This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
ANANDAN DEEPAK SARAVANAN Z3333870 AEROSPACE STRUCTURES AER3410 DETAILED RESEARCH PROPOSAL
By submitting with this cover sheet attached I declare that this assessment item is my own work, except where acknowledged, and has not been submitted for academic credit elsewhere, and acknowledge that the assessor of this item may, for the purpose of assessing this item: reproduce this assessment item and provide a copy to another member of the University; and/or, communicate a copy of this assessment item to a plagiarism checking service (which may then retain a copy of the assessment item on its database for the purpose of future plagiarism checking). I also certify that I have read and understood the University Rules in respect of Student Academic Misconduct.
These studies have looked at the effects of the sonic pulses on the material being tested or the feasibility of using this method for inspecting crack propagation Mayr et al(2011) studied the effect that the level of porosity in the carbon fibres had on the thermal diffusivity of the CFRP. This difference in thermal energy can be easily recorded with the help of thermal imaging cameras and can used to point out areas of weakness. The above studies show that sonic thermography is an established method of finding defects in materials. Sonic thermography is carried out by applying sonic pulses through the material to be tested. Results from this research shows that the thermal absorption properties of CFRP.e. This is of utmost importance as crack formation can lead to catastrophic results that can lead to fatal disasters. The results showed that sonic pulses emitted from four compression horn driver loudspeakers produced enough of a thermal imprint on the test specimen that it could be recorded with the help of thermal imaging cameras. This study shows that the sonic pulses that are emitted by the horns carry enough energy to be dissipated into the material system. the voids present will not have the same thermal properties as the composite and hence will have a different thermal signature. There has been considerable progress in the field of thermography over the past decade especially in medical imaging and therefore the technology is readily available. Inspection of aircraft parts for signs of aging is the easiest way to prevent any cracks from forming and thereby protecting the structural integrity of the aircraft. the methodology used in this report is derived from the methodology used to examine the Al alloy. The sonic waves or pulses from the horn travel through the composite and excite it. However at sights of defects or delamination. though dependent on the size and the shapes of the pores in the fibres. These include the study carried out by Ksoi and Rajic(2004) wherein they studied the effect that sonic thermography had on fatigue crack growth in an aluminium alloy. There has been some research on the use of sonic thermography as a method of non-destructive testing for material.. did not vary greatly. This is done by using a pulse inducer such as a horn. . use of sonic pulses to excite the material to be studied and capture the thermal difference across it with the help of thermal imaging equipment. Zalmeda et al(2007) from the NASA Langley research centre studied the use of air coupled sonic thermography as a means for NDT. Their results showed that sonic thermography did not induce further crack growth in the specimen and that this method was suitable for Al alloys. This study proposes to further the available knowledge of sonic thermography especially in its use as NDT method for aircraft components. The method that would be researched in detail would entail the use of sonic thermography i. Results from this study show that sonic thermography can be used on CFRP without there being any thermal data loss due to the porosity of the carbon fibres.NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL ON AIRCRAFT USING SONIC THERMOGRAPHY KEYWORDS • Sonic Thermography • Non-Destructive Testing • Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer(CFRP) Aging Fatigue PROPOSAL ABSTRACT This study will look at the possibility of using sonic thermography as a form of non-destructive testing (NDT) of composite materials on aircraft. This excitation brings about a uniform increase in thermal energy throughout the composite. AIMS AND BACKGROUND The main aim of the project would be to look at non-destructive methods of inspection of composite materials in commercial and military aircraft.
by the sonic pulses. 5. the specimens tested will be of similar geometry with thickness ranging from 1. The study will try to find a better understanding of the way aircraft composites react to induced sonic vibrations and how this behaviour can be utilised to scan for defects or faults in the material.5mm.such as the Boeing Dreamliner and the Airbus A380. Aircraft undergo fatigue due to the cyclic loading and unloading.this uncooled 320x240 pixel camera has a thermal sensitivity of 80 mk in a spectral range of 8–12 mm and a frame rate of 25hz. from this study. as they can be points of stress accumulation or even act as starting points for crack propagation.RESEARCH PROJECT The main objective of this study would be to come up with a way to thoroughly check composite materials on aircraft. Aging materials are a serious threat to the structural integrity of aircraft. This composite consists of carbon fibre matrix that is filled with an epoxy resin. this would act as the control. therefore constant inspection of aircraft is mandatory. Any material change that is induced in the control. however composites are hard to inspect by conventional methods such as visual and ultrasonic testing. It has been shown that felt is a good transmitter of acoustic energy to the specimen .0mm and 6mm. Figure 1: The setup of the testing apparatus 210mm . The transfer of acoustic energy to the test specimen can be improved by having a suitable material in between. The fact that composite components are hard to manufacture and are relatively more expensive than their metal counterparts means that they need to be constantly checked. 3. Given the fact that most military aircraft already have most of their structural components made out of composites and that new age commercial aircraft .0mm. Infrared imagery can be acquired using a Flir thermacam® pm695. can be subtracted from the results of other specimens that will be tested.  The setup will be as shown in figure 1. The process of studying the composite would start with testing a flat plate of the composite and subjected to pulse ranges from 20 khz to 50 khz  and recording the thermal imaging results. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP The composite material that will be studied will be carbon fibre reinforced polymer (cfrp). would be a newer technique in inspecting composite materials on aircraft. The acoustic horn used in this investigation is a commercial hand held plastic welding unit. EXPECTED OUTCOMES The expected outcome. this material is widely used in the manufacture of aircraft today. It is this shortcoming of other testing methods that leads to the study of sonic thermography and its application in NDT of composites. incorporate more composite material in their design it is paramount that there be an efficient and accurate way to inspect these materials for signs of fatigue.
The overall designing and perfection of the system would take more than 6 months. the testing phase would be considerably longer if more composites were tested. The sonic pulses from the horn should be able to excite the composite material and it is this excitation that will lead to thermal differences between the uniform structure of the composite and the irregularity of the notch(Figure 3).70mm 0. The depth range (defined as the maximum depth where a boundary can be detected by thermal imaging) is given by √ Where α= thermal diffusivity and ω= modulation frequency . Figure 4: A CFRP sandwich to mimic an internal defect PROJECT FRAMEWORK The overall testing phase would take no longer than 2 weeks given the fact that the tests will have to be repeated to make sure there aren‟t any anomalies that affects the test results. once the testing has been completed the data that is gathered can be utilised to design a sonic thermograph that can be utilised in the industry. This design will take into account industrial requirements such as portability. As there are many different types of composites available. The duration of the testing phase will also be determined by the composites that are being tested. This can occur where two surfaces interact. It is during the design phase that testing will be re-run to find how different frequencies and types of sonic pulses can be used to produce more accurate readings.2xthickness Figure 2: Test specimens with the notch The specimens. Figure 3: Heat generation at notch due to effect of sonic pulse The previous test was for defects/voids that are present on the surface of the material. this scenario can be tested with having a sandwich of the CFRP with one of the sides having a notch as shown in Figure 4 along the mating face. The accuracy of the results (the presence of the defect in the thermal image) from the scan should indicate if sonic thermography is suited to composite material. The testing is carried out as before and the results recorded. other than the control will have a notch as shown in Figure 2. Once the design phase is completed. The testing phase is the first phase in the study. cost and reliability of such inspection machines. It is during this time that the instrument will be modified to cope with different geometries of the composite that will be encountered in operation. however in actuality the void may be present inside the composite. This notch will depict a defect due to fatigue. the next phase is the .
The laboratory setup is quite static therefore to adapt this technique to the inspection routine of aircraft would mean that the whole system would have to be made so that it is easy to move across the aircraft. From a design point of view this will take up a large proportion of the design time. The industrial partner can help the research team by supplying information. FEASIBILITY The feasibility of the project will be primarily determined by the design of the sonic thermograph instrument. However the design refinement in accordance to these considerations makes sure that the technical output from the project will be of high quality and can be easily assimilated into prevailing inspection routines. The budget for the pre design phase would be dependent on the research capabilities available and the salaries of the researchers. Objective Create test specimens and setup the experiment Run the experiment on the first batch of the CFRP specimens Analyse data for any discrepancies or anomalies and rerun tests if required Preliminary design phase Primary design of the instrument Refinement of design Production of first prototype Table 1: Proposed timeline of project Time taken for objective 5 days 1 week 1 week 3 weeks 6 months 2 weeks 1 month Running total 12 days 19 days 40 days 220 days 234 days 264 days The information that will be gathered throughout the testing phase can be used to further the available knowledge of how composite materials can be tested for defects. which would lead to the creation of a more accurate and quicker method of inspection. The time post final design evaluation can be utilised to re-skill inspection workers to the new inspection routines as well as making them aware of the capabilities of the new sonic thermograph technique. Again due to the fact the technology is already present and the project does not entail the use of exotic production methods or materials. Composites are also being used in more complex shapes throughout aircraft. In terms of time scale. The partner can benefit from being able to hold exclusive rights of the developed inspection technique. This is an acceptable time scale that can be easily adhered to. The overall timeline of the project is summarised in Table 1 below. This design consideration would mean that the instrument as described in the lab setup will be changed to accommodate manoeuvrability systems required. the project from start of testing to end of prototype production should not exceed 10 months. All the data that has been collected in the testing and design phase will now be put to use to create a sonic thermograph fit for industrial use.production phase. which suffer from shortcomings such as the limited field of “view” for the transducer in ultrasonic testing . The budget for the study can also be reduced by tying up with an industrial partner. This reduces the cost of research and makes sure that the developed technique is introduced into the industry. Therefore the budget during the testing and design phase will be minimal. This new method of testing will replace the existing methods. . and material. As can be seen the project is feasible both in terms of budget and time. The budget of the project will have to be reviewed once the design phase is near completion as the production value will depend on the design of the final instrument. It is this incompatibility between modern composite structures and traditional NDT methods that warrants this project. such as ultrasonic and X-ray testing. Due to the fact that new age aircraft are moving towards composites for a majority of the structure. on the types and shapes of composites used. The development of new technology in NDT of composites would be a valuable resource in the airline industry. The proposed project does require financial input to procure the sonic thermograph instrument however the technology for the lab setup is readily available. the overall budget should be within acceptable levels. Therefore inspection routines and methods will be updated and the information/technology that is gathered from this project will be advantageous to the industry. These additional sub-systems and how they work together with the instrument would define the ease of use of the sonic thermography technique. this means that the conventional methods available are not able effectively detect defects in the structure. The first prototype that‟s produced will then be tested in a real life environment to validate the use of such an instrument.
L. Even the slightest cracks can eventually lead to deadly disasters that can be prevented with the help of new age technology such as sonic thermography. G.J 2000. Shepard. Hale. The new NDT technique that results from this study will be a major step forward in the study of composite materials on aircraft. Favro. Pfleiderer.Plank.pdf> . Hence long term sustainability of a fleet is paramount to an airline. Gerhard. G 2006. N. Paper presented at the RTO AVT Lecture Series on “Aging Aircraft Fleets: Structural and Other Subsystem Aspects”. Number 6. G 2011. J 2004. Tsoi. H & Thomas. Paper presented at SPIE Thermosense. X. „Modern Methods of NDT for Inspection of Aerospace Structures‟. „Inspection of Composites – Current Status and Challenges‟.nasa. Other than the obvious safety reasons for constant inspection and maintenance. However the prolonged life of aircraft means that they are more prone to fatigue and have to be thoroughly inspected regularly. “Infrared imaging of defects heated by a sonic pulse”.J 2006. 4. This is directly related to the safety of passengers and crew that fly on aircraft. Linoln. J &Hendorfer. „Boeing 787 from the Ground Up‟. Aging of aircraft materials is of utmost importance. Berlin. This method can work independently of other NDT systems and hence its inclusion in an airlines inspection routine can be carried out seamlessly and efficiently. The fact that manufacturers are moving towards composites as the primary materials for structural components means that there has to be new and improved methods of detecting flaws in these materials. It is believed that this research will help to produce a new method in testing composites in aircraft. Ahmed. Busse. Proceedings of the ninth European Conference on NDT. DSTO technical note. Bulgaria.Boeing Aero.B. Sekelja. Zalameda. 25-29 September. The overall goal of the research is to come up with a proven and cost effective way of scanning composite materials on aircraft.Solodov. 12-16April 8. The implementation of this method will make sure that aircraft are airworthy and will minimise the possibilities of catastrophic failures. „Active thermography as a quantitative method for nondestructive evaluation of porous carbon fiber reinforced polymers‟. Han. Review of Scientific Instruments. Therefore a good inspection plan for these materials will make sure that they can be fixed even at the slightest signs of fatigue or wear.. Effect of Sonic Thermographic Inspection on Fatigue Crack Growth in an Al Alloy. 4th Quarter pp17-18. NASA Langley Research Center.G. Sui.gov/20070035909_2007036063. as worn or damaged parts can act as sites for crack nucleation and propagation which can in turn lead to catastrophic failure of these parts.IMPACT OF RESEARCH The main reason why NDT is important is because it is the first line of protection for aircraft from aging. „Material and Process Technology Transition to Aging Airraft‟. R 2000. 25-29 September. Z. 2. Berlin.  This is when NDT is carried out across the aircraft to look for signs of fatigue such as cracks. and Rajic.ntrs. S. 5. Many present day NDT techniques work well for metals however when it comes to composites there hasn‟t been a proven NDT method. 3. AIR COUPLED ACOUSTIC THERMOGRAPHY (ACAT) INSPECTION TECHNIQUE.H . Sun. (2004).vol 44.A. 9. Mayr. P 2006. another reason is cost. T & Lhota. This directly saves the operator the costs of having to perform expensive replacements which would have occurred otherwise.gov/archive/nasa/casi. Orlando. K. Riegert.K. I. W 2007. The composites on aircraft are difficult to produce and are very expensive. Cawley. < http://ntrs. „Experimental Considerations in Vibrothermography‟. Economic considerations force aircraft to be in service and perform effectively for longer. G. Proceedings of the ninth European Conference on NDT. vol 71. 6.nasa. viewed 29 May 2012. 13-16 November 7. pp537-539.J Winfree. REFERENCES 1.W & Yost. Ouyang.NDT&E International.