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W.

;a mdv yd
m%;i
s kaOdkh ms<n
s |
fldif ksfoaY
(LLRC)

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

W.;a mdv yd m%;sikaOdkh ms<sn|


fldif ksfoaY (LLRC)

ixialrKh

kS;s{ tia' ' mqxfyajd

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

3i

W.;a mdv yd m%;sikaOdkh ms<sn| fldif ksfoaY


m%:u uqKh ( wf.daia;= 2012
ISBN : 978-955-1655-87-7
m.Kl ieleiau ( jdlHd rE 'we' 011-2708377
uqKh ( .af,da ms%kaka jlaia 'we' 011-2329739
m%ldYkh ( l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah hkq iajdk foaYmd,k


mCIjd;ajfhka f;dr ixOdkhla jk w;r th
uQ,sl jYfhka rdcHlrKh iy .egq ksrdlrKh yd
ine .eg flfrys ish wjOdkh fhduq lrhs' 1996
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah msysg jkq ,enqfha uyck
m%;sm;a;Ska ms<sn|j jQ l;sldj; i|yd is,a iudcfha
i odhl;ajh w;HjYH jk njg yd th Yla;su;a
l< hq;=j mj;sk njg jk Yajdih fmr fldg
f.k h' uyck m%;sm;a;Ska fpkd;aul uYkhg
Ndck lrk" l,amhka ykd .kakd yd tajd jHdma;
lrk mfhaIK yd n,mE lsf jevigyka fjkqfjka
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah lem is'

ii
4

,smskh

( 24$2" 28 jeks mgqu."


msg; u,a mdr" fld<U 07'

rl:k

( +94 (11) 2565304/5/6

*elaia

( +94 (11) 4714460

fj wvh

( www.cpalanka.org

Bf,a

( info@cpalanka.org

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

fmrjok
2009 jif hqoaOh ksudfuka miq
.;jQ ld,h;=< ksl=;ajQ fldIka iNd
jd;d w;=ka W.;a mdv iy m%;sikaOdk
fldif (LLRC) jd;dj fnfykau
jeo.;a jQ jd;dj f' tfukau fuu
jd;dj 1990 .kkaj, ;reK fldIka
iNd jd;dj iu .;al, ksoyfika
miq j;auka YS% ,xldj ms<sn|j jQ jvd;au
jeo.;a ,sh,a,la jkafkahehs hful=g
;l l< yelsh' kuq;a wjdikdjlg
fuka fuu jd;dj md,sfka;=j fj;
bm;a fldg udi 7la .;jk fuu
ld,fhaj;a th rf rdcH NdIdjka jk
isxy, yd fou< NdIdjkag ks, jYfhka
yd imQKfhka mj;kh fkdue;'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah (CPA) iska tu
jd;df ksfoaYhka we;=<;a jk 9 jk
mfoh isxy, iy fou< NdIdjkag
mj;kh lrkq ,en we;' tfukau wms
fuu LLRC ksfoaYhka ms<sn|j jrKhlao
iys; iq.u iy lshug myiq fmd;a msxp
m%ldYhg m;a lrkafka uQ,sl jYfhkau
tys jeo.;alu i,lka fukau LLRC
jd;df wka;.;h k.ekSf whs;shla
furg mqrjeishkayg we;ehs hk
Yajdifhka o hq;=jh' tfukau YS% ,dxflah
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

iii
5

rch iska furg fukau foaYhka ys o


jQ ;u wdOdrlrejka fukau fplhka
ygo iarf,iu lshd isfha rcfha udkj
ysl jd;dj yd tys W,a,x>khka iy
wvqmdvq ms<sn|j lghq;= lsug rchg we;s
lemu ms<sn|j jQ ish iel ixld" m%Yak
yd fpkhka yg LLRC jd;dfjka
ms<s;=re ,efnk njhs'
LLRC jd;dj iy tys ksfoaYhka
ls%hd;aul lsf w;sYh m%uqLjQ jeo.;alu
ms<sn|j rgmqrd ixjdohla isu iu.s
ikaOdk ls%hdoduhg fukau rf tluq;=
njgo fnfyka u jeo.;af' ksudKYS,s
yd kqj;aNdjfhka hq;=jQ ixjdohla rgmqrd
we;sh yels jkafka jd;dj yd tys
ksfoaYhka ms<sn|j rfgys mqrjeishka
kqj;aj iskafka k muKls'
LLRC jd;df kj fjks mfoh
b;d ir, NdIdfjka ixialrKh l<
kS;s{ tia' ' mqxfyajd uy;dg;a" fmdf;a
wdlD;sh ms<sn| woyia m< l< ish
fokdg;a wmf.a ia;=;sh ys f'
LLRC ksfoaYhka ir,j f;are .ekSug
fuu m%ldYkh Wmld fhehs l,am
m%;sm;a;s flakah wfmaCId lrhs'
wdpdh mdlHfida;s irjkuq;a;=
Odhl wOHCI
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

6
iv

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

mgqk
fldif j.;=. 1
W.;a mdv fldif jd;dj yd tys wka;.;h
ms<sn| igykla 5

W.;a mdv fldif ksCIK yd ksfoaY


9 jeks mfoh 15
uQ,sl ksCIK yd ksfoaY
idrdxYh
fojeks mfoh

igka rdu .ssiqu inkaO ksCIK 15


;=kajeks mfoh

is ud,djla muKs' 16
y;rjeks mfoh

.egqf wjidk Nd.hg wod< jQ udkqIjd kS;s .eg


ms<sn| ksCIK yd ksfoaY 16
hqo uqla; l,dm (No Fire Zones) 17
is,a jeishka h hdf fyda ;=jd, f
fYaIs; wjia:d 18
frdaay,a$;djld,sl frday,a 19
.egq m%foaY j,ska is,a jeishkag wdydr yd T!IO
we;= udkqISh iyk iemhSu 20
ffjoH fiajd iemhq 22
ndr fuka$w;a wvx.=jg m;afuka miq w;=reoyka
we;s njg fpdaokd 23
t,afha yeisu 24
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

7v

cd;Hka;r .egq Wfoid cd' udkqI jd kS;s Nd;h


.ek ksCIK 26
wdmodjg m;ajQjka ms<sn| ksCIK iy ksfoaY 28
pek,a 4 fhda mgh inkaO kslaIK iy
ksfoaY 30
miajeks mfoh

udkj whs;sjdisl ms<sn| kslaIK iy ksfoaY 32


mqoa.,hka ke;su" w;=reoka u iy meyer .ekSu
ms<sn| uQ,sl fpdaokd 33
/|hkag ie,lSu 39
ks;s frda ikakoaO lKavdh 42
nd,jhialdrejka hqoaOhg n|jd .ekSu' 43
myiqfjka m;g f.dre h yels lKavdh
^idudkH& 45
ia;S%yq 46
<uhs 49
jeysfhda 50
wNHka;rj wj;ekajQfjda 51
W;=re iy kef.kysr uqia,s m%cdj
inkaO ldrKd 54
woyia m%ldY lsf ksoyi iy f;dr;=re ,nd
.ekSf whs;sjdislu 55
w;S; mlaIK fldi jd;d .ek miq mrula 58
yhjeks mfoh

bv .eg
;u bvj,g wdmiq hdu iy h<s mxu 58
8
vi

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

y;ajeks mfoh

yslu wdmiq ,ndu $ jka iyk ms<sn|


kslaIK iy ksfoaY 70
wgjeks mfoh

1 jeks fldgi
hqoaOfhka miq iu.sikaOdkh ms<sn| kslaIK 75
wgjeks mfoh

2 jeks fldgi
iu.s ikaOdkh ms<sn| kslaIK iy ksfoaY 79
fou< ckhdf.a la .ek,s 83
Y%S ,xldf nyq;r - iq;r in|;djkaf.a
ft;sydisl miqu 83
uqia,s ck;djf.a la .ek,s 85
.egq m%foaY wdikak .j, j;a jQ isxy, ckhdf.a
la.ek,s 86
bkah iNjhla we;s fou< ckhdf.a
la .ek,s' 87
i fiu iy iu.s ikaOdkh inkaO .eg kS;sfha wdm;Hh meje;aug fkdyelsu 88
md,klrKh inkaO .eg 94
mqrjeis la.ek,s iug fYaI wdh;khla 94
fjk;a l%shdud. 96
n,h fnod yod .ekSf wjYH;djh 98
NdId m%;sm;a;sh 102
wOHdmkh 106
iudk wjia:d 106
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

vii
9

idu wOHdmkh 107


vhiafmdardj 108
wka; wd.l lghq;= iu.s ikaOdkh flfrys
wd.j, ldhNdrh 112
l,dj yd ixialD;sh iu.s ikaOdkh jOkh lsf
fuj, f,i
NdIduh yd ixialD;sl in|l 114
ckj. w;r wfkHkH in|;dj 117
foaYmd,k tl;ajhl wjYH;dj 119
W.;a mdv fldif ksfoaYhkays wdikak
b;sydih 123
tlai;a cd;Skaf.a uyf,aljrhdf.a WmfoaYl lgq
jd;dj ^oreiaudka jd;dj& 125
foaYfm%auh yd wrdcH frdaOh 127
hqfrdamSh fldif ksfoaY 129
kSjd fhdackd 132
n,h lelr .ekSf foaYmd,kh 134

fmrjok iy l,am m%;sm;a;s flakafha mqj;a m;a ksfokh


bx.%Sisfhka isxy,g mj;kh lf<a wfidal fyar;a isks'

10
viii

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Frontline India

fldIka jd;dj ckdm;sjrhdg ms<s.kajka'''

fldif j.;=.
ku ( W.;a mdv yd m%;sikaOdkh ms<sn|
jQ ckdm;s mlaIK fldIka iNdj
(Commission of Inquiry on Lessons Learnt
and Reconciliation - LLRC)
kS;sh ( mlaIK fldIka iNd mkf;a 2
j.ka;sh
m;a l< kh ( 2010 uehs 15 k .re
ckdm;s;=ud iska
w;=re jd;dj ndrf kh ( 2010 fkdje' 11
jd;dj ndrka kh ( 2011 fkdje' 15
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Dreamstime.com

jd;dj md,sfka;=jg bm;a l< kh(


2011 foien 17
W.;a mdv yd m%;sixOdk fldif
idCIs
1' ,enqk ksfhdackhka
^weuqKq 1'2&

.Kk

-266

2' fldiu iska jdl idCIs fok f,i


wdrdOkd l< m%udKh-49 ^weuqKq 1'3&
3' ,s; b,a,S lr fld<U jdl idCIs
ka m%udKh-138 ^weuqKq 1'3&
4' fldiu fld<ka msg; ieisjdr
meje;ajQ ia:dk .Kk-47^weuqKq 1'4&
mCIKhg ,la jQ ld, iS u dj ( 2002
fmnrjd 21 is g 2009 uehs 19 ola j d
is'
mejereKq ldhh ( 2002'02'21 isg 2009'05'19
k ola j d my; i|yka lreKq ms < s n |
mlaIK mj;ajd jd;djla bm;a lsu'
tu lreKq fufia h'
I'

2002'02'21 l%shdjg kexjQ igka rdu


.siqu wid:l ug fya;= jQ lreKq
yd is iu. bkamiq 2009'05'19 olajd
isoa ud,dj'

II' tu is inkaOfhka h mqoa.,hl="


fyda lKavdhula fyda jl%j j.lsh hq;=
o@
2

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Daily Mirror / Photo Courtesy of


Sri Lanka Guardian Website

fldif idudlhska

III' tu is j,ska wmg W.; yels mdv


iy h<s;a tjeks fohla is fkdu
i|yd wm fidhd ne,sh hq;= lreKq'
IV' tu is ksid ydkshg m;a mqoa.,hl=
fyda Tyqf.a hefmkakka fyda
Wreulrejka h:d ;;a;ajhg m;a l<
yels l%ufoh'
V' tjeks is wkd.;fha h<s we;s fkdu
i|yd iy is h ck fldgia w;r
tlafiai;alu yd cd;sl iu.s ikaOdkh
jOkh ls u i|yd fuu jrm;% h
hgf;a mCIKhg ,la l<
lreKq .ek lrk fjk;a ks foa Y
i|yd .;hq;= wdh;ksl" mmd,kuh
iy kS;suh mshjrhka fudkjd o@
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

fldif idudlhka
1'

iS' wd' o' is,ajd uy;d - ckdm;s


kS;S{" iNdm;s
2' wdpdh ta frdydka fmfrd uy;d
3' uydpdh lreKdr;a k yj;a ;
uy;d
4' iS' pkauq. uy;d
5' t' we' ' ismd, m,sylaldr uy;d
6' ufkdayd rdukdoka uy;ah
7' t' mrdl%u mrK.u uy;d ^f,al&
8' t' ' t' n*Sla uy;d

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Ceylon-Ananda Blog

fldiu bfha idCIs ,ndfok wjia:djla'''

m<uqjeks mfoh

W.;a mdv fldif jd;dj yd


tys wka;.;h ms<sn| igykla
yekau iy l%ufoh
-

fldiug mej we;s ldhNdrh


^wka ;ekl m<f&
,s; iy jdl jYfhka idlaIs ,nd
.ekSf l%uh Nd; lrk nj
;uka leu;s NdIdjlska idlaIs
h yels nj iy wjidk jd;dj
bx.S%isfhka m<lrk nj
fYaI kqu we;s mqoa.,hka fldiu
iska le|jk nj'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

fojeks mfoh

igka rdu .siqu


I
II

2002'02'21 isg 2009'05'19 olajd


igka rdu .siqf n,mEu'
igk we;sug fya;= idlaIsj,
bm;au(
wdl msySfuka jQ l,lsu
fjkiafldg ie,lSu
w' wOHdmkfha yd / lshdjkays
fjkial isu'
wd' NdId m%;sm;a;sh ls%hd;aul
fkdu
we' n,h fnod yef W;=rg
iy kef.kysrg m%udKj;a
n,;, fkdu'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Lanka Standard website / Courtesy of The Hindu

nKavdrkdhl - fp,ajkdh. .siqu w;aika ;nd'''''

Photo source: Associated Press Photo by Gurinder Osan

uqia,s ck;dj .ek wjOdkh fhduq fkdu'''

wE' 1950 mufKa isg i


fiug .;a W;aidyhka
wid:l u'
b' .siqu ls%hd;aul lsf
foaYmd,k yd hqouh jYfhka
j, md,khla ;su
B' uqia,s ck;dj .ek wjOdkh
fhduq fkdu
t' myiqldrlhdf.a ldhh
wid:lu
ta' foaYmd,k mlaIj, wiu. sh'
T' t,ah tu wjia:dfjka
m%fhdack .ekSu
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Ministry of Defence

t,aBh iska orejka igkalrejka lsu''''

;=kajeks mfoh

wdrlaIl yuqod ls%hdka;hka


ms<sn| uYkhla'
-

igka rdu .siqfuka miq


foaYmd,k iulg ;snQ bvlv
iSudu'
kef.kysr ls%hdka;h jYfhka
ud,a wdre fidfrdj h<s w;am;a
lr .ekSu'
2007 fmn' jkaks ls%hdka;h
wdrNu'
jjqkshd ukakdr m%foaYj,g miq
2009'04'05 mqlal= bremamq m%foaYh
ksoyia lsu'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Jananibarathy.wordpress.com

udkqISl kS;s W,a,x>Kh .ek uIKh

2006 isg 2009 olajd yuqodf


5556lao t,af 22247la o
hf. dia we;s nj'

y;rjeks mfoh

udkqISh kS;sh ms<sn| .eg


-

wka; cd;sl udkqIjd kS;s


uQ,Ou'

1949 w;aika lr we;s kSjd iuq;s


y;r iy fYaI iuq;s fol ^1977&
<uhska hqo lghq;= i|yd n|jd
.ekSu .ek iuq;sh ^2000&

wNHka;r .egq ms<sn| fmd


j.ka;sh ^3&

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: riyasewana.com

iq jEka NS;sldjg
;s;la ;nuqo'''@

10

wka; cd;sl udkqIjd kS;sfha


igkalrejkaf.ka is,a ck;dj
fjkafldg ykd .ekSu' ^2000
t'cd' ;Skaj&
is,a ia:dk iy yuqod b,lal
fjkafldg ykd .ekSu'
iudkqmd;sl Ndjfha uQ,Ouh
ms<smeu - tk n,dfmdfrd;a;=
h yels m%ydrhka blaujd is,a
ck;djg ydkslr m%;sm%ydr ;yk
nj
hqo uqla; l,dm m%ldYhg m;a
lsu'
fj yqjudref >d;k isu
frday,a $ ;djld,sl frday,aj,g
m%ydr t,a,u
wdydr" fnfy;a we;= udkqISh
wdOdr iemhSu'
2009 ckjd isg ;;ajh'
wj;eka jQ ck;dj ms<sn| ixLHd
yd o;a;'
ffjoH myiql iemhSu
udkqIjd kS;s W,a,x>kh .ek
uYkh
uqod.;a m%foaYj,g is,a ck;dj
iy igkalrejka meKSf
wdrlaIl yuqodf yeisu'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Centre for Human Rights

mia jeks mfoh -

udkj whs;sjdisl
-

YS% ,xldf wdKavq l%u jHjia:dj Odhl yd mmd,k m%;slu yd

wka;cd;sl iuq;s 7la hgf;a


udkj whs;sjdisl /lSug wdKavqj
ne isk nj'

.egqfuka mek k.sk udkj


whs;sjdisl .eg - meyer .ekS"
w;=re oyka iy hg;a jqjka@

iq jEka m%Yakh

kS;s frda ikakoaO lKavdh

ia;S%ka" <uhska iy jeyshka


uqyqKmdk .eg

wdndO iys; jqjka iy wNHka;r


wj;eka jQjka ms<sn| .eg

W;=re - kef.kysr uqia,s ck;dj


ms<sn| .eg

woyia m%ldYkfha iy f;dr;=re


,nd .ekSf whs;sjdislu'

weoySf" hdf Bf iy ixOdk


meje;af ksoyi

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

11

Photo source: Website of the Ministry of Resettement

yhjeks mfoh - bv .eg"

wdmiq meKSu iy h<s mx lru


-

12

.egqu ksid bv wys jQfjda


ksia m,syg f.dre jqjka iy
hdmkfhka jkakshg hdug
n,lrkq ,enqfjda'
kef.kysr bv meyer .ekS
ksid jdi N+ wys jQfjda'
kef.kysr is isxy, ck;djf.a
f.d wysu
W;=frka m,jd ykq ,enQ uqia,s
jeisfhda
wdmiq meKSu iy h<s mx lru
w wdrlaIl l,dm j, bv
wysjQfjda
bv f,aLk ke;su" jHdc f,aLk
u.ska bv whs;s lr .ekSu'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Courtesy of CPA

y;ajeks mfoh - h:d ;;ajhg

m;a lsu iy jka iyk ie,iSu


-

mmd,k m%;slu fhu

wgjeks mfoh

iu.s ikaOdkh
-

hqoaOfhka miq ms<smeh hq;=


uQ,Ou
h<s mx lru ksjdi iy
jfkdamdh
W;=re kef.kysr wOHdmk
wjYH;d
jr" lDIslu myiql
bv .eg ksrdlrKh lsu
ffjoH myiql iemhSu
kef.kysr uqia,s ck;dj
h<smx lru

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

13

Photo source: IRIN News

fndan bj;a lsu

w wdrlaIl l,dm iy wdrlaIl


yuqod ksid we;s ndOd bj;a lsu'
fndan bj;a lsu
hqoaOfhka miq vhiafmdard .eg
fou< ck;djf.a la .ek,s .ek
ixf u
n,h fnod yod .ekSf wjYH;dj
NdId m%;sm;a;sh ls%hd;aul lsu
iudk wjia:d iy idu wOHdmkh

kj jeks mfoh

ksfoaY 285
by; i|yka mfo j,ska
lshejqKq lreKq j,g wod<
ksfoaY f mfofha m<f'

14

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah


W.;a mdv fldif
ksCIK yd ksfoaY
uQ,sl ksCIK yd ksfoaY
idrdxYh
^fu;eka isg lafjkafka fuu jd;df
tla tla mfohka w.g olajd ;snqKq
ks CIK yd ks foa Y iuQ y hhs ' fojeks
mfofha isg wgjeks mfoh olajd
we;s ksCIK yd ksfoaY tlg .;a g
ixLHdj 285 ls' ta ish,a, 9 jeks mfoh
jYfhka i|yka h' ksCIK yd ksfoaY
flfhka laf'
fojeks mfoh

igka rdu .s
s iqu inkaO ksCIK
9'1

fld;r wia:djr yd m, rys; jqj o"


igka rdu .siqu" ish mdYjhka
is k a idlPd u.s k a iulg
meKSug mokula h' tfy;a th
id:l fkd h'

9'2

wjfndaOfha iy l%shdld;aj
wvq mdvq l o" idu l% s h d j,s k a
myiqldrlhd jQ fkdaf rdcHfha ys
n, yd fo meje;au ksid rdcH
yd rdcH fkdjk mdYj folla

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

wjfndaOfha
iy
l%shdld;aj
wvq mdvql
o" idu
l%shd j,ska
myiqldrlhd
jQ fkdaf
ys n,
yd fo
meje;au
ksid rdcH
yd rdcH
fkdjk
mdYj
folla w;r
;sridr idu
l%shdj,shla
we;s lsu
id:l
fudv,hla
fkdjk nj
Tmamq h'

15

Photo source: AsiaTribune Website

w;r ;sridr idu l%shdj,shla we;s


lsu id:l fudv,hla fkdjk
nj Tmamq h'
9'3

rks,a l%uisxy uy;d igka


rdu .siqu w;aika ;efuka
miq'''

igka rdu .s iq f wvq m dvq l


j,s k a o iuyr j.ka ; s j,s k a o
t,ah Wmu m%fhdack .kska
kS;s frda wdhqO ndru fkdl<
w;r w wdhqO mska f.kau is
lf<a h' udkj whs;sjdisl ne
lv l< w;r <ud fid,a o djka
n|jd .ekSu lf<a h'

;=kajeks mfoh

is ud,djla muKs'
y;rjeks mfoh

ta ish,a,
9 jeks
mfoh
jYfhka
i|yka h'
ksCIK
yd ksfoaY
flfhka
laf'

16

.egqf wjidk Nd.hg wod<


jQ udkqIjd kS;s .eg i|yd
ksCIK yd ksfoaY
9'4

udkq I jd kS ; s W,a , x>kh .ek


fpda o kd uid ne,S f i;= g g
m;ah yels h' hqo yuqodj is,a
ck;djf.a wdrCIdjg m%uqL;dj
we;' is,a ck;djg ish yels
ydks je<elaug fyda wju lsug
wdrCIl yuqod wjika wjia:df
ukao.dj m%ydr islr we;'

9'5

yuqod fufyhqf m%Odk m%;m


s ;a;h
s la
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

^4'106 isg 4'111 olajd is,a jeishkaf.a


idlaIs i|yka f' kdjql yuqodf
m%ydrhlska o" fjk;a yuqod m%ydr
j,ska o msila h.sh nj mejfia'
ta ;eka j , t,a B idudlhka
is nj fukau ;=jd,lrejkag;a
Tjqkag;a rcfha yuqod ie,l+ nj o
tu idCIsj, i|yka f'&
hqo uqla; l,dm (No Fire Zones)
9'6

by; i|yka lreKq iy idlaIs wkqj"


fj yqjudref is,a jeishkag
m;a is we;' tfy;a th is;d
u;d is,a jeishkag t,a, lsula
fkdjk nj fldif ks.ukhhs'
.egq ksid m,d hdug ;e;a lsf
t,ah iska >d;kh lssu"
fnda n" kka lvd,a l,mq f jka
tf;r f wk;=re wdh is,a
jeis h ka g uq y q K mEug is h'
t,aB hqo w msysgqjd we;s m%foaY
j,g m% y dr t,a , ls u hq o a O fha
iudkq m d;s l uQ , Ouhg mgyeks
fkdf'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: AFP

jkafka is,a jeishkaf.a ; wdrCId


lsu h' 4 jeks m II fldgfia" 4'106
isg 4'111 olajd idlaIs u.ska" is,a
jeishka ys;du;d b,lal lr we;ehs
;yjqre fkdf'

t,aB kdhl m%Ndlrka


igka rdu .siqug
w;aika ;nka'''

fj
yqjudref
is,a
jeishkag
m;a is
we;'

17


9'7
tjeks
is l=uk
;;a;ajhla
hgf;a
ish yels
hs fidhd
ne,Su rdcH
mdYjfha
j.lSu
neka
tys" jro
l< jqkag
o~qj u;a"
ydksjQjkaf.a
mjq,a
j,g jka
f.u;a
.ek is;d
ne,sh
hq;= h'

18

9'8

by; ks.ukhg meKsh o"


iudkqmd;sl uQ,Ouh blaujd f.dia
weoao hkq fidhd ne,Su o fldiug
mejK' tfy;a wjia:df mej;=Kq
ixlSK;djka ksid .; yels ish
wdrCIl mshjrhka yuqodj iska
f.k we;s nj;a" Bg jvd m%dfhda.sl
hula l< fkdyels nj;a fldiu
ks.ukh lrhs'
cd;Hka;r wlrK iska fmkajd
we;s lreKla fuys isysm;a lruq'
zhqo fufyhq j, isjk urK"
;=jd, foam< ydks isjQ wdldrh
Widhla bfha m%;k
s
s udKh lsu
l< fkdyels ;rZ fohla nj h'

is,a jeishka h hdf fyda


;=jd, f fYaIs; wjia:d
9'9

by; i|yka 4'106 - 4'111 olajd


idlaIs wkqj is,a jeishkaf.a ;
ydks isjQ wjia:d m%;s ksudKh
lsf Ialr;djg fldiu uqyqK
kafka h' wdrlaIl yuqod is;d u;d
ydks fkdl<d jqj o" tjeks is
l=uk ;;a;ajhla hgf;a ish yels
hs fidhd ne,Su rdcH mdYjfha
j.lSu neka tys" jro l< jqkag
o~q j u;a " ydks j Q j ka f .a mjq , a
j,g jka f.u;a .ek is;d ne,sh
hq;= h'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: inaccnet.com

t,aB md,kfhka yuqod md,k m%foaYhg mefKk is,a ckhd

frday,a$;djld,sl frday,a
9'10

; yd f.dvke.s,s ydks islrka


frday,aj,g fI,a fj t,a, we;s
nj fldiu ms<s.kS' tfy;a ,enqKq
f;dr;=re wkqj fj t,a, jQ idj
yd ia:dkh ms<sn| wjq,a ;;a;ajhla
mj;S'

9'11

ienE idlaIs u; Bg j. lsh hq;a;ka


;SrKh lsu fldiu uqyqK ka
Ialr;djls'

9'12

tu Ialr;dj k .egq m%foaY


yd .egqf W.%;djh wkqj laIKsl
mlaIKhla ke;su iy bm;a

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

19


wdKavqj
w;jYH fiajd
uyflduidia" 9'13
cd;Hka;r
wdh;k yd
iafPd
9'14
ixOdk
m%YxikSh
fiajdjla
bgqlr we;'

20

jQ idlaIs j,ska fIa,a fj t,a,


jQfha l=uk mdYjfhka hs meye,s
fkdu h' fomdYjh u fIa,afj
t,a, l< njg idlaIs we;'
ks i s uQ , s l idla I s ys lu ks i d
j.lsh hq;= mdYjh ks.ukh l<
fkdyelsh'
tfy;a fI,a fj ksid isjq ;
ydks iy ;=jd, fjkqfjka ksis jka
f.ula ish hq;f
a ;a udkqIh
S l%h
s djla
f,i;a " iu.s i ka O dk ms h jrla
f,i;a h'

.egq m%foaY j,ska is,a


jeishkag wdydr yd T!IO
we;= udkqISh iyk iemhSu
9'15

t,aBh hgf;a is is,a jeishkag


f.dv ud. j,s k a ms < s . ;a
m%udKfha wdydr iemhqfKa 2009
ckjd olajd h' .egq W.%u;a
iu. uqyq ud.h o fhdod .eksK'
tfy;a 2009 fmnrjd is g uehs
ui ueo olajd tu m%udKh wvqh'
f;dr;=re wkqj udkqISh iemhq
isjQfha uy;a m%dfhda. sl Ialr;d
ueo nj fldiug meye,s f'

9'16

.egqf W.% ;;a;ajh hgf;a iemhsh


yels wydr m%udKh mjd hejqfKa
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: REUTERS

wjika igfka wjia:djla'''''

uq y q f oks ' ta i|yd idm;s j reka "


wdrlaIl yuqod" r;=l=reih" f,dal
wdydr jevigyk iy ia f Pd
ixOdk mrjg ;nd fufyjr
l< nj fldiu ms<s.kS'
9'17

.egqf W.%lu ksid iS; iemhqu


mjd idOdrK f,i fnod yeug
t,afhka isjQ ndOdjka fkd;ld
tu wjika i;s lSmfha" wdKavqj
w;jYH fia j d uyflduidia "
cd;Hka;r wdh;k iafPd
ixOdk m%YxikSh fiajdjla bgqlr
we;'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

21


9'18

tn uy;a mY%u w;r mjd is,a


jeishka m%udKj;a wdydr ke;slfuka
mSvdjg m;aj we;'

mqoa.,hka
yuqod ndrhg
9'19 fldgq is is,a jeishkag wdydr
m;a jQ njg
fnfy;a iy w;jYH jH ,nd ug
weiska gq
cd;Hka;r m%cdf iy O wdh;k
whf.a
j, iyfhda.fhka mshjr f.k ;snQ
idlaIs we;'
nj fldif woyi h'
tfy;a Tjqka
w;=reoyka lr 9'20 hqo uqla; l,dm ;=< t,aB m%dK
we;ak" tu
wemfha is is,a jeishka f.a m%udK
l%shdj o~qj
.ek ks Y a ; idla I s ,e ke;'
,eh yels
flfia fj;;a hqo Wml%uhla f,i
jrols' ta .ek
jeishka yduf;a ;eug is;d u;d
Nd. fldg
ixLHdj wdKa v q j is k a wvq f jka
jerlrejkag
olajd we;ehs fldiug wkqudk
o~qj l< hq;=
l< fkdyels h'
nj fldiu
wjOdrKh
ffjoH fiajd iemhq
lrhs'
9'21 4 m II fldgfia lshejqKq m T!IO iy ffjoH myiql iemhS
m% u dKj;a fkdjQ nj fmfkhs '
tfy;a .egqf W.%lu iy .egqug
wdika k j frda y ,a ms y s u .ek
ie,ls,a,g .; hq;= h'

9'22

22

is,a jeishkag ffjoH myiql


iemhSu inkaOfhka fldiug
b m;ajQ lreKq m%udKj;a ke;'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: UN Photo/Eskinder Debebe

tfy;a th udkq I S h fya ; = u;


;jrg;a Nd. l< hq;= lreKls'
tys ;=jd, jQ is,a jeishka ixLHdj"
;=jd,hkays iajNdjh" m%;l
s dr lsug
;snQ yelshdj" m%;sldr ,enQ t,aB
idudl ixLHdj wdh ie,ls,a,g
.; hq;= h'

is,a
jeishkag
ffjoH
myiql
iemhSu
inkaOfhka
fldiug b
m;ajQ lreKq
m%udKj;a ke;'

ndr fuka$w;a wvx.=jg m;afuka miq


w;=reoyka we;s njg fpdaokd
9'23 ^m II fldgfia 4'242 isg 4'258
ola
jd& mqoa.,hka yuqod ndrhg m;a
jQ njg weiska gq whf.a idlaIs wkqj
Tjqka w;=reoyka lr we;ak" tu l%shdj
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

23


cd;Hka;r
yd udkqISh
kS;s oreKq
f,i lv
l< t,aB
idudlhkag
tfrysj ksis
m fpdaokd
ke.Sug
wjYH
jd;d
,nd.;
hq;= h'

o~qj ,eh yels jrols' ta .ek Nd.


fldg jerlrejkag o~qj l< hq;= nj
fldiu wjOdrKh lrhs' ndrf
l%shdj,sfha yuqodj ,nd we;s lS;s kduh
lSm fofkl=f.a l%shd ksid flf,iSug bv
fkd;eh hq;= h'
t,afha yeisu
9'24

t,ah isska udkj whs;sjdisl


ms<sn| nrm;, W,a,x>khka udkj
whs;sjdisl mfofhka o"

9'25

t,ah iska wka;cd;sl udkqIjd


kS;s nrm;, f,i W,a,x>kh ls
.ek 4 m II fldgiska o ia;r
f' tfy;a wjika ksCIK lSmhla
fufia h'
w'

is,a jeishka ksia m,syla lr


.ekSu'

wd' is ,a uOHia : dk j, yuq o d


WmlrK ;eu'
we' wdrCIs; m%foaY j,g m,d hk
jeishkag fj ;eu'
wE' wjidk .egqf mjd nd,hka
n|jd .ekSu'
b'

24

.egq l,dmfhka msg; mjd


fndan iy laIKsl msmqre
WmlrK i lsu
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Daily News File Photo

jfhdajDO ldka;djla hqo fuka /f.k tk yuqod finf,la''''

9'26

.egqug is,a jeishka nf,ka


fhdojd .ekS u - ta ks i d
fjkafldg ykd .ekSu wmyiq
u'

W'

is,a jeishkag ydks lrka


.g u urdf.k uefrk wh
fhou'

cd;Hka;r yd udkqIjd kS;s oreKq


f,i lv l< t,aB idudlhkag
tfrysj ksis m fpdaokd ke.Sug
wjYH jd;d ,nd.; hq;= h'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

25


rdcHhka
w;r
.egq j,g
n,mdk
kS;sj, fmd
uQ,Ou
kg;a
rdcH
fkdjk
lKavdh
flfrys
o kg;a

26

cd;Hka;r .egq Wfoid cd'


udkqISh kS;s Nd;h .ek
ksCIK
9'27

wNHka;r .egq j, rdcH fkdjk


ikakoaO lKavdh inkaO kS;s
ksis f,i w: olajd ke;s ksid
tu lKa v dh is ,a jeis h ka f .a
wdrla I dj fkd;ld l% s h d lrhs '
wdrlaIs; l,dm" igka i|yd fhdod
.ekSu" is,a jeishka m,syla f,i
fhdod .ekSu ksid m%;m
s h
s jr .ekSf
is,a jeishkag wk;=re isu
je<elau wiSre fjhs'

9'28

fmr fkdjQ m is,a jeishka f.a


wdrlaIdjg tjeks l,dm fjka lsu
i|yd tu lKavdh tl fkdjk
w;r ta l mdYhj m% l dY l<
g tu l,dm igka i|yd fhdod
.ekSu;a" ksia m,syla lsu yd m%;s
m%ydr u hk WNf;dafldalhlg
uqyqK fohs'

9'29

ta l mdYhj hq o uq l a ; l,dm
m%ldY lsu ksid is,a jeishka
isk iSudjg t,ahg meKSug
wjia:dj ie,iqjdo hkqfjka ielhla
u;=fldg we;'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Guardian.co.uk

t,aB igkaldka l=vd orejka iu.'''''

9'30

hqo uqla; l,dmhka ms<sn| udkqIjd


kS;sh wdrlaId lsf ikakoaO
lKavdh l%shdjka .ek fiu;a"
wNHka;r .egq j, tu kS;shg
t,a , jk wNs f hda . j,g i
fiug ks i s m% ;S k a iy l% s h d
mmd jOkh l< hq;= h'

9'31

rdcHhka w;r .egq j,g n,mdk


kS;sj, fmd uQ,Ou rdcH fkdjk
lKa v dh flfrys o wod< f'
tfy;a tu lKavdh j,ska udkqIjd
kS ; s h g je wjk;Ndjhla ,nd
.ekSug tu kS;s jOkh lsug
tla i ;a cd;S k a we;= wfkl= ; a
wdh;k" wjOdkh fhduq l<
hq;= h'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

27


9'32'
lK.dgqjg
lreK k
.egqfuka h
.shjqka yd
;=jd,lrejka
.ek ienE
ixLHd yd
o;a;hka lsisu
ks, jd;djl
i|yka
fkdu h'

wdmodjg m;ajQjka ms<sn|


ksCIK iy ksfoaY
9'33

fldiug ,enqKq Rcq iy


Yajdij;a f;dr;=re wkqj"
yuqod wdrlaIdj blaujd hqo
uqla; m%foaYj,g Wka fj
yq j udrefuka is ,a jeis h ka g
; ydks iy ;= j d, is jQ nj
meye,sh'

9'34

ksia m,sylg jix jQ urdf.k


uefrk msilg uqyqK u wdrlaIl
yuq o djg ixlS K wNs f hda . hla
h' tfiau zu<l|ka .Kka lsu
fkdj ; frd .ekSuZ yuqodf
m%;sm;a;sh u w.h lruq' tfy;a
lK.dgqjg lreK k .egqfuka
h .shjqka yd ;=jd,lrejka .ek
ienE ixLHd yd o;a;hka lsisu ks,
jd;djl i|yka fkdu h' O
wdh;k j,ska O ixLHd olajd
we;'

28

.egq j,ska m;g m;ajj


Q ka flfrys
wka;cd;sl m%cdj fj; mejfrk
ksYa; j.lSu jkafka tn kS;s
rduqjla ilia lsu h' ta i|yd Y%S
,xldf ;sia wjqreoaola wysxil ksia
; ydksu jeo.;a mdvuls'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

9'35

m;g m;ajQjkaf.a
ixLHd ms<sn|j
jer ks j er lr
.ekSf l%ufohla
fkd;su ksid
ta .ek we;a f ;a
wkqudk lrk ,o
f;dr;=re muKs'

9'36

weis k a gq j ka f .a
idlaIs wkqj .egqf
wjika ld,fha
is,a jeishka iEfyk ixLHdjlg
ydks is we;snj fldiu ta;a;=
.kS' t,aBh is,a jeishka .ek
fkd;ld .egqf fhu yd fj
yqjudre ksid tu ydks is we;'

9'37

is,a jeishkag is jQ foa ms<sn|


ksis mCIKhla l< hq;=hs'

ta .ek fldiu my; ks foa Y


olajhs'
w'

is,a jeishkag is;d u;d m%ydr


t,a, lsu .ek ksis mlaIK
mj;ajd jrog o~qj u'

wd' is ,a jeis h ka g is jq ;
ydks ;=jd, iy foam< ydks
.ek jD;a ; S h fka u.s k a
ilaIKhla is lsu'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

29

pek,a 4 fhda mgh


inkaO
kslaIK
iy ksfoaY
9'38
w'
ienE
ke;ak fndre jqk;a tu
fhda mgfha isoa ms<sl=,a
h' ysiqKq h'
wd'
wdKa v q j ls h ka f ka
th lD;% s u ks m oula nj
h' tfy;a tlai;a cd;Skaf.a
;dlaIK fYaI{hka lshkafka"
w;awvx.=jg m;a wh urd u yd
,sx.sl ysxid lsu .ek idlaIs
imhk njhs' tys ;dlaIKsl
.eg we;s nj fomdYjhu
ms<s.kS'

pek,a f*da kd,sldj bm;a l<


wdkafoda,kd;aul jd;d ;%mgfha
oYkhla

we' ;dCIK fYaI{hka mjikafka"


tys i;H;dj ms<sn| meye,s
ielhla we;s nj h'

30

b'

tys Ys,amSh iy wlrK


ffjoHuh .eg we;s nj
fldiu ms<s.kS' tfy;a
flfkl= ksIamdokh lr ndr
we;ehs lshd o fkdms<s.kS'

B'

Bg jvd mq,a f;dr;=re iemhSula


ldYlhkaf.ka is fkd h'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

mj;a k d f;dr;= r e wkq j i;H


;yjqre lsu i|yd wdKavqj iajdk
mCIKhla l< hq;= nj fldiu
ksfoaY lrhs'

9'40'

f l%shdud.h wjYH fya;=


folls'

w'

fYaI{hka f.a u;h wkqj thska w;a


wvx.=jg m;a jQjka >d;kh iy ia;%S
IK lsf yelshdj fmkajhs' tfia
k mCIK mj;ajd jrolrejkg
o~qj h hq;= h' th wdKavqf
j.lSu jkafka yuqodf jD;a;Sh
lS;skduh wdrlaId lsu;a oyia
.Kka leml< fid,aodjkaf.a
f.!rjh /lSu;a wjYH ksid h'

wd'

fjk;a fYaI{hka g wkqj tu


rEm ud,dj lD;%su f,i ksmojk
,oa o la k" ys ; d u;d nrm;,
fndre m%pdrh lsu .ek ldY
l< wh j.lSug hg;a l< hq;= h'
th Y%S ,xldf ck;djgo yuqodjg
o nrm;, widOdrKhls ' woyia
m%ldYkfha ksoyig mrdchla fukau
iu.s ikaOdkh f.dv ke.Sug o
ndOdjls'

9'41

tfyhska i;H ;yjqre lsug ke;ak


fpda o kd wkq j kS ; s u.s k a l% s h d
lsug Y%S ,xldf wdKavqj iajdk

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: www.tamilvoice.dk

9'39

pek,a f*da Y%S ,xld ls,sx *S,aia


jd;d jevigyfka wOHCI
le, ul%S

31


irKd.;hkaf.a
whs;j
s disl"
myiqfjka
m;g
f.dre h
yels ia;%Ska"
orejka"
wdndO iys;
jQjka .ek
o f;dr;=re
laK'

32

mCIKhla l< hq;= h' f;dr;=re


fok wh wdrlaId lsug je rg;a
iyfhda.h fok f,i ldYkh l<
ixOdkfhka fldiu b,a,d is'
miajeks mfoh

udkj whs;sjdisl ms<sn| kslaIK


iy ksfoaY
9'42

.egq ks i d ck;djf.a uQ , s l
whs;sjdisl iy iajdk;d
W,a , x>kh jQ njg fldiug
fndfyda meKs , s ,eK' meyer
.ekS" n,y;aldr w;=reoka ls"
w;a;fkdau;sl r|jd .ekS" nd,hka
hq o lghq ; = j ,g n|jd .ekS "
kS;sfhka ndysr urK o~qj u"
m%ldYkfha .uka uka' hdf" tla
/ia f" weoySf iy udOH ksoyi
W,a,x>kh ls .ek meKs,s ta w;r
f' irKd.;hkaf.a whs;sjdisl"
myiqfjka m;g f.dre h yels
ia;%Ska" orejka" wdndO iys; jQjka
.ek o f;dr;=re laK' tfyhska
f udkj whs;sjdisl inkaO
ksfoaY" iu.s ikaOdk l%shdj,shg
w;sYhska wod< hhs fldiu woyia
lrhs'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Sri Lankan Guardian website

mqoa.,hka ke;su" w;=reoka


u iy meyer .ekSu ms<sn|
uQ,sl fpdaokd
9'43

uQ , s l whs ; s j dis l iy ia j dk
W,a,x>khka ms<sn| ,enqKq idlaIs
Yd, ixLHdfjka fldiu
lkiai,a,g m;a h' t,ah l<
meyer .ekS w;=reoka ls m%udKh
Yd, h' iuyr g jir .Kkl
isg wd .sh ;ekla fkdokakd wh
.ek meKs,s ;sK'

9'44

tn jer is je<elau iu.s


ikaOdkhg w;HjYH nj fndfyda
fokd m% l dY l<y' ths k a mdv

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

33


W.kakd nj iy;sl lsu wjYH nj
fldiu wjOdrKh lr we;'
n,hg
m;a lsisu
wdKavqjla
tajd
l%shd;aul
fkdlsu
ksid
wdKavqj
m;a lrk
fldIka
iNd .ek
fpk
iy iel
u;=fjhs'
fuu W.;a
mdv
fldiug
o tu
ielfhka
h
fkdyels h'

34

9'45

uyck idla I s j,s k a mejeiq f Ka


foa Y md,k n,mE ks i d wmrdO
mCIK" kS ; s h l% s h d;a u l ls u"
fmd,sia mmd,kh j, we;s
nj;a" tg wmrdO hqla;sh .ek
Yajdi | jefgk nj;a h'

9'46

w;= r eoyka ls " meyer .ekS "


r|jd ;e" .ek fmd,sishg" udkj
ysl fldiug" r;=lr
= eihg kq
we;s njg fndfyda idlaIs ;sK'
l,ska mlaIK fldIka iNd j,g
l< meKs,s o h<s;a ,eK' tfy;a
tu mqoa.,hka ;ju;a wd.sh ;ekla
ke;' f meKs,s .ek Nd. fldg
okajd we;'

9'47

ndrfuka fyda w;a wvx.= j g


.ekS f uka rcfha Ndrhg m;a j Q
mqoa.,hkag wdrCIdj ie,iSu rdcH
j.lS u nj fldiu wjOdrKh
lrhs'

9'48

w;=reoyka ms<sn| .egj ljr


iu.s ikaOdk l%shd ud.hlg jqjo
nrm;, ndOlhls' tjeks is
.ek w;S; fldIka iNd iska
i bm;a lr we;;a n,hg
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Agence France Presse

is,a ck iydh r;= l=rei ixOdkh uey;a '''''

m;a lsisu wdKavqjla tajd l%shd;aul


fkdlsu ksid wdKavqj m;a lrk
fldIka iNd .ek fpk iy
iel u;=fjhs' fuu W.;a mdv
fldiug o tu ielfhka h
fkdyels h'
9'49

yuq o df fyda t,a fha fyda


l%shdjkag f.dre jqj o fidhd.;
fkdyels mqoa.,hka .ek f;dr;=re
Tjqkaf.a mjq,a j,g ,nd .ekSf"
jka ,nd .ekSf" kS;suh mshjr
.ekSf whs;sjdislu we;s lrhs'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

35


n,Odka
iska
w;awvx.=jg
.ekSf
is
m;la u"
r|jd isk
ia:dkh .ek
f;dr;=re
iemhSu l<
hq;= h'

9'50

tu mqoa.,hka fidhd .ekSug r;=


l=reih we;= wdh;k iu. kS;sfha
wdh;k iska ish mY%u h hq;=
w;r ta .ek Tjqkaf.a mjq,aj, wh
kqj;a l< hq;= h'

9'51

w;= r e oyka f .egj b;d


ixlS K h' tfy;a fidhd n,d
kS;sm;sjrhdg f;dr;=re ieliSu
mla I K iy kvq lghq ; = i|yd
m<mqre ks,Orfhla m;a l< hq;= h'
O wdh;k j, mj;sk f;dr;=re
tla ;eklg /ia l< hq;= h'

9' 52 urK iy;sl u yd uqo,a jka f.u


.ek ie,ls,a, fhu iqiq h' urK
,shdmx lsf mk; ixfYdaOkh
fldg ta .ek m%isoahla ,nd h
hq;= h'
9'53

f,aLk.; fkdfldg w;a wvx.=jg


.ekS .ek fpdaokd /ila
fldiug ,eK' wod< n,Odka
iska w;awvx.=jg .ekSf is
m;la u" r|jd isk ia:dkh .ek
f;dr;=re iemhSu l< hq;= h'

9'54

udkj whs;sjdisl kS;sfha j.lS


wkqj
w'

36

w;a wvx.=jg .ekqKq mqoa.,hka


jydu ufyaia;%d;ajrhl= fj;
bm;a l< hq;= h'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Lanka Standard website

w;awvx.=jg .ekSu yd myru W;=f fukau ol=fKa;a jer mQjdoY'''

wd' /|jq ia : dkh fjkia


mjqf,a whg;a" udkj ysl
fldiug;a jydu ka h
hq;= h'
we' ufya i a ; % d ;a j reka tu ia : dk
j,g udislj hd hq;= h'
wE' ksoyia lsu Widfhka l< hq;=
h'
9'55

w;a wvx.=j" r|jd .ekSu iy udre


lsu jd;d fkdlsu" meyer .ekS
.ek meKs , s ,s h d fkd.ekS u "
mlaIK fkdmeje;au jrols' Bg
tfrysj kS;sfhka l%shd l< hq;= h'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

37


wjqre
.Kkla
mjqf,a
Wmhkakd
wysj
isf
ixfokdj
iukh
lsug
Tjqkag
uqo,ska o"
kS;sfhka o
iydh h
hq;= h'

38

9'56

fya;= ke;sj w;a wvx.=jg .ekSu"


yis kS;s hgf;a r|jd ;nd .ekSu
.ek meKs,s fldiug ,e we;'
kS;sfha wdm;Hh iu.s ikaOdkh
we;s lsu Wfoid yis kS;sh bj;a
lsu hym;a mshjrls' tys jdish
ck;djg ,nd h hq;= w;r w;a
kS;s u.ska Bg ndOd fkdlrkq we;ehs
fldiu n,dfmdfrd;a;= fjhs'

9'57

.=l,a r|jd ;e .ek meKs,s


/ils' ;%ia;jdoh je<elaf mk;"
uyck wdrla I l mk; hgf;a
mekefjk kS;s wkqj isjk foa
.ek ksCIKhg iajdk WmfoaYl
lgqjla m;a l< hq;= h'

9'58

wjqre .Kkla mjqf,a Wmhkakd wysj


isf ixfokdj iukh lsug
Tjqkg
a uqo,ska o" kS;f
s hka o iydh h
hq;= h'

9'59

tjeks w;= r eoka ls h<s is


fkdug mj;sk kS;s h<s ilia l<
hq;= hhs fldiu f,i ksfoaY
lrhs'

9'60

w;S;fhka mdv W.;a nj iy;sl


lsu w;HjYH h' h<s fkdisu
Wfoid rgmq r d mdi,a orejka "
wdrla I l yuq o d" iy fmd,s i s h
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

kqj;a lsf udkj whs;sjdisl


wOHdmkhla u wjOdrKh lrkq
,ef'

9'61

mqkre;a;dmk uOHia:dk lSmhlu


jevigyka meje;ajqKq wdldrh b;d
i;=gqodhl h' thska we;sjk yeSu
ksielj u iu.s ikaOdkhg iydh
jkq we;'

9'62'

nQiai /|jq uOHia:dkfha fhdjqka


fka j dis l hka l< m% l dY wkq j
Tjq k a t,a hg n,y;a l drfhka
n|jd f.k we;' fpdaokd ke;sj
ta iuyreka r|jd ;ndf.k we;'
f isoa Nd. fldg ksis mshjr
.ekS u g fYa I jev ms < s f j,l
wjYH;dj w;=re ksfoaY j,ska o
olajd we;'

9'63'

r|jd isk whf.a f;dr;=re


,eu Tjq k a f .a mjq , a j , whf.a
whs;sjdisluls' Tjqka ms<sn|
myiqfjka f;dr;=re ,nd .ekSf
l%uhla ;sh hq;= h'

9'64

/|hkag wod< ksfoaY wvq ke;sj


l%shd;aul lrug wdKavqj Wkka
lsu fldiu lrkq we;'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Photobucket.com

/|hkag ie,lSu

kS;sh yd hqla;sh mis|,Su


ij idOdrK h hq;=hs'
tfia isfo'''''

39


/|hkaf.a
iqnidOkhg
jev
ms<sfj,la
wjYH nj
ksfoaY
lruq'

9'65'

/ohka yuqu ta mjq,a idudlhkaf.a


whs ; s j dis l uls ' iuyr f;dr;= r e
m%udKj;a fkdjQ wjia:d we;' r
neyer isg meKsh o uqqK .eiSug
fkdyels jQ wjia:d o we;' r;=l=rei
jeks wod< ixOdk j, iydh we;sj
ta mjq,aj, whg meKSf myiql
iemhSu fhda.H h'

9'66

nQiafia iy ukaf;a w wdrlaIs;


ia : dk j, /|hka yuq ug;a "
r;=l=rei ixOdkhg Tjqka .ek
lghq;= lsug;a fhdod we;s myiql
w.h l< hq ; = h' /|hka f .a
iqnidOkhg jev ms<sfj,la wjYH
nj ksfoaY lruq'

9'67'

ish /|jq ia:dk n,h ,;a ia:dk


h hq;= h' w;awvx.=jg .ekSf
l=;dkaishla u" r|jk ia:dk .ek
f;dr;=re iemhSu .ek kS;s ms<m
s eh
hq;= h'

9'68'

fhdjqka /|hkaf.a wOHdmkh |


jeu ksid Tjqka .ek fYaI jev
ms < s f j,la fhh hq ; = h' iuyr
/|hkag cd;sl Nd. j,g u.
fmkau w.h l< hq;= h'

9'69

<uhska" wdndO iys; jQjka" ;=jd,


iqj fjka isk wh .ek is"

40

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Lankapuvath

t,aB igkaldka mqkre;a:dmkh fjka

ffjoH uey;a ykd .ekSug


mlaIK jev ms<sfj,la wjYH h'
iuyrekag WmfoaYk fiajd iemhsh
hq;= h'
9'70

fldif wka ; jdr ks foa Y


wkq j /|hka iEfyk ms ilg
wdKavqj fiajd iemhSu fldiu
w.h lrhs ' tfia jq j o .= l ,a
r|jdf.k is k whg fpda o kd
bm;a lsu fyda ksoyi ,nd u
i|yd ;S r Kd;a u l ms h jr .;
hq;=h'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

41


9'71
ish kS;s
frda
ikakoaO
lKavdh
ksrdhqO
l<hq;= njg
fldiu
l<
wka;jdr
ksfoaY h<s
isysm;a lruq

42

mqkre;a:dmkhg m;a jQ wh idudkH


is ,a ;hg inka O ls ug
jevigyka ;sh hq;= h' ta i|yd
is,a iudc ixOdk u.ska Yd,
jevfldgila l< yels h'

ks;s frda ikakoaO lKavdh


9'72

i|yka ld, iSudj ;=< kS;s frda


ikakoaO lKavdh j, l%shdjka
ksid uyck;dj hg m;aj is w;r
jrog o~qj fkd,nk jgmsgdjla
h' tu lKavdh lr we;s kS;s
frda l% s h d uQ , s l whs ; s j dis l
W,a,x>kh lsu h'

9'73

m%udKj;a idlaIs we;sg


Tjqkag tfrysj fpdaokd bm;a
ls ug ks i s mla I K meje;a h
hq;= h'

9'74'

ish kS;s frda ikakoaO lKavdh


ksrdhqO l<hq;= njg fldiu l<
wka ; jdr ks foa Y h<s is y s m ;a
lruq ' ls i s ms h jrla fkd.ekS u
.ek fldiu lK.dgq fjhs '
tfia l%shdl<d k Wohka mqj;a
mf;a l;=jrhdg t,a, jQ m%ydrh
isfkdjkakg ;sKs' iu.s ikaOdkh
Wfoid tu mshjr w;HjYH h'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Photo from BBC

nd,jhialrejka hqoaOhg
n|jd .ekSu'
9'75

foudmshkaf.a idlaIs wkqj nf,ka


hqo lghq;=j,g n|jd .;a orejka
fndfyda fofkl= wd.sh w;la ke;'
th .egq iufha t,ah l<
nrm;, wmrdOhls'

9'76

t,a h yer fjk;a lKa v dh


o tfia <uhska hqo lghq;= i|yd
n|jdf.k ;sK' tfy;a TMVP
f,i" mqkre;a:dmk flduidia yd
hqksfi*a ish <uhska ksoyia lsug
.siqula w;aika l< nj i|yka l<
hq;= h'

9'77'

hqoaOhg miqj wdKavqf m%uqL;dj


hhq;af;a ysgmq <ud fid,aodjka

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

43


<uhska
nf,ka
igka i|yd
n|jd .ekSu
.ek idlaIs
;sfnk g
wod< whg
tfrysj
kS;sh
ls%hd;aul
l< hq;= h'

44

mqkre;a:dmkh lsu h' wdKavqj tu


ldh i;=gqodhl f,i lr we;' ta
i|yd ;jrg;a O rdcH fkdjk
ixOdk j, iydfhka tu m%cduQ,
jevigyk l%shd;aul l< hq;= h'
9'78

mqkre;a:dmk jev igyka ksujQ


jydu tu <uhskag ish mjqf,a wh
iu. j;aug" jk ud.hla ,nd
.ekSug" wOHdmkhg bv ie,iSu
l< hq;= h'

9'79

<uhska nf,ka igka i|yd n|jd


.ekSu .ek idlaIs ;sfnk g wod<
whg tfrysj kS;sh ls%hd;aul l<
hq;= h' tu ms<sfj; u;= we;s fkdu
i|yd kS;suh mshjr jeo.;a f'

9'80

tu <ud fid,aodjkag /lshd wjia:d


iemhSug fm!oa.,sl wxYfha iydh
,nd.; yels h' /lshdjl fhfok
w;fo wOHdmk myiql iemhsh
hq;= h'

9'81

ikakoaO .egqug ue jQ <uhska h<s


ish mjq,a iu. tluq;= lsf jev
ms<sfj<la i|yd wka; cd;sl iy
foaYSh ixOdk j, iydh ,nd.;
hq;= h'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Global Peace Support Website

9'82

t,a B ielldr <uhs k a ms < s n |


fjk fjku Nd. fldg
fkdmudj kS;sfhka ls%hd lsu fyda
mqkre;a:dmkh fyda ksoyia lsu
l< hq;= h'

myiqfjka m;g f.dre h yels


lKavdh
^idudkH&
9'83

ia;S%ka" <uhska" irKd.;hka" wdndO


iys; jQjka hk whg hqo .egqfuka
fndfyda la fokd we;s fldg
;sf' miq hqo iufha fuu msig
uQ,sl wjYH;d imqrd,Su yd i
fi wdKavqf m%uqL;djla h

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

45


hq;= h' thska f;drj ;srdir iu.s
ikaOdkhla we;s l< fkdyels h'
Tjqyq ujqmshka
/ln,d
.ks;s' Tjqkag
iqrlaI;
s Ndjh
iy udkj
.re;ajh
iy;sl
lsug ls%hd
l<
hq;= h'

9'84

.egqf m%Odk m%ydrhg f.dre


we;af;a ia;S%ka" <uhska iy uy,a,ka
h' fndfyda ia;k
%S a f.a iajd mqreIhka
wys we;' tjka Ialr;d ueo
Tjqyq ujqmh
s ka /ln,d .ks;'s Tjqkg
a
iqrlaIs;Ndjh iy udkj .re;ajh
iy;sl lsug ls%hd l< hq;= h'

9'85

fufia m;g fndfyda fokd ;u


mjqf,a kEoEhka j;aj iskjdo hkq
k.ekSf wdYdfjka is;s' ke;ak
wjika hq;=l bgqfldg wjidkhla
olSug n,dfmdfrd;a;= fj;s' th bgq
lsu iqjm;aug o" w:dka; iu.s
ikaOdkhlg o fya;=jls'

ia;S%yq

46

9'86

wdKavqf ixLHdj 59000la jQ ia;S%


uQ,sl l=gqnhka fj; iqn idOkh
ie,iSu hqoaOfhka miq i fih
hq ; = wNs f hda . hla fuka u iu.s
ikaOdkhg o fya;=jls'

9'87

fndfyda ia;S%kaf.a iajd mqreIhka


h f.dia h' ke;ak wd.sh w;la
ke;' wksYa; ld,hla iuyre
l|jqrej, is;s' tjeks la fokd
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: International Crisis Group website

;sh;a Tjqka tu l=g


q nfha <uhsk"a
jeyshka /l n,d.; hq;= h'
tfyhska Tjqkag jk ud.hla"
wdodh Wmhk l% u hla ie,is h
hq;=h'
9'88

tu ldfha wka; cd;sl iy foaYh


S
is,a ixOdkhkays kqu yd im;a
,nd .ekSug wdKavqj uq,ah hq;= h'
m<d;a md,k foaYmd,k kdhl;ajhg
iy is,a iudc ixOdkj,g f
m;g m;a msif.a udkisl iqjh
Wfoid i fiug myiq l
ie,lsh hq;= h'

9'89

.a .eiqKq hqoaOh yd mjqf,a mska


wysu ksid wOHdmkh lvdlmam,a
jQ ia;S%yq is;s' Tjqkag u;a fyda
fkdu;a wOHdmk myiq l

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

47


ia;S%kag
;uka
iqrlaIs;
nj;a"
;u udkj
.re;ajh
/flk
nj;a ta;a;=
.ekah
hq;= h'

,nd u;a" jD;a;Sh mqyqKqjla fyda


jk ud.hla ie,iS u ;a l<
hq;= h'
9'90

tu ia;k
%S g
a ;uka iqrlaI;
s nj;a" ;u
udkj .re;ajh /flk nj;a ta;a;=
.ekah hq;= h' iu.s ikaOdkfha
mQ jdjYH;djla jYfhka tjeks
jgd msgdjla we;s lsu wdKavqf
j.lSula nj fldif woyi h'

9'91

mq o a . ,hla wd.s h w;la ke;s u"


meyer .ekSu" w;a;fkdau;sl fyda
.=l,a r|jd ;eu" w;=reoyka lsu
wdh ia;S%kag Rcqju n,md we;af;a
Bg f.dre jQfha ;u ldj /l
ka iehka" mshjreka" mq;=ka fyda
ifydaorhka neks' ;u wdorKShhka
isk ;ekla ke;ak" i;Hh yd
kS;u
s h m%;l
s u ,nd .ekSu Tjqkf
a .a
mq r jeis whs ; s j dis l uls ' iduQ y s l
iu.s ikaOdk m%h;akhlg th mQj
wjYH;djls'

9'92

fuu .egj,g l,a mj;sk i


fidhd.; yelafla wka; wdh;ksl
mY%uhlska nj fldif woyi h'
by; i|yka m;g f.dre jQ ish
fldgia inkaO i fiug;a"
wjYH iyk iemhSug;a yels ldh
n,ldhla fkdmudj msysgqh hq;=h'

48

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Photo by Campana.cz

<uhs
9'93

<uhskag wOHdmk myiql iemhSu


fldiu ;ka u ks foa Y lrhs '
mdi,a" .=refiajd" mdi,a WmlrK"
uQ , H myiq l fuka u Ys I H;a j
l%uhla we;s lsu jeo.;a f' ish
<ud ks j di j,g o ta myiq l
iu. fi!LH iy uQ , H Wmldr
w;HjYH h'

9'94

m%pKav .egqf ;u uj
fyda mshd wys jQ orefjda
lmkfhka la mSvd
;s' wOHdmkh o |je we;' is,a
ixOdk iydh f.k Tjqka ykd
.ekSug;a" i fiug;a Wkka
h hq;= h'

9'95

wdKavqj" m<d;a md,k wdh;k" is,a


ixOdk wdhg ksfoaY lrkafka"

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

49


mdi,a" fi!LH fiajd" fkdao ls%hd
iys; <uhskg
a ys;lr mirhla we;s
lrk f,i h'

tu mjq,aj,
;;ajh je
hqKq lsfuka jeysfhda
jhia.;hkaf.a 9'96 .egqug f.dre jQ jhia.; jQfjda
nr ieye,a
wmuK la ;s' ;u ore uqKqmqrka
lsu" O
Ksmshka ke;su ksid Tjqkaf.a
fi!LH .eg
mjq,a /l n,d .ekSf nr meg
flfrys o
we;' Tjq k a f .a ldhs l udkis l
wjOdkh fhduq
Ia l r;d ykd.; hq ; = h' tu
l< hq;= h'
mjq,aj, ;;ajh je hqKq lsfuka
jhia.;hkaf.a nr ieye,a lsu"
O fi!LH .eg flfrys o
wjOdkh fhduq l< hq;= h'

50

9'97

Tjqka k lmkhg i
fiug wOHd;al yd ixialD;sl
jev igyka Wmfhda.S lr .; yels
h' f inkaOfhka is,a ixOdk
iy wd.l wdh;kj,g je
fufyjrla bgq l< yels h' wdKavqj
Bg myiql iemhsh hq;= h'

9'98

mjq,aj, bmehSf fh is fndfyda


fokd ka wdndOj,g ,laj is;s'
Tjqkag Wmldru yis wjYH;djls'
wka ; cd;s l ixOdk j,s k a Bg
iydh ,nd.; hq;= h' Tjqkf
a .a wdl
wjYH;d flfrys wjOdkhla
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Ngaire Lawson

fhduq l< hq;= h' ixialD;sl yd


wOHd;a l wjYH;d flfrys o
wjOdkh fhduqh hq;= h'
9'99 T j q k a g m % c d l K a v d h f , i
ixOdkh ug .ekah hq;= h'
9'100 wdndO iys; whf.a whs;sjdisl
ms<sn| cd;sl kS;s tlai;a cd;Skaf.a
iuq;s wkqj ilia l< hq;= nj
ksfoaY lrhs'
wNHka;rj wj;ekajQfjda
9'101 .egq f wjika Nd.fha je
fofkla wj;eka jQy' Tjqkf
a .ka je
fokl= f jkg h<s mx lrjd
;s u .ek fldiu i;= g q f jhs '
mx lrjkq ,enQ whf.a wjYH;d
;j rg;a mj;S' Tjqkaf.a ; h<s
f.dv ke.Su .ek wjOdkh fhduqh
hq;= h'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

51


m%udKj;a
mdi,a"
mdrj,a"
frday,a
jeks h;,
myiql
jOkh
h hq;= h'
iafPd
yd is,a
ixOdk
Bg Wkka
lrh
hq;= h'

9'102 Tjqka wdmiq hef ls%hdj,sh o


fndfyda rg imQK lsu .ek
wdKavqjg;a fiiq iydhlhskag;a
m%Yxidj ys f' Tjqkaf.a wLKav
wjYH;d o imQK l< hq;= h'
9'103 wdmiq ksfjia n,d tk whf.a tu
ksjdi h:d ;;ajhg m;a lr .ekSug
wfkHdkH Y% u odk jev igyka
fhh yels h' m%udKj;a mdi,a"
mdrj,a" frday,a jeks h;, myiql
jOkh h hq;= h' iafPd yd
is,a ixOdk Bg Wkka lrh
hq;= h'
9'104 h<s mx jk whf.a bv kS;suh
f,i ksrjq,alr u wjYH h'
9'105 h < s ; f . d v k . d . e k S u
i|yd my< ugf is g m% c d
ixjOk jev i|yd .ekah
hq;= h'
9'106 uq,a ia:dkj, h,s mxu i|yd
wka;cd;sl m%;sm;a;s wkqj hdf
Bf ksoyi ;yjqre h hq;= h' ta
.ek wdKavqf m%;sm;a;sh o meye,s
lsfuka jer jegyS ;=rka jkq
we;'
9'107 wdrlaIdj we;= uyck wjYH;d
imqrd,sh hq;f
a ;a NS;h
s iy wYajdih

52

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Opportunity for All website

hqoaOfhka miq kj mdi,a wer'''

ke;s jgdms g djl h' ienE iu.s


ikaOdkhlg t<h yelafla tjeks
;;ajhla ;=< muKs'
9'108 wj;eka bkahdf isk whg
leue;af;ka h<s YS% ,xldjg meKSf
ish wjYH;d iemhsh hq;= h'
foaYSh wj;eka jQjka yd Tjqka w;r
fjkiafldg ie,lSula fkd;sh
hq;= h' meKSu i|yd ys;d u;d
;SrKhla .ekSug bkahdj iu.
oamdYah tl;djla we;s lr .;
hq;= h'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

53


W;=re iy kef.kysr uqia,s
m%cdj inkaO ldrKd
uqia,s
wj;eka
jQjka ms<sn|
.egj
h<s mx
lru
ms<sn|
fjkia
fkdjk
rdcH
m%;sm;a;shla
u.ska ih
hq;= h

9'109 1990 isg t,aBfha ;ck ksid


hdmkh" ukakdru" ls,sfkdh"
uq,;s" jjqkshd hk m%foaYj,ska
wj;eka jQ uq i a , s m% c dj ms < s n |
.egj m% O dk wNs f hda . hls ' th
iu.s ikaOdkh flfrys o fnfyka
n,mdhs'
9'10

fuu .egj fkdijfyd;a "


wiu. shg yd u;fNaohg yd
u;fNaohg fya;=h yels h'

9'11

.a . eiq K q hq o a O fha m% ; s M ,hla jQ


uqia,s wj;eka jQjka ms<sn| .egj
h<s mx lru ms < s n | fjkia
fkdjk rdcH m%;s m;a;shla u.ska
ih hq;= h' i;aldrl m%cdjka w;r
fyda ;u uq,a ia:dkj, mx ug
Tjqkag bv ie,ish hq;= h'

9'112

tjeks rdcH m%;sm;a;shlg uQ,Huh


iy jHuh iydh lg,hla ;sh
hq;= h'

9'113

ta i|yd wj;eka jQjkaf. ka woyia


,ndf.k lsh
% d lsug fYaI lgqjla
m;a l< hq;= h'

54

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Eelanatham.info website

Wohka mqj;a m;g t,a, jQ m%ydrh fy<d olsk udOHf Woaf>daIKhla'''

woyia m%ldY lsf


ksoyi iy f;dr;=re ,nd
.ekSf whs;sjdislu
9'114 udOH lrejkag myru" urd
u" udOH wdh;k kdY lsu
jeks is .ek mlaIK fldg
jrolrejkag o~qj f j.lSu
;ju;a tfiau mej;Su .ek fldiu
lkiai,a,g m;a f' fldiu
/ia j k gu Wohka mq j ;a m f;a
ixialdrlg myru .ek lmd jk
w;r th fy,d olsuq' ta .ek mlaId
fldg jrolrejkag kvq fkdmeju
iu.s ikaOdk ls%hdj,shg yd kS;sfha
wdm;Hhg ndOdjls'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

55

9'115

udOH
lrejkag
iy
wdh;kj,g
myru
je<elaug
mshjr .;
hq;= h'

woyia m% l dYkfha ks o yi ljr


iu.s ikaOdkhlg jqjo w;HjYH
h' uQ,sl whs;sjdisl ne wkqj
udOH ksoyi hqKq l< hq;= h' th
iSud lsu ckjd.sl msi w;r
h;a wYajdih;a we;s lsuls' iu.s
ikaOdkh je<elaf tu ls%hdj,sh
kg;a isfjka mj;S' my; i|yka
ksfoaY ta ksid h'
w'

udOH lrejkag iy wdh;kj,g


myru je<elaug mshjr .;
hq;= h'

wd' wmrdO hq l a ; s h .ek uyck


Yajdih we;s lsug tu jro
l< jqkag tfrysj kS;sh
ls%hd;aul l< hq;= h'
we' lkka mlaIK yudr lsug
mshjr .; hq;= h'
wE' W;=rg iy kef.kysrg udOH
lrejka g hdu Bf ks o yi
;yjqre l< hq;= h'
b'

9'116

56

f;dr;=re ,nd .ekSf


whs;sjdislu iy;sl jk kS;s
mekh hq;= h'

ljr ;sridr iu.s ikaOdk


lsh
% dj,shlg jqjo" ksoyfia weoySf"
ixOdk meje;af" .uka uka
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Global Peace Support Website


Photo Courtesy of Steve Chao

wd.l ksoyig;a yuqod wdrCIdj''''

hdf jd;djrKhla wjYH h'


lsisu rdcH wdh;khlska" wdrlaIl
yuqodj,ska fmd,sisfhka th iSud
fkdlrk njg iy;sl h hq;= nj
fldiu wjOdrKh lrhs'
9'117

w wdrla I l l,dm we;= yeu


m%foaYhl u we;s wd.l ia:dkj,g
hdu" fndan bj;a lsf yer
iSud fkdl< hq;= h'

9'118

iSud mekfuka f;drj W;aij iy


/ia ixOdkhg ksoyi ;sh
hq;= h'

9'119

iSud mekula ke;sj" h<s mx jQ


m%foaYj, kEhka ;=rka yuqug
tfia hk whg bv ;sh hq;= h'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

57

w;S; mlaIK fldi


jd;d .ek miq mru
9'120 2006 ;sl
% K
= du,fha YsIHhka mia fokd
m<d;l
>d;kh iy 2006 rdcH fkdjk
ck.yk rgdj
ixOdkhl 17 fokl= >d;kh
wiajdNdl
.ek fiug m;a l< fldij,
f,i fjkia
lsu wdKavqf
ksfoaY wkqj jrolrejkag tfrysj
bv m%;sm;a;sh
kS;suh mshjr .; hq;= nj fldiu
fkdh hq;= h'
f,i ksfoaY lrhs' thska iu.s
ikaOdk ls%hdj,shg hla ,efnkq
we;'

yhjeks mfoh

bv .eg ( ;u bvj,g wdmiq


hdu iy h<s mxu
9'121

. .egqulska miq rg h:d ;;ajhg m;a


lsu myiq ke;;a kS;s frda bv
meyer .ekSu iar meje;aula lsu
iy th wdh;k.; lsu je<elau
jeo.;a h' th fkdifkd;a
wkd.; .egqj,g h<s uq, msula
jkq we;'

9'122 mYapd;a .egq wjia:df h<s mx


lrf bv .eg m%uqL f'
ks i q k a bvj,g whs ; s j dis l
lSu yd w;am;a lr .ekSu ixlSK
58

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: TamilNewsNetwork Website

>d;khg ,la jQ ;s%lKdu,fha isiqka mia fokd'''

.egjla f' tfyhska .egqug fmr


;;ajh we;s lsu wiSre f'
9'123 by; lS ;;ajhg YS% ,xldj o uqyqK
md we;' fldif ks foa Y ta
;;ajh u; mok f'
9'124 YS % ,xldf kEu mq r jeis h l= g
rf kS ; s ;s j,g wkq j bv
w;am;a lr .ekSug;a" ;uka leu;s
;ekl n,mEula ke;s j jdih
ls ug;a we;s whs ; s h wys l<
fkdyels h' h m<d;l ck.yk
rgdj wia j dNdl f,i fjkia
ls u wdKa v q f bv m% ; s m ;a ; s h
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

59


YS% ,xldf
kEu
mqrjeishl=g
rf kS;s
;s j,g
wkqj bv
w;am;a lr
.ekSug;a"
;uka leu;s
;ekl
n,mEula
ke;sj
jdih
lsug;a
we;s whs;sh
wys l<
fkdyels h'

fkdh hq;= h' bv fnod yeu


l< hq;af;a wdKavq l%u jHjia:dj
wkqj h'
9'125 wj;eka jQ j ka wdmiq hdf "
h<s mx lrf wdKa v q j
rE bv m%;sm;a;sh w.h lruq'
bv f,a L k.; fldg ks r jq , a
lsu i|yd fhfok 2011 cQ,s jev
igyk o w.h lruq ' ldhd,
yd Wid Ialr;d j,ska ksoyia
hdka;%Khla fhug W;aidy .ekSu
fhda.Hh'
9'126 tfy;a fuu jev igyk" bv Tmamq
ke;s wj;eka jQ j ka i|yd njg
ckhd kqj;a l< hq;= h' th j,x.=
bv Tmamj
q la wj,x.= lsf l%uhla
fkdh hq;= h'
9'127 fldif ksfoaY fufia h'
9'128 ie,iq l< m ljr .egjla jqjo
id:l f,i wm%udoj i|k nj
iy;sl lsf" foaYmd,kfhka f;dr
tfy;a foaYmd,k wIaGdkfhka hq;a
msiqula fhdod.; hq;= h' wjYH
udkj yd uQ,H im;a wdKavj
q iska
iemhsh hq;= h'
9'129 jev igyka j, wmlaImd;s;ajh iy
idOdrK;ajh iy;sl lsug n,j;a

60

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Courtesy of CPA

mmd,k lemula wjYH h' th


wlaIKh wod< idm;s jrekag
o" tys .=Kd;aul Ndjh kslaIKh
bv ms<sn| uyflduidia jrhdg
o mejh hq;= h'
9'130 jev igyk id:l h yelafla"
foa Y md,lhka " ls % h dldka " rdcH
ks,Odka" m%cdkdhlhka iy
m%;s,dNSka tys mrud: yd l%ufoh
ks i elj jgyd .ekS u wkq j h'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

61


foaYmd,k
m%oYk j,ska
f;drj" kj
jev igyk
.ek ksjer
woyila
ug bv
9'131
flduidia
fckrd,a
fomd;fka;j
=
iska udOH
iuka;%Khla
meje;au
iqiq h'
9'132

9'133

62

hym;a is;ska l<;a fuf;la m<


we;s f;dr;=re wkqj mrud:h
yd l% u foh .ek meye,s lr
ke;' udOHh iy foa Y md,lhka
ksjer f;dr;=re m< fkdlsfuka"
j;udkfha ls%hd;aul fjk;a bv
lghq ; = iu. l,ju;a ks i d
jHdl+, f;dr;=re m;< we;'
foaYmd,k m%oYk j,ska f;drj"
kj jev igyk .ek ks j er
woyila ug bv flduidia
fckrd,a fomd;fka;=j iska
udOH iuka ; % K hla meje;a u
iqiq h'
bv flduidia fckrd,a
fomd;fka;=j iy idm;sjreka
yjq,a ks,Orhkag iy
m%cdkdhlhkag ie,iq l<
mq y q K q j la ,ndh hq ; = h' .eg
iu" isoa wOHhk" mqyqKq l%u
iys; ir, w;afmd;la u; mqyqKqj
mok h hq;= h' f i|yd fYaI{
wdh;khla fhdod.; yels h'
jev igyfkka iemefhk fiajdjka
.ek wj;eka jQjkag wjfndaOhla
ug Tjqka iska l=ula flfia l<
hq;= o lshd ir, fou< niska yd
isxyf,ka ixksfok jev ms<f
s j,la
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Colombo Telegraph.com

wdrlaIl yuqod is,a


mmd,kfhka jyd bj;a h
hq;= nj fldiu ksfoaY
lrhs'

h;a l< hq ; = h' ths k a m% ; s , dN


,eug fmrg taug Tjqkag th Wojq
jkq we;'
9'134 wdrlaIl yuqod is,a mmd,kfhka
jyd bj;a h hq;= nj fldiu
ksfoaY lrhs' we;e bv wdrlaIl
yuqod m%fhdackhg .ekSu wdrlaIl
wjYH;d i|yd jqj;a mx ug
uyckhdg bv ie,iSf m%;m
s ;a;h
s g
m%uqL;dj h hq;= h' tu bv yels
Wmuh uqod yeu blaukska l<
hq;=j we;'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

63


9'135
bv
flduidia
fomd;fka;=jg
ksmqK;d
iys;
Y%dlhka
f.ka
m%fhdack .;
yels h'

jev igyfka m%cd Wmfoia ,nd


.ekS f wjia : djla ;s u w.h
fldg i,luq ' m% d foa Y S h f,a l
m%foaYj, mlaIK lgq ;eug
fmr m% c d Wmfoia uiq /
ia meje;ah hq;= h' h<s meKs
yd mx jQ ckhdg ;uka f.a
.eg bm;a lrka mla I K
ls%hdj,sh hqKq l< yels h' bv
.eg if|k wdldrh;a" ;ukag
weyq lka fok njg Yajdih;a
ths k a we;s f' Wmfoia uiq
/ia j, idm% o dhs l bv
lf l% u h Wmfhda . S lr.;
yels h'

9'136 m% c djf.a fhda c kd i,ld ne,S u


i|yd hdka;%Khla msysgqh
hq;= h'
9'137 jev igyk ldhlaIu yd m,odhl
lr .ekSu Wfoid bv flduidia
fomd;fka;=jg ksmqK;d iys;
Y%dlhkaf. ka m%fhdack .; yels
h'
9'138

64

by; i|yka ks foa Y ls % h d;a u l


ls ug w;s f l uq o ,a yd ld,h
wjYH h' tfy;a thska jev igyk
Yla;u
s ;a jk w;r ck;djg m%;,
s dN
je f'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Centre for Human Rights

fldiu bfha idCIs fok wjia:djla - ;s%l=Kdu,h

9'139 W;= r e kef.kys r ienEjg u


bv ke;s mjq,aj,g bv m%odkh
lsug jev igyk wfmalaId lr
we;' fojkqj mx isk wh
tys uq,a wjirm;a orkafkda k
muKla m%odkh lsu ksjer h'
tfy;a jxpkslj ;j;a bv ,nd
.ekSug fojeks mxh Nd; lsu
je<elaug mlaIK fldiu u.ska
Tjq k a g ienEjg u bv keoa hs
fidhd ne,sh hq;= h'
9'140 jev igyk ls%hd;aul jk f;la"
wNHka;r wj;eka jQjkag" rcfha
wjYH;djka g yer" rcfha bv
wka i ;= ls u f,i md,kh
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

65


wdrlaIl
lghq;=
i|yd
.ekqKq
fm!oa.,sl
bv"
wdrlaIl
wjYH;dj
o i,ld"
yels muK
ksoyia l<
hq;= h' tys
bv wys
jQ whg
l,am bv
,ndu fyda
ksYa;
ld,hla ;=<
jka f.u
ksfoaY
lruq'

66

l< hq ; = h' jHdc Tma m q ud.


fhka bv meju is we;'
Bg inka O rcfha ks , Orhka "
kS;{
s hka" fkd;diajrekag tfrysj
kS;s u.ska ls%hd l< hq;= h'
9'141 jev igyk lsh
% d;aul lsug wka;
cd;sl uQ,H iydh ,nd.; yels
h' tfy;a bv wxYhg uqo,a jeh
lsu ukao.d u je<elaug jev
igyfka" m%;sm;a;sh" ;SrK .ekSu
yd ls%hd;aul lsu wdKavqj hgf;a
mj;sk njg wjfndaOh we;s l< hq;=
h'
9'142 m,d,s f ha iy ;s % $ idmQ ys w
wdrlaIs; l,dm l=vd lr we;s w;r
wvla muK ckhd . j,g hjd
we;' wdrlaIl lghq;= i|yd .ekqKq
fm!oa.,sl bv" wdrlaIl wjYH;dj
o i,ld" yels muK ksoyia l< hq;=
h' tys bv wys jQ whg l,am
bv ,ndu fyda ksYa; ld,hla
;=< jka f.u ksfoaY lruq'
9'143 zwf;ka wj;eka jQ mjq , a j ,gZ
jfkdamdh iydh f ld,h >
l< hq;= h' W;=re m<df;a iuyr
;ekaj, th > lsu w.h lruq'
fuh ixjOk yjq , a l rejka f .a
iydfhka l< yels h' f.dkag iq
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source:

kef.kysr m<df;a lDIs bv j,ska t,aBh iska fk/mqKq uqia,s


mjq,aj,g tu .egj lkka i|d h hq;= h'

Kh iemhSu" f.d iuqmldr j,g


g%elag iemhSu we;= jfkdamdh
iydh ;j;a mq,a l< hq;= h' jd c,
imdokh wLKavj mj;ajdf.k
hdu iqiq h'
9'144 kef.kysr m<df;a lDIs bv j,ska
t,aBh iska fk/mqKq uqia,s
mjq , a j ,g tu .egj lkka
i|d h hq ; = h' hq o a O h wjika
we;;a " fYa I fhka uvl,mq j
m%foaYfha m%.;sh wi;=gqodhl h'
9'145 h d m k h i a ; s % l a l f h k a m , j d
ykq ,enQ is x y, mjq , a ms < s n |
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

67


;u bv
j,g
hdug
leu;s
whg
Bg bv
ie,ish
hq;= h'

f;dr;=re wimQK h'


jd.sl yeS l=ms; fkdjk m
u;a fidhd ne,Sula l< hq;= h'
;u bv j,g hdug leu;s whg
Bg bv ie,ish hq;= h'
9'146 W;=re m<df;ka m,jd ykq ,enQ
uqia,s ckhd h<s meKSu yd mx
lrf m%.;shla we;s njg hdmkh"
uka k dru" uq , ;s idm;s j re
f;dr;=re imh;s' b;s wh;a tys hdug
leu;sk tu myiql blauka l<
hq;= h'
9'147 t,aB m%ydr ksid mjqf,a Wmhkakka
>d;khg ,la jQ mjq,a iy zrd;s%fha
wj;ekaugZ ,la jQ mjq,j
a , j;au
ms<sn| .eg wu;l lr oud we;'
thska je yhl .Dy uQ,l
s fhda ia;y
%S q
h' Tjqka f.a j;auka .eg fidhd
i fiug fYaI hdka;%Khla
ieleish hq;=hhs fldiu ksfoaY
lrhs'
9'148 W;=re kef.kysr fm!oa.,sl
bvj,ska mx lrejka nf,ka
m,jd yer ;s h fjk;a wh
mxu kS;Hdkql+,u je<elaug
wod< mj;sk kS;s ixfYdaOkh l<
hq;=h'

68

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Land


Commissioners Dept Website

cd;sl bv m%;sm;a;shlg u. fmkau i|yd wdKavqj


cd;sl bv fldiula blaukska msysgqh hq;= h'

9'149 1980 isg 2008 olajd wj;eka we;s


merKs wNHka;r wj;eka jQjka .ek;a
fldif wjOdkh fhduq f' rch
iy fjk;a mdYaj lrejkaf.a ls%hd
fkdlsu fyda fyka lsh
% d lsu ksid
Tjqkag fjkialula is we;snj
lshef' tu .egjgo fuys b
ksfoaY wod< f' Tjqkaf.a .eg
wOHhkh fldg h<s mxu
ms<sn| jev ms<sfj,la ieliSu iu.s
ikaOdkh i|yd m%fhdackj;a f'
ish wj;eka jQjkag we;af;a iudk
whs;sjdisl h'
9'150 iqiq cd;sl bv m%;sm;a;shlg u.
fmkau i|yd wdKavqj cd;sl bv
fldiula blaukska msysgqh hq;=
h' rcfha bv idOdrK f,i fnod
yeu i|yd tu.ska m%;sm;a;shla
ilia l< hq ; = h' oy;= k a jk
jHjia:d ixfYdaOkh hgf;a th
wjYH;djla jqjo f ;dla th is
fkdu lK.dgqjls'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

69


9'151
cd;sl
.eg f,i
ykd.;
hq;= w;r
wdKavqf iy
mlaIfha mgq
foaYmd,k
jdis i|yd
tajd Nd;
fkdlrk
f,i;a
fldiu
ksfoaY
lrhs'

W;=rg iy kef.kysrg wod<j bv


myrK ie,eiaula ilia l< hq;=
h' j;auka iy wkd.; mrmrdjkays
;fha .= K d;a u l Ndjh ms K s i
mirh" ffcj O;ajh" wdl
ixjOkh" flh" fkda o h"
wd.l ixialD;sl iy mqrdoHd;aul
wv /l .ekSu ms<sn| fYaI{hka
f.a iyNd.s;ajfhka tu ie,eiau
ieleish hq;= h'

9'152 by; i|yka is cd;sl .eg


f,i ykd.; hq;= w;r wdKavqf
iy mlaIfha mgq foaYmd,k jdis
i|yd tajd Nd; fkdlrk f,i;a
fldiu ks foa Y lrhs ' cd;s l
iu.sh Wfoid tjeks m%fYhla we;s
lr .ekSu uek'
y;ajeks mfoh

yslu wdmiq ,ndu $ jka iyk


ms<sn| kslaIK iy ksfoaY
9'153

yslu wdmiq ,ndu kS;s uQ,Ouhla


f,i jeo.;a jk w;r jka iy uQ,H
iyk o fmdf n,dfmdfrd;a;= jkq
we;'
f. ,eug iqiq whg idOdrK
ld, rduqjla kshu l< hq;= h'

70

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Centre for Human Rights

9'154 ;%ia;jd m%ydr iy yuqod fufyhq


j,ska ydksjQ whg jka iyk f
wdKa v q f m% ; s m ;a ; s h ls % h d;a u l
lsf fYaI{ wdh;kh jkafka
REPPIA fyj;a mqoa.,hka" foam<
iy ludka; mqkre;a:dmk
wldhhs'
9'155

fldiu
bfha
idCIs fok
wjia:djla
- hdmkh

jka iyk j,g wod< uQ,Ouhka


fldiu i,ld n,d we;' .egq
j,s k a miq wjYH;d imq r d,S u g
frmshd (REPPIA) wdh;khg
we;s ldhNdrh iy yels h dj
rch is k a iudf,da p kh l<
hq;= h'

9'156 ydks jQ whg iyk iemhSug h hq;=


f. imqrd,Sug wjYH wruqo,a
ys we;' mmd,k ndOd myiqfjka
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

71


ksis
fj,djg
mQK
f.
lsu
wdKavqf
j.lSu
h' w;miq
ug yd
m%udohg
fya;= jk
wruqo,a
ysu
je<elah
hq;= h'

i|d.; yels h' tfy;a wruqo,a


.egj fkdi|d ljr m%.;shla
fyda ,nd.; fkdyels h'
9'157 ksis fj,djg mQK f. lsu
wdKavqf j.lSu h' w;miq ug yd
m%udohg fya;= jk wruqo,a ysu
je<elah hq;= h'
9'158

9'159 .egqf wjidkh olajd is jQ ydks


i|yd f. lsug ld, iSudjla
kshu l< hq;= h' ta ksid f.jkq
,e w;HjYH wjia:df ,nd.;
yels u;a" frmshd wdh;kfha j.lSu
imQK u;a thska bgqf'
9'160 ld,h ;S r Kh ls f " b,a
lsug iEfyk ld,hla u" t,aB
md,kh hgf;a isg wj;eka jQjka
.ek i,ld ne,Su isl< hq;= w;r
thg iEfyk m% i s o a hla ,ndh
hq;= h'
9'161

72

ish ysl imqrd,k njg


iy;slu i|yd frmshd wdh;kh
ld, rduqjla kshu l< hq;= h'

tu ckhdf.a wjYH;d imqrd,Sug'


wOHdmks l iy jfkda m dh jev
igyka ;S r Kd;a u l h' tfy;a
frmshd wdh;kfha j.lSu jkafka
jka iyk iemehSuhs'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: World Bank website

wdmiq mefKk wNHka;r wj;eka jQjka f.a ksjdi .egj jka iyk
ie,ish hq;=hs'

9'162 urK" ;= j d," ks j di inka O


f.j, fmdckhd iy rcfha
fiajlhka fj; frmshd wdh;kh
m%uqL;dj h hq;= h' rdcH fkdjk
ixOdk ksjdi wdOdr f rcfha
fiajlhska fkd;ld yer we;' th
h<s;a i,ld ne,sh hq;= h'
9'163 jka je lsug frmshd wdh;kfhka
b,a,d we;' tfy;a w;miq jQ f.
yd f.dv .eiS we;s b,a,S wkqj th
l< yelshhs fldiu fkdis;hs' h<s
f.dvke.Su yd mx lru iy;sl
lsf wvq;eka mqrjk fhdackd l%u
fhu fhda.Hhs'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

73


h<s mx
ls iy
ixjOk
jev ie,iq
iu.
fi!LHh"
wOHdmkh"
wdydr"
c,h iy
lDIs luh"
h;,
myiql
wdh o
ie,lsh
hq;= h'

74

9'164 t,a Bhg inka O jQ whf.a


urK iy ;=jd, i|yd jka u
iqiq jkafka iu.s ikaOdk lau
ksid h' tfy;a frmshd wdh;kfha
m%uqL;dj h hq;af;a ydkshg m;a
is,a jeishka h'
9'165 wdmiq mefKk wNHka;r wj;eka
jQjka f.a ksjdi .egj jka iyk
iy frms h d wdh;kfha n,;,
j,ska Tng hk lreKls' ta i|yd
wdKavqj cd;sl iy wka; cd;sl
im;a iydh fih hq;= h'
9'166 jka iyk ie,iSu wksla iyk
j,ska fjkafldg ie,lsh fkdyels
h' h<s mx ls iy ixjOk jev
ie,iq iu. fi!LHh" wOHdmkh"
wdydr" c,h iy lDIs luh"
h;, myiql wdh o ie,lsh
hq;= h'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Adaderana

wgjeks mfoh

1 jeks fldgi ( hqoaOfhka miq


iu.sikaOdkh ms<sn| kslaIK
9'167 .egqug Rcqj fyda jl%j n,mEula
fkdjQ whf.a idla I s fld<U
bm;a h'
9'168 fldiu my; i|yka jd;d i,ld
ne,S h' 2011 - h<s mx lsu ^W;=re
m<d;& ixjOkh yd wdrlaIdj .ek
ckdm;s ldh n,ldfha jd;dj"
uy nexl= jd;dj" wdl ixjOk
wud;HxYfha jd;dj iy udkqISh
lghq ; = inka lrK ldhd,
jd;dj'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

75


9'169 h<s mx ls u" jk ud."
wOHdmk" ffjoH" m% j dyk iy
Tjqkaf.a mQK
iar ksjdi .egj,g ^uqo,a wdOdr
Yla;sh rgjeis
yd mefla c hka we;= j& i
hym; Wfoid
i|yd iduQysl mY%ufhka Yd,
m%fhdackhg
m%.;shla ,nd we;' lDIslu yd jr
.ekSug
ksIm
a dokh yd h;, myiql hqKq
.siq.;
we;' tfy;a ;ju w; fkd.eiQ
jev ms<sfj<la
.eg we;' iuyr jr m%foaYj,g
;sh hq;=h
hdug n,m;% wjYH h' jdh c,dY
mqkr;a:dmkh imQK l< hq;= h'
iuyr ;ekaj, h<s mxh i|yd
;S r K .ekS u g wjYH ,s h ls h ,s
iemhSu Ialr we;' .=re ksjdi
iemhSu o .egjls'

bv jdiia:dk nrm;, .egjls'

m;g f.dre h yels lKavdhj,


wjYH;d .ek fYaIfhka ie,lsh
hq;= h'

is,a mmd,kh ;ju;a ukao.dh'


wjYH .% d u ks , Orhka m;a f ldg
ke;'

9'170 ;sia jirl kdYld hqoaOfhka


miq .eg iug ld,h" uq o ,a
iy im;a wjYH h' wdKavqj W;=r
kef.kysr inkaOfhka tu lem
lsu lr we;af;a foaYSh foaYSh
ixjOk yjq,a lrejkaf.a iydh
76

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: The Sunday Leader

m;g f.dre h yels lKavdhj, wjYH;d .ek


fYaIfhka ie,lsh hq;= h'

o we;sj h' Tjqkaf.a mQK Yla;sh


rgjeis hym; Wfoid m%fhdackhg
.ekSug .siq.; jev ms<sfj<la
;sh hq;=h hkq fldif woyi
h'
9'171

h<s f .dv keS u iy ixjOkh


i|yd odhl jk w;r wdrla I l
yuqod we;e g iq jHdmdr yd
f.d;eka j , fhfo;s ' we;e
;ekaj, ksjdi m%;s,dNSka f;dard
.ekSug yuqodj uey;a f' W;=r

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

77


m;g
f.dre
h yels
lKavdhj,
wjYH;d
.ek
fYaIfhka
ie,lsh
hq;= h'

78

kef.kysr iuyr rdcH f.dvke.s,"s


fm!oa.,sl bv yuqodj myrKh
lrhs ' yuq o dj is ,a lghq ; = j ,g
uey;au" bv Nd;h l%udkql,
+ j
k;r l<hq;= nj fldiu ksfoaY
lrhs'
9'172 is ,a mmd,lhka is k a o;a ;
Yaf,aIKfha tu ia;s%lalj,
m% . ;s h yd .eg jd;d ls ug
taldldr yd ksoNdjfhka hq;=
l%uhla fhh hq;= h' wvqmdvq yd
m%.;sh ieiu wjYH h' tfy;a
Ih O;ajh ksid th wmyiq
jqj;a mq,a wjfndaOhg iydh jkq
we;'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: w3lanka.blogspot

ielfha" fha" wYajdifha iy m%pKav Ndjfha ixialD;sh ;=rkal< hq;= h'

wgjeks mfoh (

2 jeks fldgi
iu.s ikaOdkh ms<sn| kslaIK
iy ksfoaY
9'173 oYl ;=kl muK rerh je.srfuka
miq O ck fldgiaj,g iu.s
ika O dkhg wjia : dj u;= f ldg
we;' tfyhska idOdrK" wmlaImd;"
jD; iy O;ajh iys; iudc
laulao" wys" la mSvd ms<sf.k
jka iy iudc idOdrK;ajh iy
iyfhda.s;dj m%ldY lsu o wjYH
;sf' fmd ,laIK yd fjkial
ms<s.ekSu" wYajdih" w.;sh fkd
bjiSu iu.s ikaOdkfha yrhhs'
9'174 ielfha " fha " wYa j difha iy
m%pKav Ndjfha ixialD;sh ;=rka
lsug wjYH tlsfkldg weyqlka
h yels bvla jD;j mj;S'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

79


foaYmd,k
mlaIj,
tjd
foaYmd,kh
yer oud
cd;sl .eg
.ek talu;sl
;SrK .ekSula
;sh hq;=
h' f
i|yd Tjqka
yeufokdg
u foaYmd,k
wIaGdkhla
;sh hq;= h'

9'175 fldiu iu. woyia fnod.;a


fndfyda fokd b;d meye,s fohdldr
mKsjqvhla we;'
9'176 m<uqj" fokdld . .egqulska
miq is h ck fldgia ;s r idr
iduh" wdrlaIdj" ;%Y,
S ;
S j
a h" iqix.
uh m% d :kd lr;s ' foa Y md,k
kdhlhka g ih fkdyels jQ
iy iug wleue;s jQ .egj,g
i fiu msKsi f Y=oaO N+fha
h<s rerh fkdje.sug l<yels
ish foa ish fokdu l<hq;=hs
Tjqyq tl fj;s'
9'177 fojeksj" ;%ia;jdoh wjika lsu;a"
n,.;= Odhl ckdm;s jrhl=;a
ksid ish ck fldgia w;r iu.s
ikaOdkh" ;%;j
a h yd iyfhda.;
s dj
jOkh l< yels h' ish
mqrjeishkaf.a whs;sjdisl iy;sl
lsug wjia:djla ,e we;'
9'178

80

iu.s ikaOdkh Wfoid k rch


iq;r ck;dj fj; hd hq;= w;r
iq;r ck;dj rch iy Bg inkaO
;u ldhNdrh h<s kshu lr.;
hq;= h'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Colombo Telegraph

Colombo Telegraph.com

.egqu ksu jir folla .; jqjo" foaYmd,k ;fhys m%pKav;ajh"


wYajdih iy fjkiafldg ie,lSu ;ju;a mj;S'

9'179 f o a Y m d , k m l a I j , t j d
foaYmd,kh yer oud cd;sl .eg
.ek talu;sl ;SrK .ekSula ;sh
hq;= h' f i|yd Tjqka yeufokdg
u foaYmd,k wIaGdkhla ;sh
hq;=h'
9'180 fndfyda fokd fldiug lSf"
wdrlaIl yuqod ,nd.;a ch.%yKh
idufha iy wdrla I df o" l,a
mj;akd ;%;ajfha" iu.sfha iqix.
ufha hq.hla i|yd jQ foaYmd,k
ls % h dj,s h l ms y s g q h hq ; = nj h'
th bgqlr .; yelafla fN!l
wLKav;dj yd iaffjNdjh iu.
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

81


fldiu
wjOdrKh
lrkafka
fuu
ls%hdj,shg
uQ,slf
j.lSu
we;af;a
wdKavqjg
nj h

m%cd;ka;%jdoh" bjid ord .ekSu iy


n,h fnodyeu .ek /l.;a jkdl
iu. h'
9'181

.egqu ksu jir folla .; jqjo"


foaYmd,k ;fhys m%pKav;ajh"
wYajdih iy fjkiafldg ie,lSu
;ju;a mj;S' hqoaOfhka miq idu
jev ms<sfj<l m%udoh Bg fya;=j
h yels h'

9'182 tu ksid fldif fuu ksfoaY


iy kslaIK we;s jQfha fldiu
yuq f la j q K q wjia : djka wkq j
h' ta i|yd ug ;=kl iduQysl
mY%uhla wjYH h' tk" foaYmd,k
kdhl;ajh" is,a iudch iy tla
tla mqrjeishd jYfhks'
9'183

fldiu wjOdrKh lrkafka fuu


lsh
% dj,shg uQ,l
s f j.lSu we;af;a
wdKavqjg nj h' iu.s ikaOdkh
.gu mj;sk ls%hdj,shla i tla
jrla isjk fohla fkdf' f;dard
m;alr .ekqKq wdKavqjla iska .g
u tu ls%hdf ksr; h hq;= w;r
th mq,a mokulska h hq;= h'

9'184 fou< ck;djf.a ienE la .ek,s


flfrys jkajr meKs wdKavqj,g"
i fiug fkdyelsu
82

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

ckjd.sl .egqf uQ, fya;j


=
nj fldif woyi h'
9'185

.egqug fya;= fidhd i


fiug foaYmd,k iula
w;HjYH h' ta .ek fndfyda
fokd l;d lr;s' tfy;a frda.
ksYaph iy T!IOh .ek
lsisu tl;djla ke;'

fou< ckhdf.a la .ek,s


9'186 .egq u iy tys fya ; = .ek
l;sldf fou< ckhdf.a
la .ek,s ukd f,i olajd
we;'
9'187

tu la .ek,s isxy, fou<


inkaO;df .gu m%ldY
fjhs ' .egq f uka miq iu.s
ikaOdkh iy iduld
iyjkh f.dv ke.Sf uq,a
mshjr thhs'

fou< ckhdf.a la .ek,s


ukd f,i olajd we;'

Y%S ,xldf nyq;r - iq;r


in|;djkaf.a ft;sydisl miqu
9' 188 iq ck;djka f .a la .ek,s
fjkq f jka fida , a n fldIka
jd;df iEfyk bvla lemlr
we;'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

83


tod ;snqKq
wdKavqj
fou<
mqrjeishkag
ksis
wdrlaIdjla
iemhSfuka
b;d Iag
f,i
je<elsK'

9'189 . e g i u g m m d , k i y
jHjia:d m%;slu wjYH
jq j o iq ;rfha yd nyq ; rfha
wfkHdkH mej;= j, fjkila
ke;s j ths k a m,la fkdjk nj
fida , a n fldif woyi h'
.egqug fya;= uiSf wmg ka
wod< jkafka o fuu kslaIKh nj
fuu fldif o woyi h'
9'190 la .ek,s j,g i fif
l% s h dj,s h tod foa Y md,k{hka
ukd f,i yiqrejd ke;' ydkshg
m;a iq;rhkag .re;ajfhka
ie,l= K q l% s h dj,s h la fkd h'
fou< ck;djf.a fokdld
yeS u;=jkafka tu widOdrKl
j,sks'
9'191

ckj. w;r ;SrKd;aul fNaoh


u;=jQfha 1958 h' h<s 1977 u;=
1983 biau;a;g meKsfha h' tod
;snqKq wdKavqj fou< mqrjeishkag
ksis wdrlaIdjla iemhSfuka b;d
Iag f,i je<elsK' isxy, fou<
ck;djka w;r in|;d | uQ fuu
m%pKav ixialD;sh .ek wjfndaOhla
fkd,nd fou< m%cdjf.a la .ek,s
j,g i fih fkdyels h'
fou< ck;djf.a;a" hqoaOfha;a iQ
ish ck fldgia j,;a la .ek,s
9'200 isg lafjkq we;'

84

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Refugee -Agath Blog

uqia,s ck;djf.a la .ek,s


9'192 uqia,sjrekaf.a .eg wdrN jQfha
1990'10'30 k uqia,s mxlrejka
;=jlal=f n,fhka t,ah iska
W;= f rka m,jd yeu iu.u h'
W;=f iy kef.kysr lrkq ,enQ
ckj. w;=.d ug uqia,sjre
f.dre jQy'
9'193 t f i a m , j d y k q , e f u k a
wdKa v q f ;a " wka ; cd;s l iy
foaYSh iy foaYSh rdcH fkdjk
ixOdkj,;a wka;cd;sl m%cdf;a
m%uqL;d ,ehsia;=f w. nj Tjqkag
Yajdi lrkakg isf'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

85


wj;eka
jQ uqia,s
ckhdg ;u
uq,a mx
ia:dk
fj; hdug
wdKavqj
myiql
ie,ish
hq;= h'

9'194 wj;eka jQ uq i a , s ckhdg ;u


uq , a mx ia : dk fj; hdug
wdKavqj myiql ie,ish
hq;= h'
9'195 t,ah kdY l< wd.l ia:dk"
mdi,a iy ksjdi h<s f.dv ke.Sug
wdKavqj jyd mshjr .; hq;= h'
9'196 w;s k a wj;eka jQ j ka muKla
wka;cd;sl iy foaYSh wjOdkh
fhduqu ksid merKs wj;eka jQjkag
fjkia fldg ie,fl;shs hk yeSu
we;sfjhs' wdKavqj w;aika l< ish
udkj whs ; s j dis l f,a L kj,
moku iuidOdrK;ajh iy
fjkiafldg fkdie,lSu h' merKs
w;a fjkila ke;sj ie,lsh hq;=
nj ixjOk yjq,alrejkag ta;a;=
.ekau wdKavqf j.lSu h'
.egq m%foaY wdikak .j, j;a jQ
isxy, ckhdf.a la.ek,s
9'197 t,aB NSIKfhka .,jd .;a
is,a jeishka wdKavqj wu;l l<
nj Tjqkaf.a yeSu h' wdrlaIs;
m%foaYj,g fkdf. dia ysiqKq
;ck iu. Tjqka ; f.jd
we;' Bg wu;rj Tjqka wOHdmkh"
/lshdj ms<sn| .eg j,g

86

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

uqyqK md
we;' iudkj
ie,lSf
wjYH;dj
Tjqyq m%ldY
lr;s'
9'198 fuu ck;dj
iyk ie,iSug
Tjqkaf.a
wjYH;d .ek
wdKavqj wOHhkhla l< hq;= h'
9'199 iudk im;a fjka ls u yd
ixjOkh f .j,g wdKavqj
iy;sl fkdl<fyd;a fYAIfhka
kef.kys r m<df;a O ckhd
isk .j, w;a .eg u;=h
yels h'

j;=lrfha ck ;h
hym;a lsug wdKavqj
mshjr .; hq;= nj
fldiu ksfoaY lrhs'

bkah iNjhla we;s fou<


ckhdf.a la .ek,s'
9'200 j;= m% f oa Y j, wOHdmk" fi!LH
.eg iy jk Ia l r;d .ek
Tjq k a fldiug lreKq ola j d
we;' myiql iy jvd fyd| jk
;;a;ajhla we;s lsug;a wdKavqj
mshjr .; hq;= nj fldiu ksfoaY
lrhs'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

87


hqoaOfhka
miq
ixjOkh
iy iu.s
ikaOdk
jevigyka
j,g j;=
m%foaY
ckhdf.a
.eg
iug
wdKavqj
mshjr .;
hq;= nj
fldiu
ksfoaY
lrhs'

9'201 hqoaOfhka miq ixjOkh iy iu.s


ikaOdk jevigyka j,ska j;= m%foaY
ckhdf.a .eg iug wdKavqj
mshjr .; hq;= nj fldiu ksfoaY
lrhs'
i fiu iy iu.s ika
Odkh inkaO .eg - kS;sfha
wdm;Hh meje;aug fkdyelsu
9'202 fndfyda fokd fldiug ls h d
isfha foaYmd,k wkq.%yh ,nk
mqoa.,hka wmrdO l< kuq;a jrog
tfrysj kS;sh l%shd;aul fkdjQ nj
h' iduh yd ia:drNdjh yrh jQ
ljr fyda iu.s ikaOdkhla w:j;a
ug k kS ; s f ha wdm;Hh;a "
kS ; s f ha ks o Ndjh;a " ia j dk
wlrKh;a w;HjYH fohla nj
h' ck;djka w;r .egq ksudKh
lf<a n,h fnodyeula ke;slu;a"
hymd,kh ke;s l u;a kS ; s f ha
wdm;H fkd;elSu;a h'
9'203 fldif idlPd w;r;=f mek
ke=K .eg
w'

88

foa Y md,k in|;d we;s wh


wmrdO l< g Tjq k a f .ka
m%Yak lsug kS;s ks,Orhka
wiu;ah'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Daily News Pix By Nalin Hewapathirana

.sks w foaYmd,kh kS;s.rel mqrjeishkag


uy;a .eg we;sfldg ;sf'

wd' .egqu wjika jqjo kS;sfha yd


idufha .eg mj;S' ikakoaO
lKavdh lmam .ekSu"
meyer .ekS" w;=reoyka ls"
fld,a , lE we;= fndfyda
wmrdO .gu lrk ks i d
W;=re kefkysr ckhd ;e;s
.ekSfuka j;a fj;s' iuyr
foaYmd,lfhda kS;h
s fkd;l;s'
wmrdOlrejka iu. we;s
inkaOh ksid Tjqyq fmd,sish
iu. wlrK ud.h j,
lr;s'
we' .s k s w foa Y md,kh kS ; s .
rel mqrjeishkag uy;a .eg
we;sfldg ;sf' foaYmd,lhka
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

89


wkjir .sks
w ;uka i;=j
;nadf.k isk
9'204
mqoa.,hka
ksrdhqO
lsug;a"
jerlrejkag
tfrysj kvq
mejug;a
wdKavqj
9'205
lk mshjr
.; hq;= hhs
fldiu
;kau ksfoaY
lrhs'

90

iy Tjq k a f .a wdOdrlrejka
.s k s w Nd;h fldiu
lkiai,af,ka ksCIKh
lrhs'
wkjir .s k s w ;uka i;= j
;ndf.k isk mqoa.,hka ksrdhqO
lsug;a" jerlrejkag tfrysj
kvq mejug;a wdKavqj lk
mshjr .; hq;= hhs fldiu ;kau
ksfoaY lrhs'
fuu jd;dj ,shoau" ksu fjka
mej;s m<d; md,k ue;sjrKfha
tlu mCIfha foa Y md,k{hka
fofofkla fj ;nd .;ay' >d;k
lS m hls ' Tjq k a w;r iyfhda .
hla ke;s l u;a " .eg iug
m%pKav;ajh fhu;a iu.s
ikaOdk l%shd j,sfha uyck
ksfhd;hkaf.ka wfmaCId lrk
wdoYh fkdf'

9'206

my; i|yka is fYaIfhka


u;=fldg lafjkafka fldiug
,enqKq idlaIs wkqj h'

9'207

kef.kysr m<df;a Ndr;S


keue;a;l= iska meyerf.k hdu"
lmam .ekSu" fld,a,lEu .ek
is /ila .ek kS;s wdh;k
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: AFP /Getty Images


Pix by Sena Widanagama

j,g fhduql< kuq;"a lsiu


s mshjrla
fkd.ekSu inkaOfhka fldiu
lK.dgqj m<lrhs' fmd,sia
ks,Orhka yhiShla iu. meyer
.kq ,enQ fHIaGhka fofofkl=
we;= y;r fofkl= l< fpdaokdj
wkq j tu ms i ks r dhq O fldg
urd u lf<a tjl kefkysr
t,aB kdhl lreKd h'
fldiu Tyq f .ka m% Y a k l<
g Tyq tu fpda o kd m% ; s f CIa m
lf<a h'

fmd,sia
ks,Odka
yhiShla
ksrdhqO fldg
urd u .ek
tjlg
kef.kysr
t,aB
kdhl lreKd
flfrys
fpdaokd
t,a, we;'
Tyq wo f
fpdaokdj
m%;sfCIam
lrhs'

fmd,sia ks,Orhka yhiShla


urd u .ek f;dla ls i s u
mCIKhla lr ke;' wmrdOfha
nrm;,lu iy iu.s ikaOdkhg
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

91


fmd,sia
ks,Orhka
yhiShla
urd u
.ek
f;dla
lsisu
mCIKhla
lr ke;'
wmrdOfha
nrm;,lu
iy iu.s
ikaOdkhg
tys we;s
n,mEu
ksid mQK
mCIKhla
l< hq;= nj
fldif
woyi h'

92

tys we;s n,mEu ks i d mQ K


mCIKhla l< hq;= nj fldif
woyi h'
9'208

BmSmS idudlhka msila nf,ka


uqo,a ,nd .ekSu inkaO meKs,s
lS m hla u we;' f .ek mQ K
mCIKhla fkdmeje;ajqjfyd;a
jrog o~q j ke;s j .e, hd
yelsh hk yeSu we;s lrhs'

9'209

l,a,h
s la fufyhjka fc iS,ka
keue;a;d meyerf.k hdu" nf,ka
uqo,a .ekSu" fld,a,lEu inkaO
fpdaokd /ila ,eK' wdrCIl
yuqod uqjdfjka Tyq fufia l<
nj fldiu fmd,sishg kq ks'
Tyqf.a yjq,alrejl= w;awvx.=jg
.;a kuq;a Tyq ;ju;a ksoyfia
is'

9'210

kS;s frda ikakoaO l,a,s inkaO


fldif wka ; jdr ks foa Y
l%shd;aul lrk f,i b,a,d is'

9'211

tu ks foa Y ;ju;a l% s h d;a u l


fkdlsu .ek fldiu lkiai,a,
m< lrhs'

9'212

m<d;a fmd,sia ks,Orhkag wmrdO


mlaIKh" kS;suh l%shd ms<sfj,
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: SLTJ web.com

iy wmrdO hqla;sh inkaOfhka


u. fmkau" Wmfoia u i|yd
kS;sm;s fomd;fka;=f m<d;a
tall msysgqh hq;= hehs fldiu
f,i ksfoaY lrhs'
9'213

foaYmd,k in|l fkd;ld by;


i|yka jer l<jqkag kS;s u.ska
o~qj meKh hq;= hhs fldiu
wjOdrKh lrhs' tg wlrK
mmd,kh flfrys ck;djf.a
Yajdih we;sjkq we;'

9'214

kS;sh yd iduh mj;ajd .ekSf


j.lSu mejreKq fmd,sia
fomd;fka;=j is,a wdh;khls'
rdcH wdrlaIdf j.lSu mejereKq
ika k oa O yuq o d iu. fmd,s i a
inkaOh wfydais lsu fhda.H
h'

9'215

fmd,s i s f ha rdcldh ks i s f ,i
ls u;a " uyck Ya j dih kd
.ekSu;a Wfoid iajdk fmd,sia
fldiu;a msyg
s q h hq;= h' fmd,sia
fiajh wlaIKhg;a" iajdkj
l%shd lrka Wiia jD;a;Sh
ugula mj;ajd .ekSug;a tjeks
fldiulg n,h mejh hq;= h'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

kS;sh yd iduh mj;ajd


.ekSf j.lSu mejreKq
fmd,sia fomd;fka;=j
is,a wdh;khls'

93


md,klrKh inkaO .eg
rdcH
wdrlaIdf
j.lSu
mejereKq
ikakoaO
yuqod
iu.
fmd,sia
inkaOh
wfydais
lsu
fhda.H h'

9'216

mmd,k wvqmdvql iy
hymd,khla ke;slu ish
mqrjeishkag n,mdk njg
fldiug idlaIs ,eK' tjka
iduQysl l%shdjl wjYH;dj olajhs'
iq;rhkag ydkslr f,i l%uh
fhfok g ksYa; mshjr .;
hq;=h'

9'217

foaYmd,k ixialD;sh wkqj


uyck fia j djla ,nd .ekS u g
foa Y md,kh u; r|d mej;S u g
isfuka uyckhd wirK
fn,ySk ;;a;ajhg m;a f'

mqrjeis la.ek,s iug


fYaI wdh;khla
9'218

94

mmd,kh ms < s n | md,s f ka ; =


flduidiajrhdf.a ^Tnqiauka&
ldh Ndrh .ek we;s j;auka kS;h
s
rdcH l%h
s d ksid we;sjk .eg j,g
i fiug m%udKj;a ke;'
1994$26 mk;ska ixfYdaOkh lr
we;af;a fm;ai l%shd mmdh
muKs'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Kobeita.Interna.pl

Photo source: Daily Mirror

Odhl yd mmd,k l%shd ksid


we;sjk fYaIfhka iq;r
ckhdf.a la.eka,sj,g i h
yels iajdk wdh;khla msysgqh
hq;= hhs fldiu ksfoaY lrhs'
Bg n,.;= mlaIK wxYhlao ;sh
hq;= h'
9'219

kEu mqrjeisfhl=g Odhl fyda


mmd,k l%shd u.ska fYaIfhka
ckjd.sl;ajh fyda wd.u mokj
we;s j k la .eka ,a , lg tu
iajdk wdh;kfhka m%;slu ,nd
.ekSf whs;sjdislu ;sh hq;= h'

9'220

fuu wdh;kfha ;S k a l% s h djg


ke.Sf Odk ;sh hq;= w;r
n,h wksis f,i fhu .ek o~qj
mekh hq;= h'

9'221

fuu fYaI wdh;kfha ldhhka


fmda I Kh lrk hdka ; % K hla
ia;%slal j, yd m<d;aj, msysgqjd
m%cduQ, idu lgq j,ska m,.;
yels h'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

95


fjk;a l%shdud.
9'222
Odhl yd
mmd,k l%shd
ksid we;sjk
fYaIfhka
iq;r
ckhdf.a
la. eka,sj,g
i h
yels iajdk
wdh;khla
9'223
msysgqh hq;=
hhs fldiu
ksfoaY lrhs'
Bg n,.;=
mlaIK
wxYhlao
;sh hq;= h'

96

f .ek kg mj;sk l%shd mmd


.ek iy m%;sm;a;s iudf,dapkh
l< hq;= h' wdKAvqf ;SrKj,
mQK ksoNdjh iy f;dr;=re
uyckhdg ,eh yels h hq;=
h' wdKa v q f l% s h dmmd is h
mqrjeishka" fYaIfhka iq;rhka
flfrys jer yeS je<elaug
wjYH m%;sm;a;s yd phdjka u;
msysgd ;sh hq;= h'
m%f oaYfha ckhdf.a Wmfoia yd
iyNd.s ; a j h we;s j ixjOkh
isjk njg wdKavqj iy;sl h
hq;= h' tys mmd,khg ks
s oNdjh
we;s g tu ixjOkhg
;ukag whs;shla we;ehs o cd;sh
f.dvke. Sug ;uka iyNd.s jkq
we;ehs o Tjqka is;kq we;'

9'224

rdcH fia j fha .= K Ou hq K q


lsug o" wdl,am fjkila we;s
lsug o fYAI mqyK
q q jevigykla
l%shd;aul l< hq;= nj fldiu
ksfoaY lrhs'

9'225

rdcH ks,Orhka m;a lsu"


udrelsu flfrys md,l mCIfha
foaYmd,lhska f,i wes,s .eiSu
ms<n
s | f;dr;=re fldiu lmdjg
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: devwijewardane.blogspot. Pix by Dev Wijewardane

m;alrkakla h' th hymd,kfha


imQK wksla me;a;h'
9'226

n|jd .ekSu yd Wiia lsu iy;sl


lrk foa Y md,k n,mE j,s k a
f;dr rdcH fiajhla Wfoid ;ka
ks foa Y lrhs ' th wdKa v q l % u
jHjia:df iudkd;au;d kS;shg
o .e,fma'

9'227

lDIsludka;h" jr yd tfkod
wdl lghq;= i|yd W;=re m<d;
l% u dkq l + , j is ,a mmd,khg
hg;a lsu w;jYH h' ck;djg
iqmr
q e ;hg meKSug;a" idufha
m%;sM, N=la;s ug;a tu.ska bv
ie,fia'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

jr m%foaY
we;e
tfkod
wdl
lghq;= i|yd
W;=re m<d;
l%udkql+,j
is,a
mmd,khg
hg;a lsu
w;jYH h'

97


9'228
rdcH
fiajfha
.=KOu
hqKq lsug
o" wdl,am
fjkila
we;s lsug
o fYAI
mqyqKq
jevigykla
l%shd;aul
l< hq;= nj
fldiu
ksfoaY
lrhs'

n,h fnod yod .ekSf wjYH;djh


9'229

foaYmd,k iulg ndOlhla jQ


t,aBh wjika l< miq iu.s
ikaOdkhg jeo.;ajk foaYmd,k
tluq;=Ndjhlg meKSu w;jYH
nj fndfyda fokd meye,sj m%ldY
l<y'

9'230

hqoaOhg miq mirh ;=< ksrka;r


iduh yd wdrlaIdj iy;sl lrk
foaYmd,k l%shdj,shlg wdKavqj
kdhl;ajh u w;jYH f' tys
t,aB idudlhka we;= iEu
ckfldgilu whs;j
s disl iy;sl
l< hq;= h' ta i|yd n,h fnod yod
.ekSf jevms<sfj,la ;sh hq;= h'
tu jevms<f
s j, ms<n
s | iudc wdl
wjia : d we;s lrjk wdKa v q l % u
jHjia:d jOkhlska uqkam;a h
hq;= h'

9'231

n,h fnod yod .ekSu iajNdjfhkau


uyck flakaSh h hq;= w;r my;
i|yka lreKq i,ld ne,sh hq;=h'

98

wlrK uYkh i|yd wdKavl


q u
%
jHjia:dfjka bvla ke;su .ek
meKs,s fldiug ,eK' fhda;
kS;shla .ek fhduq lsug bv
lv ;sh hq;= h' yis mk;a .ek
fY%aIAGdlrKhg we;s ld,h

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: The Hindu

1987 bkah w.ue;s r .dka iy Y%S ,xld ckdm;s f'wd' chjOk


bka ,xld .siqug w;aika ;nka

^w& n,h fnod yod .ekS u l


rf ck;dj w;r iqxix.uhla
yd tluq;=lula i wix.;sh yd
wiu.sh jOkh h hq;= ke;'
ljr n,h fnod .ekS u l jq j o
m%Odk wruqK h
hq;af;a fuu
tldjka nj iy fmd wkkH;djh
m%jOkhhs'
^wd& n,h fnfuka ls i s ck
fldgilg wvq ie,ls,a,la fyda
je ie,ls , a , la fkdjk nj
iy;sl l< hq;= h' th fjkial
lrk l% s h dj,s h la fkdjk nj
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

99


muKla fkdj tfia fkdjk nj
fmfkkakg o ;sh hq;= h'

iduh yd
wdrlaIdj
iy;sl lrk
foaYmd,k
l%shdj,shlg
wdKavqj
kdhl;ajh
u w;jYH
f' tys
t,aB
idudlhkaj
is we;=
iEu
ckfldgilu
whs;sjdisl
iy;sl l<
hq;= h' ta
i|yd n,h
fnod yod
.ekSf
jevms<sfj,la
;sh hq;= h'

100

^we& uyckhd n,.ekau ish


hq ; a f ;a " wdKa v q l % u jHjia : df
Odk j,g yd wka;cd;sl
.siq j,g wkqj iy ck;djg
we;s ne m udkj .siq j,g
wkqj iy ck;djg we;s ne m
udkj whs;sjdisl wdrlaId lsf
rduqj ;=< h'
^wE& n,h fnod .ekSf lreKq
follg wdKavqf wjOdkh
fhduq h hq;= h' my<u ugf
ck iyNd.s;ajhla we;sjk m
m<d;a md,k wdh;k yev.
eiaiu iy m<d;a
md,k wdh;k yev.eiau iy
m<d;a iNd l%ufha wvqmdvqlj,ska
mdv bf.kSu h'
th Y%S
,xldf w.kd O;ajh fmdaIKh
lrk w;r fN!l wLKav;dj yd
talShNdjh /lsh hq;= h'
9'232

m<d;a ksfhda;hka iys; fojeks


uka;%S uKav,hla msysgqu w;sfl
hdka;K
% hla h yels h' m<d;a j,g
n,mE yels kS;s .ek uYkh
lsu;a" uyck Yajdih;a we;sug
fya;= jkq we;'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

9'233

ish mCI ykd.; hq;= lreKla


jkafka n,h fnod yod .ekSu iu.
foaYmd,k kdhlhka uyckhdg
j.lSug nef|k nj h' th ish
ckj.hkaf.a wjYH;d imqrd ,k
m% c d;ka ; % j d l% u fha l% s h d;a u l
uls'

9'234

wNHka;r i fiug ish


mCI lemh hq ; = h' .egj
wkjYH cd;Hka;r ldrKhlao"
vhia f mda r df ndys r mS v kho"
thska iulg isjk n,mEuo
fou< kdhlhka is ; d ne,s h
hq;= h' iulg ndOdjk
wkdrCIs; yeSula thska we;s h
yels h'

9'235

9'236

n,h fnod .ekSu" iaffj" iajdk"


ish ckj. we;=<;a mq,a rdcH
jHqyhla ;=< ish hq;a;la nj
fldif woyihs' mhka; m%foaY
j,g ksis n,h ;su w;HjYH
h' tfy;a uOHfha ;s h hq ; =
fnod yod .; fkdyels n,;,o
we;' fnjdohg bv fkd;nk"
rdcHfha talh
S ;ajh yd iaffj;ajh
wdrCId lsu o iy;sl h hq;=h'

ckdm;s
uyskao
rdcmCI

mCI
kdhl rks,a
l%uisxy

uqia,s
fldx.%ia
kdhl ylS

;sridr iu.s ikaOdkhl


id:l;ajh iy;sl lsug

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah


Photo Sources : Lanka Polity Blog / Sinhala24News.com / Lankapuvath.lk
DM Online / Pix by V.V.Krishnan / SriLankan Locos website

fou< cd;sl
ikaOdkfha 101
kdhl wd' inkaoka

cfm
kdhl
fidaujxY
wurisxy


ish mCI
ykd.;
hq;= lreKla
jkafka n,h
fnod yod
.ekSu iu.
foaYmd,k
kdhlhka
uyckhdg
j.lSug
nef|k
nj h'

meye,s m%.;shla fmkau wjYH


nj fldiu wjOdrKh lrhs '
my<u ugu olajd n,h meju
iy uOHu wdKavqf n,h fnod
.ekSu i|yd ta .ek tl;ajhla
we;s lr .ekSug j;auka wjia:df
ioa N djfhka m% h ;a k h hq ; =
h' tu tl;ajh ;sh hq;af;a
md,kfha ;Ska .ekSf uyck
iyNd.s ; a j h i|yd i iq m q r e
foaYmd,k" ks,Odjd wdh;k.;
indOl i|yd fkdf'
9'237

tu m%;M
s ,h ,nd .ekSug wdKavj
q g
wjHdc iy ie,iq.; l;sldjlg
uq,msh hq;= h' wfmaCIs; l;sldf
wdldrh iy wka ; .;h i|yd
wdKavqf woyia mok h hq;= h'
iq;r mCI we;e foaYmd,k mCI
iu. by< ;,fha ixjdohla h
hq;= h'

NdId m%;sm;a;sh
9'238

102

n,hg m;a is h u wdKa v q j ,s k a


NdId m%;sm;a;sh l%shd;aul lsf
fou< ck;dj fldkalr we;ehs
hk yeS fndfyda idlaIs j,ska
m< h'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Pix by Dena Jayaman

9'239

fldiu Rcqju w;agq fohls'


tk wo;a iq;r cd;slhkag ;u
jHdmdl .kqfokq lrkakg is
we;af;a ;ukaf.a NdIdfjka fkdj
wkH NdIdjlska nj'

9'240

fou< l;dlrk fmd,sia ks,Orhka


n|jd .ekS u is fjka we;;a
wka ; jdr yis ms h jr .ek
ckdm;sjrhdg l< yis ksfoaY
fuf;la l%shd;aul fkdlsu .ek
fldiu lK.dgqj m< lrhs'

9'241

NdId m% ; s m ;a ; s h imQ Kfhka


l%shd;aul lsf m%cd ugug
fjka jQ ie,iqo mqrjeis
iyNd.s;ajho ;sh hq;= h'

9'242

ixksffok fkdyelshdjka ksid


ol= f Ka ckhdf.ka W;= r iy
kefkysr ckhd fjkaj is;s'
cd;s h " wd.u" iudc ;;a ; a j h
fkd;ld ish fokd tlsfkldg

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

103


imh hk yeSu we;s lsug yeu
W;aidyhlau .; hq;= h' NdIdj
h cd;shla tlg ne| ;nkakls'
NdId m%;sm;a;s ieleish hq;af;a
tu mrud:h bgqlr .ekSug h'
tfy;a rdcH NdId m%;sm;a;shla
l%h
s d;aul l< hq;f
a ;a tu wjfndaOh"
O;ajh iy cd;sl taldnoaO;djh
Wfoid h'

iq;r
mCI ish
foaYmd,k
mCI iu.
by< ;,fha
ixjdohla
h hq;= h'

104

9'243

tlsfkldf.a NdId isxy, iy fou<


bf.kSu iEu mdi,lu wksjdh
l< hq;= h' wfkHdkH wdl,am
fjkilg o th uq,a h yels h'

9'244

wkd.; mrmqrg ff;%NdId m%K;dj


,ndu b;d jeo.;a h'

9'245

2020 rg ff;% N dId ls f


wdKavqf m%;sm;a;sh w.h lruq'

9'246

NdIdj wkqj lsiu


s ia;l
s% l
a hla fyda
m<d;la j. fkdl< hq;= h' rdcH
fiajlhkag rf kEu m<d;l
fiajh l< yels h hq;= h'

9'247

rcfha ish ldhd,hkays fou<


l;d lrk ks,Orhka isu wksjdh
l< hq;= h' fmd,sisj,g 24 mefhau
is h hq ; a f ;a meKs , s l rejka g
;ukaf.a NdIdfjka th igyka
lrjd .ekSf whs;sjdislu ;sh
hq;= ksid h'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: CPA

9'248

rdcH NdId fldiu fld<U


muKla ms y s g d ;s u ks i d wE;
.no mqrjeishkag tys meKSu
wmyiq h' tu fldiug ;u ;Ska
l%shd;aul lsf n,h ;sh hq;=
w;r yeu m,d;lu YDLd msysgqh
hq;= h'

9'249

NdId .eg i|d .ekS u g kj


;dCIKh fhdod .; yels h'
.=ld,Sk i ,efnk ;=re NdId
mj;kh Wfoid udldx. Nd;
l< yels h'

9'250

f inkaOfhka" oaNdId
yelshdj we;s fmd,sia ks,Orhka
mj;lhka f,i fhdod .ekSf
wka ; jdr ks foa Y h flfrys
wjOdkh h<s;a fhduq lruq'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

105


wOHdmkh
iudk wjia:d
NdId
m%;sm;a;sh
9'251 ; u k a g f j k i a l i s j k
imQKfhka
njg we;s yeS u ;= r ka ls u
l%shd;aul
tlai;a Y%S ,xldjl isxy, fou<
lsf m%cd
iu.s ika O dkhl wjYH mQ j
ugug fjka
wjYH;djhls' wOHdmkfha
jQ ie,iqo
m%;slrKh ykajd ka miq fndfyda
mqrjeis
widOdrKl is we;' iajdk
iyNd.s;ajho
wOHdmk fYaI{hkaf.a lgqjla
;sh hq;= h'
u.ska idOdrK mx.= l%uhla ykajd
u fldiu ksfoaY lrhs'

106

9'252

wOHdmk myiql idOdrK


f,i fnhdf jevms < s f j,la
wdKa v q j we;s l< hq ; = h' 2011
fhda; oa;shsl mdi,a odyla Wiia
;;a;ajhg f.k tau wiudk;dj
,sys,a lrkq we;' iudcfha fNao
Ns k a k ;d we;s fkdjk m ta
m%;sm;a;sh l%shd;aul l< hq;= h'

9'253

O ckjd.sl yd wd.l
<uhskag fiajd imhk Y% mdi,a
m%;sm;a;shla wdKavqjg ;sh hq;=
h' ckjd.sl fyda wd.l moku
mdi,lg we;= < ;a lr .ekS u g
kq i q iq njg m;a ls u iu.s
ikaOdkhg hym;la fkdlrhs'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: My Global Networker Blog

9'254

ckj.hka i;= jkd ixialD;sl


O;ajh w.h lsug orejka mqyK
q q
l< hq;= h' m<d;a j, mdi,a hq.,
inkaOh" isiq yqjudre jevigyka
iu.s ikaOdkh fmdaIKh lrkq
we;' cd;sl ;reK fiajd iNdjg
jvd mq ,a yq j udre jev l<
yels h'

wOHdmk
myiql
idOdrK f,i
fnhdf
jevms<sfj,la
wdKavqj we;s
l< hq;= h'

idu wOHdmkh
9'255

Ydro wka;cd;sl kS;sfhl=


tla i ;a l u yd iu.s ika O dkh
Wfoid idu wOHdmkfha jeo.;alu
wjOdrKh lf<a h' wjYH ksfoaY
m%Odk jd;df we;'

9'256

;%sNdId m%;sm;a;sh Nd;fha O


ckj. j,g wh;a <uhs k a g

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

107


n,h fnu
yd fjk;a
la .ek,s
.ek iq;r
mCIj,
uyck
ksfhda;hska
iu.
w:j;a
foaYmd,k
ixjdohl
fhh hq;=h'

wka; l%shd i|yd mka;s ldurh


;=<u .ekah hq;= h' O NdId
j,ska Ihhka b.ekaf myiql
ie,ish hq;= h'
9'257

iEu Ya j oHd,hls k a u NdId


;=fkka" iEu ckj.hlau Y%j
bf.kSug ie,ish hq;= h' kg
fou< wh W;=re" kefkysr o
isxy, wh ol=Kg o iSud we;'

9'258

l% S v dj,s k a wka ; mq o a . , in|;d


Yla ; s u ;a jk nj fldif
woyihs' iu.s ikaOdkhg w;HjYH
h' wka; md<d;a iy cd;sl l%Svd
;r fYa I fhka W;= r e kef.
kysr meje;ah hq;= hhs fldiu
ksfoaY lrhs'

vhiafmdardj

108

9'259

vhia f mda r d ^foa Y j, is k&


lKavdh folla .ek fldiug
f;dr;= r e ,eK' tlla iu.s
ika O dkhg odhl ug leu;s
h' wksl t,aB wdOdrlrejkah
lshk tjd lKavdhu h'

9'260

fuu tjd lKa v dhug Y% S


,xldf idu mY% u hg ydks
l< yels h' Tjq k a f .a Yla ; s h
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Global Peace Support Website

vhiafmdard lKavdhj, Yla;sh m%fhdackhg .ekSf msiqula wjYH h'

m% f hda c khg .ekS f ms iq u la


wjYH h'
9'261

tjeks msiqulg ;sh hq;= m%Odk


wx. (

^w& n,h fnu yd fjk;a la .ek,s


.ek iq ;r mCIj, uyck
ks f hda ;hs k a iu. w:j;a
foa Y md,k ixjdohl fhh
hq;=h'
^wd& f o a Y S h i u . s i k a O d k h y d
ixjOkh flfrys tjd
lKa v dhj, odhl;a j h ,nd
.ekSf bvla we;s lsu'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

109


rf
wdfhdackh
lsug
leu;s wh
fjkqfjka
,sys,a
ms<sfj;la
yd
wdl,amhla
;sh hq;= h'

^we& vhia f mda r djg b ys g q


we;s rgj,a iu. rdcH ;dka;%sl
wdrNhla u.ska .eg iug
fldif ks foa Y l% s h d;a u l
fjka mj;sk nj ta;a;= .ekah
hq ; = h' ta w;r t,a B fha
m%pKav yd fnjd oDIAhl
fkdms<s. kakd vhiafmdard
fldgig iydh f lghq;= j,g
iQodk h hq;= h'
^wE& r k a m s g j q K q t f y ; a r f
wdfhdackh lsug leu;s wh
fjkqfjka ,sys,a ms<sfj;la yd
wdl,amhla ;sh hq;= h' oa;aj
mqrjeisnj" uqo,a tf myiq nj
we;s lsu iu. iSudjkaf. ka
f;drj rgmqrd hdf Bf
myiql we;s lsu'
^b& f lghq ; = i|yd mia i ka
ie,iq l< mq,a jevms<sfj,la
;sh hq;= h' ta i|yd rdcH ;
fufyjr iy foaYh
S foaYh
S is,a
iudc fmruqKl iydh ,nd.;
hq;= h'
9'262

110

jkaks m%foaYfha ksjdi" mdi,a fi!LH


iy /lshd myiql ksudKhg Y%S
,dxlSh vhiafmdardjg wdKavqjg
iydh h yels h' Y%S ,dxlSh iy
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: MichaelDesign.Com.Au

Y%S ,dxlSh iy foaY ixjOk yjq,alrejka inkaO lr .ekSug wdKavqj


uq,msh hq;= h'

foa Y ixjOk yjq , a l rejka


inka O lr .ekS u g wdKa v q j
uq , ms h hq ; = h' ioa N djfhka u
iu.s ika O dkh Wfoid wjYH
mshjrla nj ;yjqre l<
hq;= h'
9'263

ms g rg is k Y% S ,dxls l hka f .
ka m% f hda c k .ekS u g;a " i;= r e
vhiafmdardj hhs lshkq ,nk wh
is k a m% ; s p dr la ug;a " Tjq k a
m% ; s i ka O dkhg yjq , a ls ug;a
wdKa v q j ms h jr .; hq ; = h' ta
i|yd rdcH wxY" fm!oa.,sl wxY"

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

111


wfkHdkH
|ord
.ekSu
flfrys
fhduqug
ish
ck;djkag
ufmkaug
ish wd.l
kdhlhka
uQ,sl h
hq;= h'

112

Ydia;%jka;hka" wdkaf.a iydh


/ia lrka iu.s ikaOdkh f.dv
ke.s h hq ; = h' tjeks ms h jrla
fkd.; fyd;a foaY tjdl
jOkh h yels w;r Y%S ,xldjg
,efnk iyfhda.h;a j, h
yels h'
wka; wd.l lghq;= iu.s ikaOdkh
flfrys wd.j, ldhNdrh
9'264

wd.l lKavdh fldiug lS


m Y%S ,xldj f,dalfha m%Odk
wd. y;rls k a ^fn!oa O " ys k a "
bia , d" l% s i a ; = & fmda I Kh ,nd
we;'

9'265

.= l d,S k .egq u lg miq iu.s


ika O dkhla flld,ls k a we;s
l< fkdyels h' th o .=ld,Sk
f.dv ke.Sula f' iudc iu.sh
kdY lrk m%jK;d l,ska
l th wka;rdhlr ;;a;ajhg
jeug fmr iq r ejd yeug
wdh;ksl jevms<sfj,la
wjYH h'

9'266

fldiu n,j;a ixf.hg m;a


jQ f ha " ykd fkd.;a m% p Ka v
lKavdh mQckSh ia:dk kdY
lrkq weiSfuks'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: www.ucanews.com

9'267

tjeks is .gu isu iu.s


ikaOdkhg ydkshls' tn is
je<ela ug ;on, ms h jr .;
hq ; = h' tfy;a j.ls h hq ; = wh
.ek mCIK fldg kS;s u.ska
l% s h d ls ug kS ; s f ha wdh;k
fuf;la wiu;au .ek fldiu
lkiai,a,g m;a f' tn l%shd
je<elaug ork mY%uh ydkshg
m;a wh ;=< Yajdih we;s lsug
fya;= f'

9'268

.eUqre wjfndaOfhka hq;=j .egqu;a


tys m%;sM,h;a foi ne,Suo ta i|yd
wfkHdkH |ord .ekSu flfrys
fhduqug ish ck;djkag
ufmkauo i|yd ish wd.l
kdhlhka uQ,sl h hq;= h' wd.
j, fmd ,laIK u.ska tlai;a

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

wd.l iqix.
uhla we;s
lsug wka;
wd.l
lKavdhj,g
ldh Ndrhla
we;s nj
fldiu h<s;a
wjOdrKh
lrhs'

113

l% s h djlg ck;dj fufyhh


yels h'

O ckj. 9'269
j, NdIduh
yd ixialD;sl
in|l
.ek kqu
jOkh mq,a
ikaOdkhlg
9'270
fya;=jk nj
fldif
woyihs'

tlai;a yd iduQysl l%shd u.ska


ckjd.s l yd wd.l iq i x.
uhla we;s lsug wka; wd.l
lKavdhj,g ldh Ndrhla we;s
nj fldiu h<s ; a wjOdrKh
lrhs'
kS ; s h g iy iduhg ydks l rk
.egq we;su .ek l,a;h
s d wk;=re
wef hdka;K
% hla mej;=Kfyd;a
th .egq je<elaf jevms<f
s j,la
h yels nj fldiug idCIs ka
wd.l fldgia j,ska mejisKs'
Tjqkaf.a iydh we;sj tjekakla
msysgqh hq;= nj ksfoaY lruq'

l,dj yd ixialD;sh
iu.s ikaOdkh jOkh
lsf fuj, f,i
NdIduh yd ixialD;sl in|l
9'271

114

fldiu yuq f fufia m% l dY


Ks' Y%S ,dxlSh wkkH;dj i|yd
NdIduh yd ixialD;s fmd ,laIK
ykd .ekS u wjYH h' tfy;a
iudc hym; Wfoid l,df
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Nruthyanjalee.com

cd;sl iu.s ls%hdj,shla Wfoid


ixialD;sl in|;d b;d jeo.;a nj
fndfyda ksfhda;fhda fldiug
fmkajd kay' isxy, iy fou<
ixialD;skag b;d w.kd uQ,hka
we;s nj Tjqyq lSy' 1956 isjqK
fuka l,dj" kdgH" ix.S;h hk
lafIa;%hkays mqkreohla we;s nj o
mejisKs'

9'273

fldif i;=gg fya;= jQ


lreKls' tk wd.l kdhlhka"
l,dlrejka" mqrjeishka w;r fmd
u;hla mej;Su h' tfy;a f fmd
,laIK j,ska rf iduh Wfoid
m%fhdackhla .; yelafla ish
foaYmd,lhka mgq wjYH;d w;ayer
talu;sl kdhl;ajla iemhqjfyd;a
muKhs'

9'274

O ckj. j, NdIduh yd
ixia l D;s l in|l .ek kq u
jOkh mq,a ikaOdkhlg
fya;=jk nj fldif woyihs'
ta i|yd jQ rdcH m% ; s m ;a ; s h l

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Divinologue.com

9'272

Photo source: Himalayan Academy

ks udKYS , S ; a j fhka m% f hda c k


.ekS u g wdKa v q j ;a ck;dj;a
wfmdfydi;a we;' l,djg tfia
l< yels nj wjfnda O lr.;
hq;=h'

115

th w;HjYH fldgila njg m;a


lsfuka m%uqL;ajhla h hq;= h'
cd;sl
.Sh tlu
;dkulska
NdId
foflkau
.ehSu
fkdlvjd
lsug
.ekah
hq;= h'

116

9'275

fou< isxy, idys;H lD;s


wfkHdkH NdIdj,s k a m<fldg
mdi,a orejkaf.a isg wfkHdkH
ixialD;Ska .ek wjfndaOhla yd
if;djla we;s lsu b;d jeo.;a
hkq we;'

9'276

O ckj. w;r fmd ,laIK


yd wjfndaOh we;s lrk iskud
rEmjdyskS iy fld kdgH lD;s
m%ldYk wdh .ekah hq;= h'
;reK mrmqrg tajdhska m,.ekSug
ie,ish hq;= h'

9'277

cd;sl .Sh tlu ;dkulska NdId


foflkau .ehSu fkdlvjd lsug
.ekah hq;= h' tu ms<sfj;
fjkia lf<d;a f.dvkefk
iu.sh m jkq we;'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Sunday Times website

ckj. w;r wfkHkH in|;dj


9'278

fldif m%dfoaYSh /ia jdr


j, ish ckj.hkays fndfyda
fokd m% l dY lf<a wfkHkH
ckhd w;r in|;df jeo.;alu
h' tlsfkld yuq talu;sl;ajhla
f.dv ke.Su b;d fyd| fuj,ula
nj fldiu wkqu; lrhs'

9'279

.egqf oreKqu m%;sM, j,g uqyqK


kafka ishu ckj.j, ;reK
msia h' tfyhska Tjqkag fYaI

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

117


cd;sl iu.s
ls%hdj,shla
Wfoid
ixialD;sl
in|;d
b;d jeo.;a
nj fndfyda
ksfhda;fhda
fldiug
fmkajd
kay'

118

jev fldgila l< yels h' f,a


je.srug i Tjqka tlsfkld uqK
.eiS ke;' wfkHkH wjfndaOhla
,eug Tjqkag bvla fyda f,djla
,e ke;'
9'280

f inkaOfhka fhdjqka
md,sfka;=jla iy ;,a wrka
fmd,a wrUg k yqjudre
jevigyka weru .ek is ,a
iudchg;a " wdKa v q j g;a i;= g
m<lruq'

9'281

;ukaf.a j.lS iajNdjfha yehg


is h u wud;HxY is k a tjeks
jevigyka werh yels h' yqjudre
jevigyka mq,a mokulska lsug
is,a iudc lKavdh j, iydh
.; yels h' tfy;a ckj. fofla
ixialD;sl yd NdId ixf;djhka
.ek miai h hq;= h'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Colombopage

foaYmd,k tl;ajhl wjYH;dj


9'282

iu.s ika O dkhg ndOd lrk


m% O dk idOlhla jka f ka n,h
fnodyod .ekSu jeks uq,sl .eg
.ek foaYmd,k tl;ajhla iy
nyqmdlaIsl m%fYhla ke;slu h'

9'283

miq.sh oYl y;rla myla ;siafia


ckjd.s l wix.;s f ha uQ , s l
m% l dYkh jQ f ha oa f Y iy.;
l;d u.ska ckjd. sl" wd.l"
wd;;sh" wiu.sh jOkh u h'
th je<elaf kS;s ;s ;kau
l%shd;aul l< hq;= h'

9'284

.egq u fojdplhla nj iy
foa Y md,k kdhlhka o is x y,
fou< is,a iudc fol o iduQyslj
miq;e,s jk nj iu.s ikaOdkh
i|yd wjYH h' ol=fKa m%Odk mCI

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

119


kdhlhka fou< ckhdg iula
ug tl;ajhla we;slr .ekqKd
k .egqu je<elah yelsj ;sK'
ta .ek Tjqkoa iudk j.lSula orkq
we;' f fojdplh .ek lsisu
mdYajhla miq;e,s fkdf' ta
i|yd iodpdruh we.ehSula ;sh
hq;= h' iu.s ikaOdkh jefvkafka
iudj u yd ohdj me;sru iu.
h' ish mdYajhkays foaYmd,k
kdhlhka f .egqu je<elaug
;uka wiu;a u .ek m;g m;a
is,a jeishkaf.ka iudj .; hq;=
h' ta i|yd taldnoaO m%ldYhla
lsug is,a iudch iy wd.l
kdhlhka Tjqkag u. fmkah hq;=
h' th iu.s ikaOdk jevms<sfj,g
uy;a n,mEula jkafka h'

cd;sl iu.s
ls%hdj,shla
Wfoid
ixialD;sl
in|;d
b;d jeo.;a
nj fndfyda
ksfhda;fhda
fldiug
fmkajd
kay'

9'285

120

fldiu f,i ksfoaY lrk


j. k wmf.a cd;sl kfha ta
i|ydu jQ W;aijhl tu fokSh
.egq u g f.dre jQ is h fokd
flfrys iylmkh yd tluq;= nj
m%ldY l< hq;= h' ;jo kej;;a
f,a je.sula is fkdjk nj iar
lsug lemjk njg m%;s{d h
hq;= h' .re .dNsr f,i by<ska
olajk tu weu iuia; cd;shu
lem isk iu.s ikaOdkhg uy;a
cjhla jkq we;'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

fuu ,smsfhka lafjkafka fldif


ksfoaY i|yd n,mE miqu .ek fl
uIKhls'
weuqKqu 1

W.;a mdv fldif


ksfoaYhkays wdikak
b;sydih

weuqKqu 2 l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah


W.;a mdv fldiu ms<sn|
lajQ mqj;a m;a ksfokh

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

121

Photo source: Website of Champika Ranawaka


Photo source: chrsrilanka.com

LLRC fldif idudlhka

LLRC fldif idCIs uik wjia:djla

122

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Sri Lanka Guardian Website

W.;a mdv fldif


ksfoaYhkays wdikak b;sydih
tys wdrNl b;sydih jkafka wm rf
foaYmd,k .ufka fmd ckhd ish n,h
l%ufhka w;ayeu fyj;a m%cd;ka;%jdoh
wfydai
s ug ie,iSu h' thska m%cd;ka;j
% doh
l fofkl=f.a foam<la njg m;afuka
.egq flgq W.% u h'
tys wdikak b;sydih jkafka
jHjia:dkql+, n,h tl ;eklg leu
^1977 isg f olajd& ksid kS;shg jvd
mq o a . ,hd n,j;a u" tia m S ma , ia n
iykh ,eu i|yd hq f rda m d ix.ufha
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

123

ksfoaY" oreiaudka jd;dj" kSjdys udkj


whs;sjdisl ljqkais,h Y%S ,xldjg tfrysj
iu; l< fhdackdj wdhhs'
Y% S ,xldjg tfrys j ;ju;a mj;s k
fpdaokdj jkafka" wka;cd;sl udkqISh
kS;sh;a (IHL) wka; cd; sl udkj
whs;sjdisl (IHRL) kS;sh;a W,a,x>kh
lsu h' tu kS;s wdrCId lsug wka;
cd;sl .siq j,g w;aika lsfuka Y%S
,xldj ne is'
;sia wjqre hqoaOh ksu lrk g wjidk
wjia:df by; i|yka lsisu kS;shla
;uka W,a,x>kh lr ke;s nj Y%S ,xldf
wdKa v q j .g u ls h d is fha h' t'cd
ixOdkh ta .ek mla I K meje;a u
i|yd msila tug iQodk h' Bg bv
ie,ish fkdyels nj wdKavqj mejiS h'
ta wkqj" mqoa.,hka ;sfofkl=f.ka hq;a
lgqjla t'cd' uyf,al iska m;a leK'
th uyf,aljrhdg Wmfoia u i|yd
jQ" lreKq fiu fyda mlaIK meje;au
i|yd fkdjQ lgqjls' tfyhska th Y%S
,xldjg meKSu wjYH fkd h' ta lgqf
;sfokd u Y%s ,xldj .ek f;dr;=re okakd
wh jQy' Tjqkag ,enqKq f;dr;=re yd uQ,dY%
tu ksfoaY j,g mok h' th oreiaudka
jd;dj f,i yekaK'
124

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: ibnlive.in.com

hqo ch.%yKfhka m%S;shg m;a ol=fKa ckhd

tu jd;df Y%S ,xldjg tfrysj t,a,


l< yels fpdaokd myla olajd ;sK' 2012
kS j dys iu; jQ fhda c kdjg mok
we;af;a o tu lreKq h' ta .ek t'cd'
uKav,h iska mCId lr n,d h<s t'cd'
udkj whs;sjdisl iNdjg lah hq;= nj
lsheK'
tlai;a cd;Skaf.a uyf,aljrhdf.a
WmfoaYl lgq jd;df ^oreiaudka
jd;dj& olajd ;snqKq fpdaokd fufia h'
i.

fmdl=re fI,afj j,ska is,a jeishka


>d;kh lsu'
ii. frday,a j,g iy ;yk b,lal j,g
fI,afj t,a, lsu'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

125

Photo source: Lanka Express Website

hqo ch.%yKfhka miqj;a hdmfka yuqodj iSrefjka'''

iii. udkqIjd wdOdr" Wmldr m%;sfCIam


lsu'
iv. wj;eka jQjkag" t,aBfha iellrejkag
.egqfuka .,jd .;a;jqkag ysxid
mSvd lsu'
v. udOHhg iy wdKavqj fpkh l<
whg tfrysj .egq l,dmfhka msg
ysxid" mSvd" >d;k is lsu'
fuhs k a uq , a fpda o kd y;r wka ;
cd;sl udkqIjd kS;sh W,a,>kh ls h'
miajekak" wka; cd;sl udkj whs;j
s disl
kS;h
s tk is,a yd foaYmd,k whs;j
s disl
ms < s n | iuq ; s h W,a , x>kh ls uls '
t,a Bhg tfrys j fpda o kd yhla tys
126

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Sndeyaz Website

laf' tajd mCId lr jrolrejkag o~qj


f uq,a j.lSu mejfrkafka o wdKavqjg
h' fuu fpdaokd f.dv ke.Sf wdKavqj
;% i a ; jdohg tfrys j igka ls u fyda
t,aBh fjku rdcHhla i|yd igka lsu
wod< lr fkd.efka'
foaYfm%auh yd wrdcH frdaOh
t'cd' mCIK j,g frdaOh olajka
wdKavqj rg mqrd foaYfm%auh yd wrdcH
frdaOh .ek m%pdrKhla h;a lf<a h'
tfyhska oreiaudka lgqjg o frdaOhla
laK' tfyhska wmg foaY mCIK tmd"
wmsu th lruq hk woyi olajka foaYSh
mCIK fldiula ckdm;s iska m;a
lrkq ,eK'
th W.;a mdv yd m%;i
s kaOdk fldiu
h' wm bfha lshjkakg hkafka tu
fldiu is k a ola j k ,o ks CIK
yd ksfoaY foish wiQmy h' oreiaudka
jd;dfjka fufia ks CIKhla ola j d
we;'
hq o a O h ch .ekS u ks i d wl mS % ; s
m%fudaoh wdKavqfjka m%ldYhg m;a lsfuka
hqoaOfhka isjQ udkqIsl kdYh m%;sfCIam
lsu" fou< ck;dj neyer lsf l%shd
;ju;a mej;Su" uok kS;s muKla fkdj
h .ekau yd m%pKav;ajh iy hqo ;;a;j
a h
W;=f .gu mj;ajd .ekSu" udOHhg iy
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

127

mqrjeis whs;sjdisl j,g ;ju;a iSud


meku
tfyhska
weuldf
fhdackdj
ilia lsug
jeu
iydh ,e
;sfnkafka
wdKAvqfjks'

f ksCIKh" W.;a mdv fldif


ksCIK iy ksfoaY iu. ii|d ne,Sfuka
ta folu tlla nj meye,s jkq we;'
tfyhska thska wjOdrKfhka lshefjkafka
wfma wdKavqj iska wksjdfhka l< hq;=
foa h' ta tlla j;a foaYhla fyda foaYSka
fjkqfjka bgql< hq;= foa fkdf' wfmau
rf ck;dj fjkqfjka bgq lsug ne
isk foa h' fuu jd;d folg u l,ska
hqfrdamd ix.uh iska wmkhk n iykhla
u i|yd udkj whs;sjdisl /lSf m%;sh
i,ld ne,sK' Tjqka iska ta i|yd olajk
,o ksfoaY myf<dj oreiaudka iy W.;a
mdv fldika j, ksfoaY iu. ii|d
nefjd;a Bg fjkia fkdjk nj meye,s
f' .g u kS;sh iy udkj whs;sjdisl
lvlsu tlu fpdaokdj h'
Y% S ,xldjg tfrys j kS j d udkj
whs ; s j dis l ljq k a i s , fhka iu; jQ
fhdackd ilia jQfha yisfha fkdf' tu
fpdaokd wjqre fol ;=klg fmr isg
ilia fjka meje;sK' th bm;a lf<a
weuldj h' iu; lf<a ngysr rgj,a"
bkahdj we;= rgj,a 24 ls'

128

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: EU Website

hqfrdamSh fldif ksfoaY


(GSP Plus)
2011 wf.daia;= 15 od ;Sre n iykh
^GSP Plus& lmd fkdyeug k fldkafoais
15 la ms<smeh hq;= hehs hqfrdamd fldiu
okajd ;sK' 2007 jrdfha jD;a;Sh i;s
j,g tfrysj ;yk ksfhda.hla .ekSu
iu. cd;Hka;r llre ixOdkh th
llre whs;sjdisl W,a,x>kh l< nj;a
;SrKh lf<a h' wdKavqj ne isk llre
iuq;shlg o th mgyeks nj;a ;SrKh
lf<a h' tfyhska weuldf fhdackdj
ilia lsug jeu iydh ,e ;sfnkafka
wdKAvqfjks'
tu fldkafoais 15 fufia h'
1'

is,a yd foaYmd,k whs;sjdisl ms<sn|


cd;Hka;r iuq;shg mgyeks lreKq
,sys,a lsu'

2' ish ckfldgia j,ska hq;a wdKavql%u


lgqjla m;a fldg 17 ixfYdaOkfha
m iajdk m;a ls is lsu'
3'

kvq Nd.hlska f;drj r|jd ;eu


wfyda i s l< hq ; = w;r foa Y md,k
whs;sjdisk ms<sn| iuq;shlgo" jo
ys x id ms < s n | iuq ; s h lg o wod<j
wmrdO kS;s ilia l< hq;= h'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

129

Photo source: Maroelamedia.Co.Za

udOHfkag
ish jD;a;Sh
lghq;=
ndOdjlska
f;drj
lsu
i|yd
iy;sl u'

4' is,a yd foaYmd,k whs;sjdisl ms<sn|


iuq;shg wkql+, jk f,i ;%ia;jdoh
je<elaf mkf;a j.ka;s ieleiSu
fyda wfydais lsu l< hq;= h'
5'

tu iuq;h
s g mgyeks fkdjk wdldrhg
uyck wdrCIl mkf;a j.ka;s ilia
l< hq;= h'

6'

iellrejl= w;awvx.=jg .;a g Tyqg


kS;s{ iydh ,nd .ekSf bv iy;sl
l< hq;= h'

7'

is ,a yd foa Y md,k whs ; s j dis l


iuq ; s h g inka O m<uq w;s f l
.s iq u hgf;a rg jeis h l= g t'cd'
udkj ysl lgqjg meKs,s lsf
whs ; s j dis l u iy;s l ls ug kS ; s
meku'

8'

t' cd' udkj ysl lgqf ;Ska


l%shdjg kexu'

9'

w;=reoka lru ms<n


s | t'cd' lKavdhu"
joysxid ms<sn| t'cd' fYaI jd;dlre"
m%ldYkfha ksoyi ms<sn| t'cd fYaI
jd;dlre" ks Y a p hldrhka f .a iy
kS;s{hkaf.a iajdk;ajh inkaO
fYaI jd;dlre Y%S ,xldjg meKSug
lr we;s b,a,Sug bv u'

10' w;=reoka lsu ms<sn| t'cd l%shdld


lKavdhu bfha Nd. fjk meKs,s
.ek fjk u ms<s;=re iemhSu'
130

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Jean-Marc Ferre

kSjd 22 jeks ieishg iyNd.S jQ uyskao iurisxy weu;sjrhd we;= msi

11' 2008 uYk fldif jd;dj


m<lsu'
12' kg /|jq Ndrfha is k t,a B
iellrejkaf.a ,ehsia;=jla m<lsu"
mjq,a j, whg th ,nd .ekSug ie,iSu
yd Tjqkg
a tfrysj kvq u fyda ksoyia
lsu'
13' cd' r;= l = r ei jeks wdh;k j,g
ksCIK lghq;= i|yd wjir u'
14' udkj whs ; s j dis l ms < s n | cd;s l
ie,eiaula iu; fldg l%shd;aul
lsu'
15' udOHfka g is h jD;a ; S h lghq ; =
ndOdjlska f;drj lsu i|yd iy;sl
u'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

131

Photo source: Peace in Sri Lanka website

t,aB ysgmq igkalrejka mqkre;a:dmkh fjka

by; lajqKq ksfoaY yd l,ska i|yka


oreia u dka jd;df iy W.;a mdv
fldif ksfoaY w;r fjkila ke;s nj
Tng meye,s jkq we;'
kSjd fhdackd
weuldf fhdackdj ;ju;a j,x.= h' ta
wkqj t'cd' udkj whs;j
s disl ljqki
a ,
s h;a"
ngysr rgj;a bfha l%shd;aul jkq
we;' weuldf fhda c kdj flfhka
fufia h'
1'

132

W.;a mdv fldif ks foa Y


l%shd;aul lsu'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Pact.lk / Courtesy of Sahajeevana Centre

1972 jHjia:d imdol uKav,fha /iaula

2' udkqISh kS;sh yd udkj whs;sjdisl


iuq;s lv lsu .ek fidhd ne,Su'
3'

ta .ek l%shdld ie,eiaula bm;a


lsu' ta .ek Wmfoia yd ;dCIK iydh
t'cd udkj whs;sjdisl ljqkais,fhka
,nd .; yels h' 22 iNdjdrhg
jd;djla bm;a lsu'
kSjdyS wdKavqj fjkqfjka fuf;la
lr we;s foa ms<sn|j f;dr;=re olajd
we;' my; lreKq inkaOfhks'

1'

wNHka;r wj;eka jQjka h<s mx


lru'
2' fndan bj;a lsu'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

133

Photo source:J R Jayawardene Centre

1978 jHjia:dj u.ska Odhl


ckdm;s l%uh ykajd ka
f' wd' chjOk uy;d

3'

t,aB ysgmq igkalrejka mqkre;a


:dmkh lsu'
4' NdId m%;sm;a;sh l%shd;aul lsu'
5' fou< NdIdj l;d lrk fmd,s i a
ks,Orhka n|jd .ekSu'
6' W;=f mmd,kfhka yuqod .%yKh
,sys,a lsu'
7' yuqod md,kfhka bv uqod yeu'
8' W;=re kefkysr ck ixLHd f,aLKhla
ilia lsu'
by; i|yka ldhhka imQK fkdjqj
o h m%udKhlg is we;s nj ienE h'
tajd iu. ish ksfoaY imQK lsu f
fpdaokd j,ska ksoyia ug;a" h<s;a f,a
je.sula fkdug;a" rg fn fjka hdu
je<elaug;a l< hq;= foa h'
n,h lelr .ekSf foaYmd,kh
1947 isg u n,h tla fldgilg yd miqj
1977 isg tla mqoa.,hl= fj; o leu"
hqoO
a hla olajd meKs foaYmd,kh h' tfia
u rg wfyakshg;a" ksial j,ska msyqKq
foaYhla njg;a m;a l< foaYmd,kh o thu
h' f .ek j.lsj hq;af;da ljqreo@
1947 wdKa v q l % u jHjia : df iq ;r
cd;Skaf.a wdrCIdjg ;snqKq 29 j.ka;sh
1972 ckrc jHjia:dfjka bj;a lsu" 1948

134

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

Photo source: Sunday Leader website

j;udk ckdm;s uyskao rdcmCI uy;d W.;a mdv fldif jd;dj


lshjka ''''

fou< rgjeisl wfydais lssu jeks kS;s


;s j,ska ms<sUq lf<a cd;sl m%pKav;ajh
i|yd wjYH udkisl idOlhhs'
ckrc jHjia:df 6 iy 7 jHjia:dj,ska
iu; lr .ekqKq cd;sl" wd.l iy NdId
fjkial 1978 jHjia:dfjkao ;yjqre h'
1978 jHjia:djg we;=<;a jQ ixfYdaOk 18 ka
13 iy 17 we;= lSmhla yer wksla ish,a,u
wdKavj
q ke;ak mqo.
a ,hl= n,j;au i|yd
iu; jQ jHjia:d h' n,h jHdma; h
yels" ta u.ska h m%cd;ka;%jd jHqyhla
we;sh yelsj ;snQ ixfYdaOk folu f
wd f.a isg ishu ckdm;sjreka$jhka
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

135

wfma orejkag
iskdish yels fyg ojila'''@a

is k a l% s h d;a u l lf<a
ke;' tk meye,sj u
jHjia:dj W,a,x>khls'
ta i|yd foaYmd,k
l%shdld;ajfhka o
wlrKfha wmuK iydhla
o ,eK' n,h lelr
.ekSf Wmu wjia:dj
jQfha 17 ixfYdaOkh
bj;a fldg 18 ixfYdaOkh
mkjd .ekSu h'
foaYhkag .e;s jkafka;"a foaY wes,.
s
eiS je jkafka;a f n,h k;=lr .ekSf
foaYmd,kh ksid h' foaYhkag fpdaokd
lsf bvlv mdod kafka n, foaYmd,kh
iska wka;cd;sl kS;s ;s lv lsu ms<n
s |
iel u;= lsuls' wka;cd;sl kS;s lv
lsu isjqkd k Bg bv mEfKa foaYh
S kS;s
;s" jHjia:d lv lsf Nd;fhks'
isxy," fou<" uqia,s" ish foaYmd,k
mCIhka iuia; ck;dj;a fuhg j.lsh hq;=
h' ka fuu .egj ih hq;af;a o ta ish
mCI yd ck;djf.a iyfhda.fhks'
wdKavqj W.;a mdv fldiu m;afldg
wka;cd;sl kS;s le ms<sn| fpdaokd
j,g ms<s;=rla imhdf.k ;sKs' tk
hqoaOfha we;s ixlSKNdjh ksid i is;d
u;d tu kS;s lvlr ke;s nj h' ^n,kak

136

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

9'27 isg 9'37& ieneka u th tfia k


f,dalhdg o f;kdjla ;snQ nj Tmamq l<
fkdyels jkq we;' tfy;a Tjqkag ndOd
lsfuka iel lsu o isf'
wka;cd;sl kS;s leu ms<sn| .egj
ljr wdldrhlska fyda if|kakg mqjk'
tfy;a foaYSh kS;s 1947 isgu lv u"
tk rf m%cd;ka;%jdoh msysgqjd .ekSu
ms<sn|j uey;a h hq;af;a rf ck;dj
h' Bg wka;cd;sl uey;a ula wjYH
ke;' wfma rf kS;s lvlrk g Bg
tfrys j md,lhka g o~q j h hq ; a f ;a
Pkaoodhlhd h' m%cd;ka;% frda yeis
bjid ord" h flld,Sk isysk ienE lr
.ekSug foaYmd,lhkag n,h meju .ek
Pkaoodhlhka j. lsh hq;= h' ;jrg;a
tu ;;a;ajh ke;s rgla f.dvke.Sug k
wdikak jYfhka" wvqu .Kfka W.;a mdv
fldif fiiq ksfoaY l%shd;aul lrk
f,i n,lr ish hq;= h' Bg iyNd.s h
hq;= h'
ish,a, isfjoa n,df.k isf m%;M
s ,h
b;d Nhdkl jQ nj kaj;a jegysh hq;= h'
wkd.;fha wfma orejka fujeks fojdpl
j,ska wka; ysxid mSvd u je<elaug k
ck;djf.a hq;=l fldgi lsisjl=g fkd/
j bgq l< hq;= h' th mgka.; hq;af;a wo
i fyg fkdf'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

137

W.;a mdv iy m%;sixOdk


fldIka jd;dj ksl=;a lsu
2012 ckjd 4" fld<U" YS% ,xldj ( W.;a mdv
yd m%;sixOdk fldYka iNd ^LLRC& jd;dj ksl=;a
lrkq ,eu ms<sn|j l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah
i;= g g m;a f jhs ' tys wka ; .; jk .egq u g
;=vqka fya;+ka yd tajdfha uq,hka ms<sn|j jk
.%yh" t,a'''Bfha oreKq ls%hdjka ,ehsia;= .;
lsu" rdcHlrKh ms<sn|j fYaIfhka mj;akd
wdh;k ks foa Y md,kS l rKh ls u ms < s n |j jQ
ksfoaYhka" f;dr;=re i|yd jk whs;sh ms<sn|j
jQ kS;slrKhka ykajdu" hqOuhlrKh" woyia
m%ldY lsf ksoyig tfrysjQ ls%hdldrl" NdId
whs ; S k a " iu.s i xOdkh iy pek,a f*da jd;d
;%mfhys wka;.; jQ fpdaokdjka Nd. lsu
fukau w;=reoyka lr yd is,a jeishkaf.a urK
j,g j.lsjhq;a;ka ms<sn|j Nd. lsu iy Tjqka
inkaOfhka kS;Hdkql+, f,i lghq;= lsu hkd
Yhhka ms<sn|j jQ i|yka ls ms<sn|j l,am
m%;m
s ;a;s flaka h f,i wm i;=gg m;afjuq' tfukau
udkj ysl W,a,x>kh ls yd w;=re yuqod
ls%hdldrl inkaOfhka Nd. lrkq ,eh hq;=
hhs ie,flk rchg inkaO mqoa.,hka yd wdh;k
k lrkq ,en we;s fldif ksfoaYh ms<sn|j yd
t,a'''Bh iska m,jd ykq ,enQ W;=f uqia,s
ck;dj iy Wvrg fou< ck;dj ms<sn|j jk
ksfoaYhka o wms i;=ka ms,s.ksuq' fuu m%cdjka
138

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

fol fj; fldiu uska olajk ,o wjOdkh


u.ska YS% ,xldf ck;djka i|yd jQ iu.sixOdkh
kjQ flaka h
S lreK u;jQ fldifuys tald.%;djh
Yla;su;a flf' LLRC ieisjdrhkayS jd;djka
yd th bfhys fokq ,enQ idCIs wkd.; mrmqr
Wfoid iqrCIs; fldg ;nk f,i wms f,i
b,a,d isuq'
l,a m m% ; s m ;a ; s fla k a h W.;a mdv yd
m%;sidOk fldiu bhg fkdhdug fya;=jQfha
fldifuys ixhq;sh yd tys ks, mejreu" ckdm;s
fldika iNdjka ms<sn|j jQ w;S; u;l jd;djka
fYaIfhkau tajdfha jd;djka ksl=;a fkdlsu
yd ksfoaYhka ls%hd;aul lrkq fkd,eu ^fuu
lreKq fuu fldifuys jd;dfjys o i|yka f&
jeks lreKq ms<sn|j jQ wmf.a fkdtl;djhkah'
tfia jqjo fYaIfhkau YS% ,xldf rdcHlrKh
ms<sn| ;;a;ajh" o~qj fkd,nd jro lsu ms<sn|jjQ
ixia l D;s h yd udkj ys l wdrCIdls u hk
lreKq ms<sn|j jQ l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah yd
wfkl=;a is,a iudc ixOdkhkays ksCIKhka yd
ksfoaYhka .Kkdjla fuu fldif jd;dfjyso
kej; i|yka lrkq ,en ;su wmf.a wjOdkhg
fhduqfjhs' fuu woyia ckdm;s fldYka iNdjla
iska wkqu; lrkq ,eu u.ska is,a iudcfhys
fuu fpkh ;jrg;a Yla;su;a lrkq ,en
;sf' tfukau" w;sYhskau cd;sl m%uqL;djhla
iys; jQ lreKla fia i,ld by; i|yka l<
fCIa;h
% ka ms<n
s |j jk fuu fldifuys ksfoaYhka
YajikSh yd M,odhl f,i ls%hd;aul lsfuys
jeo.;a lu fuu.ska wjOdrKh flf' ;jo fuu
lreK" fuu fldiu uskao biau;= fldg olajd
we;s m" YS% ,xldf rch uska W.;a mdv yd
m%;sixOdk fldif w;=re ksfoaYhka mQK f,i
ls%hd;aul lsug wiu;a u uskao wjOdrKh
lrkq ,en we;'
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

139

tlai;a cd;Skaf.a uyf,al jrhdf.a WmfoaYl


uKav, jd;dj ksl=;a lsfuka miq t,a'''B'h
yd YS% ,xld rchg tfrysj t,a,jQ hqO wmrdO yd
cd;Hka;r udkqIjd kS;h
s W,a,x>kh lsu ms<n
s |j
jQ fpdaokd ms<sn|j cd;Hka;r mCIKhla ms<sn|j
jQ b,a,S yuqf YS% ,dxlSh rch lshd isfha LLRC
jd;dj uska ;u fplhka yg ms<s;=re ,efnkq
we;s njhs' fuys,d flakaSh jeo.;alula iys;
lreKq jkafka hqo .egqfuys wjika wjfhys isjQ
foa yd tys,d j.u ms<sn|j jQ lreK ;yjqre lr
.ekSuhs' LLRC yS ks.uKh jQfha fldiu fj;
bm;a lrkq ,enq f;dre;=re yd jvd;a jeo.;a
f,i fuu wjfhys i;H jYfhkau ,nd.;
yels f;dr;=re wkqj we;e lreKq ms<sn|j i;Hh
ksKh lr .ekSu lsisfia;au l< fkdyelallau
jdf.a jk njh'
LLRC fldiug ,nd.; yelsj ;snQ f;dr;=re
inkaOfhkajQ iSudjka ms<sn|j lreKq ;sh jqjo
th ksYa; f,iu lshd iskafka is,a jeishka
b,lal lr .ekSf wruqKla YS% ,xld rch fj;
lsis fgl;a fkdmej;s njh' zzfuh ydkshla lsf
wruqKlska is lrkakg fkdue;s jqjd jkakg
yelsZZ hhs LLRC lshd is;;a we;e wjia:djka yS
is,a jeishkaf.a urK" hqo wmrdO iy cd;Hka;r
udkqIjd kS;sh W,a,x>kh ls inkaOfhka
ikakoaO yuqod idudlhkaf.a j.lSu ms<sn|j
lreKq ;yjqrelr .ekSu msKsi jer mCIKhka
meje;au wjYHj ;sfnk nj fldiu ks.ukh
lrhs'

fuh fIa G ks , Odka yd foa Y md,k yd


wdrCIl ixia:djkayS ks,Odkaf.a idCIs uska
ms<s/ kxjk ks.ukhls' fuu ks.ukhg M<U
we;a f ;a is ,a jeis h ka f .a jer idCIs yd
tuska hqoaOfha wjidk wjfha jQ is ms<sn|j
140

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

jQ imQK ia;rhla ,nd .ekSu myiqlrKh


lrkakdjQ idCIslrejka yd ka;hka wdrCIdlrK
hdka ; % K hla fkdue;s j Q ls % h doduhla ;= , s k a h '
fldiu bfha idCIs ka is,a jeishka iska
miqj w;akakg we;s Ialr;djhka yd ysyerhka
fukau fldiu bfhys jdl idCIs bm;a
lsu i|yd is,a jeishka yg ,nd ;snq ld,h
m%udkj;a fkduo fuys ie,ls,a,g .; hq;=h'
;ukag uqyqKmEug ish yels Ialr;djhla yd
wk;=re fkd;ld w;=reoyka jQjkaf.a yd urd oukq
,enqjkaf.a mjq,aj, idudlhka Yd, ixLHdjla
fldiu bfha idCIs ug meKSu uska ;yjqre
jkafka ;ukayg weyqlka fokq ,eug hqoaOh
n,mE m%cdjka fj; mj;sk Wjukdjhs' tfukau
m%cd ugf hqla;sh iy j.u i|yd Tjqka fj;
mj;akd wjYH;djho tuska ms,sUqf'
ikakoaO yuqodjkaf.a wruqKq inkaOfhka
jQ ks.ukh ms<sn|j l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah
l, lsug m;afjhs' fuu lreK inkaOfhka
l< hq;=j we;af;a jkajr wjOdkhg ,la lrkq
,en kej; kej;;a ksIals%hj ;sfnkakg yeu
fkdf' cd;Hka;r mCIKhla meje;au ish
hq;= njg jk b,a,S fuu.skao Yla;su;a lrjkq
,nk nj wmf.a Yajdihhs' fmd,Sish wdrCIl
ixia:djkaf.ka fjkalrkq ,ef wjYH;djh
iy m%dfhda.sl f,i 17 jk wdKavql%u jHjia:d
ixfYdaOkh iy fmd,Sish yd rdcH fiajh i|yd
jk ia j dk fldYka iNdjka m% ; s I a G dmkh
lsf wjYH;djh we;= rdcHlrKh yd kS;sfha
wdm;Hfhys j;auka ;;a;j
a h ms<n
s |j LLRC jd;dj
uska lrkq ,en we;s fpkh u.skao fuu b,a,S
jerg;a jOkh lrkq ,ef' LLRC uska ia;r
lrkq ,nk rdcHlrKfha iy kS;sfha wdm;Hfha
mj;sk ;;a;ajh uska mek k.sk m%YaKh jkafka
fldiu iska ksfoaY lrkq ,nk mCIKhka"
l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

141

tajdg iyNd.s jk wdh;khka yS iqms,smkaNdjfha


j;auka mydksh hgf;a" cd;sl ugka islrkafka
flfiao hkakh' LLRC iska ksfoaY lrkq ,nk
zziajdkZZ yd zzksisZZ zzmCIKhkaZZ i|yd jk
meye,s udf.dam foaYhka ;snqfka k fuu
ksfoaYhka jvd;a Yla;su;a yd w:j;a jkakg
yelsj ;sks'
hqoaOfha wjidk wjfha jkaksfha is is,a
jeishka ixLHdj inkaOfhka jk lreK ms<sn|j
iy Tjqkg wdydr ffjoH iemhq wdh imdokh
l< wdldrh .ek fldiu lghq;= lr we;s wdldrh
fj; o wmf.a l,lsu me;srhhs' f inkaOfhka
tys is is,a jeishka yd iDcq inkaO;d mej;s
ls%hdld fldgia fj;ska ,nd.; yels f;dr;=re
m%udKj;a ;r uQ,dY%hka f,i fhdod.kq ,en
fkdue;s nj wmf.a ie,ls,a,g fhduqj we;' fuu
m%foaYfha is,a mmd,kh fj;ska ,nd.; yels
ck.yk o;a;hkao fuu ie,ls,a,g we;=<;a f'
iu.sixOdkh yd hqo wmrdO fpdaokdjka fj; jk
tu is j, n,mEu ie,ls,,
a g f.k" hg;ajkakg
meKs t,a'''B' ks,Odka urdu isjQ zziq
fld isuZZ" w wdrCIl l,dmhkayS ffk;sl
Ndjh" 3"00"000la muKu jQ is,a jeishka ixLHdjla
zzueksla *dZZ yd wfkl=;a ia:dkhka yS isrlrkq
,en isu yd tu.ska Tjqkaf.a uQ,sl whs;sjdisl
W,a,x>kh u hkdh ms<sn|jo wod< f,i i|yka
l< hq;=j ;sks'
fuu fkdtl;djhka ;sfnkafka kuq YS%
,dxlSh rcfhka wm b,a,d iskafka m%udohlska
f;drj" wjxlj yd wm ieu idorfhka wfmaCId
lrk" ienE f,iu nyqO yd taldnoaO YS% ,xldjla
Wfoidjk lemfuka hq ; = j LLRC jd;df
ksfoaYhka ls%hd;aul lrk f,ih' LLRC jd;dj
iu.s ixOdk ls%hdj,shl wdrNh i tys wjidkh
142

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

fkdjk nj wms ie,ls,a,g .ksuq' jerg;a LLRC


jd;dj meye,sj m%ldY lrk m" fYaIfhkau
zzckjd.sl m%YK
a h fukau m%cd;ka;l
%s wdh;kj,g
;ckhla jk wfkl=;a nrm;, m%YaKhka ygoZZ
n,h fnula u; mok jQ foaYmd,k yd wdKavql%u
jHjia : duh iulg M,f ls % h dodufhys
kdhl;ajh .; hq;af;a YS% ,dxlSh rchhs' wka
ieugl fukau fuyso wmf.a ie,ls,,
a fhduqlrk
lreK k LLRC ksfoaYhka ls%hd;aul lsu msKsi
YS% ,dxlSh rcfha Yd, iqiudoY fjkila wjYHjk
njhs'
fuh cd;sl m%uqL;djhla f,i i,ld
iu.sixOdkfha" j.f iy udkj ysl wdrCId
lsf Yla;u
s ;a yd lemS fmfkk m%.;shla 2012 iy
bka Tng idCId;alr .ekSu i|yd jk fufyjr
wrUk f,i wms f,i b,a,d isuq' fuh mYapd;a
hqo ;;a;ajhl isg mYapd;a .egq ;;a;ajhla lrd
ixl%uKh f fukau mYapd;a .egq ;;a;ajfhys
,djk l,amj;sk iduh iy tlai;a nj Wodlr
.ekSf o w;HjYH jkakls'

wka;cd,h weiqfrka PdhdrEm Wmqgd .ekSf tys


uQ,dY%h laug yels ;r W;aidy .;a nj;a" h w;miq
ula is k wms lK.dgqj m< lruq'

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah

143

ISBN : 978-955-1655-87-7
144

l,am m%;sm;a;s flakah