kys r ienEjg u
bvï ke;s mjq,aj,g bvï m%odkh
lsÍug jev igyk wfmalaId lr
we;' fojkqj mÈxÑ ù isák wh
tys uq,a wjirm;a orkafkda kï
muKla m%odkh lsÍu ksjerÈ h'
tfy;a jxpkslj ;j;a bvï ,nd
.ekSug fojeks mÈxÑh Ndú; lsÍu
je<elaùug mÍlaIK fldñiu u.ska
Tjq k a g ienEjg u bvï keoa ± hs
fidhd ne,sh hq;= h'
9'140 jev igyk ls%hd;aul jk f;la"
wNHka;r wj;eka jQjkag" rcfha
wjYH;djka g yer" rcfha bvï
wka i ;= ls Í u ±ä f,i md,kh
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

65


wdrlaIl
lghq;=
i|yd
.ekqKq
fm!oa.,sl
bvï"
wdrlaIl
wjYH;dj
o i,ld"
yels muK
ksoyia l<
hq;= h' tys
bvï wysñ
jQ whg
úl,am bvï
,nd§u fyda
ksYaÑ;
ld,hla ;=<
jkaÈ f.ùu
ks¾foaY
lruq'


66

l< hq ; = h' jHdc Tma m q ud¾.
fhka bvï mejÍu is ÿ ù we;'
Bg iïnka O rcfha ks , Orhka "
kS;{
s hka" fkd;dßiajrekag tfrysj
kS;s u.ska ls%hd l< hq;= h'
9'141 jev igyk lsh
% d;aul lsÍug wka;¾
cd;sl uQ,H iydh ,nd.; yels
h' tfy;a bvï wxYhg uqo,a jeh
lsÍu ukao.dó ùu je<elaùug jev
igyfka" m%;sm;a;sh" ;SrK .ekSu
yd ls%hd;aul lsÍu wdKavqj hgf;a
mj;sk njg wjfndaOh we;s l< hq;=
h'
9'142 m,d,s f ha iy ;s % $ idïmQ ¾ ys wê
wdrlaIs; l,dm l=vd lr we;s w;r
wvla muK ckhd .ïìï j,g hjd
we;' wdrlaIl lghq;= i|yd .ekqKq
fm!oa.,sl bvï" wdrlaIl wjYH;dj
o i,ld" yels muK ksoyia l< hq;=
h' tys bvï wysñ jQ whg úl,am
bvï ,nd§u fyda ksYaÑ; ld,hla
;=< jkaÈ f.ùu ks¾foaY lruq'
9'143 zw¨f;ka wj;eka jQ mjq , a j ,gZ
Ôjfkdamdh iydh §fï ld,h §¾>
l< hq;= h' W;=re m<df;a iuyr
;ekaj, th §¾> lsÍu w.h lruq'
fuh ixj¾Ok yjq , a l rejka f .a
iydfhka l< yels h' f.dùkag iq¿
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source:

kef.kysr m<df;a lDIs bvï j,ska t,aààBh úiska fk/mqKq uqia,sï
mjq,aj,g tu .eg¨j läkñka úi|d Èh hq;= h'

Kh iemhSu" f.dú iuqmldr j,g
g%elag¾ iemhSu we;=¿ Ôjfkdamdh
iydh ;j;a mq¿,a l< hq;= h' jdß c,
iïmdokh wLKavj mj;ajdf.k
hdu iqÿiq h'
9'144 kef.kysr m<df;a lDIs bvï j,ska
t,aààBh úiska fk/mqKq uqia,sï
mjq , a j ,g tu .eg¨j läkñka
úi|d Èh hq ; = h' hq o a O h wjika
ù we;;a " úfYa I fhka uvl,mq j
m%foaYfha m%.;sh wi;=gqodhl h'
9'145 h d m k h È i a ; s % l a l f h k a m , j d
yßkq ,enQ is x y, mjq , a ms < s n |
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

67


;u bvï
j,g
hdug
leu;s
whg
Bg bv
ie,ish
hq;= h'

f;dr;=re wiïmQ¾K h'
jd¾.sl yeÕSï l=ms; fkdjk mßÈ
úêu;a fidhd ne,Sula l< hq;= h'
;u bvï j,g hdug leu;s whg
Bg bv ie,ish hq;= h'
9'146 W;=re m<df;ka m,jd yßkq ,enQ
uqia,sï ckhd h<s meñKSu yd mÈxÑ
lrùfï m%.;shla we;s njg hdmkh"
uka k dru" uq , ;s õ Èidm;s j re
f;dr;=re imh;s' b;sß wh;a tys hdug
leu;skï tu myiqlï blauka l<
hq;= h'
9'147 t,aààB m%ydr ksid mjqf,a Wmhkakka
>d;khg ,la jQ mjq,a iy zrd;s%fha
wj;ekaùugZ ,la jQ mjq,j
a , Ôj;aùu
ms<sn| .eg¨ wu;l lr oud we;'
thska jeä yßhl .Dy uQ,l
s fhda ia;y
%S q
h' Tjqka f.a j;auka .eg¨ fidhd
úi÷ï fiùug úfYaI hdka;%Khla
ieleish hq;=hhs fldñiu ksßfoaY
lrhs'
9'148 W;=re kef.kysr fm!oa.,sl
bvïj,ska mÈxÑ lrejka nf,ka
m,jd yer ;s ì h § fjk;a wh
mÈxÑùu kS;Hdkql+,úu je<elaùug
wod< mj;sk kS;s ixfYdaOkh l<
hq;=h'

68

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Land
Commissioners Dept Website

cd;sl bvï m%;sm;a;shlg u. fmkaùu i|yd wdKavqj
cd;sl bvï fldñiula blaukska msysgqúh hq;= h'

9'149 1980 isg 2008 olajd wj;eka ù we;s
merKs wNHka;r wj;eka jQjka .ek;a
fldñifï wjOdkh fhduq fõ' rch
iy fjk;a md¾Yaj lrejkaf.a ls%hd
fkdlsÍu fyda fyñka lsh
% d lsÍu ksid
Tjqkag fjkialula isÿ ù we;snj
lshefõ' tu .eg¨jgo fuys bÈß
ks¾foaY wod< fõ' Tjqkaf.a .eg¨
wOHhkh fldg h<s mÈxÑùu
ms<sn| jev ms<sfj,la ieliSu iu.s
ikaOdkh i|yd m%fhdackj;a fõ'
ish¨ wj;eka jQjkag we;af;a iudk
whs;sjdislï h'
9'150 iqÿiq cd;sl bvï m%;sm;a;shlg u.
fmkaùu i|yd wdKavqj cd;sl bvï
fldñiula blaukska msysgqúh hq;=
h' rcfha bvï idOdrK f,i fnod
yeÍu i|yd tu.ska m%;sm;a;shla
ilia l< hq ; = h' oy;= k a jk
jHjia:d ixfYdaOkh hgf;a th
wjYH;djla jqjo fï ;dla th isÿ
fkdùu lK.dgqjls'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

69


9'151
cd;sl
.eg¨ f,i
y÷kd.;
hq;= w;r
wdKavqfõ iy
úmlaIfha mgq
foaYmd,k
jdis i|yd
tajd Ndú;
fkdlrk
f,i;a
fldñiu
ks¾foaY
lrhs'

W;=rg iy kef.kysrg wod<j bvï
mßyrK ie,eiaula ilia l< hq;=
h' j;auka iy wkd.; mrïmrdjkays
ðú;fha .= K d;a u l Ndjh ms K s i
mßirh" ffcj úúO;ajh" wd¾Ól
ixj¾Okh" úfõlh" úfkda o h"
wd.ñl ixialD;sl iy mqrdúoHd;aul
wvú /l .ekSu ms<sn| úfYaI{hka
f.a iyNd.s;ajfhka tu ie,eiau
ieleish hq;= h'

9'152 by; i|yka isÿùï cd;sl .eg¨
f,i y÷kd.; hq;= w;r wdKavqfõ
iy úmlaIfha mgq foaYmd,k jdis
i|yd tajd Ndú; fkdlrk f,i;a
fldñiu ks ¾ foa Y lrhs ' cd;s l
iu.sh Wfoid tjeks m%fõYhla we;s
lr .ekSu uekú'
y;ajeks mßÉfþoh

ysñlu wdmiq ,nd§u $ jkaÈ iyk
ms<sn| ksÍlaIK iy ks¾foaY
9'153

ysñlu wdmiq ,nd§u kS;s uQ,O¾uhla
f,i jeo.;a jk w;r jkaÈ iy uQ,H
iyk o fmdÿfõ n,dfmdfrd;a;= jkq
we;'
f.ùï ,eîug iqÿiq whg idOdrK
ld, rduqjla kshu l< hq;= h'

70

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Centre for Human Rights

9'154 ;%ia;jd§ m%ydr iy yuqod fufyhqï
j,ska ydksjQ whg jkaÈ iyk §fï
wdKa v q f õ m% ; s m ;a ; s h ls % h d;a u l
lsÍfï úfYaI{ wdh;kh jkafka
REPPIA fyj;a mqoa.,hka" foam<
iy l¾udka; mqkre;a:dmk
wêldßhhs'
9'155

fldñiu
bÈßfha
idCIs fok
wjia:djla
- hdmkh

jkaÈ iyk j,g wod< uQ,O¾uhka
fldñiu i,ld n,d we;' .egqï
j,s k a miq wjYH;d imq r d,S u g
frmshd (REPPIA) wdh;khg
we;s ld¾hNdrh iy yels h dj
rch úis k a iudf,da p kh l<
hq;= h'

9'156 ydks jQ whg iyk iemhSug Èh hq;=
f.ùï imqrd,Sug wjYH wruqo,a
ysÕù we;' mßmd,k ndOd myiqfjka
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

71


ksis
fj,djg
mQ¾K
f.ùï
lsÍu
wdKavqfõ
j.lSu
h' w;miq
ùug yd
m%udohg
fya;= jk
wruqo,a
ysÕùu
je<elaúh
hq;= h'

úi|d.; yels h' tfy;a wruqo,a
.eg¨j fkdúi|d ljr m%.;shla
fyda ,nd.; fkdyels h'
9'157 ksis fj,djg mQ¾K f.ùï lsÍu
wdKavqfõ j.lSu h' w;miq ùug yd
m%udohg fya;= jk wruqo,a ysÕùu
je<elaúh hq;= h'
9'158

9'159 .egqfï wjidkh olajd isÿ jQ ydks
i|yd f.ùï lsÍug ld, iSudjla
kshu l< hq;= h' ta ksid f.jkq
,eîï w;HjYH wjia:dfõ ,nd.;
yels ùu;a" frmshd wdh;kfha j.lSu
iïmQ¾K ùu;a thska bgqfõ'
9'160 ld,h ;S r Kh ls Í fï §" b,a ¨ ï
lsÍug iEfyk ld,hla §u" t,aààB
md,kh hgf;a isg wj;eka jQjka
.ek i,ld ne,Su isÿl< hq;= w;r
thg iEfyk m% i s o a ê hla ,ndÈh
hq;= h'
9'161

72

ish¨ ysñlï imqrd,k njg
iy;slùu i|yd frmshd wdh;kh
ld, rduqjla kshu l< hq;= h'

tu ckhdf.a wjYH;d imqrd,Sug'
wOHdmks l iy Ôjfkda m dh jev
igyka ;S r Kd;a u l h' tfy;a
frmshd wdh;kfha j.lSu jkafka
jkaÈ iyk iemehSuhs'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: World Bank website

wdmiq meñfKk wNHka;r wj;eka jQjka f.a ksjdi .eg¨j jkaÈ iyk
ie,ish hq;=hs'

9'162 urK" ;= j d," ks j di iïnka O
f.ùïj, § fmdÿckhd iy rcfha
fiajlhka fj; frmshd wdh;kh
m%uqL;dj Èh hq;= h' rdcH fkdjk
ixúOdk ksjdi wdOdr §fï§ rcfha
fiajlhska fkd;ld yer we;' th
h<s;a i,ld ne,sh hq;= h'
9'163 jkaÈ jeä lsÍug frmshd wdh;kfhka
b,a,d we;' tfy;a w;miq jQ f.ùï
yd f.dv .eiS we;s b,a,Sï wkqj th
l< yelshhs fldñiu fkdis;hs' h<s
f.dvke.Su yd mÈxÑ lrùu iy;sl
lsÍfï wvq;eka mqrjk fhdackd l%u
fh§u fhda.Hhs'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

73


h<s mÈxÑ
lsÍï iy
ixj¾Ok
jev ie,iqï
iu.
fi!LHh"
wOHdmkh"
wdydr"
c,h iy
lDIs l¾uh"
há;,
myiqlï
wdÈh o
ie,lsh
hq;= h'

74

9'164 t,a à àBhg iïnka O jQ whf.a
urK iy ;=jd, i|yd jkaÈ §u
iqÿiq jkafka iu.s ikaOdk ±lau
ksid h' tfy;a frmshd wdh;kfha
m%uqL;dj úh hq;af;a ydkshg m;a
isú,a jeishka h'
9'165 wdmiq meñfKk wNHka;r wj;eka
jQjka f.a ksjdi .eg¨j jkaÈ iyk
iy frms h d wdh;kfha n,;,
j,ska Tíng hk lreKls' ta i|yd
wdKavqj cd;sl iy wka;¾ cd;sl
iïm;a iydh fiúh hq;= h'
9'166 jkaÈ iyk ie,iSu wksla iyk
j,ska fjkafldg ie,lsh fkdyels
h' h<s mÈxÑ lsÍï iy ixj¾Ok jev
ie,iqï iu. fi!LHh" wOHdmkh"
wdydr" c,h iy lDIs l¾uh"
há;, myiqlï wdÈh o ie,lsh
hq;= h'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Adaderana

wgjeks mßÉfþoh

1 jeks fldgi ( hqoaOfhka miq
iu.sikaOdkh ms<sn| ksÍlaIK
9'167 .egqug Rcqj fyda jl%j n,mEula
fkdjQ whf.a idla I s fld<U §
bÈßm;a úh'
9'168 fldñiu my; i|yka jd¾;d i,ld
ne,S h' 2011 - h<s mÈxÑ lsÍu ^W;=re
m<d;& ixj¾Okh yd wdrlaIdj .ek
ckdêm;s ld¾h n,ldfha jd¾;dj"
uy nexl= jd¾;dj" wd¾Ól ixj¾Ok
wud;HxYfha jd¾;dj iy udkqISh
lghq ; = iïnka ë lrK ld¾hd,
jd¾;dj'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

75


9'169 h<s mÈxÑ ls Í u" Ôjk ud¾."
wOHdmk" ffjoH" m% j dyk iy
Tjqkaf.a mQ¾K
iaÓr ksjdi .eg¨j,g ^uqo,a wdOdr
Yla;sh rgjeis
yd mefla c hka we;= ¿ j& úi÷ï
hym; Wfoid
i|yd iduQysl mßY%ufhka úYd,
m%fhdackhg
m%.;shla ,nd we;' lDIsl¾u yd ëjr
.ekSug
ksIm
a dokh yd há;, myiqlï ÈhqKq
.súiqï.;
ù we;' tfy;a ;ju w; fkd.eiQ
jev ms<sfj<la
.eg¨ we;' iuyr ëjr m%foaYj,g
;sìh hq;=h
hdug n,m;% wjYH h' jdßh c,dY
mqkr;a:dmkh iïmQ¾K l< hq;= h'
iuyr ;ekaj, h<s mÈxÑh i|yd
;S r K .ekS u g wjYH ,s h ls h ú,s
iemhSu ÿIalr ù we;' .=re ksjdi
iemhSu o .eg¨jls'

²

bvï jdiia:dk nrm;, .eg¨jls'

²

úm;g f.dÿre úh yels lKavdhïj,
wjYH;d .ek úfYaIfhka ie,lsh
hq;= h'

²

isú,a mßmd,kh ;ju;a ukao.dóh'
wjYH .% d u ks , Orhka m;a f ldg
ke;'

9'170 ;sia jirl úkdYldÍ hqoaOfhka
miq .eg¨ úi£ug ld,h" uq o ,a
iy iïm;a wjYH h' wdKavqj W;=r
kef.kysr iïnkaOfhka tu lem
lsÍu lr we;af;a foaYSh úfoaYSh
ixj¾Ok yjq,a lrejkaf.a iydh
76

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: The Sunday Leader

úm;g f.dÿre úh yels lKavdhïj, wjYH;d .ek
úfYaIfhka ie,lsh hq;= h'

o we;sj h' Tjqkaf.a mQ¾K Yla;sh
rgjeis hym; Wfoid m%fhdackhg
.ekSug .súiqï.; jev ms<sfj<la
;sìh hq;=h hkq fldñifï woyi
h'
9'171

h<s f .dv keÕS u iy ixj¾Okh
i|yd odhl jk w;r wdrla I l
yuqod we;eï úg iq¿ jHdmdr yd
f.dú;eka j , fhfo;s ' we;eï
;ekaj, ksjdi m%;s,dNSka f;dard
.ekSug yuqodj ueÈy;a fõ' W;=r

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

77


úm;g
f.dÿre
úh yels
lKavdhïj,
wjYH;d
.ek
úfYaIfhka
ie,lsh
hq;= h'

78

kef.kysr iuyr rdcH f.dvke.s,"s
fm!oa.,sl bvï yuqodj mßyrKh
lrhs ' yuq o dj is ú ,a lghq ; = j ,g
ueÈy;aùu" bvï Ndú;h l%udkql,
+ j
k;r l<hq;= nj fldñiu ks¾foaY
lrhs'
9'172 is ú ,a mßmd,lhka úis k a o;a ;
úYaf,aIKfha § tu Èia;s%lalj,
m% . ;s h yd .eg¨ jd¾;d ls Í ug
taldldr yd úksúoNdjfhka hq;=
l%uhla fhÈh hq;= h' wvqmdvq yd
m%.;sh iei£u wjYH h' tfy;a
úIh úúO;ajh ksid th wmyiq
jqj;a mq¿,a wjfndaOhg iydh jkq
we;'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: w3lanka.blogspot

ielfha" ìfha" wúYajdifha iy m%pKav Ndjfha ixialD;sh ;=rkal< hq;= h'

wgjeks mßÉfþoh (

2 jeks fldgi
iu.s ikaOdkh ms<sn| ksÍlaIK
iy ks¾foaY
9'173 oYl ;=kl muK reêrh je.srùfuka
miq úúO ck fldgiaj,g iu.s
ika O dkhg wjia : dj u;= f ldg
we;' tfyhska idOdrK" wmlaImd;"
újD; iy úúO;ajh iys; iudc
±laulao" wysñùï" ÿla mSvd ms<sf.k
jkaÈ iy iudc idOdrK;ajh iy
iyfhda.s;dj m%ldY lsÍu o wjYH
ù ;sfí' fmdÿ ,laIK yd fjkialï
ms<s.ekSu" wúYajdih" w.;sh fkd
bjiSu iu.s ikaOdkfha yrhhs'
9'174 ielfha " ìfha " wúYa j difha iy
m%pKav Ndjfha ixialD;sh ;=rka
lsÍug wjYH tlsfkldg weyqïlka
Èh yels bvla újD;j mj;S'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

79


foaYmd,k
mlaIj,
tÈßjd§
foaYmd,kh
yer oud
cd;sl .eg¨
.ek talu;sl
;SrK .ekSula
;sìh hq;=
h' fï
i|yd Tjqka
yeufokdg
u foaYmd,k
wêIaGdkhla
;sìh hq;= h'

9'175 fldñiu iu. woyia fnod.;a
fndfyda fokd b;d meyeÈ,s fohdldr
mKsjqvhla § we;'
9'176 m<uqj" fõokdldÍ È. .egqulska
miq is h ¨ ck fldgia ;s r idr
iduh" wdrlaIdj" ñ;%Y,
S ;
S j
a h" iqix.
uh m% d ¾:kd lr;s ' foa Y md,k
kdhlhka g úi¢h fkdyels jQ
iy úi£ug wleue;s jQ .eg¨j,g
úi÷ï fiùu msKsi fï Y=oaO N+ñfha
h<s reêrh fkdje.sÍug l<yels
ish¨ foa ish¨ fokdu l<hq;=hs
Tjqyq tlÕ fj;s'
9'177 fojeksj" ;%ia;jdoh wjika lsÍu;a"
n,.;= úOdhl ckdêm;s jrhl=;a
ksid ish¨ ck fldgia w;r iu.s
ikaOdkh" ñ;%;j
a h yd iyfhda.;
s dj
j¾Okh l< yels h' ish¨
mqrjeishkaf.a whs;sjdislï iy;sl
lsÍug wjia:djla ,eî we;'
9'178

80

iu.s ikaOdkh Wfoid kï rch
iq¿;r ck;dj fj; hd hq;= w;r
iq¿;r ck;dj rch iy Bg iïnkaO
;u ld¾hNdrh h<s kshu lr.;
hq;= h'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Colombo Telegraph

Colombo Telegraph.com

.egqu ksu ù jir folla .; jqjo" foaYmd,k Ôú;fhys m%pKav;ajh"
wúYajdih iy fjkiafldg ie,lSu ;ju;a mj;S'

9'179 f o a Y m d , k m l a I j , t È ß j d §
foaYmd,kh yer oud cd;sl .eg¨
.ek talu;sl ;SrK .ekSula ;sìh
hq;= h' fï i|yd Tjqka yeufokdg
u foaYmd,k wêIaGdkhla ;sìh
hq;=h'
9'180 fndfyda fokd fldñiug lSfõ"
wdrlaIl yuqod ,nd.;a ch.%yKh
idufha iy wdrla I dfõ o" l,a
mj;akd ñ;%;ajfha" iu.sfha iqix.
ufha hq.hla i|yd jQ foaYmd,k
ls % h dj,s h l ms y s g q ú h hq ; = nj h'
th bgqlr .; yelafla fN!ñl
wLKav;dj yd iaffjÍNdjh iu.
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

81


fldñiu
wjOdrKh
lrkafka
fuu
ls%hdj,shg
uQ,slùfï
j.lSu
we;af;a
wdKavqjg
nj h

m%cd;ka;%jdoh" bjid ord .ekSu iy
n,h fnodyeÍu .ek /l.;a jákdlï
iu. h'
9'181

.egqu ksu ù jir folla .; jqjo"
foaYmd,k Ôú;fhys m%pKav;ajh"
wúYajdih iy fjkiafldg ie,lSu
;ju;a mj;S' hqoaOfhka miq idu
jev ms<sfj<l m%udoh Bg fya;=j
úh yels h'

9'182 tu ksid fldñifï fuu ks¾foaY
iy ksÍlaIK we;s jQfha fldñiu
yuq f õ ±la j q K q wjia : djka wkq j
h' ta i|yd uÜgï ;=kl iduQysl
mßY%uhla wjYH h' tkï" foaYmd,k
kdhl;ajh" isú,a iudch iy tla
tla mqrjeishd jYfhks'
9'183

fldñiu wjOdrKh lrkafka fuu
lsh
% dj,shg uQ,l
s ùfï j.lSu we;af;a
wdKavqjg nj h' iu.s ikaOdkh
È.gu mj;sk ls%hdj,shla ñi tla
jrla isÿjk fohla fkdfõ' f;dard
m;alr .ekqKq wdKavqjla úiska È.g
u tu ls%hdfõ ksr; úh hq;= w;r
th mq¿,a mokulska úh hq;= h'

9'184 fou< ck;djf.a ienE ÿla .ekú,s
flfrys jßkajr meñKs wdKavqj,g"
úi÷ï fiùug fkdyelsùu
82

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

ckjd¾.sl .egqfï uQ, fya;j
=
nj fldñifï woyi h'
9'185

.egqug fya;= fidhd úi÷ï
fiùug foaYmd,k úi÷ula
w;HjYH h' ta .ek fndfyda
fokd l;d lr;s' tfy;a frda.
úksYaph iy T!IOh .ek
lsisu tlÕ;djla ke;'

fou< ckhdf.a ÿla .ekú,s
9'186 .egq u iy tys fya ; = .ek
l;sldfõ§ fou< ckhdf.a
ÿla .ekú,s ukd f,i olajd
we;'
9'187

tu ÿla .ekú,s isxy, fou<
iïnkaO;dfõ § È.gu m%ldY
fjhs ' .egq f uka miq iu.s
ikaOdkh iy iduldó
iyÔjkh f.dv ke.Sfï uq,a
mshjr thhs'

fou< ckhdf.a ÿla .ekú,s
ukd f,i olajd we;'

Y%S ,xldfõ nyq;r - iq¿;r
in|;djkaf.a ft;sydisl miqìu
9' 188 iq ¿ ck;djka f .a ÿla .ekú,s
fjkq f jka fida , a n ß fldñIka
jd¾;dfõ iEfyk bvla lemlr
we;'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

83


tod ;snqKq
wdKavqj
fou<
mqrjeishkag
ksis
wdrlaIdjla
iemhSfuka
b;d ÿIag
f,i
je<elsK'

9'189 . e g ¨ ú i £ u g m ß m d , k i y
jHjia:d m%;sl¾u wjYH
jq j o iq ¿ ;rfha yd nyq ; rfha
wfkHdkH mej;= ï j, fjkila
ke;s j ths k a m,la fkdjk nj
fida , a n ß fldñifï woyi h'
.egqug fya;= úuiSfï§ wmg ±ka
wod< jkafka o fuu ksßlaIKh nj
fuu fldñifï o woyi h'
9'190 ÿla .ekú,s j,g úi÷ï fiùfï
l% s h dj,s h tod foa Y md,k{hka
ukd f,i yiqrejd ke;' ydkshg
m;a iq¿;rhkag .re;ajfhka
ie,l= K q l% s h dj,s h la fkdù h'
fou< ck;djf.a fõokdldÍ
yeÕSï u;=jkafka tu widOdrKlï
j,sks'
9'191

ckj¾. w;r ;SrKd;aul fNaoh
u;=jQfha 1958 § h' h<s 1977 § u;=ù
1983 § biau;a;g meñKsfha h' tod
;snqKq wdKavqj fou< mqrjeishkag
ksis wdrlaIdjla iemhSfuka b;d
ÿIag f,i je<elsK' isxy, fou<
ck;djka w;r in|;d ì| ±uQ fuu
m%pKav ixialD;sh .ek wjfndaOhla
fkd,nd fou< m%cdjf.a ÿla .ekú,s
j,g úi÷ï fiúh fkdyels h'
fou< ck;djf.a;a" hqoaOfha;a úiQ
ish¨ ck fldgia j,;a ÿla .ekú,s
9'200 isg ±lafjkq we;'

84

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Refugee -Agath Blog

uqia,sï ck;djf.a ÿla .ekú,s
9'192 uqia,sïjrekaf.a .eg¨ wdrïN jQfha
1990'10'30 Èk uqia,sï mÈxÑlrejka
;=jlal=fõ n,fhka t,aààh úiska
W;= f rka m,jd yeÍu iu.u h'
W;=f¾ iy kef.kysr lrkq ,enQ
ckj¾. w;=.d ±óug uqia,sïjre
f.dÿre jQy'
9'193 t f i a m , j d y ß k q , e î f u k a
wdKa v q f õ;a " wka ; ¾cd;s l iy
foaYSh iy úfoaYSh rdcH fkdjk
ixúOdkj,;a wka;¾cd;sl m%cdfõ;a
m%uqL;d ,ehsia;=fõ w. nj Tjqkag
úYajdi lrkakg isÿfõ'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

85


wj;eka
jQ uqia,sï
ckhdg ;u
uq,a mÈxÑ
ia:dk
fj; hdug
wdKavqj
myiqlï
ie,ish
hq;= h'

9'194 wj;eka jQ uq i a , s ï ckhdg ;u
uq , a mÈxÑ ia : dk fj; hdug
wdKavqj myiqlï ie,ish
hq;= h'
9'195 t,aààh úkdY l< wd.ñl ia:dk"
mdi,a iy ksjdi h<s f.dv ke.Sug
wdKavqj jyd mshjr .; hq;= h'
9'196 w¨;s k a wj;eka jQ j ka muKla
wka;¾cd;sl iy foaYSh wjOdkh
fhduqùu ksid merKs wj;eka jQjkag
fjkia fldg ie,fl;shs hk yeÕSu
we;sfjhs' wdKavqj w;aika l< ish¨
udkj whs ; s j dis l ï f,a L kj,
moku iuidOdrK;ajh iy
fjkiafldg fkdie,lSu h' merKs
w¨;a fjkila ke;sj ie,lsh hq;=
nj ixj¾Ok yjq,alrejkag ta;a;=
.ekaùu wdKavqfõ j.lSu h'
.egqï m%foaY wdikak .ïj, ðj;a jQ
isxy, ckhdf.a ÿla.ekú,s
9'197 t,aààB NSIKfhka Èú .,jd .;a
isú,a jeishka wdKavqj wu;l l<
nj Tjqkaf.a yeÕSu h' wdrlaIs;
m%foaYj,g fkdf. dia ìysiqKq
;¾ck iu. Tjqka Ôú; f.jd
we;' Bg wu;rj Tjqka wOHdmkh"
/lshdj ms<sn| .eg¨ j,g

86

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

uqyqK md
we;' iudkj
ie,lSfï
wjYH;dj
Tjqyq m%ldY
lr;s'
9'198 fuu ck;dj
iyk ie,iSug
Tjqkaf.a
wjYH;d .ek
wdKavqj wOHhkhla l< hq;= h'
9'199 iudk iïm;a fjka ls Í u yd
ixj¾Okh fï .ïj,g wdKavqj
iy;sl fkdl<fyd;a úfYAIfhka
kef.kys r m<df;a úúO ckhd
isák .ïj, w¨;a .eg¨ u;=úh
yels h'

j;=lrfha ck Ôú;h
hym;a lsÍug wdKavqj
mshjr .; hq;= nj
fldñiu ks¾foaY lrhs'

bka§h iïNjhla we;s fou<
ckhdf.a ÿla .ekú,s'
9'200 j;= m% f oa Y j, wOHdmk" fi!LH
.eg¨ iy Ôjk ÿIa l r;d .ek
Tjq k a fldñiug lreKq ola j d
we;' myiqlï iy jvd fyd| ðjk
;;a;ajhla we;s lsßug;a wdKavqj
mshjr .; hq;= nj fldñiu ks¾foaY
lrhs'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

87


hqoaOfhka
miq
ixj¾Okh
iy iu.s
ikaOdk
jevigyka
j,g j;=
m%foaY
ckhdf.a
.eg¨
úi£ug
wdKavqj
mshjr .;
hq;= nj
fldñiu
ks¾foaY
lrhs'

9'201 hqoaOfhka miq ixj¾Okh iy iu.s
ikaOdk jevigyka j,ska j;= m%foaY
ckhdf.a .eg¨ úi£ug wdKavqj
mshjr .; hq;= nj fldñiu ks¾foaY
lrhs'
úiÿï fiùu iy iu.s ika
Odkh iïnkaO .eg¨ - kS;sfha
wdêm;Hh meje;aùug fkdyelsùu
9'202 fndfyda fokd fldñiug ls h d
isáfha foaYmd,k wkq.%yh ,nk
mqoa.,hka wmrdO l< kuq;a jrog
tfrysj kS;sh l%shd;aul fkdjQ nj
h' iduh yd ia:drNdjh yrh jQ
ljr fyda iu.s ikaOdkhla w¾:j;a
ùug kï kS ; s f ha wdêm;Hh;a "
kS ; s f ha úks ú o Ndjh;a " ia j dëk
wêlrKh;a w;HjYH fohla nj
h' ck;djka w;r .egqï ks¾udKh
lf<a n,h fnodyeÍula ke;slu;a"
hymd,kh ke;s l u;a kS ; s f ha
wdêm;H fkd;elSu;a h'
9'203 fldñifï idlÉPd w;r;=f¾§ mek
keÕ=K .eg¨
w'

88

foa Y md,k in|;d we;s wh
wmrdO l< úg Tjq k a f .ka
m%Yak lsÍug kS;s ks,Orhka
wiu;ah'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Daily News Pix By Nalin Hewapathirana

.sks wú foaYmd,kh kS;s.rel mqrjeishkag
uy;a .eg¨ we;sfldg ;sfí'

wd' .egqu wjika jqjo kS;sfha yd
idufha .eg¨ mj;S' ikakoaO
lKavdhï lmamï .ekSu"
meyer .ekSï" w;=reoyka lsÍï"
fld,a , lEï we;= ¿ fndfyda
wmrdO È.gu lrk ks i d
W;=re kefÕkysr ckhd ;e;s
.ekSfuka Ôj;a fj;s' iuyr
foaYmd,lfhda kS;h
s fkd;l;s'
wmrdOlrejka iu. we;s
iïnkaOh ksid Tjqyq fmd,sish
iu. wêlrK ud¾.h ÿ¾j,
lr;s'
we' .s k s wú foa Y md,kh kS ; s .
rel mqrjeishkag uy;a .eg¨
we;sfldg ;sfí' foaYmd,lhka
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

89


wkjir .sks
wú ;uka i;=j
;nadf.k isák
9'204
mqoa.,hka
ksrdhqO
lsÍug;a"
jerÈlrejkag
tfrysj kvq
mejÍug;a
wdKavqj
9'205
läkï mshjr
.; hq;= hhs
fldñiu
;Èkau ks¾foaY
lrhs'

90

iy Tjq k a f .a wdOdrlrejka
.s k s wú Ndú;h fldñiu
±ä lkiai,af,ka ksßCIKh
lrhs'
wkjir .s k s wú ;uka i;= j
;ndf.k isák mqoa.,hka ksrdhqO
lsÍug;a" jerÈlrejkag tfrysj
kvq mejÍug;a wdKavqj läkï
mshjr .; hq;= hhs fldñiu ;Èkau
ks¾foaY lrhs'
fuu jd¾;dj ,shoa§u" ksu fjñka
mej;s m<d; md,k ue;sjrKfha§
tlu mCIfha foa Y md,k{hka
fofofkla fjä ;nd .;ay' >d;k
lS m hls ' Tjq k a w;r iyfhda .
hla ke;s l u;a " .eg¨ úi£ug
m%pKav;ajh fh§u;a iu.s
ikaOdk l%shd j,sfha § uyck
ksfhdð;hkaf.ka wfmaCId lrk
wdo¾Yh fkdfõ'

9'206

my; i|yka isÿùï úfYaIfhka
u;=fldg ±lafjkafka fldñiug
,enqKq idlaIs wkqj h'

9'207

kef.kysr m<df;a Ndr;S
keue;a;l= úiska meyerf.k hdu"
lmamï .ekSu" fld,a,lEu .ek
isÿùï /ila .ek kS;s wdh;k
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: AFP /Getty Images
Pix by Sena Widanagama

j,g fhduql< kuq;"a lsiu
s mshjrla
fkd.ekSu iïnkaOfhka fldñiu
lK.dgqj m<lrhs' fmd,sia
ks,Orhka yhiShla iu. meyer
.kq ,enQ fÊHIaGhka fofofkl=
we;=¿ y;r fofkl= l< fpdaokdj
wkq j tu ms ß i ks r dhq O fldg
urd ±óu lf<a tjl kefÕkysr
t,aààB kdhl lreKd h'
fldñiu Tyq f .ka m% Y a k l<
úg Tyq tu fpda o kd m% ; s f CIa m
lf<a h'

fmd,sia
ks,OdÍka
yhiShla
ksrdhqO fldg
urd ±óu .ek
tjlg
kef.kysr
t,aààB
kdhl lreKd
flfrys
fpdaokd
t,a, ù we;'
Tyq wo fï
fpdaokdj
m%;sfCIam
lrhs'

fmd,sia ks,Orhka yhiShla
urd ±óu .ek fï;dla ls i s u
mßCIKhla lr ke;' wmrdOfha
nrm;,lu iy iu.s ikaOdkhg
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

91


fmd,sia
ks,Orhka
yhiShla
urd ±óu
.ek
fï;dla
lsisu
mßCIKhla
lr ke;'
wmrdOfha
nrm;,lu
iy iu.s
ikaOdkhg
tys we;s
n,mEu
ksid mQ¾K
mßCIKhla
l< hq;= nj
fldñifï
woyi h'


92

tys we;s n,mEu ks i d mQ ¾ K
mßCIKhla l< hq;= nj fldñifï
woyi h'
9'208

BmSãmS idudðlhka msßila nf,ka
uqo,a ,nd .ekSu iïnkaO meñKs,s
lS m hla u we;' fï .ek mQ ¾ K
mßCIKhla fkdmeje;ajqjfyd;a
jrog o~q j ï ke;s j .e,ù hd
yelsh hk yeÕSu we;s lrhs'

9'209

l,a,h
s la fufyhjñka fïc¾ iS,ka
keue;a;d meyerf.k hdu" nf,ka
uqo,a .ekSu" fld,a,lEu iïnkaO
fpdaokd /ila ,eìK' wdrCIl
yuqod uqjdfjka Tyq fufia l<
nj fldñiu fmd,sishg ±kqï Èks'
Tyqf.a yjq,alrejl= w;awvx.=jg
.;a kuq;a Tyq ;ju;a ksoyfia
isà'

9'210

kS;s úfrdaê ikakoaO l,a,s iïnkaO
fldñifï wka ; ¾jdr ks ¾ foa Y
l%shd;aul lrk f,i b,a,d isà'

9'211

tu ks ¾ foa Y ;ju;a l% s h d;a u l
fkdlsÍu .ek fldñiu lkiai,a,
m< lrhs'

9'212

m<d;a fmd,sia ks,Orhkag wmrdO
mßlaIKh" kS;suh l%shd ms<sfj,
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: SLTJ web.com

iy wmrdO hqla;sh iïnkaOfhka
u. fmkaùu" Wmfoia §u i|yd
kS;sm;s fomd¾;fïka;=fõ m<d;a
tall msysgqúh hq;= hehs fldñiu
±äf,i ks¾foaY lrhs'
9'213

foaYmd,k in|lï fkd;ld by;
i|yka jerÈ l<jqkag kS;s u.ska
o~qjï meñKúh hq;= hhs fldñiu
wjOdrKh lrhs' túg wêlrK
mßmd,kh flfrys ck;djf.a
úYajdih we;sjkq we;'

9'214

kS;sh yd iduh mj;ajd .ekSfï
j.lSu mejreKq fmd,sia
fomd¾;fïka;=j isú,a wdh;khls'
rdcH wdrlaIdfõ j.lSu mejereKq
ika k oa O yuq o d iu. fmd,s i a
iïnkaOh wfydais lsÍu fhda.H
h'

9'215

fmd,s i s f ha rdcldßh ks i s f ,i
ls Í u;a " uyck úYa j dih Èkd
.ekSu;a Wfoid iajdëk fmd,sia
fldñiu;a msyg
s q úh hq;= h' fmd,sia
fiajh wëlaIKhg;a" iajdëkj
l%shd lrñka Wiia jD;a;Sh
uÜgula mj;ajd .ekSug;a tjeks
fldñiulg n,h mejßh hq;= h'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

kS;sh yd iduh mj;ajd
.ekSfï j.lSu mejreKq
fmd,sia fomd¾;fïka;=j
isú,a wdh;khls'

93


md,klrKh iïnkaO .eg¨
rdcH
wdrlaIdfõ
j.lSu
mejereKq
ikakoaO
yuqod
iu.
fmd,sia
iïnkaOh
wfydais
lsÍu
fhda.H h'

9'216

mßmd,k wvqmdvqlï iy
hymd,khla ke;slu ish¨
mqrjeishkag n,mdk njg
fldñiug idlaIs ,eìK' tjka
iduQysl l%shdjl wjYH;dj olajhs'
iq¿;rhkag ydkslr f,i l%uh
fhfok úg ksYaÑ; mshjr .;
hq;=h'

9'217

foaYmd,k ixialD;sh wkqj
uyck fia j djla ,nd .ekS u g
foa Y md,kh u; r|d mej;S u g
isÿùfuka uyckhd wirK
fn,ySk ;;a;ajhg m;a fõ'

mqrjeis ÿla.ekú,s úi£ug
úfYaI wdh;khla
9'218

94

mßmd,kh ms < s n | md¾,s f ïka ; =
flduidßiajrhdf.a ^Tïnqâiauka&
ld¾h Ndrh .ek we;s j;auka kS;h
s
rdcH l%h
s d ksid we;sjk .eg¨ j,g
úi÷ï fiùug m%udKj;a ke;'
1994$26 mk;ska ixfYdaOkh lr
we;af;a fm;aiï l%shd mámdáh
muKs'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Kobeita.Interna.pl

Photo source: Daily Mirror

úOdhl yd mßmd,k l%shd ksid
we;sjk úfYaIfhka iq¿;r
ckhdf.a ÿla.ekaú,sj,g úi÷ï Èh
yels iajdëk wdh;khla msysgqúh
hq;= hhs fldñiu ks¾foaY lrhs'
Bg n,.;= mßlaIK wxYhlao ;sìh
hq;= h'
9'219

´kEu mqrjeisfhl=g úOdhl fyda
mßmd,k l%shd u.ska úfYaIfhka
ckjd¾.sl;ajh fyda wd.u mokïj
we;s j k ÿla .eka ú ,a , lg tu
iajdëk wdh;kfhka m%;sl¾u ,nd
.ekSfï whs;sjdislu ;sìh hq;= h'

9'220

fuu wdh;kfha ;S k a ÿ l% s h djg
ke.Sfï úêúOdk ;sìh hq;= w;r
n,h wksis f,i fh§u .ek o~qjï
mekúh hq;= h'

9'221

fuu úfYaI wdh;kfha ld¾hhka
fmda I Kh lrk hdka ; % K hla
Èia;%slal j, yd m<d;aj, msysgqjd
m%cduQ, idu lñgq j,ska m,.;
yels h'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

95


fjk;a l%shdud¾.
9'222
úOdhl yd
mßmd,k l%shd
ksid we;sjk
úfYaIfhka
iq¿;r
ckhdf.a
ÿla. ekaú,sj,g
úi÷ï Èh
yels iajdëk
wdh;khla
9'223
msysgqúh hq;=
hhs fldñiu
ks¾foaY lrhs'
Bg n,.;=
mßlaIK
wxYhlao
;sìh hq;= h'


96

fï .ek ±kg mj;sk l%shd mámdá
.ek iy m%;sm;a;s iudf,dapkh
l< hq;= h' wdKAvqfõ ;SrKj,
mQ¾K úksúoNdjh iy f;dr;=re
uyckhdg ,eìh yels úh hq;=
h' wdKa v q f õ l% s h dmámdá is h ¨
mqrjeishka" úfYaIfhka iq¿;rhka
flfrys jerÈ yeÕSï je<elaùug
wjYH m%;sm;a;s yd p¾hdjka u;
msysgd ;sìh hq;= h'
m%f oaYfha ckhdf.a Wmfoia yd
iyNd.s ; a j h we;s j ixj¾Okh
isÿjk njg wdKavqj iy;sl úh
hq;= h' tys mßmd,khg úksú
s oNdjh
we;s úg tu ixj¾Okhg
;ukag whs;shla we;ehs o cd;sh
f.dvke. Sug ;uka iyNd.s jkq
we;ehs o Tjqka is;kq we;'

9'224

rdcH fia j fha .= K O¾u Èhq K q
lsÍug o" wdl,am fjkila we;s
lsÍug o úfYAI mqyK
q q jevigykla
l%shd;aul l< hq;= nj fldñiu
ks¾foaY lrhs'

9'225

rdcH ks,Orhka m;a lsÍu"
udrelsÍu flfrys md,l mCIfha
foaYmd,lhska ±äf,i weÕs,s .eiSu
ms<n
s | f;dr;=re fldñiu lïmdjg
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: devwijewardane.blogspot. Pix by Dev Wijewardane

m;alrkakla úh' th hymd,kfha
iïmQ¾K wksla me;a;h'
9'226

n|jd .ekSu yd Wiia lsÍu iy;sl
lrk foa Y md,k n,mEï j,s k a
f;dr rdcH fiajhla Wfoid ;Èka
ks ¾ foa Y lrhs ' th wdKa v q l % u
jHjia:dfõ iudkd;au;d kS;shg
o .e,fma'

9'227

lDIsl¾udka;h" ëjr yd tÈfkod
wd¾Ól lghq;= i|yd W;=re m<d;
l% u dkq l + , j is ú ,a mßmd,khg
hg;a lsÍu w;jYH h' ck;djg
iqmr
q eÿ Ôú;hg meñKSug;a" idufha
m%;sM, N=la;s ú£ug;a tu.ska bv
ie,fia'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

ëjr m%foaY
we;eï
tÈfkod
wd¾Ól
lghq;= i|yd
W;=re m<d;
l%udkql+,j
isú,a
mßmd,khg
hg;a lsÍu
w;jYH h'

97


9'228
rdcH
fiajfha
.=KO¾u
ÈhqKq lsÍug
o" wdl,am
fjkila
we;s lsÍug
o úfYAI
mqyqKq
jevigykla
l%shd;aul
l< hq;= nj
fldñiu
ks¾foaY
lrhs'

n,h fnod yod .ekSfï wjYH;djh
9'229

foaYmd,k úi÷ulg ndOlhla jQ
t,aààBh wjika l< miq iu.s
ikaOdkhg jeo.;ajk foaYmd,k
tluq;=Ndjhlg meñKSu w;jYH
nj fndfyda fokd meyeÈ,sj m%ldY
l<y'

9'230

hqoaOhg miq mßirh ;=< ksrka;r
iduh yd wdrlaIdj iy;sl lrk
foaYmd,k l%shdj,shlg wdKavqj
kdhl;ajh §u w;jYH fõ' tys§
t,aààB idudðlhka we;=¿ iEu
ckfldgilu whs;j
s dislï iy;sl
l< hq;= h' ta i|yd n,h fnod yod
.ekSfï jevms<sfj,la ;sìh hq;= h'
tu jevms<f
s j, ms<n
s | iudc wd¾Ól
wjia : d we;s lrjk wdKa v q l % u
jHjia:d j¾Okhlska uqÿkam;a úh
hq;= h'

9'231

n,h fnod yod .ekSu iajNdjfhkau
uyck flakaøSh úh hq;= w;r my;
i|yka lreKq i,ld ne,sh hq;=h'

98

wêlrK úu¾Ykh i|yd wdKavl
q u
%
jHjia:dfjka bvla ke;sùu .ek
meñKs,s fldñiug ,eìK' fhdað;
kS;shla .ek fhduq lsÍug bv
lv ;sìh hq;= h' yÈis mk;a .ek
fY%aIAGdêlrKhg § we;s ld,h

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: The Hindu

1987 bka§h w.ue;s rÔõ .dkaê iy Y%S ,xld ckdêm;s fÊ'wd¾' chj¾Ok
bkaÿ ,xld .súiqug w;aika ;nñka

^w& n,h fnod yod .ekS u l§
rfÜ ck;dj w;r iqxix.uhla
yd tluq;=lula ñi wix.;sh yd
wiu.sh j¾Okh úh hq;= ke;'
ljr n,h fnod .ekS u l jq j o
m%Odk wruqK úh
hq;af;a fuu
tldjka nj iy fmdÿ wkkH;djh
m%j¾Okhhs'
^wd& n,h fn§fuka ls i s ÿ ck
fldgilg wvq ie,ls,a,la fyda
jeä ie,ls , a , la fkdjk nj
iy;sl l< hq;= h' th fjkialï
lrk l% s h dj,s h la fkdjk nj
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

99


muKla fkdj tfia fkdjk nj
fmfkkakg o ;sìh hq;= h'

iduh yd
wdrlaIdj
iy;sl lrk
foaYmd,k
l%shdj,shlg
wdKavqj
kdhl;ajh
§u w;jYH
fõ' tys§
t,aààB
idudðlhkaj
isá we;=¿
iEu
ckfldgilu
whs;sjdislï
iy;sl l<
hq;= h' ta
i|yd n,h
fnod yod
.ekSfï
jevms<sfj,la
;sìh hq;= h'


100

^we& uyckhd n,.ekaùu isÿúh
hq ; a f ;a " wdKa v q l % u jHjia : dfõ
úêúOdk j,g yd wka;¾cd;sl
.súiqï j,g wkqj iy ck;djg
we;s ne£ï mßÈ udkj .súiqï j,g
wkqj iy ck;djg we;s ne£ï mßÈ
udkj whs;sjdislï wdrlaId lsÍfï
rduqj ;=< h'
^wE& n,h fnod .ekSfï § lreKq
follg wdKavqfõ wjOdkh
fhduq úh hq;= h' my<u uÜgfï
ck iyNd.s;ajhla we;sjk mßÈ
m<d;a md,k wdh;k yev.
eiaiùu iy m<d;a
md,k wdh;k yev.eiaùu iy
m<d;a iNd l%ufha wvqmdvqlïj,ska
mdvï bf.kSu h'
th Y%S
,xldfõ w.kd úúO;ajh fmdaIKh
lrk w;r fN!ñl wLKav;dj yd
talShNdjh /lsh hq;= h'
9'232

m<d;a ksfhdað;hka iys; fojeks
uka;%S uKav,hla msysgqùu w;sf¾l
hdka;K
% hla úh yels h' m<d;a j,g
n,mE yels kS;s .ek úu¾Ykh
lsÍu;a" uyck úYajdih;a we;sùug
fya;= jkq we;'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

9'233

ish¨ mCI y÷kd.; hq;= lreKla
jkafka n,h fnod yod .ekSu iu.
foaYmd,k kdhlhka uyckhdg
j.lSug nef|k nj h' th ish¨
ckj¾.hkaf.a wjYH;d imqrd ,k
m% c d;ka ; % j d§ l% u fha l% s h d;a u l
ùuls'

9'234

wNHka;r úi÷ï fiùug ish¨
mCI lemúh hq ; = h' .eg¨j
wkjYH cd;Hka;r ldrKhlao"
vhia f mda r dfõ ndys r mS v kho"
thska úi÷ulg isÿjk n,mEuo
fou< kdhlhka is ; d ne,s h
hq;= h' úi÷ulg ndOdjk
wkdrCIs; yeÕSula thska we;s úh
yels h'

9'235

9'236

n,h fnod .ekSu" iaffjÍ" iajdëk"
ish¨ ckj¾. we;=<;a mq¿,a rdcH
jHqyhla ;=< isÿúh hq;a;la nj
fldñifï woyihs' m¾hka; m%foaY
j,g ksis n,h ;sîu w;HjYH
h' tfy;a uOHfha ;s ì h hq ; =
fnod yod .; fkdyels n,;,o
we;' fnÿïjdohg bv fkd;nk"
rdcHfha talh
S ;ajh yd iaffjÍ;ajh
wdrCId lsÍu o iy;sl úh hq;=h'

ckdêm;s
uyskao
rdcmCI

úmCI
kdhl rks,a
úl%uisxy

uqia,sï
fldx.%ia
kdhl ylSï

;sridr iu.s ikaOdkhl
id¾:l;ajh iy;sl lsÍug

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh
Photo Sources : Lanka Polity Blog / Sinhala24News.com / Lankapuvath.lk
DM Online / Pix by V.V.Krishnan / SriLankan Locos website

fou< cd;sl
ikaOdkfha 101
kdhl wd¾' iïnkaoka

cúfm
kdhl
fidaujxY
wurisxy


ish¨ mCI
y÷kd.;
hq;= lreKla
jkafka n,h
fnod yod
.ekSu iu.
foaYmd,k
kdhlhka
uyckhdg
j.lSug
nef|k
nj h'

meyeÈ,s m%.;shla fmkaùu wjYH
nj fldñiu wjOdrKh lrhs '
my<u uÜgu olajd n,h mejÍu
iy uOHu wdKavqfõ n,h fnod
.ekSu i|yd ta .ek tlÕ;ajhla
we;s lr .ekSug j;auka wjia:dfõ
ioa N djfhka m% h ;a k ±ßh hq ; =
h' tu tlÕ;ajh ;sìh hq;af;a
md,kfha ;Skaÿ .ekSfï § uyck
iyNd.s ; a j h i|yd ñi iq m q r eÿ
foaYmd,k" ks,OdßjdÈ wdh;k.;
iïndOl i|yd fkdfõ'
9'237

tu m%;M
s ,h ,nd .ekSug wdKavj
q g
wjHdc iy ie,iqï.; l;sldjlg
uq,msßh hq;= h' wfmaCIs; l;sldfõ
wdldrh iy wka ; ¾.;h i|yd
wdKavqfõ woyia mokï úh hq;= h'
iq¨;r mCI we;eï foaYmd,k mCI
iu. by< ;,fha ixjdohla úh
hq;= h'

NdId m%;sm;a;sh
9'238

102

n,hg m;a is h ¨u wdKa v q j ,s k a
NdId m%;sm;a;sh l%shd;aul lsÍfï§
fou< ck;dj fldkalr we;ehs
hk yeÕSï fndfyda idlaIs j,ska
m< úh'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Pix by Dena Jayaman

9'239

fldñiu Rcqju w;aÿgq fohls'
tkï wo;a iq¿;r cd;slhkag ;u
jHdmdßl .kqfokq lrkakg isÿù
we;af;a ;ukaf.a NdIdfjka fkdj
wkH NdIdjlska nj'

9'240

fou< l;dlrk fmd,sia ks,Orhka
n|jd .ekS u is ÿ fjñka we;;a
wka ; ¾jdr yÈis ms h jr .ek
ckdêm;sjrhdg l< yÈis ks¾foaY
fuf;la l%shd;aul fkdlsÍu .ek
fldñiu lK.dgqj m< lrhs'

9'241

NdId m% ; s m ;a ; s h iïmQ ¾ Kfhka
l%shd;aul lsÍfï § m%cd uÜgug
fjka jQ ie,iqïo mqrjeis
iyNd.s;ajho ;sìh hq;= h'

9'242

ixksfõfok fkdyelshdjka ksid
ol= f Ka ckhdf.ka W;= r iy
kefÕkysr ckhd fjkaj isá;s'
cd;s h " wd.u" iudc ;;a ; a j h
fkd;ld ish¨ fokd tlsfkldg

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

103


iómh hk yeÕSu we;s lsÍug yeu
W;aidyhlau .; hq;= h' NdIdj
hï cd;shla tlg ne| ;nkakls'
NdId m%;sm;a;s ieleish hq;af;a
tu mrud¾:h bgqlr .ekSug h'
tfy;a rdcH NdId m%;sm;a;shla
l%h
s d;aul l< hq;f
a ;a tu wjfndaOh"
úúO;ajh iy cd;sl taldnoaO;djh
Wfoid h'

iq¨;r
mCI ish¨
foaYmd,k
mCI iu.
by< ;,fha
ixjdohla
úh hq;= h'

104

9'243

tlsfkldf.a NdId isxy, iy fou<
bf.kSu iEu mdi,lu wksjd¾h
l< hq;= h' wfkHdkH wdl,am
fjkilg o th uq,a úh yels h'

9'244

wkd.; mrmqrg ff;%NdId m%ùK;dj
,nd§u b;d jeo.;a h'

9'245

2020 § rg ff;% N dId ls Í fï
wdKavqfõ m%;sm;a;sh w.h lruq'

9'246

NdIdj wkqj lsiu
s Èia;l
s% l
a hla fyda
m<d;la j¾. fkdl< hq;= h' rdcH
fiajlhkag rfÜ ´kEu m<d;l
fiajh l< yels úh hq;= h'

9'247

rcfha ish¨ ld¾hd,hkays fou<
l;d lrk ks,Orhka isàu wksjd¾h
l< hq;= h' fmd,sisj,g 24 mefhau
is á h hq ; a f ;a meñKs , s l rejka g
;ukaf.a NdIdfjka th igyka
lrjd .ekSfï whs;sjdislu ;sìh
hq;= ksid h'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: CPA

9'248

rdcH NdId fldñiu fld<U
muKla ms y s g d ;s î u ks i d wE;
.ïno mqrjeishkag tys meñKSu
wmyiq h' tu fldñiug ;u ;Skaÿ
l%shd;aul lsÍfï n,h ;sìh hq;=
w;r yeu m,d;lu YDLd msysgqúh
hq;= h'

9'249

NdId .eg¨ úi|d .ekS u g kj
;dCIKh fhdod .; yels h'
È.=ld,Sk úi÷ï ,efnk ;=re NdId
mßj¾;kh Wfoid udÿldx. Ndú;
l< yels h'

9'250

fï iïnkaOfhka" oaùNdId
yelshdj we;s fmd,sia ks,Orhka
mßj¾;lhka f,i fhdod .ekSfï
wka ; ¾jdr ks ¾ foa Y h flfrys
wjOdkh h<s;a fhduq lruq'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

105


wOHdmkh
iudk wjia:d
NdId
m%;sm;a;sh
9'251 ; u k a g f j k i a l ï i s ÿ j k
iïmQ¾Kfhka
njg we;s yeÕS u ;= r ka ls Í u
l%shd;aul
tlai;a Y%S ,xldjl isxy, fou<
lsÍfï § m%cd
iu.s ika O dkhl wjYH mQ ¾ j
uÜgug fjka
wjYH;djhls' wOHdmkfha
jQ ie,iqïo
m%ñ;slrKh y÷kajd ÿka miq fndfyda
mqrjeis
widOdrKlï isÿù we;' iajdëk
iyNd.s;ajho
wOHdmk úfYaI{hkaf.a lñgqjla
;sìh hq;= h'
u.ska idOdrK mx.= l%uhla y÷kajd
§u fldñiu ks¾foaY lrhs'

106

9'252

wOHdmk myiqlï idOdrK
f,i fn§hdfï jevms < s f j,la
wdKa v q j we;s l< hq ; = h' 2011
fhdaÔ; oaú;shsl mdi,a odyla Wiia
;;a;ajhg f.k tau wiudk;dj
,sys,a lrkq we;' iudcfha fNao
Ns k a k ;d we;s fkdjk mßÈ ta
m%;sm;a;sh l%shd;aul l< hq;= h'

9'253

úúO ckjd¾.sl yd wd.ñl
<uhskag fiajd imhk ñY% mdi,a
m%;sm;a;shla wdKavqjg ;sìh hq;=
h' ckjd¾.sl fyda wd.ñl moku
mdi,lg we;= < ;a lr .ekS u g
kq i q ÿ iq njg m;a ls Í u iu.s
ikaOdkhg hym;la fkdlrhs'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: My Global Networker Blog

9'254

ckj¾.hka i;= jákd ixialD;sl
úúO;ajh w.h lsÍug orejka mqyK
q q
l< hq;= h' m<d;a j, mdi,a hq.,
iïnkaOh" isiq yqjudre jevigyka
iu.s ikaOdkh fmdaIKh lrkq
we;' cd;sl ;reK fiajd iNdjg
jvd mq ¿ ,a yq j udre jev l<
yels h'

wOHdmk
myiqlï
idOdrK f,i
fn§hdfï
jevms<sfj,la
wdKavqj we;s
l< hq;= h'

idu wOHdmkh
9'255

úYdro wka;¾cd;sl kS;sfõÈhl=
tla i ;a l u yd iu.s ika O dkh
Wfoid idu wOHdmkfha jeo.;alu
wjOdrKh lf<a h' wjYH ks¾foaY
m%Odk jd¾;dfõ we;'

9'256

;%sNdId m%;sm;a;sh Ndú;fha§ úúO
ckj¾. j,g wh;a <uhs k a g

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

107


n,h fn§u
yd fjk;a
ÿla .ekú,s
.ek iq¿;r
mCIj,
uyck
ksfhdað;hska
iu.
w¾:j;a
foaYmd,k
ixjdohl
fhÈh hq;=h'

wka;¾ l%shd i|yd mka;s ldurh
;=<§u Èß.ekaúh hq;= h' úúO NdId
j,ska úIhhka b.ekaùfï myiqlï
ie,ish hq;= h'
9'257

iEu úYa j úoHd,hls k a u NdId
;=fkka" iEu ckj¾.hlau ñY%j
bf.kSug ie,ish hq;= h' ±kg
fou< wh W;=re" kefÕkysr o
isxy, wh ol=Kg o iSud ù we;'

9'258

l% S v dj,s k a wka ; ¾mq o a . , in|;d
Yla ; s u ;a jk nj fldñifï
woyihs' iu.s ikaOdkhg w;HjYH
h' wka;¾ md<d;a iy cd;sl l%Svd
;rÕ úfYa I fhka W;= r e kef.
kysr meje;aúh hq;= hhs fldñiu
ks¾foaY lrhs'

vhiafmdardj

108

9'259

vhia f mda r d ^úfoa Y j, is á k&
lKavdhï folla .ek fldñiug
f;dr;= r e ,eìK' tlla iu.s
ika O dkhg odhl ùug leu;s
h' wksl t,aààB wdOdrlrejkah
lshk tÈßjd§ lKavdhu h'

9'260

fuu tÈßjd§ lKa v dhug Y% S
,xldfõ idu mßY% u hg ydks
l< yels h' Tjq k a f .a Yla ; s h
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Global Peace Support Website

vhiafmdard lKavdhïj, Yla;sh m%fhdackhg .ekSfï msúiqula wjYH h'

m% f hda c khg .ekS f ï ms ú iq u la
wjYH h'
9'261

tjeks msúiqulg ;sìh hq;= m%Odk
wx. (

^w& n,h fn§u yd fjk;a ÿla .ekú,s
.ek iq ¿ ;r mCIj, uyck
ks f hda ð ;hs k a iu. w¾:j;a
foa Y md,k ixjdohl fhÈh
hq;=h'
^wd& f o a Y S h i u . s i k a O d k h y d
ixj¾Okh flfrys tÈßjd§
lKa v dhïj, odhl;a j h ,nd
.ekSfï bvla we;s lsÍu'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

109


rfÜ
wdfhdackh
lsÍug
leu;s wh
fjkqfjka
,sys,a
ms<sfj;la
yd
wdl,amhla
;sìh hq;= h'

^we& vhia f mda r djg b÷ï ys g q ï §
we;s rgj,a iu. rdcH ;dka;%sl
wdrïNhla u.ska .eg¨ úi£ug
fldñifï ks ¾ foa Y l% s h d;a u l
fjñka mj;sk nj ta;a;= .ekaúh
hq ; = h' ta w;r t,a à àB fha
m%pKav yd fnÿïjd§ oDIAáhl
fkdms<s. kakd vhiafmdard
fldgig iydh §fï lghq;= j,g
iQodkï úh hq;= h'
^wE& r á k a m s g j q K q t f y ; a r f Ü
wdfhdackh lsÍug leu;s wh
fjkqfjka ,sys,a ms<sfj;la yd
wdl,amhla ;sìh hq;= h' oaú;aj
mqrjeisnj" uqo,a tùfï myiq nj
we;s lsÍu iu. iSudjkaf. ka
f;drj rgmqrd hdfï Bfï
myiqlï we;s lsÍu'
^b& fï lghq ; = i|yd mßia i ñka
ie,iqï l< mq¿,a jevms<sfj,la
;sìh hq;= h' ta i|yd rdcH ¥;
fufyjr iy foaYh
S úfoaYh
S isú,a
iudc fmruqKl iydh ,nd.;
hq;= h'
9'262

110

jkaks m%foaYfha ksjdi" mdi,a fi!LH
iy /lshd myiqlï ks¾udKhg Y%S
,dxlSh vhiafmdardjg wdKavqjg
iydh úh yels h' Y%S ,dxlSh iy
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: MichaelDesign.Com.Au

Y%S ,dxlSh iy úfoaY ixj¾Ok yjq,alrejka iïnkaO lr .ekSug wdKavqj
uq,msßh hq;= h'

úfoa Y ixj¾Ok yjq , a l rejka
iïnka O lr .ekS u g wdKa v q j
uq , ms ß h hq ; = h' ioa N djfhka u
iu.s ika O dkh Wfoid wjYH
mshjrla nj ;yjqre l<
hq;= h'
9'263

ms g rg is á k Y% S ,dxls l hka f .
ka m% f hda c k .ekS u g;a " i;= r e
vhiafmdardj hhs lshkq ,nk wh
úis k a m% ; s p dr ±la ù ug;a " Tjq k a
m% ; s i ka O dkhg yjq , a ls Í ug;a
wdKa v q j ms h jr .; hq ; = h' ta
i|yd rdcH wxY" fm!oa.,sl wxY"

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

111


wfkHdkH
ú|ord
.ekSu
flfrys
fhduqùug
ish¨
ck;djkag
uÕfmkaùug
ish¨ wd.ñl
kdhlhka
uQ,sl úh
hq;= h'

112

Ydia;%jka;hka" wdÈkaf.a iydh
/ia lrñka iu.s ikaOdkh f.dv
ke.s h hq ; = h' tjeks ms h jrla
fkd.; fyd;a úfoaY tÈßjdÈlï
j¾Okh úh yels w;r Y%S ,xldjg
,efnk iyfhda.h;a ÿ¾j, úh
yels h'
wka;¾ wd.ñl lghq;= iu.s ikaOdkh
flfrys wd.ïj, ld¾hNdrh
9'264

wd.ñl lKavdhï fldñiug lS
mßÈ Y%S ,xldj f,dalfha m%Odk
wd.ï y;rls k a ^fn!oa O " ys k a ÿ "
bia , dï" l% s i a ; = & fmda I Kh ,nd
we;'

9'265

È.= l d,S k .egq u lg miq iu.s
ika O dkhla fláld,ls k a we;s
l< fkdyels h' th o È.=ld,Sk
f.dv ke.Sula fõ' iudc iu.sh
úkdY lrk m%jK;d l,ska
±l th wka;rdhlr ;;a;ajhg
jeãug fmr úiq r ejd yeÍug
wdh;ksl jevms<sfj,la
wjYH h'

9'266

fldñiu n,j;a ixfõ.hg m;a
jQ f ha " y÷kd fkd.;a m% p Ka v
lKavdhï mQckSh ia:dk úkdY
lrkq weiSfuks'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: www.ucanews.com

9'267

tjeks isÿùï È.gu isÿùu iu.s
ikaOdkhg ydkshls' tn÷ isÿùï
je<ela ù ug ;on, ms h jr .;
hq ; = h' tfy;a j.ls h hq ; = wh
.ek mßCIK fldg kS;s u.ska
l% s h d ls Í ug kS ; s f ha wdh;k
fuf;la wiu;aùu .ek fldñiu
lkiai,a,g m;a fõ' tn÷ l%shd
je<elaùug ork mßY%uh ydkshg
m;a wh ;=< úYajdih we;s lsÍug
fya;= fõ'

9'268

.eUqre wjfndaOfhka hq;=j .egqu;a
tys m%;sM,h;a foi ne,Suo ta i|yd
wfkHdkH ú|ord .ekSu flfrys
fhduqùug ish¨ ck;djkag
uÕfmkaùuo i|yd ish¨ wd.ñl
kdhlhka uQ,sl úh hq;= h' wd.ï
j, fmdÿ ,laIK u.ska tlai;a

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

wd.ñl iqix.
uhla we;s
lsÍug wka;¾
wd.ñl
lKavdhïj,g
ld¾h Ndrhla
we;s nj
fldñiu h<s;a
wjOdrKh
lrhs'

113

l% s h djlg ck;dj fufyhúh
yels h'

úúO ckj¾. 9'269
j, NdIduh
yd ixialD;sl
in|lï
.ek ±kqu
j¾Okh mq¿,a
ikaOdkhlg
9'270
fya;=jk nj
fldñifï
woyihs'

tlai;a yd iduQysl l%shd u.ska
ckjd¾.s l yd wd.ñl iq i x.
uhla we;s lsÍug wka;¾ wd.ñl
lKavdhïj,g ld¾h Ndrhla we;s
nj fldñiu h<s ; a wjOdrKh
lrhs'
kS ; s h g iy iduhg ydks l rk
.egqï we;sùu .ek l,a;h
s d wk;=re
weÕùfï hdka;K
% hla mej;=Kfyd;a
th .egqï je<elaùfï jevms<f
s j,la
úh yels nj fldñiug idCIs ÿka
wd.ñl fldgia j,ska mejisKs'
Tjqkaf.a iydh we;sj tjekakla
msysgqúh hq;= nj ks¾foaY lruq'

l,dj yd ixialD;sh
iu.s ikaOdkh j¾Okh
lsÍfï fuj,ï f,i
NdIduh yd ixialD;sl in|lï
9'271

114

fldñiu yuq f õ fufia m% l dY
úKs' Y%S ,dxlSh wkkH;dj i|yd
NdIduh yd ixialD;s fmdÿ ,laIK
y÷kd .ekS u wjYH h' tfy;a
iudc hym; Wfoid l,dfõ
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Nruthyanjalee.com

cd;sl iu.s ls%hdj,shla Wfoid
ixialD;sl in|;d b;d jeo.;a nj
fndfyda ksfhdað;fhda fldñiug
fmkajd ÿkay' isxy, iy fou<
ixialD;skag b;d w.kd uQ,hka
we;s nj Tjqyq lSy' 1956 isÿjqK
fuka l,dj" kdgH" ix.S;h hk
lafIa;%hkays mqkreohla we;s nj o
mejisKs'

9'273

fldñifï i;=gg fya;= jQ
lreKls' tkï wd.ñl kdhlhka"
l,dlrejka" mqrjeishka w;r fmdÿ
u;hla mej;Su h' tfy;a fï fmdÿ
,laIK j,ska rfÜ iduh Wfoid
m%fhdackhla .; yelafla ish¨
foaYmd,lhka mgq wjYH;d w;ayer
talu;sl kdhl;ajla iemhqjfyd;a
muKhs'

9'274

úúO ckj¾. j, NdIduh yd
ixia l D;s l in|lï .ek ±kq u
j¾Okh mq¿,a ikaOdkhlg
fya;=jk nj fldñifï woyihs'
ta i|yd jQ rdcH m% ; s m ;a ; s h l

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Divinologue.com

9'272

Photo source: Himalayan Academy

ks ¾ udKYS , S ; a j fhka m% f hda c k
.ekS u g wdKa v q j ;a ck;dj;a
wfmdfydi;a ù we;' l,djg tfia
l< yels nj wjfnda O lr.;
hq;=h'

115

th w;HjYH fldgila njg m;a
lsÍfuka m%uqL;ajhla Èh hq;= h'
cd;sl
.Sh tlu
;dkulska
NdId
foflkau
.ehSu
fkdlvjd
lsÍug
Èß.ekaúh
hq;= h'

116

9'275

fou< isxy, idys;H lD;s
wfkHdkH NdIdj,s k a m<fldg
mdi,a orejkaf.a isg wfkHdkH
ixialD;Ska .ek wjfndaOhla yd
ifõ§;djla we;s lsÍu b;d jeo.;a
hkq we;'

9'276

úúO ckj¾. w;r fmdÿ ,laIK
yd wjfndaOh we;s lrk iskud
rEmjdyskS iy fõÈld kdgH lD;s
m%ldYk wdÈh Èß .ekaúh hq;= h'
;reK mrmqrg tajdhska m,.ekSug
ie,ish hq;= h'

9'277

cd;sl .Sh tlu ;dkulska NdId
foflkau .ehSu fkdlvjd lsÍug
Èß.ekaúh hq;= h' tu ms<sfj;
fjkia lf<d;a f.dvkefÕk
iu.sh m¿÷ jkq we;'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Sunday Times website

ckj¾. w;r wfkHkH in|;dj
9'278

fldñifï m%dfoaYSh /iaùï jdr
j,§ ish¨ ckj¾.hkays fndfyda
fokd m% l dY lf<a wfkHkH
ckhd w;r in|;dfõ jeo.;alu
h' tlsfkld yuqù talu;sl;ajhla
f.dv ke.Su b;d fyd| fuj,ula
nj fldñiu wkqu; lrhs'

9'279

.egqfï oreKqu m%;sM, j,g uqyqK
ÿkafka ish¨u ckj¾.j, ;reK
msßia h' tfyhska Tjqkag úfYaI

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

117


cd;sl iu.s
ls%hdj,shla
Wfoid
ixialD;sl
in|;d
b;d jeo.;a
nj fndfyda
ksfhdað;fhda
fldñiug
fmkajd
ÿkay'

118

jev fldgila l< yels h' f,a
je.srùug ñi Tjqka tlsfkld uqK
.eiS ke;' wfkHkH wjfndaOhla
,eîug Tjqkag bvla fyda fõ,djla
,eî ke;'
9'280

fï iïnkaOfhka fhdjqka
md¾,sfïka;=jla iy —;,a wrôka
fmd,a wrUg˜ kï yqjudre
jevigyka weröu .ek is ú ,a
iudchg;a " wdKa v q j g;a i;= g
m<lruq'

9'281

;ukaf.a j.lSï iajNdjfha yeáhg
is h ¨u wud;HxY úis k a tjeks
jevigyka werôh yels h' yqjudre
jevigyka mq¿,a mokulska lsÍug
isú,a iudc lKavdhï j, iydh
.; yels h' tfy;a ckj¾. fofla
ixialD;sl yd NdId ixfõ§;djhka
.ek mßiaiï úh hq;= h'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Colombopage

foaYmd,k tlÕ;ajhl wjYH;dj
9'282

iu.s ika O dkhg ndOd lrk
m% O dk idOlhla jka f ka n,h
fnodyod .ekSu jeks uq,sl .eg¨
.ek foaYmd,k tlÕ;ajhla iy
nyqmdlaIsl m%fõYhla ke;slu h'

9'283

miq.sh oYl y;rla myla ;siafia
ckjd¾.s l wix.;s f ha uQ , s l
m% l dYkh jQ f ha oa f õY iy.;
l;d u.ska ckjd¾. sl" wd.ñl"
wd;;sh" wiu.sh j¾Okh ùu h'
th je<elaùfï kS;s Í;s ;Èkau
l%shd;aul l< hq;= h'

9'284

.egq u fÄojdplhla nj iy
foa Y md,k kdhlhka o is x y,
fou< isú,a iudc fol o iduQyslj
miq;eú,s jk nj iu.s ikaOdkh
i|yd wjYH h' ol=fKa m%Odk mCI

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

119


kdhlhka fou< ckhdg úi÷ula
§ug tlÕ;ajhla we;slr .ekqKd
kï .egqu je<elaúh yelsj ;sìK'
ta .ek Tjqkoa iudk j.lSula orkq
we;' fï fÄojdplh .ek lsisu
md¾Yajhla miq;eú,s fkdfõ' ta
i|yd iodpdruh we.ehSula ;sìh
hq;= h' iu.s ikaOdkh jefvkafka
iudj §u yd ohdj me;srùu iu.
h' ish¨ md¾Yajhkays foaYmd,k
kdhlhka fï .egqu je<elaùug
;uka wiu;a ùu .ek úm;g m;a
isú,a jeishkaf.ka iudj .; hq;=
h' ta i|yd taldnoaO m%ldYhla
lsÍug isú,a iudch iy wd.ñl
kdhlhka Tjqkag u. fmkaúh hq;=
h' th iu.s ikaOdk jevms<sfj,g
uy;a n,mEula jkafka h'

cd;sl iu.s
ls%hdj,shla
Wfoid
ixialD;sl
in|;d
b;d jeo.;a
nj fndfyda
ksfhdað;fhda
fldñiug
fmkajd
ÿkay'


9'285

120

fldñiu ±ä f,i ks¾foaY lrk
j. kï wmf.a cd;sl Èkfha § ta
i|ydu jQ W;aijhl§ tu fÄokSh
.egq u g f.dÿre jQ is h ¨ fokd
flfrys iylïmkh yd tluq;= nj
m%ldY l< hq;= h' ;jo kej;;a
f,a je.sÍula isÿ fkdjk nj iaÒr
lsÍug lemjk njg m%;s{d Èh
hq;= h' .re .dïNsr f,i by<ska
olajk tu weÕùu iuia; cd;shu
lemù isák iu.s ikaOdkhg uy;a
cjhla jkq we;'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

fuu ,smsfhka ±lafjkafka fldñifï
ks¾foaY i|yd n,mE miqìu .ek flá
úu¾IKhls'
weuqKqu 1

W.;a mdvï fldñifï
ks¾foaYhkays wdikak
b;sydih

weuqKqu 2 úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh
W.;a mdvï fldñiu ms<sn|
±lajQ mqj;a m;a ksfõokh

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

121

Photo source: Website of Champika Ranawaka
Photo source: chrsrilanka.com

LLRC fldñifï idudðlhka

LLRC fldñifï idCIs úuik wjia:djla

122

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Sri Lanka Guardian Website

W.;a mdvï fldñifï
ks¾foaYhkays wdikak b;sydih
tys wdrïNl b;sydih jkafka wm rfÜ
foaYmd,k .ufka § fmdÿ ckhd ish n,h
l%ufhka w;ayeÍu fyj;a m%cd;ka;%jdoh
wfydaiù
s ug ie,iSu h' thska m%cd;ka;j
% doh
ál fofkl=f.a foam<la njg m;aùfuka
.egqï flgqï W.% ùu h'
tys wdikak b;sydih jkafka
jHjia:dkql+, n,h tl ;eklg leáùu
^1977 isg fï olajd& ksid kS;shg jvd
mq o a . ,hd n,j;a ùu" Ôtia m S ma , ia nÿ
iykh ,eîu i|yd hq f rda m d ix.ufha
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

123

ks¾foaY" oreiaudka jd¾;dj" ðkSjdys§ udkj
whs;sjdislï ljqkais,h Y%S ,xldjg tfrysj
iïu; l< fhdackdj wdÈhhs'
Y% S ,xldjg tfrys j ;ju;a mj;s k
fpdaokdj jkafka" wka;¾cd;sl udkqISh
kS;sh;a (IHL) wka; ¾cd; sl udkj
whs;sjdislï (IHRL) kS;sh;a W,a,x>kh
lsÍu h' tu kS;s wdrCId lsÍug wka;¾
cd;sl .súiqï j,g w;aika lsÍfuka Y%S
,xldj ne£ isà'
;sia wjqreÿ hqoaOh ksu lrk úg wjidk
wjia:dfõ§ by; i|yka lsisu kS;shla
;uka W,a,x>kh lr ke;s nj Y%S ,xldfõ
wdKa v q j È.g u ls h d is á fha h' t'cd
ixúOdkh ta .ek mßla I K meje;a ù u
i|yd msßila tùug iQodkï úh' Bg bv
ie,ish fkdyels nj wdKavqj mejiS h'
ta wkqj" mqoa.,hka ;sfofkl=f.ka hq;a
lñgqjla t'cd' uyf,alï úiska m;a leßK'
th uyf,alïjrhdg Wmfoia §u i|yd
jQ" lreKq fiùu fyda mßlaIK meje;aùu
i|yd fkdjQ lñgqjls' tfyhska th Y%S
,xldjg meñKSu wjYH fkdù h' ta lñgqfõ
;sfokd u Y%s ,xldj .ek f;dr;=re okakd
wh jQy' Tjqkag ,enqKq f;dr;=re yd uQ,dY%
tu ks¾foaY j,g mokï úh' th oreiaudka
jd¾;dj f,i ye¢kaúK'
124

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: ibnlive.in.com

hqo ch.%yKfhka m%S;shg m;a ol=fKa ckhd

tu jd¾;dfõ Y%S ,xldjg tfrysj t,a,
l< yels fpdaokd myla olajd ;sìK' 2012
ðkS j dys § iïu; jQ fhda c kdjg mokï
ù we;af;a o tu lreKq h' ta .ek t'cd'
uKav,h úiska mßCId lr n,d h<s t'cd'
udkj whs;sjdislï iNdjg ±laúh hq;= nj
lsheúK'
tlai;a cd;Skaf.a uyf,alïjrhdf.a
WmfoaYl lñgq jd¾;dfõ ^oreiaudka
jd¾;dj& olajd ;snqKq fpdaokd fufia h'
i.

fmdl=re fI,afjä j,ska isú,a jeishka
>d;kh lsÍu'
ii. frday,a j,g iy ;ykï b,lal j,g
fI,afjä t,a, lsÍu'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

125

Photo source: Lanka Express Website

hqo ch.%yKfhka miqj;a hdmfka yuqodj iSrefjka'''

iii. udkqIjd§ wdOdr" Wmldr m%;sfCIam
lsÍu'
iv. wj;eka jQjkag" t,aààBfha iellrejkag
.egqfuka Èú .,jd .;a;jqkag ysxid
mSvd lsÍu'
v. udOHhg iy wdKavqj úfõpkh l<
whg tfrysj .egqï l,dmfhka msg§
ysxid" mSvd" >d;k isÿ lsÍu'
fuhs k a uq , a fpda o kd y;r wka ; ¾
cd;sl udkqIjd§ kS;sh W,a,>kh lsÍï h'
miajekak" wka;¾ cd;sl udkj whs;j
s dislï
kS;h
s tkï isú,a yd foaYmd,k whs;j
s dislï
ms < s n | iïuq ; s h W,a , x>kh ls Í uls '
t,a à àBhg tfrys j fpda o kd yhla tys
126

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Sndeyaz Website

±lafõ' tajd mßCId lr jrolrejkag o~qjï
§fï uq,a j.lSu mejfrkafka o wdKavqjg
h' fuu fpdaokd f.dv ke.Sfï § wdKavqj
;% i a ; jdohg tfrys j igka ls Í u fyda
t,aààBh fjku rdcHhla i|yd igka lsÍu
wod< lr fkd.efka'
foaYfm%auh yd wêrdcH úfrdaOh
t'cd' mßCIK j,g úfrdaOh olajñka
wdKavqj rg mqrd —foaYfm%auh yd wêrdcH
úfrdaOh˜ .ek ±ä m%pdrKhla Èh;a lf<a h'
tfyhska oreiaudka lñgqjg o ±ä úfrdaOhla
±laúK' —tfyhska wmg úfoaY mßCIK tmd"
wmsu th lruq˜ hk woyi olajñka —foaYSh
mßCIK fldñiula˜ ckdêm;s úiska m;a
lrkq ,eìK'
th W.;a mdvï yd m%;i
s kaOdk fldñiu
h' wm bÈßfha § lshjkakg hkafka tu
fldñiu úis k a ola j k ,o ks ß CIK
yd ks¾foaY foish wiQmy h' oreiaudka
jd¾;dfjka fufia ks ß CIKhla ola j d
we;'
—hq o a O h ch .ekS u ks i d wêl mS % ; s
m%fudaoh wdKavqfjka m%ldYhg m;a lsÍfuka
hqoaOfhka isÿjQ udkqIsl úkdYh m%;sfCIam
lsÍu" fou< ck;dj neyer lsÍfï l%shd
;ju;a mej;Su" u¾ok kS;s muKla fkdj
ìh .ekaùu yd m%pKav;ajh iy hqo ;;a;j
a h
W;=f¾ È.gu mj;ajd .ekSu" udOHhg iy
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

127

mqrjeis whs;sjdislï j,g ;ju;a iSud
mekùu˜
tfyhska
weußldfõ
fhdackdj
ilia lsÍug
jeäu
iydh ,eî
;sfnkafka
wdKAvqfjks'

fï ksÍCIKh" W.;a mdvï fldñifï
ksÍCIK iy ks¾foaY iu. ii|d ne,Sfuka
ta folu tlla nj meyeÈ,s jkq we;'
tfyhska thska wjOdrKfhka lshefjkafka
wfma wdKavqj úiska wksjd¾fhka l< hq;=
foa h' ta tlla j;a úfoaYhla fyda úfoaYSka
fjkqfjka bgql< hq;= foa fkdfõ' wfmau
rfÜ ck;dj fjkqfjka bgq lsÍug ne£
isák foa h' fuu jd¾;d folg u l,ska
hqfrdamd ix.uh úiska wmkhk nÿ iykhla
§u i|yd udkj whs;sjdislï /lSfï m%ñ;sh
i,ld ne,sK' Tjqka úiska ta i|yd olajk
,o ks¾foaY myf<dj oreiaudka iy W.;a
mdvï fldñika j, ks¾foaY iu. ii|d
ne¨fjd;a Bg fjkia fkdjk nj meyeÈ,s
fõ' È.g u kS;sh iy udkj whs;sjdislï
lvlsÍu tlu fpdaokdj h'
Y% S ,xldjg tfrys j ðkS j d udkj
whs ; s j dis l ï ljq k a i s , fhka iïu; jQ
fhdackd ilia jQfha yÈisfha fkdfõ' tu
fpdaokd wjqreÿ fol ;=klg fmr isg
ilia fjñka meje;sK' th bÈßm;a lf<a
weußldj h' iïu; lf<a ngysr rgj,a"
bkaÈhdj we;=¿ rgj,a 24 ls'

128

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: EU Website

hqfrdamSh fldñifï ks¾foaY
(GSP Plus)
2011 wf.daia;= 15 od ;Sre nÿ iykh
^GSP Plus& lmd fkdyeÍug kï fldkafoais
15 la ms<smeÈh hq;= hehs hqfrdamd fldñiu
okajd ;sìK' 2007 § jrdfha jD;a;Sh iñ;s
j,g tfrysj ;ykï ksfhda.hla .ekSu
iu. cd;Hka;r lïlre ixúOdkh th
lïlre whs;sjdislï W,a,x>kh l< nj;a
;SrKh lf<a h' wdKavqj ne£ isák lïlre
iïuq;shlg o th mgyeks nj;a ;SrKh
lf<a h' tfyhska weußldfõ fhdackdj
ilia lsÍug jeäu iydh ,eî ;sfnkafka
wdKAvqfjks'
tu fldkafoais 15 fufia h'
1'

isú,a yd foaYmd,k whs;sjdislï ms<sn|
cd;Hka;r iïuq;shg mgyeks lreKq
,sys,a lsÍu'

2' ish¨ ckfldgia j,ska hq;a wdKavql%u
lñgqjla m;a fldg 17 ixfYdaOkfha
mßÈ iajdëk m;a lsÍï isÿ lsÍu'
3'

kvq úNd.hlska f;drj r|jd ;eîu
wfyda i s l< hq ; = w;r foa Y md,k
whs;sjdiskï ms<sn| iïuq;shlgo" jo
ys x id ms < s n | iïuq ; s h lg o wod<j
wmrdO kS;s ilia l< hq;= h'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

129

Photo source: Maroelamedia.Co.Za

udOHfõ§kag
ish jD;a;Sh
lghq;=
ndOdjlska
f;drj
lsÍu
i|yd
iy;sl ùu'

4' isú,a yd foaYmd,k whs;sjdislï ms<sn|
iïuq;shg wkql+, jk f,i ;%ia;jdoh
je<elaùfï mkf;a j.ka;s ieleiSu
fyda wfydais lsÍu l< hq;= h'
5'

tu iïuq;h
s g mgyeks fkdjk wdldrhg
uyck wdrCIl mkf;a j.ka;s ilia
l< hq;= h'

6'

iellrejl= w;awvx.=jg .;a úg Tyqg
kS;s{ iydh ,nd .ekSfï bv iy;sl
l< hq;= h'

7'

is ú ,a yd foa Y md,k whs ; s j dis l ï
iïuq ; s h g iïnka O m<uq w;s f ¾l
.s ú iq u hgf;a rg jeis h l= g t'cd'
udkj ysñlï lñgqjg meñKs,s lsÍfï
whs ; s j dis l u iy;s l ls Í ug kS ; s
mekùu'

8'

t' cd' udkj ysñlï lñgqfõ ;Skaÿ
l%shdjg kexùu'

9'

w;=reoka lrúu ms<n
s | t'cd' lKavdhu"
joysxid ms<sn| t'cd' úfYaI jd¾;dlre"
m%ldYkfha ksoyi ms<sn| t'cd úfYaI
jd¾;dlre" úks Y a p hldrhka f .a iy
kS;s{hkaf.a iajdëk;ajh iïnkaO
úfYaI jd¾;dlre Y%S ,xldjg meñKSug
lr we;s b,a,Sug bv §u'

10' w;=reoka lsÍu ms<sn| t'cd l%shdldß
lKavdhu bÈßfha úNd. fjk meñKs,s
.ek fjk u ms<s;=re iemhSu'
130

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Jean-Marc Ferre

ðkSjd 22 jeks ieishg iyNd.S jQ uyskao iurisxy weu;sjrhd we;=¿ msßi

11' 2008 úu¾Yk fldñifï jd¾;dj
m<lsÍu'
12' ±kg /|jq ï Ndrfha is á k t,a à àB
iellrejkaf.a ,ehsia;=jla m<lsÍu"
mjq,a j, whg th ,nd .ekSug ie,iSu
yd Tjqkg
a tfrysj kvq ±óu fyda ksoyia
lsÍu'
13' cd' r;= l = r ei jeks wdh;k j,g
ksÍCIK lghq;= i|yd wjir §u'
14' udkj whs ; s j dis l ï ms < s n | cd;s l
ie,eiaula iïu; fldg l%shd;aul
lsÍu'
15' udOHfõ§ka g is h jD;a ; S h lghq ; =
ndOdjlska f;drj lsÍu i|yd iy;sl
ùu'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

131

Photo source: Peace in Sri Lanka website

t,aààB ysgmq igkalrejka mqkre;a:dmkh fjñka

by; ±lajqKq ks¾foaY yd l,ska i|yka
oreia u dka jd¾;dfõ iy W.;a mdvï
fldñifï ks¾foaY w;r fjkila ke;s nj
Tng meyeÈ,s jkq we;'
ðkSjd fhdackd
weußldfõ fhdackdj ;ju;a j,x.= h' ta
wkqj t'cd' udkj whs;j
s dislï ljqki
a ,
s h;a"
ngysr rgj¨;a bÈßfha § l%shd;aul jkq
we;' weußldfõ fhda c kdj fláfhka
fufia h'
1'

132

W.;a mdvï fldñifï ks ¾ foa Y
l%shd;aul lsÍu'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Pact.lk / Courtesy of Sahajeevana Centre

1972 jHjia:d iïmdol uKav,fha /iaùula

2' udkqISh kS;sh yd udkj whs;sjdislï
iïuq;s lv lsÍu .ek fidhd ne,Su'
3'

ta .ek l%shdldß ie,eiaula bÈßm;a
lsÍu' ta .ek Wmfoia yd ;dCIK iydh
t'cd udkj whs;sjdislï ljqkais,fhka
,nd .; yels h' 22 iNdjdrhg
jd¾;djla bÈßm;a lsÍu'
ðkSjdyS§ wdKavqj fjkqfjka fuf;la
lr we;s foa ms<sn|j f;dr;=re olajd
we;' my; lreKq iïnkaOfhks'

1'

wNHka;r wj;eka jQjka h<s mÈxÑ
lrùu'
2' ìï fndaïn bj;a lsÍu'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

133

Photo source:J R Jayawardene Centre

1978 jHjia:dj u.ska úOdhl
ckdêm;s l%uh y÷kajd ÿka
fÊ' wd¾' chj¾Ok uy;d

3'

t,aààB ysgmq igkalrejka mqkre;a
:dmkh lsÍu'
4' NdId m%;sm;a;sh l%shd;aul lsÍu'
5' fou< NdIdj l;d lrk fmd,s i a
ks,Orhka n|jd .ekSu'
6' W;=f¾ mßmd,kfhka yuqod .%yKh
,sys,a lsÍu'
7' yuqod md,kfhka bvï uqod yeÍu'
8' W;=re kefÕkysr ck ixLHd f,aLKhla
ilia lsÍu'
by; i|yka ld¾hhka iïmQ¾K fkdjqj
o hï m%udKhlg isÿ ù we;s nj ienE h'
tajd iu. ish¨ ks¾foaY iïmQ¾K lsÍu fï
fpdaokd j,ska ksoyia ùug;a" h<s;a f,a
je.sßula fkdùug;a" rg fn§ fjka ù hdu
je<elaùug;a l< hq;= foa h'
n,h leálr .ekSfï foaYmd,kh
1947 isg u n,h tla fldgilg yd miqj
1977 isg tla mqoa.,hl= fj; o leáùu"
hqoO
a hla olajd meñKs foaYmd,kh úh' tfia
u rg wfyakshg;a" ñksialï j,ska msßyqKq
foaYhla njg;a m;a l< foaYmd,kh o thu
úh' fï .ek j.lsj hq;af;da ljqreo@
1947 wdKa v q l % u jHjia : dfõ iq ¿ ;r
cd;Skaf.a wdrCIdjg ;snqKq 29 j.ka;sh
1972 ckrc jHjia:dfjka bj;a lsÍu" 1948

134

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

Photo source: Sunday Leader website

j¾;udk ckdêm;s uyskao rdcmCI uy;d W.;a mdvï fldñifï jd¾;dj
lshjñka ''''

fou< rgjeislï wfydais lssÍu jeks kS;s
Í;s j,ska ms<sìUq lf<a —cd;sl m%pKav;ajh˜
i|yd wjYH udkisl idOlhhs'
ckrc jHjia:dfõ 6 iy 7 jHjia:dj,ska
iïu; lr .ekqKq cd;sl" wd.ñl iy NdId
fjkialï 1978 jHjia:dfjkao ;yjqre úh'
1978 jHjia:djg we;=<;a jQ ixfYdaOk 18 ka
13 iy 17 we;=¿ lSmhla yer wksla ish,a,u
wdKavj
q ke;akï mqo.
a ,hl= n,j;aùu i|yd
iïu; jQ jHjia:d h' n,h jHdma; úh
yels" ta u.ska hï m%cd;ka;%jd§ jHqyhla
we;súh yelsj ;snQ ixfYdaOk folu fÊ
wd¾ f.a isg ish¨u ckdêm;sjreka$jßhka
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

135

wfma orejkag
iskdish yels fyg ojila'''@a

úis k a l% s h d;a u l lf<a
ke;' tkï meyeÈ,sj u
jHjia:dj W,a,x>khls'
ta i|yd foaYmd,k
l%shdldß;ajfhka o
wêlrKfha wmuK iydhla
o ,eìK' n,h leálr
.ekSfï Wmßu wjia:dj
jQfha 17 ixfYdaOkh
bj;a fldg 18 ixfYdaOkh
mkjd .ekSu h'
úfoaYhkag .e;s jkafka;"a úfoaY weÕs,.
s
eiSï jeä jkafka;a fï n,h k;=lr .ekSfï
foaYmd,kh ksid h' úfoaYhkag fpdaokd
lsÍfï bvlv mdod ÿkafka n, foaYmd,kh
úiska wka;¾cd;sl kS;s Í;s lv lsÍu ms<n
s |
iel u;= lsÍuls' wka;¾cd;sl kS;s lv
lsÍu isÿjqkd kï Bg bv mEÿfKa foaYh
S kS;s
Í;s" jHjia:d lv lsÍfï Ndú;fhks'
isxy," fou<" uqia,sï" ish¨ foaYmd,k
mCIhka iuia; ck;dj;a fuhg j.lsh hq;=
h' ±ka fuu .eg¨j úi¢h hq;af;a o ta ish¨
mCI yd ck;djf.a iyfhda.fhks'
wdKavqj W.;a mdvï fldñiu m;afldg
wka;¾cd;sl kS;s leãï ms<sn| fpdaokd
j,g ms<s;=rla imhdf.k ;sìKs' tkï
—hqoaOfha we;s ixlS¾KNdjh ksid ñi is;d
u;d tu kS;s lvlr ke;s nj˜ h' ^n,kak

136

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

9'27 isg 9'37& ieneúka u th tfia kï
f,dalhdg o fÉ;kdjla ;snQ nj Tmamq l<
fkdyels jkq we;' tfy;a Tjqkag ndOd
lsÍfuka iel lsÍu o isÿfõ'
wka;¾cd;sl kS;s leãu ms<sn| .eg¨j
ljr wdldrhlska fyda úif|kakg mq¿jk'
tfy;a foaYSh kS;s 1947 isgu lv ùu"
tkï rfÜ m%cd;ka;%jdoh msysgqjd .ekSu
ms<sn|j ueÈy;a úh hq;af;a rfÜ ck;dj
h' Bg wka;¾cd;sl ueÈy;a ùula wjYH
ke;' wfma rfÜ kS;s lvlrk úg Bg
tfrys j md,lhka g o~q j ï Èh hq ; a f ;a
Pkaoodhlhd h' m%cd;ka;% úfrdaê yeisÍï
bjid ord" hï fláld,Sk isysk ienE lr
.ekSug foaYmd,lhkag n,h mejÍu .ek
Pkaoodhlhka j. lsh hq;= h' ;jÿrg;a
tu ;;a;ajh ke;s rgla f.dvke.Sug kï
wdikak jYfhka" wvqu .Kfka W.;a mdvï
fldñifï fiiq ks¾foaY l%shd;aul lrk
f,i n,lr isáh hq;= h' Bg iyNd.s úh
hq;= h'
ish,a, isÿfjoa§ n,df.k isàfï m%;M
s ,h
b;d Nhdkl jQ nj ±kaj;a jegysh hq;= h'
wkd.;fha wfma orejka fujeks fÄojdpl
j,ska wka; ysxid mSvd ú£u je<elaùug kï
ck;djf.a hq;=lï fldgi lsisjl=g fkd/
jà bgq l< hq;= h' th mgka.; hq;af;a wo
ñi fyg fkdfõ'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

137

W.;a mdvï iy m%;sixOdk
fldñIka jd¾;dj ksl=;a lsÍu
2012 ckjdß 4" fld<U" YS% ,xldj ( W.;a mdvï
yd m%;sixOdk fldñYka iNd ^LLRC& jd¾;dj ksl=;a
lrkq ,eîu ms<sn|j úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh
i;= g g m;a f jhs ' tys wka ; ¾.; jk .egq u g
;=vqÿka fya;+ka yd tajdfha uq,hka ms<sn|j jk
ú.%yh" t,a'à'à'Bfha oreKq ls%hdjka ,ehsia;= .;
lsÍu" rdcHlrKh ms<sn|j úfYaIfhka mj;akd
wdh;k ks ¾ foa Y md,kS l rKh ls Í u ms < s n |j jQ
ks¾foaYhka" f;dr;=re i|yd jk whs;sh ms<sn|j
jQ kS;slrKhka y÷kajd§u" hqOuhlrKh" woyia
m%ldY lsÍfï ksoyig tfrysjQ ls%hdldrlï" NdId
whs ; S k a " iu.s i xOdkh iy pek,a f*da jd¾;d
Ñ;%máfhys wka;¾.; jQ fpdaokdjka úNd. lsÍu
fukau w;=reoyka lrùï yd isú,a jeishkaf.a urK
j,g j.lsjhq;a;ka ms<sn|j úNd. lsÍu iy Tjqka
iïnkaOfhka kS;Hdkql+, f,i lghq;= lsÍu hkd§
úYhhka ms<sn|j jQ i|yka lsÍï ms<sn|j úl,am
m%;m
s ;a;s flakøa h f,i wm i;=gg m;afjuq' tfukau
udkj ysñlï W,a,x>kh lsÍï yd w;=re yuqod
ls%hdldrlï iïnkaOfhka úNd. lrkq ,eìh hq;=
hhs ie,flk rchg iïnkaO mqoa.,hka yd wdh;k
kï lrkq ,en we;s fldñifï ks¾foaYh ms<sn|j yd
t,a'à'à'Bh úiska m,jd yßkq ,enQ W;=f¾ uqia,sï
ck;dj iy Wvrg fou< ck;dj ms<sn|j jk
ks¾foaYhka o wms i;=áka ms,s.ksuq' fuu m%cdjka
138

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

fol fj; fldñiu uÕska olajk ,o wjOdkh
u.ska YS% ,xldfõ ck;djka i|yd jQ iu.sixOdkh
kïjQ flakøa h
S lreK u;jQ fldñifuys tald.%;djh
Yla;su;a flf¾' LLRC ieisjdrhkayS jd¾;djka
yd th bÈßfhys fokq ,enQ idCIs wkd.; mrmqr
Wfoid iqrCIs; fldg ;nk f,i wms ±äf,i
b,a,d isáuq'
úl,a m m% ; s m ;a ; s fla k a ø h W.;a mdvï yd
m%;sidOk fldñiu bÈßhg fkdhdug fya;=jQfha
fldñifuys ixhq;sh yd tys ks, mejreu" ckdêm;s
fldñika iNdjka ms<sn|j jQ w;S; u;l jd¾;djka
úfYaIfhkau tajdfha jd¾;djka ksl=;a fkdlsÍu
yd ks¾foaYhka ls%hd;aul lrkq fkd,eîu ^fuu
lreKq fuu fldñifuys jd¾;dfjys o i|yka fõ&
jeks lreKq ms<sn|j jQ wmf.a fkdtlÕ;djhkah'
tfia jqjo úfYaIfhkau YS% ,xldfõ rdcHlrKh
ms<sn| ;;a;ajh" o~qjï fkd,nd jro lsÍu ms<sn|jjQ
ixia l D;s h yd udkj ys ñ lï wdrCIdls Í u hk
lreKq ms<sn|j jQ úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh yd
wfkl=;a isú,a iudc ixúOdkhkays ksÍCIKhka yd
ks¾foaYhka .Kkdjla fuu fldñifï jd¾;dfjyso
kej; i|yka lrkq ,en ;sîu wmf.a wjOdkhg
fhduqfjhs' fuu woyia ckdêm;s fldñYka iNdjla
úiska wkqu; lrkq ,eîu u.ska isú,a iudcfhys
fuu úfõpkh ;jÿrg;a Yla;su;a lrkq ,en
;sfí' tfukau" w;sYhskau cd;sl m%uqL;djhla
iys; jQ lreKla fia i,ld by; i|yka l<
fCIa;h
% ka ms<n
s |j jk fuu fldñifuys ks¾foaYhka
úYajikSh yd M,odhl f,i ls%hd;aul lsÍfuys
jeo.;a lu fuu.ska wjOdrKh flf¾' ;jo fuu
lreK" fuu fldñiu uÕskao biau;= fldg olajd
we;s mßÈ" YS% ,xldfõ rch uÕska W.;a mdvï yd
m%;sixOdk fldñifï w;=re ks¾foaYhka mQ¾K f,i
ls%hd;aul lsÍug wiu;a ùu uÕskao wjOdrKh
lrkq ,en we;'
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

139

tlai;a cd;Skaf.a uyf,alï jrhdf.a WmfoaYl
uKav, jd¾;dj ksl=;a lsÍfuka miq t,a'à'à'B'h
yd YS% ,xld rchg tfrysj t,a,jQ hqO wmrdO yd
cd;Hka;r udkqIjd§ kS;h
s W,a,x>kh lsÍu ms<n
s |j
jQ fpdaokd ms<sn|j cd;Hka;r mÍCIKhla ms<sn|j
jQ b,a,Sï yuqfõ YS% ,dxlSh rch lshd isáfha LLRC
jd¾;dj uÕska ;u úfõplhka yg ms<s;=re ,efnkq
we;s njhs' fuys,d flakaøSh jeo.;alula iys;
lreKq jkafka hqo .egqfuys wjika wjêfhys§ isÿjQ
foa yd tys,d j.ùu ms<sn|j jQ lreK ;yjqre lr
.ekSuhs' LLRC yS ks.uKh jQfha fldñiu fj;
bÈßm;a lrkq ,enq f;dre;=re yd jvd;a jeo.;a
f,i fuu wjêfhys§ i;H jYfhkau ,nd.;
yels f;dr;=re wkqj we;eï lreKq ms<sn|j i;Hh
ks¾Kh lr .ekSu lsisfia;au l< fkdyelallau
jdf.a jk njh'
LLRC fldñiug ,nd.; yelsj ;snQ f;dr;=re
iïnkaOfhkajQ iSudjka ms<sn|j lreKq ;sìh § jqjo
th ksYaÑ; f,iu lshd isákafka isú,a jeishka
b,lal lr .ekSfï wruqKla YS% ,xld rch fj;
lsis úfgl;a fkdmej;s njh' zzfuh ydkshla lsÍfï
wruqKlska isÿ lrkakg fkdue;s jqjd jkakg
yelsZZ hhs LLRC lshd isá;;a we;eï wjia:djka yS§
isú,a jeishkaf.a urK" hqo wmrdO iy cd;Hka;r
udkqIjd§ kS;sh W,a,x>kh lsÍï iïnkaOfhka
ikakoaO yuqod idudðlhkaf.a j.lSu ms<sn|j
lreKq ;yjqrelr .ekSu msKsi jeäÿr mÍCIKhka
meje;aùu wjYHj ;sfnk nj fldñiu ks.ukh
lrhs'

fuh fÊIa G ks , OdÍka yd foa Y md,k yd
wdrCIl ixia:djkayS ks,OdÍkaf.a idCIs§ï uÕska
ms<s/õ kxjk ks.ukhls' fuu ks.ukhg M<U
we;a f ;a is ú ,a jeis h ka f .a jeäÿr idCIs § ï yd
tuÕska hqoaOfha wjidk wjêfha§ jQ isÿùï ms<sn|j
140

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

jQ iïmQ¾K úia;rhla ,nd .ekSu myiqlrKh
lrkakdjQ idCIslrejka yd úkaÈ;hka wdrCIdlrK
hdka ; % K hla fkdue;s j Q ls % h doduhla ;= , s k a h '
fldñiu bÈßfha idCIs ÿka isú,a jeishka úiska
miqj w;aú¢kakg we;s ÿIalr;djhka yd ysßyerhka
fukau fldñiu bÈßfhys jdÑl idCIs bÈßm;a
lsÍu i|yd isú,a jeishka yg ,nd§ ;snq ld,h
m%udkj;a fkdùuo fuys§ ie,ls,a,g .; hq;=h'
;ukag uqyqKmEug isÿúh yels ÿIalr;djhla yd
wk;=re fkd;ld w;=reoyka jQjkaf.a yd urd oukq
,enqjkaf.a mjq,aj, idudðlhka úYd, ixLHdjla
fldñiu bÈßfha idCIs §ug meñKSu uÕska ;yjqre
jkafka ;ukayg weyqïlka fokq ,eîug hqoaOh
n,mE m%cdjka fj; mj;sk ±ä Wjukdjhs' tfukau
m%cd uÜgfï§ hqla;sh iy j.ùu i|yd Tjqka fj;
mj;akd ±ä wjYH;djho tuÕska ms,sìUqfõ'
ikakoaO yuqodjkaf.a wruqKq iïnkaOfhka
jQ ks.ukh ms<sn|j úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh
l, lsÍug m;afjhs' fuu lreK iïnkaOfhka
l< hq;=j we;af;a jßkajr wjOdkhg ,la lrkq
,en kej; kej;;a ksIals%hj ;sfnkakg yeÍu
fkdfõ' cd;Hka;r mÍCIKhla meje;aùu isÿúh
hq;= njg jk b,a,Sï fuu.skao Yla;su;a lrjkq
,nk nj wmf.a ±ä úYajdihhs' fmd,Sish wdrCIl
ixia:djkaf.ka fjkalrkq ,eîfï wjYH;djh
iy m%dfhda.sl f,i 17 jk wdKavql%u jHjia:d
ixfYdaOkh iy fmd,Sish yd rdcH fiajh i|yd
jk ia j dëk fldñYka iNdjka m% ; s I a G dmkh
lsÍfï wjYH;djh we;=¿ rdcHlrKh yd kS;sfha
wdêm;Hfhys j;auka ;;a;j
a h ms<n
s |j LLRC jd¾;dj
uÕska lrkq ,en we;s úfõpkh u.skao fuu b,a,Sï
jeäÿrg;a j¾Okh lrkq ,efí' LLRC uÕska úia;r
lrkq ,nk rdcHlrKfha iy kS;sfha wdêm;Hfha
mj;sk ;;a;ajh uÕska mek k.sk m%YaKh jkafka
fldñiu úiska ks¾foaY lrkq ,nk mÍCIKhka"
úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

141

tajdg iyNd.s jk wdh;khka yS iqms,smkaNdjfha
j;auka mßydksh hgf;a" cd;sl uÜgñka isÿlrkafka
flfiao hkakh' LLRC úiska ks¾foaY lrkq ,nk
zziajdëkZZ yd zzksisZZ zzmÍCIKhkaZZ i|yd jk
meyeÈ,s ud¾f.dam foaYhka ;snqfka ù kï fuu
ks¾foaYhka jvd;a Yla;su;a yd w¾:j;a jkakg
yelsj ;sìks'
hqoaOfha wjidk wjêfha§ jkaksfha isá isú,a
jeishka ixLHdj iïnkaOfhka jk lreK ms<sn|j
iy Tjqkg wdydr ffjoH iemhqï wdÈh iïmdokh
l< wdldrh .ek fldñiu lghq;= lr we;s wdldrh
fj; o wmf.a l,lsÍu me;srhhs' fï iïnkaOfhka
tys isá isú,a jeishka yd iDcq iïnkaO;d mej;s
ls%hdldÍ fldgia fj;ska ,nd.; yels f;dr;=re
m%udKj;a ;rï uQ,dY%hka f,i fhdod.kq ,en
fkdue;s nj wmf.a ie,ls,a,g fhduqj we;' fuu
m%foaYfha isú,a mßmd,kh fj;ska ,nd.; yels
ck.yk o;a;hkao fuu ie,ls,a,g we;=<;a fõ'
iu.sixOdkh yd hqo wmrdO fpdaokdjka fj; jk
tu isÿùï j, n,mEu ie,ls,,
a g f.k" hg;ajkakg
meñKs t,a'à'à'B' ks,OdÍka urd±óu isÿjQ zziqÿ
fldä isÿùuZZ" wê wdrCIl l,dmhkayS ffk;sl
Ndjh" 3"00"000la muKu jQ isú,a jeishka ixLHdjla
zzueksla *dïZZ yd wfkl=;a ia:dkhka yS isrlrkq
,en isàu yd tu.ska Tjqkaf.a uQ,sl whs;sjdislï
W,a,x>kh ùu hkdÈh ms<sn|jo wod< f,i i|yka
l< hq;=j ;sìks'
fuu fkdtlÕ;djhka ;sfnkafka ù kuqÿ YS%
,dxlSh rcfhka wm b,a,d isákafka m%udohlska
f;drj" wjxlj yd wm ieu idorfhka wfmaCId
lrk" ienE f,iu nyqúO yd taldnoaO YS% ,xldjla
Wfoidjk lemùfuka hq ; = j LLRC jd¾;dfõ
ks¾foaYhka ls%hd;aul lrk f,ih' LLRC jd¾;dj
iu.s ixOdk ls%hdj,shl wdrïNh ñi tys wjidkh
142

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

fkdjk nj wms ie,ls,a,g .ksuq' jeäÿrg;a LLRC
jd¾;dj meyeÈ,sj m%ldY lrk mߧ" úfYaIfhkau
zzckjd¾.sl m%YK
a h fukau m%cd;ka;l
%s wdh;kj,g
;¾ckhla jk wfkl=;a nrm;, m%YaKhka ygoZZ
n,h fn§ula u; mokï jQ foaYmd,k yd wdKavql%u
jHjia : duh úi÷ulg M,öfï ls % h dodufhys §
kdhl;ajh .; hq;af;a YS% ,dxlSh rchhs' wka
ieuúgl fukau fuys§o wmf.a ie,ls,,
a fhduqlrk
lreK kï LLRC ks¾foaYhka ls%hd;aul lsÍu msKsi
YS% ,dxlSh rcfha úYd, iqiudo¾Y fjkila wjYHjk
njhs'
fuh cd;sl m%uqL;djhla f,i i,ld
iu.sixOdkfha" j.ùfï iy udkj ysñlï wdrCId
lsÍfï Yla;u
s ;a yd lemS fmfkk m%.;shla 2012§ iy
bka Tíng idCId;alr .ekSu i|yd jk fufyjr
wrUk f,i wms ±äf,i b,a,d isáuq' fuh mYapd;a
hqo ;;a;ajhl isg mYapd;a .egqï ;;a;ajhla lrd
ixl%uKh ùfï§ fukau mYapd;a .egqï ;;a;ajfhys§
,Õdjk l,amj;sk iduh iy tlai;a nj Wodlr
.ekSfï§ o w;HjYH jkakls'

² wka;¾cd,h weiqfrka PdhdrEm Wmqgd .ekSfï § tys
uQ,dY%h ±laùug yels ;rï W;aidy .;a nj;a" hï w;miq
ùula isÿ ù kï wms lK.dgqj m< lruq'

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh

143

ISBN : 978-955-1655-87-7
144

úl,am m%;sm;a;s flakaøh