This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
First Adhyaya, Atha mahavratam, has four Khandas, 1-4. 2. Second Adhyaya, A tva ratham, has four Khandas, 5-8. 3. Third Adhyaya, Hinkarena, has eight [*2] Khandas, 9-16. 4. Fourth Adhyaya, Atha sudadohah, has three Khandas, 17-19. 5. Fifth Adhyaya, Vasam samsati, has three Khandas, 20-22. The second Aranyaka has seven Adhyayas: 6. First Adhyaya, Esha panthah, has eight Khandas, 1-8. 7. Second Adhyaya, Esha imam lokam, has four Khandas, 9-12. 8. Third Adhyaya, Yo ha va atmanam, has eight (not three) Khandas, 13-20. 9. Fourth Adhyaya, Atma va idam, has three Khandas, 21-23. 10. Fifth Adhyaya, Purushe ha va, has one Khanda, 24 11. Sixth Adhyaya, Ko 'yam atmeti, has one Khanda, 25. 12. Seventh Adhyaya, Van me manasi, has one Khanda, 26. The third Aranyaka has two Adhyayas: 13. First Adhyaya, Athatah samhitaya upanishat, has six Khandas, 1-6. 14. Second Adhyaya, Prano vamsa iti sthavirah Sakalyah, has six Khandas, 712. The fourth Aranyaka, has one Adhyaya: 15. First Adhyaya, Vida maghavan, has one Khanda (the Mahanamni's). The fifth Aranyaka has three Adhyayas:
Translation upto Third Aranyak only is available.
FIRST ARANYAKA. FIRST ADHYAYA. FIRST KHANDA. 1. Now follows the Mahavrata ceremony. 2. After having killed Vritra, Indra became great. When he became great, then there was the Mahavrata (the great work). This is why the Mahavrata ceremony is called Mahavrata. 3. Some people say: 'Let the priest make two (recitations with the offering of the) agya (ghee) on that day,' but the right thing is one [*1]. 4. He who desires prosperity should use the hymn, pra vo
devayagnaye (Rv. III, 13, 1). AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 1
5. He who desires increase should use the hymn, viso viso atithim (Rv. VIII, 74, 1). 6. The people (visah) indeed are increase [*1], and therefore he (the sacrificer) becomes increased. 7. But (some say), there is the word atithim (in that hymn, which means a guest or stranger, asking for food). Let him not therefore take that hymn. Verily, the atithi (stranger) is able [*2] to go begging. 8. 'No,' he said, 'let him take that hymn. 9. 'For he who follows the good road and obtains distinction, he is an atithi (guest) [*3]. 10. 'They do not consider him who is not so, worthy to be (called) an atithi (guest). 11. 'Therefore let him by all means take that hymn.' 12. If he takes that hymn, let him place the (second) tristich, aganma vritrahantamam, 'we came near to the victorious,' first. 13. For people worship the whole year (performing the Gavamayana sacrifice) wishing for this day (the last but one)--they do come near.
14. The (next following) three tristichs begin with an Anushtubh [*4]. Now Brahman is Gayatri, speech is Anushtubh. He thus joins speech with Brahman. 15. He who desires glory should use the hymn, abodhy agnih samidha gananam (Rv. V, 1, 1). 16. He who desires offspring and cattle should use the hymn, hotaganishta ketanah (Rv. II, 5, 1). Footnotes
^157:1 That it should be one only is proved from the types, i. e. from other sacrifices, that have to be followed in the performance of the Mahavrata. The first type is the Agnishtoma, where one sastra is enjoined as agyasastra, viz. pra vo devayagnaye. In the Visvagit, which has to follow the Agnishtoma, another hymn is put in its place, viz. agnim naro didhitibhih. In the Mahavrata, which has to follow the Visvagit, some people recommend the use of both these hymns. But that is wrong, for there must be in the sacrifices which follow the Agnishtoma twelve sastras altogether; and if there were two here, instead of one, we should get a total of thirteen. ^158:1 The word visah, which occurs in the hymn, means people. The commentator says that because the Vaisyas or tradespeople increase their capital, therefore they are called increase. ^158:2 Able, or liable; cf. Ait. Ar. II, 3, 5, 7. ^158:3 Atithi is here explained by yo bhavati, and bhavati is explained as walking on the good road. One expects yo va atati. The obtaining of distinction is probably derived from ati, above, in atithi. ^158:4 In the first and second the Anushtubh is followed by two Gayatris.
FIRST ADHYAYA. SECOND KHANDA.' the hymn becomes endowed with (the word) birth. 2. 4 . Through the words (occurring in the second foot of the first verse). Agni (fire) is the eater of food. cattle have four feet. he strikes down evil at once. Verily. 1. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 1.FIRST ARANYAKA. and therefore the hymn is endowed with (the word) birth. 1) [*2]. VII. 4. agnim naro didhitibhih (Rv. therefore they serve for the gaining of cattle. 'they caused the birth of Agni by moving their arms. There are four metrical feet (in the Trishtubh verses of this hymn). He who desires proper food [*1] should use the hymn. 3. Verily. Verily. But here a worshipper obtains proper food at once. In the other (recitations accompanying the) offerings of agya (where Agni is likewise mentioned) the worshippers come more slowly near to Agni (because the name of Agni does not stand at the beginning of the hymn). the sacrificer is born from this day of the sacrifice. hastakyuti ganayanta.
verse (consisting of thirty syllables). which form a support (pratishtha). and the trunk (atman) the twenty-fifth. This is a Virag. therefore this Virag. Into the small (heart) the vital spirits are placed. 9. Therefore these two. it becomes the same through the same. And then this day (of the sacrifice) consists of twenty-five. small by one. Therefore they serve for the conquest of the worlds. (they become) the AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Verily. serves for the obtainment of those desires. Man also consists of twenty-five. too small by one. 7. 10. are twenty-five [*2]. man is supported by two (feet). into the small stomach food is placed [*3]. verses of this hymn). cattle by four feet. the twenty-fifth. 11. the day and the hymn. 8. ten toes on his feet. two arms. obtains those desires. 6. and the Stoma hymn of that day consists of twenty-five [*1] (verses).5. By saying them straight on there are twenty-five verses in this hymn. The verses (contained in the hymn agnim naro didhitibhih) become the Brihati [*4] metre and the Virag metre. Verily. by this hymn. There are ten fingers on his hands. These (the Trishtubh and Virag verses of the hymn) form two metres. become thirty less one. Therefore this hymn places the sacrificer who stands on two feet among cattle which stand on four. He adorns that trunk. He who knows this. These twenty-five verses. three are these three-fold worlds. There are three metrical feet (in the Virag. two legs. 5 . by repeating the first thrice and the last thrice.
^160:3 Cf. ^159:2 This hymn is prescribed in the Visvagit sacrifice. thus changing them into nine Brihati verses. which is a Virag of thirty-three syllables. 21. Then they also become Anushtubh [*1]. however. 2. It is used. I. by repeating the last three times. it is an essential part of the sacrifice. The seven Trishtubhs. only that the first is repeated three times. for the offerings of agya (ghee) dwell in Anushtubhs [*2].perfection which belongs to that day (the mahavrata). 3. e. Ar. the Anushtubh should have thirty-two. 5. i. It must be so translated here and elsewhere (1. ^161:1 The change of the first verse. We then take eight syllables away from each verse. 2. 6 . 10). and at the same time to be used by those who wish for proper food. I. both as obligatory and as optional at the same time. according to the views of native metricians. 3. according to rule. into an Anushtubh is produced by a still easier process. ^160:4 The hymn consists of eighteen Virag and seven Trishtubh [p. 7. an eater of food. 4. But one or two syllables more or less does not destroy a metre. 1. Footnotes ^159:1 Annadyam is always explained as food. Ait. though it is often an abstract of annada. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. become nine. II. ^160:2 The plural after the dual is explained by the fact that the hymn means the twenty-five verses. a healthy man. 4. and taken over to the Mahavrata. The nine times eight syllables. and as each Brihati consists of thirty-six syllables. here as annam tad adyam ka. which were taken off. two Brihatis. so that we have twenty Virag verses. give us seventy-two syllables. The first Virag consists here of thirty-three syllables. 161] verses. Therefore the eighteen Virag verses remain what they are. ^160:1 Cf.
and thus the sacrificer becomes fortunate. Anushtubh is valour. and thus the sacrificer has a long life. FIRST ARANYAKA. Pankti is food. ^161:2 Cf. 7 . THIRD KHANDA [*3]. and it serves for obtaining valour.' 2.' Others say: 'Let him take a Pankti hymn for the Pra-uga. Verily. and here has thirty-three. and thus the sacrificer becomes bright and glorious. Ushnih is life. 1. Verily. Verily. Therefore if changed into an Anushtubh.The Virag itself. Comm. Ar. Some say: 'Let him take a Gayatri hymn for the Pra-uga.' AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.' Others say: 'Let him take an Anushtubh hymn for the Pra-uga. should have thirty syllables. 1.' Others say: 'Let him take a Brihati hymn for the Pra-uga. Verily. Others say: 'Let him take a Ushnih hymn for the Pra-uga. Verily. 4.' Others say: 'Let him take a Trishtubh hymn for the Pra-uga. Gayatri is brightness and glory of countenance. and thus the sacrificer becomes rich in food. and thus the sacrificer becomes strong. it simply has one syllable over. I. Brihati is fortune. Trishtubh is strength. 1. for instance. FIRST ADHYAYA. Ait. Verily. which is of no consequence.
Others say: 'Let him take a Gagati hymn for the Pra-uga. Verily, cattle is Gagati-like, and thus the sacrificer becomes rich in cattle.' But we say: 'Let him take a Gayatri hymn only. Verily, Gayatri is Brahman, and that day (the mahavrata) is (for the attainment of) Brahman. Thus he obtains Brahman by means of Brahman. 4. 'And it must be a Gayatri hymn by Madhukkhandas, 5. 'For Madhukkhandas is called Madhukkhandas, because he wishes (khandati) for honey (madhu) for the Rishis. 6. 'Now food verily is honey, all is honey, all desires are honey, and thus if he recites the hymn of Madhukkhandas, it serves for the attainment of all desires. 7. 'He who knows this, obtains all desires.' This (Gayatri pra-uga), according to the one-day (ekaha) ceremonial [*1], is perfect in form [*2]. On that day (the mahavrata) much is done now and then which has to be hidden [*1], and has to be atoned for y recitation of hymns). Atonement (santi) is rest, the one-day sacrifice. Therefore at the end of the year (on the last day but one of the sacrifice that lasts a whole year) the sacrificers rest on this atonement as their rest. 8. He who knows this rests firm, and they also for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites this hymn.
^161:3 Thus far the hymn which has to be recited by the Hotri priest, after the eating of the ritugrabas, has been considered. What follows next is the so-called Prauga hymn, consisting of seven trikas, which the Hotri has to recite after the Visvedevagraha. Different Sakhas recommend hymns of different metres, our Sakha fixes on the Gayatri. ^162:1 It is copied from the Visvagit, and that from the Agnishtoma. ^162:2 Nothing is wanting for its performance, if one only follows the rules given in the Agnishtoma. ^163:1 Dasinritya-bahubhutamaithuna-brahmakaripumskalisamprava-dadikam. See Rajendralal Mitra, Introduction to his edition of the Aitareya-aranyaka, p. 25. It might be better to join ekahah with santyam, but even then the argumentation is not quite clear.
FIRST ARANYAKA. FIRST ADHYAYA. FOURTH KHANDA [*2]. 1. Rv. I, 2, 1-3. Vayav a yahi darsateme soma aram kritah, 'Approach, O Vayu, conspicuous, these Somas have been made ready.' Because the word ready occurs in these verses, therefore is this day (of the sacrifice) ready (and auspicious) for the sacrificer and for the gods. 2. Yes, this day is ready (and auspicious) to him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites.
3. Rv. I, 2, 4-6. Indravayu ime suta, a yatam upa nishkritam, 'Indra and Vayu, these Somas are prepared, come hither towards what has been prepared.' By nishkrita, prepared, he means what has been well prepared (samskrita). 4. Indra and Vayu go to what has been prepared by him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites. 5. Rv. I, 2, 7. Mitram huve putadaksham, dhiyam ghritakim sadhanta, 'I call Mitra of holy strength; (he and Varuna) they fulfil the prayer accompanied with clarified butter.' Verily, speech is the prayer accompanied with clarified butter. 6. Speech is given to him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites. 7. Rv. I, 3, 1. Asvina yagvarir ishah, 'O Asvinau, (eat) the sacrificial offerings.' Verily, the sacrificial offerings are food, and this serves for the acquirement of food. 8. Rv. I, 3, 3. A yatam rudravartani, 'Come hither, ye Rudravartani.' 9. The Asvinau go to the sacrifice of him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites. 10. Rv. I, 3, 4-6. Indra yahi kitrabhano, indra yahi dhiyeshitah, indra yahi tutugana, 'Come hither, Indra, of bright splendour, Come hither, Indra, called by prayer, Come hither, Indra, quickly!' Thus he recites, Come hither, come hither!
or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this. 12. I. come hither!' 13. 'May she accept our sacrifice!' what he means is. 'Visve Devas. supporters of men. 19. Pavaka nah sarasvati yagnam vashtu dhiyavasuh. i. 'Come ye givers to the libation of the giver!' By dasushah he means dadushah. 'May the holy Sarasvati accept our sacrifice. (The wish of him) who knows this. 3. the Visve Devas come to the call of him who knows this. recites. I. or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this. 17. Rv. 16. e. I. protectors.11. rich in prayer!' Speech is meant by 'rich in prayer. to the libation of every one that gives. Rv. And when he says. The gods fulfil his wish. with whatever wish he recites this verse. recites. Omasas karshanidhrito visve devasa a gata. 3. 15. 7. 'May she carry off our sacrifice!' AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. recites. Verily. 7. 3. 14. Dasvamso dasushah sutam. 10. Rv. or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this. or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this.' 18. recites. Indra comes to the sacrifice of him who knows this. Speech is given to him who knows this. 11 .
5. 1. the twenty-first. a tva ratham yathotaye. FIRST KHANDA [*1]. 3. they become twenty-five. VIII. by this hymn'. The trunk is the twenty-fifth. VIII. There are ten fingers on his hands. 2. 7. and the Stoma hymn of that day consists of twenty-five: it becomes the same through the same. The two trikas. ten toes on his feet. If these verses are recited straight on. ^165:1 Cf. 12 . Footnotes ^163:2 Next follows a list of the verses which form the seven trikas (groups of three verses) of the Pra-uga hymn. the day and the hymn. 1-3. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. are twenty-five. and Rv. 2. by this hymn [*1].20. He adorns that trunk. Rv. idam vaso sutam andhah. 7. form the first (pratipad) and the second (anukara) of the Marutvatiya hymn. 21. with occasional remarks on certain words. SECOND ADHYAYA. ten toes on his feet. There are ten fingers on his hands. Now this day consists of twenty-five. two legs. twenty-five. I. FIRST ARANYAKA. I. they are twenty-one. 1. He adorns that trunk. yea. and Pragapati is the twentyfifth. the twenty-fifth. Therefore these two. 1-3. two arms. and the trunk the twenty-fifth. 68. Man also consists of twenty-one. and the trunk the twenty-first. By repeating the first and the last verses thrice.
and this is the (perfect) form of that day. and has to be atoned for. Both. occurs (Rv. 6. I. and they also for whom a Hotri priest who knows this. strength. the one-day sacrifice. In the second verse (of another Pragatha) the word suviryam. 4) the word vritraha. strength. III. strong. to be hymned.2. occurs. there occurs the word ukthinah. strong. 3). On that day much is done now and then which has to be hidden. In the second verse of (the Pragatha [*4]). Atonement is rest. 6). and as endowed with the word suvirya. I. and as endowed with an uktha. are perfect in form. 4. 2 0. Verily. this day (the mahavrata) belongs to Indra. and as endowed with the word vira. 40. In the first verse (of another Pragatha) the word vira. killer of Vritra. the form of this day is perfect. the form of this day is perfect. 53. 13 . occurs (Rv. the form of this day is perfect. VIII. 5. 7. In the first verse (of another Pragatha) the word ukthyam. as belonging to the one-day ceremonial [*2]. 40. In the (Dhayya) verse agnir neta (Rv. 1). I. 5). reciters of hymns [*5]. recites this hymn [*3]. Verily. He who knows this rests firm. indra nediya ed ihi. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. occurs (Rv. pra su tira sakibhir ye ta ukthinah (Rv. and as endowed with an uktha. 3. The killing of Vritra is a form (character) of Indra. this day (the mahavrata) is an uktha (hymn). 40. Therefore at the end of the year the sacrificers rest on this atonement as their rest. the form of this day is perfect. 5. this day is an uktha.
VIII. In the (Dhayya) verse tvam soma kratubhih sukratur bhuh (Rv.8. 10) the words paryasa (he moved round) and na riramad (he did not enjoy) occur. the form of this day (mahavrata) is perfect. 3) (the word brihat occurs). 12. In (the Pragatha) brihad indraya gayata (Rv. brihat is mahat (great). and this is the (perfect) form of that day. VIII. 11. occurs. and as endowed with mahat. occurs. 89. 89. Verily. 91. In (the Pragatha) nakih sudaso ratham pary asa na riramad (Rv. this day belongs to Indra. 10. 2) the word vrisha [*1]. endowed with food. Verily. 64. In the (Dhayya) verse pinvanty apah (Rv. Endowed with food is a form (character) of Indra. thundering. Powerful is a form (character) of Indra. 14 . this day belongs to Indra. 32. I. and as endowed with the words paryasta and ranti the form of this day is perfect [*1]. the form of this day is perfect. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. In (the Pragatha) pra va indraya brihate (Rv. 9. VII. powerful. Endowed with thundering is a form (character) of Indra. this day belongs to Indra. In the same verse the word stanayantam. 13. great. 1) (the word brihat occurs). 6) the word vaginam. I. and this is the (perfect) form of that day. and this is the (perfect) form of that day. brihat is mahat (great). occurs. and as endowed with mahat.
2. It is difficult to surpass the absurdity of these explanations. serving for the ukthyakratus. all the Prishthas [*3]. all the Sastras [*4]. in order to obtain all the days (of the sacrifice). Brihat. But even if it meant that no one rejoiced through the chariot of Sudas. ^168:4 The sastras. ^167:1 Cf. ^168:2 The stotras following after the Yagnayagniya Saman. ^168:5 The pra-ugas. SECOND ADHYAYA. ^166:3 Cf. 7-8. all the Ukthas [*2].He recites all (these) Pragathas. 2. 15 . ^168:1 Because the performance of the Mahavrata sacrifice moves the worshipper round to another world and gives him enjoyment. could contribute to the perfection of a sacrifice which is to confer positive enjoyment on the worshipper. recitations. 1. I. I. Na riramat means no one stopped the chariot of Sudas. mentioned in the hymn. and other Samans. ^166:5 Hotradaya ukthinah sastrinah. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 3. it would be difficult to see how the negative of enjoyment. Footnotes ^166:1 In the first adhyaya the two hymns to be recited by the Hotri priest at the morning-libation (the agya and pra-uga sastra) have been considered. ^166:2 Taken from the Agnishtoma. to be performed with the Rathantara. FIRST ARANYAKA. accompanying the oblations of agya. SECOND KHANDA [*6]. a division of sastras. 14. to be recited by the Hotri priest at the noon-libation. ^168:3 The stotras of the noon-libation. and all the Savanas (libations). described above. ^166:4 All these Pragathas consist of two verses expanded into a trika. Comm. all the Pra-ugas [*5]. Now follows the Marutvatiya hymn.
1) piba somam abhi yam ugra tardah. 1). Verily. (and in. the destroyer of truth. 4. asat su me garitah sabhivegah (Rv. and that day is Brahman. He recites the hymn (Rv. Here they say: 'Why then is that Marutvatiya. 6. truth. Thus he obtains Brahman by means of Brahman [*2]. hymn completed by the hymn of Vasukra?' Surely because no other Rishi but Vasukra brought out a Marutvatiya hymn. and as endowed with the word satya. 27. X. 17. X. He recites the hymn. VI. great. In the verse urvam gavyam mahi grinana indra the word mahi. Verily. 3. and therefore the hymn serves to win Pragapati. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. asat su me. the form of this day is perfect. Endowed with the word mahat. therefore it does not fall off from its form. 7. Therefore that Marutvatiya hymn is completed by the hymn of Vasukra. 22) he defines Indra (indraya sunvat).1. occurs. as connected with Indra. that day is truth. 5. it the word) satyadhvritam. 16 . Verily. 2. and is therefore supposed to be addressed to Pragapati. Vasukra is Brahman. Once in the hymn (Rv. That hymn. Pragapati is indefinite. is not definitely addressed to any deity. or divided it properly [*3]. 27. That hymn is composed by Vasukra. the form of this day is perfect [*1].
that hymn. 13. and full of austerities. he becomes learned. 165. this day belongs to Indra. it serves for mutual understanding.8. 17 . powerful is a form of Indra [*2]. 47. Endowed with the word uktha. and the Maruts came to a mutual understanding. 4) the word uktha occurs. the form of this day becomes perfect. if the sacrificer is dear to the Hotri. Therefore. I. 12. 11. 10. I. He recites the hymn kaya subha savayasah sanilah (Rv. Agastya. which is called Kayasubhiya. is mutual understanding and it is lasting. That hymn is composed by Bharadvaga. 9. and by this hymn he drove away evil. 1). 14. Verily. He recites the hymn marutvan indra vrishabo ranaya (Rv. after having driven away evil. Verily. and Bharadvaga was he who knew most. Verily. and performed the greatest austerities among the Rishis. that day (the mahavrata) is uktha (hymn). who lived longest. and this is the perfect form of that day. if he recites the Kayasubhiya hymn. 165. 1). That hymn is called Kayasubhiya [*1]. In the verse a sasate prati haryanty uktha (Rv. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. By means of it Indra. let him recite the Kayasubhiya hymn for him. III. In it the words indra vrishabha (powerful) occur. Therefore. The same hymn is also long life. Therefore if he recites the hymn of Bharadvaga. then. long-lived.
The ninety are three Virag. and they also for whom a Hotri priest who knows this. ganishtha ugrah sahase turaya (Rv. On that day much is done now and then which has to be hidden. and. if recited straight on. 16. the eye. 17. the shoulder-blade. Verily. By repeating the first and last verses three times each. These. is the praise of ninety also. 1). of four joints each. I. each consisting of thirty. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and for whom a Hotri priest who knows this. The other three parts have likewise twenty-five each [*1]. two pits (in the elbow and the arm). and then the seven verses which are over. He who knows this rests firm. 20. Therefore at the end of the year (on the last day but one of the sacrifice that lasts a whole year) the sacrificers rest on this atonement as their rest. There are five fingers. forms a Nividdhana [*3]. Everybody is the friend of him who knows this. 73. Whatever is the praise of the seven. according to the one-day (ekaha) ceremonial. the one-day sacrifice. is perfect in form. 19. recites this hymn [*1]. this makes twenty-five. 18 . the arm. they become one hundred and one verses. Atonement is rest. 18. recites this hymn. That makes a hundred. and has to be atoned for (by recitation of hymns). The next hymn.15. and the trunk is the one hundred and first. Visvamitra was the friend (mitra) of all (visva). are ninety-seven verses [*2]. That hymn is composed by Visvamitra.
II. 2. 1). The sacrificer as the one hundred and first rests in life. health. has been explained. In the middle. Ait. 2. 1. Ar. 1). But considering the general character of these remarks. 8).2. 1.6). 8. strength. 16. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. containing the Sutras or rules of Saunaka.21. 1. the day preceding the Udayaniya or final day of the Gavamayana sattra. 1. 2. 1. 13). 9). ^170:2 Cf. the Marutvatiya. for the noonday-libation consists of Trishtubh verses. ^171:2 The first Stotriya and Anurupa trikas = 6 (I. 3. 1. All the hymns from a tva ratham to asat su me garitar are simply taken over from the Katurvimsa ceremonial. All this is more fully described in the fifth Aranyaka (V. the rest are peculiar to the Mahavrata day. Piba somam = 15 (I. this is hardly necessary. 12. ^169:2 Cf. while the earlier Aranyakas are reckoned as Brahmanas. 2. Hundred is life. 22. These verses become Trishtubh [*2]. Three Dhayyas = 3 (I. and are therefore mixed up with matters not actually required for the performance of the sacrifice. 2. ^170:1 Cf. 6. such as indro marutvan. ^169:1 The commentator endeavours to make the meaning more natural by taking in the word prahanta. ^169:3 By separating the first trika from the second. Footnotes ^168:6 The type after which the Marutvatiya-sastra is to be performed is the Katurvimsa day. ^170:3 The hymn consists of eleven verses. 3. Ait. and so forth. all that is taken over from the type to the modification. and brightness. Asat su = 24 (I. health. each of 2 verses raised to 3 (but the text gives seven Pragathas) = 18 (I. 4. V. The six Pragathas. e. strength. he who kills the destroyer of truth. are inserted. 7. 5. ^171:1 With this hymn the Marutvatiya-sastra is finished. i. 3. 11. nivids or invocations. Hitherto (from a tva ratham to nakih sudasah). and therefore it is called a nividdhana hymn. after the sixth verse. Brahm. 8. Now follow the verses which are new and peculiar to the Marutvatiya of the Mahavrata.2. 1. 2. 19 . I. brightness.
20 . there should be three planks. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and then the left and right side of the lower body. SECOND ADHYAYA. 2. FIRST ARANYAKA. 2. 5. and it should be like the wind. he is the swing. for these two worlds (the earth and heaven) are seen as if most real. a leg. 2. 6. Some say. a thigh. 11 (1. They say: 'What is the meaning of prenkha. 2. Thus we have twenty joints of the five toes. 4. 2. ^172:2 Approach the Trishtubh metre of the last hymn. and that is why the swing is called prenkha. because there are these three threefold worlds.Kaya subha = Marutvan indra = Ganishtha ugrah = (TOTAL) 97 15 (I.2. and it should be like them. who blows (the wind). ^172:1 The left side as well as the right. that there should be one plank. He indeed goes forward (pra + inkhate) in these worlds. making twenty-five on each side. That is not to be regarded. 5 (I. 13). 3. That is not to be regarded. 1. while the ether (space) between the two is the sky (antariksha). 17). because the wind blows in one way. Let there be two. Comm. Some say.9). Therefore let there be two planks. THIRD KHANDA [*3]. swing?' Verily. 2. and three joints.
and thus it serves to obtain sap and eatable food.7. SECOND ADHYAYA. Food. There are two kinds of rope. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. twisted towards the right and twisted towards the left. delights man. 21 . Let them be made of Udumbara wood. FIRST ARANYAKA. 1. if placed in the middle. The right ropes serve for some animals. 9. Verily. Let them be made of Darbha (Kusa grass). therefore they should be made of Darbha grass. 10. the left ropes for others.' That is not to be regarded. This has to be recited by the Hotri while sitting on a swing. for among plants Darbha is free from evil. Some say: 'Let the swing be one ell (aratni) above the ground. FOURTH KHANDA. the Udumbara tree is sap and eatable food. he proceeds to consider the Nishkevalya. If there are both kinds of rope. for by that measure verily the Svarga worlds are measured. Footnotes ^172:3 After having considered the Marutvatiya. they serve for the attainment of both kinds of cattle. 8. Let them be elevated in the middle (between the earth and the cross-beam). and thus he places the sacrificer in the middle of eatable food.
and by that measure all eatable food is taken. for by that measure verily the vital airs were measured. 6. for people mount a ship from behind. Therefore let him mount with his arms. Others say: 'Let him mount the swing sideways. The hawk swoops thus on birds and on trees. 7. Let it be one fist (mushti).' That is not to be regarded. Others say: 'Let it be one span (pradesa). for by that measure verily all eatable food is made.' That is not to be regarded.2. 5. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Therefore let him touch it with his chin. 8. Let him touch the swing with his chin (khubuka). thinking that thus they will obtain all desires.' Therefore let him mount it from behind. 3. 22 . for the sun mounts these worlds from east to west. They say: 'Let him mount the swing [*2] from behind.' That is not to be regarded [*1]. Let him mount the swing with his arms [*3]. and he is of all birds the strongest. therefore let it be one fist above the ground. The parrot (suka) thus mounts a tree. 4. and this swing is a ship in which to go to heaven. and he is of all birds the one who eats most food. for people mount a horse sideways [*1]. They say: 'Let him mount the swing from east to west. like he who shines.
and they form a union. they mount on solid and fluid as their proper food.' That is not to be regarded. Others say: 'Let him descend after he has taken the food in his hand. gets offspring and cattle. the Udgatri the seat made of Udumbara wood. 10. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. the seat feminine. that respect is not shown which is shown to one after he has approached quite close. Agnadhra. 12. verily. The Hotrakas (the Prasastri. 13. Potri. Thus if the priests mount on that day altogether (on their seats). Some say: 'Let him descend after saying vashat [*2]. bear fruit. reeds. Thus he mounts and obtains food and fortune. He who knows this. after they have grown up. Next the swing is food.9. Brahmanakkhamsin. The swing is masculine. &c. and Akkhavaka) together with the Brahman sit down on cushions made of grass. Plants and trees. For. that respect is not shown which is shown to one who does not see it [*3]. the seat fortune. Thus he makes a union at the beginning of the uktha in order to get offspring. 23 . Therefore this serves for the attainment of solid as proper food [*1]. verily. Let him not withdraw one foot (the right or left) from the earth. 16. 14. 'That is not to be regarded. Neshtri. For. leaves. The Hotri mounts the swing. for fear that he may lose his hold. 15.
For. the food could not see the Hotri rise. 18. Footnotes ^173:1 They rise one span above the heart. verily. also. immediately after the Hotri has finished his part with the word vashat. Comm. ^176:1 Should it be devaretah sampragayate. to a later part of the sacrifice. or devaretasam pragayate? FIRST ARANYAKA. intended for the food. for in the east the seed of the gods springs up [*1]. when it is brought near. FIRST KHANDA. The descending from the swing belongs. the aratni. Only after having actually seen the food (that is brought to the sacrifice). that is real respect which is shown to one when he sees it. Let him descend after he has seen the food. and in other MSS. 1. would thus be lost. ^175:2 The word by which the Hotri invites the Adhvaryu to offer the oblation to the gods. ^174:2 While the swing points to the east. of course. yea. from the elbow to the end. But as it is not brought near. and thus mount. Therefore let him rise turning towards the east. but it is wanting in both text and commentary. and they proceed one span from out the mouth. ^175:1 One expects ishah before urgah. 24 . ^175:3 it is supposed that the Hotri rises from the swing to show respect to the sacrificial food. ^174:3 The fore-arms.17. let him stand west. and this mark of respect. Let him descend turning towards the east. ^174:1 Here we have clearly riding on horseback. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Let him begin this day [*2] with singing 'Him.' thus they say. THIRD ADHYAYA. turning towards the east. Comm. let him descend from the swing.
everything he may desire. Or. Verily. 10. with a spade. the sound Him is Brahman. surely like a wooden spade. And as a man wishes to dig up any. 25 . as he begins with the sound Him. As he begins with the sound Him. so the sound Him serves to dig up Brahman (the sap of the Veda). Footnotes ^176:2 The Nishkevalya-sastra. thus he digs up Brahman. 1. FIRST ARANYAKA. 3. that day also is Brahman. He who knows this. after having uttered the sound Him. He who knows this. and the ordinary language of conversation the sound Him is interposed as a barrier. surely that masculine sound of Him and the feminine Rik (the verse) make a couple. divine speech that of the Veda. 2. of the noon-libation. 6. Therefore. holds apart divine and human speech [*1]. 4. 2. even the hardest soil. that sound is the holding apart of divine and human speech. 2. he who begins. or the divine speech. He who knows this digs up. Thus between the hymns. Cf. I. ^177:1 Human speech is the ordinary speech. Thus he makes a couple at the beginning of the hymn in order to get offspring [*3]. I. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. by means of the sound Him. If he begins with the sound Him.2. 5. ^176:3 Cf. gets cattle and offspring. obtains Brahman even by Brahman. 4.
Therefore. 3. 4. or a Saman [*3]. a Yagus. or Saman verse. Speech yields all desires to him who knows this. Therefore (by intercalating these) he does not begin simply with a Rik.THIRD ADHYAYA. he does not start with a Rik. 1. All desires come to him who knows this. Bhus the Rig-veda. Bhuvas. Svar are the three Vedas. the other yields all desires. 5. Yagus. All desires dwell in the one (mind). or Saman verse. Bhuvas the Yagur-veda. And here they ask: 'What is the beginning of this day?' Let him say: 'Mind and speech [*2]. for it is said. Svar the Sama-veda. 6. Here they say: 'Let him not begin this day with a Rik. for with the mind he conceives all desires. Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. he should not start with a Rik. Yagus. let him say these Vyahritis (sacred interjections) first. for with speech he declares all his desires. a Yagus. 26 . SECOND KHANDA. All desires dwell in the mind. 9. 7. Speech yields all desires. or a Saman verse (divine speech).' 2.' 8. These interjections Bhus.
bhus.'--for names are made by speech. This has been said by a Rishi (Rv. With this very word. speech. 71. that the priest. and thus he obtains food. 'That which you have uttered. viz. And thus does a child. 3. FIRST ARANYAKA. he begins. ^177:3 It is doubtful whether neyad rikah and apagakkhet can have this meaning. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 27 . X. (the first word of the first hymn. to think about the hymns which have to be recited. Pragapati indeed uttered this as the first word. tad id asa). to recite them without a flaw. viz. 1) [*2]:-4. making it a name. utter the word. consisting of tat or tatta. the first point of speech. 5. 2. but should intercalate the three syllables bhur bhuvah svar. tata and tata (or tat) [*1]. viz. or. even after having uttered the sound Him. consisting of one or two syllables. However. Verily 'this.'--for this is the first and highest point of speech. THIRD ADHYAYA. svar. 'O Brihaspati. consisting of one or two syllables. 1.^177:2 Mind. THIRD KHANDA. as soon as he begins to speak. this' is food. this. should not immediately begin with verses from the Vedas. tata and tata (or tat). what is intended is clear. He begins with tad. if taken singly. bhuvas.
1. THIRD ADHYAYA.'--for that (the Brahman) is verily the oldest in the worlds. Now. is made manifest. I doubt whether even the commentator understood what was intended by the author. and whether the gods who enter the body are supposed to know the name. the Brahman. He begins with: 'That indeed was the oldest in the worlds [*2]. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. If tat is called the very same word. those deities (which enter the body. FOURTH KHANDA [*1]. 'That (name) which was the best and without a flaw.'--for this is the best and without a flaw. the first word of the first hymn (tad id asa). This is called the abhivadaniya name. Footnotes ^178:1 Tata and tata are used both by children in addressing their parents. 'Whence was born the fierce one.). or whether the name refers to these gods. viz. according to Asvalayana Grihya-sutra I. &c. till the time when he is initiated by a Guru. and by parents in addressing their children. 7. In allusion to this custom it is said here that tata is the secret name of the child. Agni as voice. FIRST ARANYAKA. to tad.'--for from it was born the fierce one. as explained before.'--for this was hidden in the body. or. 'That which was hidden by their love. but quite in keeping with the general character of the Aranyaka.6. eva is used in the sense of iva. a name which no one knows except father and mother. This is what was intended by the verse. It was said that tat was the first name applied to a child. a name is given to a child at the time of its birth. which becomes publicly known at a later time only. 8. entering the mouth. it may be. who is endowed with brilliant force. 28 . 16. endowed with brilliant force. ^178:2 The verse is cited to confirm the meaning of tat. 2. and that was manifest among the gods in heaven. Of course the interpretation of the verse in that sense is unnatural.
'He.'—this means all these beings. 11. the almighty [*4]. 6. as enemy. the almighty. 'When these two become three protectors. e. 'Growing by strength. 'Taking the breathing and the not-breathing. causes fear to the slave.'--i. 'He has risen. 'All turn their thought also on thee [*5]. gets offspring and cattle. all minds.'--for he (the sun) does grow by strength. saying. 10. all thoughts also turn to thee.' 5. 7. He who knows this.'--for everything is afraid of him. when these two united beget offspring. 4. 'When born he at once destroys the enemies.'--verily all friends are the creatures. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 'He after whom all friends rejoice.'--for he at once when born struck down the evil one.'--this means the living and the lifeless. 29 . 9.'--this means everything is in thy power. 'Whatever has been offered at feasts came to thee.3. 8. he has risen [*3]. and they rejoice after him.
120. The Virag. e. the ten syllables are Virag. the offspring is sweet. Gagati) having the Virag as the fourth. e.'--i. This is declared by a Rishi [*2]: 'Because he (Pragapati) raised his body (the hymn tad id asa or the Veda in general) in the body (of the sacrificer)' (therefore that Nishkevalya hymn is praised). the eleven syllables are Trishtubh. 1) the eight syllables are Gayatri. consisting of ten syllables. and thus through the couple he conquers offspring [*1].'--for the couple (father and mother) is sweet. these (Gayatri. 'And this (the son. 15. the twelve syllables are Gagati. 16. X. in that corporeal form (of the sacrificer). Verily. consisting of the Veda. the couple is sweet. e. 17. 'Then let this body indeed be the medicine of that body.'--i. 18. this body. 14. Of this (the first foot of Rv. The word purusha. these are all metres. 30 . consisting of three syllables. 13. when married) being very sweet. that indeed goes into the Virag [*4]. this body. consisting of the Veda.12. In this manner this day is complete in all metres to him who knows this. rests in these three metres [*3]. and he thus joins the offspring with the couple. of that corporeal form (of the sacrificer). 'Join what is sweeter than sweet (offspring) with the sweet (the parents).--i. Trishtubh. the offspring is sweet. Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. conquered through the sweet.
and fourth feet. FIFTH KHANDA. Therefore every man when he speaks. Cf. In order to bring them to the right number.^179:1 He now explains the first hymn of the Nishkevalya. ^180:4 If we simply count syllables. 3. 31 . sounds loud. We thus get: tad id asa bhuvaneshu gyeshtham pu yato gagna ugras tveshanrimno ru sadyo gagnano ni rinati satrun anu yam visve madanti umah shah. THIRD ADHYAYA. which really consists of Trishtubh verses. 181] first verse consist of ten syllables only. X. 2. 6. X. i. ^179:5 Rv. 1. ^179:4 Rv. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. to the first. ^180:3 These metres are obtained by a purely arbitrary counting of syllables in the hymn tadidasa. Ar. He extends these (verses) by (interpolating) the sound [*1]. the first and second feet of the [p. the word purusha is to be added to what is a Virag. man. FIRST ARANYAKA. ^180:1 All these are purely fanciful interpretations. V. X. 1. the sound is purusha. 120. ^179:2 Rv.e. 1. 120. Verily. Ait. the fourth of nine or ten. ^179:3 The sun and the fire. as it were. which is called the Ragana. 120. ^180:2 Not to be found in our Sakha of the Rig-veda. the second.
he inserts one foot of the second verse of hymn Rv. In nadam yoyuvatinam (Rv. In dhenunam ishudhyasi (Rv. and ishudhyasi means. 69. for they delight all this. VIII. At the end of each foot of the first verse of the hymn tad id asa. the dhenu (cows) are the waters. VIII. 2). 69. VIII. aghnya are the waters which spring from the smoke of fire. 69. VIII. and they are the waters in the mouth. odati [*1] are the waters in heaven. for they seem to run continually. In patim vo aghnyanam (Rv. and they are the waters which spring from the organ. 2). for they water all this. 4. 32 . Thus the verse is to be recited as follows: Tad id asa bhuvaneshu gyeshtham pu nadam va odatinam. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. yoyuvati are the waters in the sky. for they water all good food. 5. Anu yam visve madanti umah sho dhenunam ishudhyasi. 69. &c. for they seem to inundate. thou art food. Yato gagna ugras tveshanrimno ru nadam yoyuvatinam. In nadam va odatinam (Rv. 3. nadam va odatinam.2. 69. and they are the waters of perspiration. Sadyo gagnano ni rinati satrun patim vo aghnyanam. VIII. 2). 2).
^182:3 Cf. 2. by repeating the first three times. and which is interpolated after the syllables pu ru shah. 1. ten toes on his feet. The trunk is the twenty-fifth. 33 . These verses. Therefore does a man. ^182:1 The nasal pluta on iti is 'tyantamadararthah. 4. become twentyfive. THIRD ADHYAYA. I. 1. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 7. Cf. Anushtubh the wife. nadam vah an Anushtubh. Ar. 4. THIRD ADHYAYA. two arms. This is an exact repetition of the third khanda. and Pragapati is the twenty-fifth [*3]. Ait. and the Stoma hymn of that day consists of twenty-five: it becomes the same through the same. Footnotes ^181:1 The sound. FIRST ARANYAKA. According to the commentator. the day and the hymn. consider himself a more perfect man. two legs. and they make a couple. Therefore the two. 7. nada. Trishtubh is the man. explained as padapratikagrahane ^182:2 Tad id asa is a Trishtubh. SIXTH KHANDA. Now this day consists of twenty-five. 21. He extends a Trishtubh and an Anushtubh [*2]. II. while the sixth is intended for the glory of the whole hymn. There are ten fingers on his hands. 3.6. is really a verse beginning with nadam. and the trunk the twenty-fifth. are twenty-five . He adorns that trunk as the twenty-fifth. after having found a wife. I. the third khanda was intended for the glory of the first word tad. 1. FIRST ARANYAKA.
Then follows the hymn. Then follows the hymn. 5. Endowed with mahat the form of this day is perfect.SEVENTH KHANDA. 2. 2 a) [*2]. They come to be of eighteen syllables each [*2]. The two feet. 120). Nrinam u tva nritamam gobhir ukthaih (Rv. bhuvaneshu gyeshtham (Rv. Verily. He extends the first two padas. 120. 1 a. He begins with the hymn. the tenth is the (vital) self. It serves for the attainment of these desires. great. 1. 30). with the auspicious word mahitva. 120. I. 1 a. Then follows the hymn. with the auspicious word uktha. obtains these desires. by one syllable (Rv. nine are the pranas (openings of the body) [*3]. and Rv. VI. gyeshtha. which are too small. X. of what has feet (animal food). is mahat. 4). 4. with the auspicious word virya. and what has no feet (vegetable food). Tam su te kirtim maghavan mahitva (Rv. He who knows this. b). each consisting of ten syllables (Rv. X. Eight syllables remain in each. He who knows them. obtains whatever he desires. VIII. 51. 6. 69. the oldest. Bhuya id vavridhe viryaya (Rv. Tad id asa. This is the perfection of the (vital) self. Into the small heart the vital spirits are placed. Of those which are ten. X. serve for the gaining of both kinds of food [*1]. into the small stomach food is placed. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 7. 34 . 3. X. 54).
30) = ^183:2 Cf. 54) = 4. ^184:1 Because Virag. 35 . 1. 9. Bhuya id vavridhe viryaya (Rv. I. 4) = 23 + 2 = 25 9 verses 6" 5" 3" 3. a foot of ten syllables. Tad id asa (Rv. I. 2. 120) = 2. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 51. VI. Nrinam u tva (Rv. is food. X. X. Tam su te kirtim (Rv.Footnotes ^183:1 The number is obtained as follows: 1.
two legs. sounds loud. and the trunk the twenty-fifth. they become twenty-five. and the Stoma hymn of that day consists of twenty-five: it becomes the same through the same. There are ten fingers on his hands. 69. 120. The trunk is the twenty-fifth.) 3. VIII. 2. 69. He thus places life and speech in him (the sacrificer. THIRD ADHYAYA. by its feet an Anushtubh [*6]. Now this day consists of twenty-five. Verily. 36 . as it were. 1. Therefore every breath when it sounds. 2) nadam va odatinam. X. Ushnih is life. and Pragapati is the twenty-fifth.. sapta vai sirshanyah prana dvav avankav iti. He extends (these verses) by (interpolating) the sound [*4]. FIRST ARANYAKA. He adorns that trunk as the twentyfifth. speech. The verse (VIII. By repeating the first verse three times. is by its syllables an Ushnih [*5]. two arms. &c.^184:2 Rv. Anushtubh. EIGHTH KHANDA. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 2 a= Syllable pu = 1 18 10 7 ^184:3 Seven in the head and two in the body. breath (prana) is sound. ten toes on his feet. 1 a = Rv.
'As large as heaven and earth. 'As far as Brahman reaches. so large is it.'--verily. X. and magnifies them. with regard to the deities: The eye. This is the twenty-fifth with regard to the body. The first of the hymns among all those hymns has nine verses. are twenty-five. 4. 10. Next.'--wherever there is Brahman.Therefore the two. 8. this was intended. 7.'--for five arise from ten [*2]. the day and the hymn. these five deities (powers) have entered into that person (purusha). This has been declared by a Rishi (Rv. Therefore all beings to the very insects are born as pervaded (by the deities or senses) [*1]. 5. 'A thousandfold are the thousand powers [*3].by saying this the poet pleases the hymns (the senses). and wherever there is a word. and breath. the ear. He is wholly pervaded there with his limbs to the very hairs and nails. 8):-6.'-. 9. and that person entered into the five deities. there is a word. Verily. there are nine pranas (openings). there is Brahman. so far reaches speech. speech. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 37 . and it serves for their benefit. 'A thousandfold are these fifteen hymns. the mind. the self (givatman) is as large as heaven and earth. 4.
and it serves to obtain them. explaining atra. pervaded by the senses. water. ^185:2 The commentator explains uktha. Then follows a tristich. Verily' the Pankti consists of five feet. and it serves to conquer them. Three are these threefold worlds. forming part of the father and mother each. as members or organs. Comm. yea. Verily. the seasons are six. e. ^184:5 Each pada has seven syllables. Pankti is food. Verily. to the immortal Self [*2]. and therefore called ten. 38 . and thus it is. ^185:1 The commentator takes this in a different sense. i. 14. 13. ^184:6 Because it has four padas. as the body pervaded by the person. 3. the third only six. and it serves for the gaining of proper food. That body of verses is the trunk (of the bird represented by the whole sastra). ^185:3 The application of the senses to a thousand different objects. yet afterwards stating that all beings are born. They are the five. 5.11. I. He who knows this comes by this way (by making the verses the trunk of the bird) near to the immortal Self. 1. Then follows a hymn of five verses. or a decade. from the five elements (earth. 12. hymns. Dasatah is explained by bhutadasakat. Then follows a hymn of six verses. that metre being immortal. but a seventh syllable is gained by pronouncing the y as i. These verses become Brihatis [*1]. leading to the world of the Devas. Footnotes ^184:4 Cf. and ether). there. and they spring from the ten. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. fire. wind.
This gives eighteen syllables for each pada. FIRST ARANYAKA. It is in Arkavat verses (Rv. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 3. 2. ^186:2 He obtains a birth among the gods by means of this Mahavrata ceremonial. FOURTH ADHYAYA. and thereby he joins all joints with breath. Next comes (again) the Sudadohas verse. Sudadohas is breath. The head consists of nine pieces. I. 7. In this manner the twentythree verses of the hymns yield forty-six Brihatis. FIRST KHANDA. That is in Gayatri verses. Next comes the Sudadohas [*1] verse. Therefore the recitation of these head-hymns serves for production.^186:1 Each foot of the Trishtubh has eleven syllables. and whatever there exists. Next follows the head. 39 . according to their metre [*2]. They recite them as Ushnih. Two padas therefore give thirty-six syllables. Sudadohas is breath. Arka is Agni. the head the first of all members. 5. and that is the skin and the hairs on the head. The Gayatri is the beginning of all metres [*3]. all this is produced after the production of this Stoma and this metre. Comm. He who knows this. 1-9) [*4]. Next follow the neck verses. They are nine verses. These form the Trivrit Stoma and the Gayatri metre. and this is a Brihati. and thereby he joins all joints with breath. He recites the tenth verse. gets offspring and cattle. to which seven are added from the Nada hymn. if performed with meditation and a right understanding of its hidden meaning. 1. 4. It serves for reciting one verse more than (the nine verses contained in) the Stoma [*5].
This is called atisamsanam (or -na). called Sudadohas. Before describing the hymns which form the neck. 40 . or rather the lower bones of AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. ta virago bhavanti. which has to be recited at the end of the hymns. which form the trunk. is food. It follows on the Nada verse. and vigavah. consisting of trunk. 69. Sudadohas is breath. 110. Ait.' Or because the (vertebrae of the neck) run close together. Cf. Therefore man says to man. Ait. On p. 2. 5. nor even sa virad bhavati. ^188:1 Vigavas may be a singular. ^187:4 They are called so. Footnotes ^187:1 The Nishkevalya-sastra is represented in the shape of a bird. 'Thou shinest above us. Next comes the Sudadohas verse.' or to a stiff and proud man. Sudadohas is explained as 'yielding milk. and the commentator seems to take it as such in his first explanation. neck. 1. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. Verily. In a somewhat similar way we find griva and grivah. Rv. and thereby he joins all joints with breath. Ar. Sudadohas is breath. VIII. without any insertions. The reciters of the Rig-veda excel them therefore by reciting a tenth verse. because the word arka occurs in them. the verse is called Sudadohas. they are taken to be the best food. The text. and stomach. explains its meaning rightly. ^187:2 They occur in another sakha. described before. vigu. 109. p. without any repetitions. Ar. however. pakshamularupa vigava abhihitah. the commentator speaks of vigavabhaga. They are given by Saunaka. and food is strength. 'Thou carriest thy neck stiff. ^187:3 It was created from the mouth of Pragapati. plural vigavah. leaving out the tenth verse. vertebrae. ^187:5 The chanters of the Sama-veda make a Trivrit Stoma of this hymn. another hymn has to be mentioned. folia and la feuille. Next follow the vertebrae [*1] (of the bird). as the root of the wings. For Virag. 7. proves nothing. I. V. 7. tail. wings. head. 1. 3. Possibly the word may occur in both forms. because it could not be sa virago bhavanti. and thereby he joins all joints with breath. 8. and again.6. He. and are to be recited such as they are.' and because that word occurs in the verse. These verses are Virag (shining).
it is speech. it is a hundred [*2]. e. the last probably used in the sense of to bring near. 41 . 1. the Rathantara (the right wing) is woman. contains at least some interesting forms of language. vertebrae. These are the six powers (of the right wing) [*3]. it is mind. I. thereby he joins all joints with breath. The excess belongs to the man. SECOND KHANDA. 2. The paragraph. i. The Sampata hymn (Rv. 80. it is Vasishtha. Next follows the right wing. it is the Brihat. 81. The Brihat (the left wing) is man. then the participles duta and sambalhatama. I. it is this Agni. These are the six powers (of the left wing). Therefore they are deficient and excessive. 4. were originally the vertebrae of the neck. Grivah. it is that sun. V. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. Sudadohas is breath. FIRST ARANYAKA. it is the Rathantara [*1]. 1) serves for proper food. Next follows the left wing. 4. it a. FOURTH ADHYAYA. First vigu. It is this world (the earth). These two (the right and the left wings) are deficient and excessive [*2]. The Pankti verse (Rv. to represent. and lastly the verb pratyak. they are represented as if they brought the best food. The Sampata hymn (Rv. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 23) serves indeed for obtaining desires and for firmness. 11). it is a hundred [*1]. 3. It is that world (heaven). 1) serves for proper food.the neck. though very empty. IV. IV. with the superlative adverb annatamam (Pan. The Pankti verse (Rv. plural. the deficiency to the woman. 20) serves indeed for obtaining desires and for firmness.
10. they fly up. obtain oneness. Next comes a Sudadohas verse. Then the Ekavimsa is the support of all Stomas. He recites a twenty-second verse. then a Sudadohas verse. the twenty first and twenty-second. when it is effused. The man (the sacrificer) is supported by the two Dvipadas. 8. proper food. then a Dhayya. This is made the form of two supports. For the tail is a support. 191] 6. That which forms the bird serves for the attainment of all desires. and thereby he joins all joints with breath. 11. He (the bird and the hymn) is supported by two decades which are Virag. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. [p. Sudadohas is breath. They are twenty-one Dvipada verses [*1]. The Sudadohas is a man. Next follows the tail. that which forms the man.5. Therefore does the seed of both. Therefore all birds support themselves on their tail. therefore the left wing is larger by one verse. Now the left wing of a bird is verily by one feather better. therefore he recites the Dhayya as embraced on both sides by the Sudadohas. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and having supported themselves on their tail. glory. 7. and the tail the support of all birds [*2]. 42 . For there are twenty-one backward feathers in a bird. the Dhayya a woman. and honour. serves for his happiness. 9.
tvam id dhi (Rv. VI. VI. 3. abhi tva purvapitaye (Rv. V. I. 22) 2. IV. 2. 7) 2 (3) 3. 33) 5 10. 35) 5 AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. VI. VII. Vasishtha. VI. VI. Vrisha madah (Rv. VII. tvam hy ehi (Rv. Yas tigma (Rv. 32. and consists of one hundred verses. Abhur ekah (Rv. A te mahah (Rv. Ugro gagne (Rv. Rathantara. Ya ogishthah (Rv. 27) 5 11. Therefore he recites that Dhayya in that place . 46. VII. VIII. 29) 5 13. VII. 1. speech. 31) 5 8. 2. 1-15) 15 5. A na indrah (Rv. VII. I. VI. and a hundred. 23) 6 8. Here we also learn that hymn Rv. Anurupa. Indram narah (Rv. Ittha hi (Rv.and this with regard to the woman only. 1) 1 99 (101) 2 (3) These hymns and verses are given Ait. Brahma nah (Rv. VII. VI. Agni. 20) 10 7. Anurupa. abhi tva sura nonumah (Rv. 7) 2 (3) 3. 1) 2 (3) 2. Stotriya. is called Sampata. Ar. 25) 9 7. VII. VI. VI. VI. 19) 11 6. ^189:3 The six powers are earth. 28) 5 12. 20. Na somah (Rv. 32) 5 9. VII. Suta it tvam (Rv. Ayam somah (Rv. and that the last verse is a Pankti. 26) 5 10. Kada bhuvan (Rv. 2. Tve ha (Rv. 61. 5. 24) 10 6. 18. Hence birth takes place in and from the woman. Footnotes ^189:1 Rathantara is the name of the whole number of hymns to be recited at this part of the sacrifice. VII. 20) 11 98 (100) 14. 80. ^190:1 The hundred verses are given Ait. Sam ka tve (Rv. Indrasya nu (Rv. Ar. Tam u shtuhi (Rv. 2. Stotriya. VIII. Ud u (Rv. Ya ta utih (Rv. 18) 15 4. VII. ^189:2 1. 23) 10 5. It was made by Vasishtha. 32) 15 4. 34) 5 11. 25) 6 9. 43 . IV. V. Apurvya (Rv. 1.
44 . X. IV. Cf. Pankadasa. 5. 2. 13. 15. may I obtain it. THIRD KHANDA. 37) Apad (Rv. (not in the Sakalya-samhita) Esha brahma &c. 23) 99 (101) 16. is deficient by one verse. and 100 or 102 in the left wing. 14.12. I. 16). 172) 4 Pra va indraya &c. . See the following note. and honour. I count 99 or 101 verses in the right. (not in the Sakalya-samhita) 3 21 9 ^191:2 The other Stomas of the Agnishtoma are the Trivrit. VI.com FIRST ARANYAKA. by Max Muller. 38) 5 Katha mahan (Rv. may it be mine. 81. 36) Arvag ratham (Rv. 3. 9. 2. 1. I can get only 99 or 101. food. 3. Ima nu kam (Rv. the left wing exceeds by one verse. greatness. 1) 100 (102) 5 5 1 1 Though there are said to be 100 verses before the Pankti (No. I. may I win it. X. Whatever there is in this world of glory. VI. wives. the eighty Gayatri tristichs are this world (earth). at sacredtexts. Verily. 4. VI. FOURTH ADHYAYA. Satra madasah (Rv. 2. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Part 1 (SBE01). 157) 5 A yahi (Rv. 1. The Upanishads. V. Saptadasa. 1. Indro madaya (Rv. the Ekavimsa being the highest. He recites the eighty tristichs of Gayatris [*2]. ^191:1 These verses are given Ait. Ar. ^190:2 The right wing.
Sudadohas verily is breath. greatness. He recites the eighty tristichs of Brihatis. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. may I win it. may I win it. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. The verses themselves are given by Saunaka in the fifth Aranyaka. Footnotes ^192:1 Asmin vigavabhage. the heaven. wives. He joins that world with breath. He joins the world of the sky with breath. Verily. Comm. yea. food. Sudadohas verily is the breath. 6. greatness. ^192:2 These and the following verses form the food of the bird. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. wives. 4. may I obtain it. also the divine being of the Devas (Brahman). food. and honour. may it be mine. may I obtain it. 5. Sudadohas verily is breath. He joins this world with breath.2. Verily. and honour. with breath. the eighty Brihati tristichs are the world of the sky. Whatever there is in the world of the sky of glory. 3. Comm. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. may it be mine. Whatever there is in that world of glory. He recites the eighty tristichs of Ushnih. 45 . the eighty Ushnih tristichs are that world.
as it were.) in the belly. They consist of different metres. 7. These pranas are verily twelvefold. 1. some large. two on the breast. some longer. and the belly the support of all food. according to the metre [*4]. Verily. the intestines are confused. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. 6. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. some small. He recites them with the pranava [*3]. and according to rule [*5]. Verily. with breath. He joins the joints. After having recited that verse twelve times he leaves it off there. seven in the head. wishing. They (its verses) are twenty-one [*2]. spleen. the intestines are according to rule.FIRST ARANYAKA. May everything be in my power. He recites the Vasa hymn [*1]. three below. 4. Therefore he leaves it off there . some shorter. there they are perfect. 2. FIFTH ADHYAYA. 5. 3. Sudadohas verily is breath. for twenty-one are the parts (the lungs. FIRST KHANDA. In these twelve places the pranas are contained. 46 . Then the Ekavimsa is verily the support of all Stomas. &c.
5. 9. and he makes it into a Gayatri and Anushtubh. VIII. 2. animals on four. he now describes the Vasa hymn. inserting Om in the proper places. Cf. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and he thus puts together speech with Brahman. The second verse has seven feet. they come to be roused and to rise up. Rv. head. 47 . V. The hymn indragni yuvam su nah (Rv. Ait. &c. 46.e. among four-footed cattle. wings. He thus places man (the sacrificer). In I. i.' i. Gayatri is Brahman. Ar. He recites a Trishtubh at the end.e.). Therefore animals come near where there is strength (of command. and one Sudadohas. Man stands firm on two feet. standing on two feet. and tail of the bird. neck. Anushtubh is speech. Trishtubh is strength. also the food intended for the bird. the two supports with broad bones. ^193:2 Verses 1-20 of the Vasa hymn. and thus does he come round animals by strength. 40) forms the two thighs (of the bird) belonging to Indra and Agni. (they obey the commands of a strong shepherd. the hymn composed by Vasa. 10. 4 it is called a Nivid. ^193:3 Pranavam means 'with pranava.8. That hymn takes the place of the stomach which receives the food intended for the bird. 5. VIII.) Footnotes ^193:1 Having recited the verses which form the body. 2. These (verses) consist of six feet. 11. so that they may stand firm.
They are Trishtubhs and Gagatis. 5. so that they should come right as Asvalayana has prescribed the recitation of Dvipada and Ekapada verses. form an Ekapada. Thus let him know that day as having three Nivids. 2. When he recites the Nishkevalya hymn addressed to Indra (Rv. FIRST ARANYAKA. There they say: 'Why does he insert a Nivid among mixed Trishtubhs and Gagatis [*1]?' But surely one metre would never support the Nivid of this day. he inserts a Nivid [*2] (between the fourth and fifth verses). SECOND KHANDA. FIFTH ADHYAYA. Ar. and the Nivid itself is a Nivid. 48 . V. pra vo mahe. nor fill it: therefore he inserts the Nivid among mixed Trishtubhs and Gagatis. nunam atha.^193:4 According as the metres of the different verses are fixed by Saunaka. X. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. who says that verse 15 is Dvipada. 3. 4.e. the Valakhilyas [*2] are a Nivid. 2. in himself). i. ^193:5 According to rule. and Om at the end o f the second. Let him know that this day has three Nivids: the Vasa hymn is a Nivid. Ait. 50). in the bird. 1. Ira an Ekapada there should be Om at the beginning and at the end. In a Dvipada there should be a stop after the first foot. and that the last four words. Thus he clearly places strength in himself (in the sastra.
Thus (by reciting the hymn) he fares well [*5]. Then comes an insertion. and he thus places seven pranas in the head. and he thinks. as they insert (between the two above-mentioned hymns). Speech therefore. By this insertion age is obtained. I. after changing them into Brihatis. There are seven pranas (openings) in the head. The eighth verse (half-verse) he does not intertwine [*3]. taken from the ten Mandalas and addressed to Indra. 6. Then he recites the Tarkshya hymn [*4]. 7. As many Trishtubh and Gagati verses [*3]. 49 . and may I thus finish the whole work of metres [*1]. II. After that he recites the Saganiya hymn. 10. X. In reciting the hymn indram visva avivridhan (Rv. wishing. Then follow the hymns vane na va (Rv. Then he recites the Ekapada (indro visvam vi ragati). In the fourth verse of the former hymn occur the words anne samasya yad asan manishah. and they serve for the winning of proper food. 9. 29) and yo gata eva (Rv. so many years do they live beyond the (usual) age (of one hundred years). 12). Tarkshya is verily welfare. 8. May I be everything at once. The eighth is speech. wishing that cattle may always come to his offspring. 11) he intertwines the first seven verses by intertwining their feet [*2]. and the hymn leads to welfare.5. May my speech never be intertwined with the other pranas. though AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.
15. which. finish (the Nishkevalya) with that verse. 16. dhuh (the place where the horse is fastened to the car) is the end (of the car). Therefore let a man who knows this. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. May I be Vasishtha! 13. Thus the verse is fit for the day. and they thus serve for the gaining of food. 11. ^194:2 Sentences like indro devah somam pibatu. Footnotes ^194:1 He repeats the Sudadohas verse no more. wishing. Comm. Virag verses are food. He recites the Virag verses [*4]. when he who knows this finishes with that verse. Comm. This day also is the end (of the sacrifice which lasts a whole year) [*6]. Verily. 14.dwelling in the same abode as the other pranas. there his glory will be. is auspicious. In the second foot of the fifth verse the word dhuri occurs. He ends with the hymn of Vasishtha [*5]. Verily. 12. 50 . is not intertwined with them.' Thus wherever Brahmanic speech is uttered. In the third foot the word arka is auspicious. ^195:1 According to the Prakriti of the Agnishtoma they ought to be all Trishtubhs. The last foot is: 'Make our glory high as heaven over heaven. But let him end with the fifth verse. possessing the word mahat. esha stomo maha ugraya vahe.
24. X. which consists of ten thousand verses. ^195:5 Cf. He who knows this rests firm. Tat savitur vrinimahe (Rv. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. taken from the Ekaha ceremonial and therefore proper [*2]. ^196:4 Rv. Of the remaining fourteen half-verses he joins. 1. 3. FIFTH ADHYAYA. V. the fourth foot of the first verse with the second foot of the second verse. ^195:4 Rv. ^195:3 From the Samhita. 2. recites this hymn. 5. 178. THIRD KHANDA [*1]. and has to be atoned for. 4-6) are the beginning (pratipad) and the next step (anukara) of the Vaisvadeva hymn. 51 . 13 ^196:1 The Ekapada forms the last metre in this ceremony. Atonement is rest. ^196:2 The first and last half-verses of the hymn are not to be intertwined. 22.^195:2 These hymns occur in the eighty Brihati tristichs. Comm. Comm. and so on. On that day [*3] much is done now and then which has to be hidden. Comm. VII. for instance. V. Comm. ^196:6 The last day is the udayaniyatiratra. and they also for whom a Hotri priest who knows this. Tarksha Garuda being the deity of the hymn. 82. the one-day sacrifice. ^196:3 Because nothing more follows. rest on this atonement as their rest. 1-3) and adya no deva savitar (Rv. 1-6. it is called Tarkshya. 82. FIRST ARANYAKA. I. ^196:5 Rv. VII. Therefore at the end of the year the sacrificers.
addressed to the Visvedevas. I. 7. IV. On that day much is done now and then which has to be hidden. In the first verse the word tri (kakrah) occurs. and therefore proper. I. 8.3. Thus the verse is fit for the day. and has to be atoned for. is multiform. Thus the verse is fit for the day. The hymn a no bhadrah kratavo yantu visvatah (Rv. addressed to the Visvedevas. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. I. tad devasya savitur varyam mahat (Rv. 5. 4. He recites the end of it. Verily. 53). This day too is the end. 185). great. IV. Verily. and trivat [*2] is verily the end. mahat. Then (follows) the hymn addressed to Savitri. This day also is multiform [*3]. I. 164). 6. Thus the verse is fit for the day. beginning with gaurir mimaya (Rv. 36) is addressed to the Ribhus. Thus it is fit for the day. 164. 9. this day also (the mahavrata) is one in which many receive the same reward [*1]. 41). forms the Nividdhana. is one in which many verses have the same ending. This day also is the end (of the sacrifice). The hymn anasvo gato anabhisur ukthyah (Rv. The hymn asya vamasya palitasya hotuh (Rv. Atonement is rest. the one-day sacrifice. taken from the Ekaha ceremonial. (in this foot) is the end [*4]. The hymn katara purva katara parayoh (Rv. 10. addressed to Dyavaprithivi. 52 . 89).
Thus it is fit for the day [*1]. 55). and are here adopted. Ar. thought. He recites the verse gatavedase sunavama somam (Rv. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 13. Ait. The hymn vaisvanaraya dhishanam ritavridhe (Rv. and the norm of that. III. addressed to the Maruts. Footnotes ^197:1 After finishing the Nishkevalya of the noon-libation. it is fit for the day. 14. The verses to be used for the Vaisvadeva hymn are prescribed in those normal sacrifices. Thus (by reciting it) he fares well [*2]. I. he explains the vaisvadevasastra of the third libation. the Agnishtoma Ekaha. That verse addressed to Gatavedas is verily welfare. 2) forms the beginning of the Agnimaruta. Verily. 2. He who knows this rests firm. 99. addressed to Gatavedas. 2. is verily the end. The hymn prayagyavo maruto bhragadrishtayah (Rv. 53 . yea. this day also is one in which many receive the same reward. ^197:2 The norm of the Mahavrata is the Visvagit. V. before the (next following) hymn. is one in which many verses have the same ending. Verily. ^197:3 Cf. Thus it is fit for the day. I. addressed to Gatavedas. 1. Dhishana. 1). recites this hymn. Thus it is fit for the day. The hymn imam stomam arhate gatavedase (Rv. 94). 12. and leads to welfare. 11. this day also is the end. is one in which many verses have the same ending. and they also for whom a Hotri priest who knows this.Therefore at the end of the year the sacrificers rest on this atonement as their rest. this day also (the mahavrata) is one in which many receive the same reward. I.
FIRST KHANDA. as before the dhuh. For AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. ^198:3 Consisting of Vedic hymns and dances. and 6th adhyayas only of the second Aranyaka. whose minds are fixed on one subject and collected. The highest consists of those who have turned away from the world. ^199:1 Cf. 1. ^199:2 Cf. For these a knowledge of Brahman is intended. 5. 2. Comm. and may be said to consist of three divisions. and who yearn to be free at once. FIRST ADHYAYA. The middle class are those who wish to become free gradually by attaining to the world of Hiranyagarbha. 5th. &c. Comm. It comprises the second and third Aranyakas. Cf. ^198:2 The third wheel. p.^197:4 Nothing higher than the great can be wished for or obtained. 54 . 2. I. 5. 8. I. sometimes Mahaitareya-upanishad. forms the end of a carriage. Ar. The character of the three component portions of the Upanishad can best be described in Sankara's own words (Ar. II. ^198:1 All who perform the ceremony obtain Brahman. 4-6. This day also is the end. while the Upanishad generally known as. as taught in the Ait. Introd. in addition to the usual two wheels. 14. Aitareya-upanishad comprises the 4th. WITH the second Aranyaka the Upanishad begins. I. SECOND ARANYAKA. section 12. Cf. or three Upanishads. Their general title is Bahvrikaupanishad. III. 306): 'There are three classes of men who want to acquire knowledge. section 4.
In order to acquire that concentration. Brahmopasana or meditation on Brahman consists in thinking of him as distinguished by certain qualities. such as are described in the first portion of the Veda. but who desire nothing but offspring. the Samhitas. They cling too strongly to the letter of the sacred text to be able to surrender it for a knowledge either of Prana (life) or of Brahman. II. cattle.them the knowledge and worship of Prana (breath and life) is intended. Brahmanas. the performance of certain upasanas or meditations is enjoined. On this point too there are some pertinent remarks in Sankara's commentary on the Aranyaka II. as explained in the Ait. in Ar. Ar. worship is of two kinds. Still we soon perceive that it would be impossible to understand the first Upanishad. 'consists in performing sacrifices. For these the meditative worship of the Samhita is intended. 1. either brahmopasana or pratikopasana. without a previous knowledge of the Mahavrata ceremony as described in the first Aranyaka. 'Our first duty. which cannot be satisfied except a man has first attained complete concentration of thought (ekagrata). such as we find described in our Upanishad. 2. The lowest class consists of those who do not care either for immediate or gradual freedom. 55 .' This meditation or. and. viz. Afterwards arises a desire for knowledge. as explained in the third Aranyaka. as it is sometimes translated. to a certain extent. 1-3. &c. IV. in the Aranyakas also. II.' The connexion between the Upanishad or rather the three Upanishads and the first Aranyaka seems at first sight very slight.' he says.. Pratikopasana or meditation on symbols consists in AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.
with certain portions of the Mahavrata. This is the true [*1]. In our Upanishad we have to deal with the former class only. 1. such as that of the Kaushitakins. the same explanation may be adopted by another Sakha also. This meditation is to be performed by the priests. the earth. for instance. let no man transgress it. or the sky. as described in the first Aranyaka. viz. either connected with sacrifice or not. but not vice versa. leading up at last to Brahman as prana or life. are of two kinds. 56 . And if in one Sakha. These objects. but it is left optional to the priest in what particular meditation he wishes to engage. that every part of the sacrifice should be accompanied by meditation. and this Brahman. It is not necessary. a certain hymn has been symbolically explained. it is lifted up during the performance from the consideration of these sacrificial objects to a meditation on higher objects. This is the path: this sacrifice. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and while they meditate they may meditate on a hymn or on a single word of it as meaning something else. in order thus to withdraw the mind from the too powerful influence of external objects. 2. thus lifted up into symbols of Brahman. In order that the mind may not be entirely absorbed by the sacrifice. Let no man swerve from it. nor is even the time of the sacrifice the only right time for him to engage in these meditations. as in that of the Aitareyins. such as the sun. however.looking upon certain worldly objects as if they were Brahman.
' the three (classes of) people who transgressed are what we see here (on earth. and serpents [*1]. 7. When he says: 'The great stood in the midst of the worlds. The true path is that of knowledge.' the great one in the midst of the world is meant for this Aditya. the great (sun) stood in the midst of the worlds. air) entered the Harits (the dawns. others settled down round about the venerable (Agni. fire). 57 . The path is twofold.' 5. or the ends of the earth). VIII. became lost. and those who did transgress. Knowledge of Brahman forms the subject of the second and third Aranyakas. the purifier. This has been declared by a Rishi (Rv. the blowing (Vayu. born again) as birds.' he means those who now sit down to worship Agni (fire). 14): 'Three (classes of) people transgressed. 8. 4. the Brahmana. the air. and the first Aranyaka. consisting of works and knowledge. trees. When he says: 'Others settled down round about the venerable. For the old (sages) did not transgress it. entered all the corners of the earth [*2]. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. When he says: 'Three (classes of) people transgressed. 6. the sun. 101.3. herbs. Works or sacrifices have been described in the Samhita.' he means that Vayu. Footnotes ^201:1 Comm. When he says: 'The blowing entered the Harits.
and men drive following the sky. and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food. for from its gift (rain) all whatsoever exists arises. 5. People say: 'Uktha. The object of its praise is Agni (fire).' hymns. like Vanga.^202:1 Vangah is explained by vanagata vrikshah. SECOND KHANDA. &c. and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. full of faith and desirous of reaching the highest world. SECOND ARANYAKA. 4.) The hymn is truly (to be considered as) the earth. 1. and the eighty verses are food. Kera. avagadhah is explained by vrihiyavadya oshadhayah. FIRST ADHYAYA. and other gods. worships Agni. So much with reference to the gods (mythological). Vayu. The object of its praise is Aditya (the sun). and Irapadas by Asuras. The hymn is truly the sky. for by means of food one obtains everything. for by means of food one obtains everything. now with reference to man (physiological). uktha. hymns! (without knowing what uktha. the fourth class. Possibly they are all old ethnic names. hymn [*3]. The object of its praise is Vayu (air). for the birds fly along the sky. In Anandatirtha's commentary vayamsi are explained by Pisaka. Comm. 58 . 3. The hymn is truly the heaven. Vanavagadhas by Rakshasa. for from it all whatsoever exists arises. means. for by means of food one obtains everything. ^202:2 Three classes of men go to Naraka (hell). irapadah is explained by urahpadah sarpah. 2.
for from the earth arises all whatever there is. 9. as it were. 14. and all this that consumes food. the place of the brilliant (Aditya. for by means of food he obtains everything. All this that is food. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. The object of its praise is speech. 8. The hymn is the forehead. The eighty verses (of the hymn) are alike food with reference to the gods as well as with reference to man. Therefore the eighty verses (of the hymn) are alike food. 10. Let him think. The object of its praise is breath. for by means of food he obtains everything. 7. The hymn is his mouth. as before in the case of heaven. he is Pragapati. 12. is only the earth. He is great. The hymn is truly man. I am the hymn. 59 .) he conquers this world. by food (given in sacrifice) he conquers the other. The object of its praise is the eye.6. and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food. the sun). as before in the case of the earth. 13. with reference to the gods as well as with reference to man. for by means of food he obtains everything. &c. and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food. 11. and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food. By food (given in alms. The hymn is the nostrils. The slight bent (at the root) of the nose is. as before in the case of the sky. For all these beings breathe and live by means of food indeed.
while another sacrificer. also as the human body. and that its highest aim is Brahman. The worshipper is in fact to identify himself by meditation with the uktha in all its senses. mouth. 203] The object is now to show that the uktha or hymn used at the Mahavrata ceremony has a deeper meaning than it seems to have. and all that goes thence (returns from heaven to a new life) the earth consumes it all. That sacrifice lasts a whole year. to us. they yield any very definite sense. though intended by the Brahmans to give a deeper meaning to certain ceremonial observances connected with the Mahavrata. as connected with the sacrifice. 60 . the highest Brahman. ^204:2 I have translated these paragraphs. but Brahman considered as life (prana). That earth is thus both food and consumer. at least.15. ^204:1 As a master who lives by his servants. not knowing this. nostrils. heaven. of everything. remains in his limited individual sphere. an important ceremony. as much as possible. according to the commentator. The uktha. as the text expresses it. 16. or what cannot eat him (perceive him). and thus to become the universal spirit or Hiranyagarbha. to be [p. The last sentence is explained differently by the commentator. not. however. He also (the true worshipper who meditates on himself as being the uktha) is both consumer and consumed (subject and object [*1]). and Ushnih metres. and forehead. Brihati. the subject and object. Footnotes ^202:3 The Comm. And all that goes hence (dies on earth). which is to be meditated on. while his servants live by him. They are vague speculations. sky. is part of the Mahavrata. No one possesses that which he does not eat. But while the ordinary performer of the Mahavrata has simply to recite the uktha or nishkevalya-sastra. the more advanced worshipper (or priest) is to know that this uktha has a deeper meaning. but in AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. [p. 205] performed on the last day but one (the twenty-fourth) of the Gavamayana sacrifice. Comm. By this process he becomes the consumer and consumed. vague. or hymn. consisting of eighty verses (trika) in the Gayatri. does not possess what he cannot eat (perceive). or the things which do not eat him [*2]. and its performance has been fully described in the Brahmanas and Aranyakas. I doubt whether. explains uktha as that from whence the favour of the gods arises. and is to meditate on it as being the earth. either in the original or in the interpretation of the commentator. or. uttishthaty anena devataprasada iti vyutpatteh. heaven consumes it all.
AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. SECOND ARANYAKA. Footnotes ^205:1 Play on words. and is seen as golden (as the sun) for the benefit of all beings. The seed of the mind is speech (Veda). THIRD KHANDA. The seed of speech is action (sacrifice). 2. 61 . he consists of gold (hiranmaya [*1]). Next follows the origin of seed. He who knows this becomes golden in the other world. and because he consists of food (iramaya). The seed of creatures is the heart. the abode of Brahman. The seed of herbs is food. if interpreted as I have proposed to interpret it. The seed of Pragapati are the Devas (gods). Comm.connexion with the whole passage it seems to me to become more intelligible. FIRST ADHYAYA. The action done (in a former state) is this man. 1. The seed of the Devas is rain. The seed of rain are herbs. He (man) consists of food (ira). The seed of the heart is the mind. The seed of seed are creatures. The seed of food is seed.
breath. and because Brahman entered (prapadyata) into that man by the tips of his feet. FOURTH KHANDA. speech. The Sarkarakshyas meditate on the belly as Brahman. the Arunis on the heart [*2]. Then he said: 'Grasp wide. Then he said: 'Make room for me. Both (these places) are Brahman indeed [*3].' and that was (called) the chest (uras). 8. 1. 3. 5. FIRST ADHYAYA. breath) entered into that man by the tips of his feet. and therefore they were (called) [*1] the thighs (uru). therefore the head is called head [*4]. Then Brahman crept up higher. Brahman (in the shape of prana. but hoofs and claws in other animals. 7. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. therefore people call them the tips of the feet (prapada). 4. 2. 6. Delights alight on him who thus knows. mind. and because he came to the head.SECOND ARANYAKA. why the head is called head. sight.' and that was (called) the belly (udara). Then these delights alighted in the head. But Brahman crept upwards and came to the head. 62 . hearing.
yet the body without speaking remained. eating and drinking.' they said. Breath went out.' they said.' 'Well.' 10. or the evil enemy who hates him is defeated. yet the body. remained. saying: 'I am the uktha (hymn). he shall be the uktha among us [*1]. 63 . the body fell. eating and drinking. That is the reason of its name. then on whose entrance this body shall rise again. These (five delights or senses) strove together.' 'Well. it decayed. 11. Speech went out. then when breath was gone out. as if blinking. therefore it was (called) body (sarira). eating and drinking. I am the uktha. If a man knows this. eating and drinking. Hearing went out. then on whose departure this body shall fall. and because people said. then the evil enemy who hates him decays. They strove again. saying: 'I am the uktha. I am the uktha [*5]. yet the body without hearing remained. yet the body without seeing remained. Mind went out. 13. he shall be the uktha among us. 'let us enter that body again.' AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 12. It was decayed.9. Sight went out. 'let us all go out from this body.
as it was said before that the human body. 64 . II. Breath entered. ^206:5 Each wished to be identified with the uktha. 12-14. III. forehead were to be identified with the uktha. 1. Let people know that breath is the uktha indeed. Sight entered. as if we were to say. Prasna Up. but the body lay still. we are thine. ^206:2 This does not appear to be the case either in the Kh. 1. VI. 1. Brih. Up. thou art ours. 32): 'Thou art ours. 92. Up. Kh. 15. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. but the body lay still. and when breath had entered. because he hied up to the head. we are thine. ^207:1 Cf. and it became the uktha. V. Up. The Devas (the other senses) said to breath: 'Thou art the uktha. Kaush. Kaush.' Footnotes ^206:1 These are all plays on words. but the body lay still.' 18. 16. V. III. Therefore breath alone is the uktha. mouth. ^206:3 The pluti in tazi is explained as sastriyaprasiddhyartha. but the body lay still. Up. 17. Comm.14. nostrils. or in the Satapatha-brahmana X. therefore the head was called head. 3. 15. This has also been said by a Rishi (Rv. thou art all this. Up. Cf. ^206:4 All puns. the body rose. Mind entered. II. 1. 17. Hearing entered. 2. Speech entered. VIII. 6.
) are thus in the body. That breath is (to be called) sattya (the true). the union of the deities. said: 'Whatever they do not give to me. he was stretched out.' I know the prahitam samyoga. &c. and the pupil. 'He was stretched out.' then it was in the evening. 2. Day. but their (phenomenal) appearance yonder is among the deities--this was intended. FIFTH KHANDA. offer gifts.Then the Devas carried him (the breath) forth. ti is food. yam is the sun [*1]. it being white. 5. and being carried forth. This is threefold. is the breathing up. hearing the Dis (quarters): this is the prahitam samyoga [*2].SECOND ARANYAKA. To him who knows this all creatures. they do not possess themselves. This is it. who knew this (and who by his knowledge had become Hiranyagarbha or the universal spirit). And Hiranyadat Vaida also. 65 . and threefold the eye also may be called. without being constrained. night the breathing down [*1]. sight that Aditya (sun). mind the moon. 'He is gone to rest. for sat is breath. FIRST ADHYAYA. Speech is Agni. dark. when they said. 3. and when people said. 1. These deities (Agni. the union of the deities as sent forth. as entered into the body [*3]. 4.' then it was in the morning. He who knows why AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. therefore.
It is probably formed from hi. 5. Moon. not from dha. the Gayatri the skin. which is the worshipper. unless it refers to some other word. On Hiranyadat. Thus by his speech as by a rope. the Ushnih verse forms the hairs. possibly incorrect. The real object.true is true (why sattya is sattya). we expect yan. III. For yam. Stud. Prahitoh samyoganam is the name of a Saman. 209] through meditation acquired identity with the universal spirit. sent. ^208:3 All this is extremely obscure. and with speech he calls everything. pratar being derived from pratayi. 2. that the four deities. which is the uktha. ^209:1 Cf. ^208:2 The meaning is. VIII. and that therefore he might say that whatever was not surrendered to him did not really belong to anybody. 6. the Trishtubh the flesh. 3. Ind. as if they were bound by a rope. and that this is called the prahitam samyogah. 66 . SIXTH KHANDA. all this is bound. yet what he says is true. The whole passage is very obscure. &c. Of the body of the breath thus meditated on. Agni. What is intended is that Hiranyadat had [p. viz. is endowed with certain qualities. SECOND ARANYAKA. FIRST ADHYAYA. 3. and the Dis proceed from their own places to dwell together in the body of man. Prahit is explained as prahita. For all this are names indeed. Footnotes ^208:1 All these are plays on words. 225. Kh. see Ait. the AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. is to show that breath. 1. speech. the names the knots [*2]. and by his names as by knots. People carry him who knows this. placed. Brahm. III. time. Aditya. Up. sayam from samagat. even if he should speak falsely. Speech is his (the breath's) rope. As Devas or gods they appear each in its own place. however. For dadyuh one expects dadyat.
' because the breath comes and goes on his ways. This is said by a Rishi (Rv. 7. coming and going on his ways (the arteries).Anushtubh the muscles. He says: 'Never tiring.' because he. the Brihati the breath [*3] (prana). the Pankti the marrow. therefore they call them khandas (coverings. being identified with the sun among the Devas). That breath (in the body. He says. 164. 9. is a guardian. the Gagati the bone. He says: 'Illuminating the principal and intermediate. 4. If a man knows the reason why khandas are called khandas. 13):-6. 8. is returning constantly in the midst of the worlds.' because the breath never rests. metres). He says: 'Coming and going on his ways. 5. for he guards everything. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. He is covered with the verses (khandas. the breath. 'He is returning constantly in the midst of the worlds. Because he is thus covered with verses. illuminating the principal and intermediate quarters of the sky. metres). the principal and intermediate quarters of the sky. 10. 'I saw (the breath) as a guardian.' He says: 'I saw a guardian. I.' because he returns indeed constantly in the midst of the worlds. the verses cover him in whatever place he likes against any evil deed.' because he illuminates these only. 67 . never tiring.
not as the deity. take this. Footnotes ^209:2 The rope is supposed to be the chief rope to which various smaller ropes are attached for fastening animals. so long does his world not decay who thus knows this power of speech.' 12. Next follow the powers of that Person [*1]. Comm. ^209:3 Here conceived as the air breathed.11. By his speech earth and fire were created. and as long as the world of the earth and fire does not decay. For all this is covered indeed by breath. 68 . 2.' thus saying do earth and fire serve their parent. I. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. so far does his world extend. and as this ether is supported by breath as Brihati. 13. Herbs are produced on the earth. 'Take this. speech. 3. not excepting ants. so one should know that all things. 55. 1. And then. and Agni (fire) makes them ripe and sweet. FIRST ADHYAYA. there is another verse (Rv. This ether is supported by breath as Brihati. As far as the earth reaches. 81): 'They are covered like caves by those who make them. SECOND ARANYAKA. SEVENTH KHANDA. are supported by breath as Brihati. as far as fire reaches.
and as long as the world of heaven and the sun does not decay. and as long as the world of the sky and the air does not decay. Thus do the heaven and the sun serve their parent. As far as the sky reaches. and hear along the sky. and from all the quarters he hears. As far as heaven reaches and as far as the sun reaches. while the air carries along pure scent. so long does his world not decay who thus knows this power of breath. From all the quarters they come to him. People follow the sky. Thus do the quarters and the moon serve their parent. the breath. 69 . Heaven gives him rain and food. so far does his world extend. By his eye heaven and the sun were created. As far as the quarters reach and as far as the moon reaches. By breath (in the nose) the sky and the air were created. 5. as far as the air reaches. so far does his world extend. so long does his world not decay who thus knows the power of the ear. Thus do sky and air serve their parent. while the sun causes his light to shine. the eye. the ear. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. By his ear the quarters and the moon were created. 6. while the moon produces for him the bright and the dark halves for the sake of sacrificial work. so far does his world extend.4. so long does his world not decay who thus knows the power of the eye. and as long as the world of the quarters and the moon does not decay.
He (the person) is the father. as described before in the second chapter.7. 2. Footnotes ^210:1 The purusha. so far does his world extend. The manifestations of his power consist in creating the earth. so long does his world not decay who thus knows the power of the mind. Water yields to him faith (being used for sacred acts). is the Pragapati or universal spirit with whom the worshipper is to identify himself by meditation. This was intended [*2]. all this was water indeed. belongs to the son. fire. SECOND ARANYAKA. Whatever there is belonging to the son. that (the world) was the shoot (effect). they (earth. 70 . For AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. the sky. and I know the gods (reaching) as far as me. who knew this. EIGHTH KHANDA [*1] 1. belongs to the father. fire. heaven. the air. said: 'I know myself (reaching) as far as the gods.) are the sons. FIRST ADHYAYA. whatever there is belonging to the father. As far as water reaches and as far as Varuna reaches. Varuna keeps his offspring within the law. the mind. This (water) was the root (cause). the sun. Mahidasa Aitareya. &c. By his mind the water and Varuna were created. Was it water really? Was it water? Yes. and as long as the world of water and Varuna does not decay. Thus do water and Varuna serve their parent.
viz. 164. identified with Brahman) is the life. the evil enemy who hates him is defeated. breathes like bhurbhuh. And this has been said by a Rishi (Rv. 10. 8. and thus they became great beings. He (the breath) is death (when he departs). They call it the mountain of Brahman. 9.) worshipped him (prana) as Bhuti or being. He who knows this. This is the mountain [*1]. ear. And therefore even now a man who sleeps. &c. 4. and not-being (when the givatman departs). and thus they were defeated.these gods receive their gifts from hence. mind. he is being (while the givatman remains).' 3. the breath. and breath. eye. The Devas (speech. while the evil enemy who hates him. throws down the evil enemy who hates him. 38):-- AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 7. The Asuras worshipped him as Abhuti or not being. becomes great by himself. and are supported from hence. He who knows this. 5. He (the Prana. and immortality (while he abides). is defeated. speech. 6. 71 . I.
'The immortal dwells with the mortal. does not move forward (and leave the body altogether). AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. being held back by the downbreathing. 13. but this being (the breath). as the father. by all beings. Water. but this being (breath) is immortal.' i. root and shoot. ^213:1 Prana is called the girih. 12. and is seen as immortal (in the sun) by all beings. as its effect. the body dying and remaining on earth). 'These two (body and breath) go for ever in different directions (the breath moving the senses of the body.'--for through him (the breath) all this dwells together. they increase these bodies (by food). 'Downwards and upwards he (the wind of the breath) goes. and earth. yea. fire. is explained by the commentator to mean here the five elements. He who knows this becomes immortal in that world (having become united with Hiranyagarbha). therefore water. &c. he now discusses the question of the material cause of the world out of which it was created. because it is swallowed or hidden by the other senses (giranat). Again a mere play of words. is to be meditated on. intended to show that Brahman under the form of Prana. e. as his sons. are one. are evidently chosen for the sake of the rhyme. 72 . fire. the bodies being clearly mortal. the breath. 14. Footnotes ^212:1 Having described how Prana.. and his companions or servants created the world.11. being immortal. Mula and tula. the body supporting the senses of the breath: the former going upwards to another world. ^212:2 Cause and effect are not entirely separated. but they do not increase the other. as the elementary cause. to signify cause and effect.'--for this up-breathing. or life. which is said to be the material of the world. and the earth. They increase the one (the body). likewise the worshipper. &c. held by food. as described above.
FIRST KHANDA. He (breath) placed himself in the midst of all whatsoever exists. 2. therefore there are a hundred years in the life of a man. (breath) all this whatsoever was a friend. who shines. Because he honoured him during a hundred years. Gritsamada. 3. called) the Satarkin. the Madhyama poets. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). He honoured this (body of the worshipper) during a hundred years. as down-breathing he is delight (mada). honoured this world (the body of the worshipper. Because of him all (visvam) this whatsoever was a friend (mitram).SECOND ARANYAKA. called) the Madhyamas. 73 . therefore there are (the poets of the first Mandala of the Rig-veda.) Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). by entering into it). Because as up-breathing he is swallower (gritsa) and as down-breathing delight (mada). Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). (having honour for a hundred years. in the form of man [*2] (the worshipper who meditates on breath). therefore there are (the poets of the second to the ninth Mandala of the Rig-veda. Because he placed himself in the midst of all whatsoever exists. Of him. He as up-breathing is the swallower (gritsa). 1. 4. the Satarkin poets [*1]. He (the sun). For he who shines (the sun) is (the same as) the breath. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. therefore there is (the poet of the second Mandala of the Rig-veda. therefore there is AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. called) Gritsamada.
(the poet of the third Mandala of the Rig-veda. conceived as Prana (life). verses. Because he guarded (atrayata) all this whatsoever from evil. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). at the time when this Aranyaka was composed. called) Atrayah. They are of interest. are added. In the second some other forms of meditation. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.) said to him (the breath): 'He is to be loved by all of us.' Because the Devas said of him. called) Vamadeva. that he was to be loved (vama) by all of them. It is the same power in both. &c. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). ^215:1 The real ground for the name is that the poets of the first Mandala composed on an average each about a hundred Rik. as showing the existence of the hymns of the Rig-veda. The Devas (speech. divided and arranged as we now possess them. He (breath) guarded all this whatsoever from evil. Atrayah. all extremely fanciful. ^214:2 The identity of the sun and of breath as living in man has been established before. 5. however. therefore there is (the poet of the fourth Mandala of the Rig-veda. therefore there are (the poets of the fifth Mandala of the Rig-veda. Vamadeva. Footnotes ^214:1 In the first adhyaya various forms of meditating on Uktha. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). 74 . 6. Visvamitra. called) Visvamitra. conceived either adhidaivatam (mythological) or adhyatmam (physiological). have been declared.
3. 5. Vasishtha [*1]. 2. called) the Pragathas. 75 . called) the Pavamanis. therefore there are (the hymns and also the poets [*1] of the ninth Mandala of the Rig-veda. the Pavamanis. therefore there are (the poets of the eighth Mandala of the Rig-veda. called) Bharadvaga. &c. He (breath) went forth towards [*2] all this whatsoever. and this became the Kshudrasuktas and Mahasuktas.' Because the Devas said of him. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. Offspring is vaga. called) Vasishtha. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). Therefore people called him who is really Prana (breath). and he (breath) supports offspring. Because he went forth toward all this whatsoever. SECOND KHANDA. therefore there is (the poet of the sixth Mandala of the Rig-veda. Because he supports it. He (breath) said: 'Let me be everything whatsoever.' Therefore there were (the hymns and also the poets of AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.) said to him: 'He it is who chiefly causes us to dwell on earth. He (breath) purified all this whatsoever. Because he purified all this whatsoever. 4. 1. that he chiefly caused them to dwell on earth. the Pragathas. small (kshudra) and great (mahat). He (breath) is likewise a Bibhradvaga (bringer of offspring).SECOND ARANYAKA. therefore there is (the poet of the seventh Mandala of the Rig-veda. The Devas (speech. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). Bharadvaga. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath).
He (breath) is an Ardharka (half-verse). 6. 7. for he pours out (ksharati) gifts to all these beings. called) the Kshudrasuktas (and Mahasuktas). the Kshudrasuktas (and Mahasuktas). He (breath) is a Pada (word) [*1].the tenth Mandala of the Rig-veda. He (breath) is an Akshara (syllable). AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 10. for he got into all these beings. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). for he did honour [*3] to all beings (by entering into them). He (breath) said once: 'You have said what is well said (su-ukta) indeed. therefore there was the Rik verse. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). Because he did honour to all beings. Because he did honour to all places. Ardharka. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). 9. and without him no one can pour out (atiksharati) gifts. Because he got (padi) into all these beings. Sukta [*2]. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). Therefore there was the Akshara (syllable). 8. Rik. 76 . Akshara [*2]. This became a Sukta (hymn). therefore there was the Ardharka. He (breath) is a Rik (verse). Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). Pada. for he did honour to all places (ardha) [*4]. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). therefore there was the Pada (word).' Therefore there was the Sukta.
It would be more natural to take vasishtha in the sense of the richest. While Visvamitra was going to repeat the hymns of this day (the mahavrata). Arsheya-brahmana.11. all Vedas. Comm. ^218:2 The Prana (breath) is to be meditated on as all hymns. all sounds [*3] are one word. ^217:1 It seems.) Cf. 4. the poets of the ninth Mandala were sometimes called Pavamanis. and the hymns of the tenth Mandala Kshudrasuktas and Mahasuktas (masc. 42. Comm. ^216:2 This is the interpretation of the commentator. 1. and the preposition abhi seems to show that the author too took that view of the etymology of pragatha. ^217:2 The poet also is called Sukta. indeed. ^217:3 I translate according to the commentator. ed. 77 . 2. ^218:1 It may also be intended for pada. 'This (the verses of the hymn) is food. ^217:4 Ardha means both half and place. all words. viz. and probably with the intention of the author. Thus all these Rik verses. all poets. as if in the technical language of the Brahmans. ^218:3 All aspirated sonant consonants. Let him know that Prana is all Rik verses. Comm. Burnell. THIRD KHANDA. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. Footnotes ^216:1 I translate in accordance with the commentator. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.' and repeated the thousand Brihati verses [*5] By means of this he went to the delightful home of Indra (Svarga). Prana (breath). foot of a verse. p. &c. Indra sat down near him [*4]. 2. The same etymology is repeated in the commentary on II. SECOND ARANYAKA. Visvamitra (guessing that Indra wanted food) said to him. taddrashtapi suktanamako 'bhut.
to ten parts of a bird. right wing.' Indra said: 'I am Prana (breath). sa for sha. 4. Skaro 'dhikas khandasah. Indra said to him: 'Rishi.' and repeated the thousand Brihati verses. O Rishi. That hymn consists of ten parts.' and repeated the thousand Brihati verses. This is the food prepared by Visvamitra. instead of upanishasada. For it is Prana who shines as the sun.' Visvamitra (guessing that Indra wanted food) said to him. 3.' Visvamitra said: 'May I know thee. By means of this he went to the delightful home of Indra (Svarga). corresponding. the commentator. considers it as a Vedic license. neck. root of wings. head. repeat a second hymn [*1]. all things are Prana. thou hast come to my delightful home. beginning with tad id asa bhuvaneshu gyeshtham. and more fully in the fifth Aranyaka by Saunaka. and I here pervade all regions under that form. yet. belly. its body. viz. as we saw. I am verily he who shines (the sun).2.' Visvamitra (guessing that Indra wanted food) said to him. ^218:5 These are meant for the Nishkevalya hymn recited at the noon-libation of the Mahavrata. and thighs. left wing. The mistake is probably due to a correction. Rishi. This food of mine (the hymn) is my friend and my support (dakshina).' Footnotes ^218:4 Upanishasasada. 78 . Rishi. tail. are given in the first Aranyaka. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Indra said to him: 'Rishi. The verses corresponding to these ten parts. repeat a third hymn. I grant thee a boon. [p. chest. thou art Prana. thou hast come to my delightful home. By means of this he went to the delightful home of Indra (Svarga). thou hast come to my delightful home. however. 'This (the verses of the hymn) is food. 219] Though they consist of many metres. Indra said to him: 'Rishi. 'This (the verses of the hymn) is food.
its sibilants [*4] the air of the breath. So many are also the thousands of days of a hundred years (36. SECOND ARANYAKA. FOURTH KHANDA. 2. 79 . II. Therefore Indra is invoked by him as a friend [*6]. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. with the vowels the days. full of the immortal. yet as these eighty trikas were represented as three kinds of food (see Ait.when one counts the syllables. 4. then as eighty Brihati trikas. and then goes also to the gods.000 syllables [*8]. full of Brahman. This becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihati verses [*7]. 1. the hymn is represented as three hymns. each consisting of thirty-six syllables. he took this name from thence [*5]. With the consonants they fill the nights. He who knows this. Ar. and Indra verily declared this to Bharadvaga.000). Its consonants [*1] form its body. consisting of eighty trikas. full of the gods. 5. This becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihati verses. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. there are 36. He who knew this became Vasishtha. 2. 24). after this thousand of Brihatis thus accomplished. lastly as eighty Ushnih trikas. they give a thousand Brihati verses. first as eighty Gayatri trikas. becomes full of knowledge. 3. Indra verily declared this to Visvamitra. ^219:1 Although the Nishkevalya is but one hymn. its voice [*2] (vowels) the Soul [*3]. 1. This then becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihati verses. and of that hymn perfect with a thousand Brihad verses.
Ait. explained by kadini. and into him it enters AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. ether. 8. These five are the earth. hariva a gakkha. that am I. and fire (gyotis). 2. Comm. ^220:5 He became Prana. that is he (sun). He who knows himself as the fivefold hymn (uktha). Cf. Let him look to that. Ar. the invocations are. I. ^220:4 Sashasahah. or covers all (vasayati). 115. II. Comm.6. ^220:7 Cf. What I am (the worshipper). ^220:8 Each Brihati has thirty-six syllables. FIRST KHANDA. II. This has been said by a Rishi (Rv. 3. the emblem of Prana (breath). 8. explained by aspirated sonant consonants. For from him all this springs. water. and because Prana causes all to dwell. 2. what he is. 80 . the fivefold uktha. Indra a gakkha. This is the self. 1): 'The sun is the self of all that moves and rests. 2. 1. ^220:3 Atma. 7. explained by madhyasariram. let him look to that! Footnotes ^220:1 Vyanganani.' 8. ^220:2 Ghosha. from whence all this springs [*2]. he is clever. air. Ar. ^220:6 At the Subrahmanya ceremony in the Soma sacrifices. Ait. SECOND ARANYAKA. therefore the Rishi was called Vasishtha.
He who knows this. and food is never wanting. animals the feeder. 81 . a strong son is born. Of them again those who have teeth above and below. Footnotes ^221:1 In this adhyaya some more qualities are explained belonging to the Mahavrata ceremonial and the hymns employed at it. for all food consists of these two. Water and earth are food. Fire and air are the feeder.again (at the dissolution of the world). Herbs and trees are food. a strong son is born. shaped after the likeness of man. for animals eat herbs and trees. life. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 5. He who knows this. ^221:2 Because the world is the result or reward for performing a meditation on the uktha. and food is never wanting. Therefore these overcome the other animals. Comm. 2. the other animals are food. 3. are feeders. Comm. 4. for the eater is over the food. for all this is poured into the ether. Ether is the bowl. He who knows this is over his friends. which can be meditated on as referring to Prana. becomes the bowl or support of his friends. for by means of them [*3] man eats all food. And to him who knows the food (object) and the feeder (subject) in that uktha. ^221:3 The digestive fire is lighted by the air of the breath. becomes the refuge of his friends. To him who knows the food and the feeder in that uktha.
for he is most endowed with knowledge. SECOND KHANDA [*1]. For in herbs and trees sap only is seen [*2]. for in some sap (blood) is seen (as well as thought). He says what he has known. 4. THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. But they do not say what they have known. nor do they see what they have known.SECOND ARANYAKA. 82 . He who knows the gradual development of the self in him (the man conceived as the uktha). By means of the mortal he desires the immortal--thus is he endowed. And in man again the self develops gradually. With regard to the other animals hunger and thirst only are a kind of understanding. but thought (kitta) in animated beings. Among animated beings again the self develops gradually. he knows heaven and hell. nor heaven and hell. he sees what he has known [*3]. They go so far and no further. There are herbs and trees and all that is animated. but in others thought is not seen. 1. Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and he knows the self gradually developing in them. 2. He knows what is to happen to-morrow. 5. They do not know what is to happen to-morrow. obtains himself more development. for they are born according to their knowledge (in a former life).
and seed are water. 1. I know this. hearing. blood. If he reaches the sky. That man (conceived as uktha) is the sea. he wishes to go beyond. mind. That man (conceived as uktha) is the sacrifice. THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. and is able to say before men. Comm. Comm. they also depart with it. the body is earth. and goes to the same place to see it again. he would wish to go beyond. The other powers (devatas). breath is air. particularly of the development of a thinking soul (kaitanya). out-breathing. down-breathing. sight. are comprised under upbreathing and down-breathing. For when breath departs. 3. viz. the apertures (of the senses) are ether. That sacrifice is AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 2. Whatever he reaches. That man is fivefold. ^222:2 In stones there is not even sap. 4. If he should reach that (heavenly) world. which is a succession now of speech and now of thought. ^222:3 What he has known yesterday he remembers. 83 . satta. That air is fivefold. And when he has known a thing he remembers it. up-breathing. THIRD KHANDA. but only being. he wishes to go beyond [*2]. mucus.^222:1 This treats of the gradual development of life in man. viz. SECOND ARANYAKA. The heat in him is fire. rising beyond the whole world [*1]. backbreathing. and speech. 5. on-breathing.
fivefold, viz. the Agnihotra, the new and full moon sacrifices, the fourmonthly sacrifices, the animal sacrifice, the Soma sacrifice. The Soma sacrifice is the most perfect of sacrifices, for in it these five kinds of ceremonies are seen: the first which precedes the libations (the Diksha, &c.), then three libations, and what follows (the Avabhritha, &c.) is the fifth. Footnotes
^223:1 Bhuloka. Comm. ^223:2 Should it not be aty enan manyate?
SECOND ARANYAKA. THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. FOURTH KHANDA. 1. He who knows one sacrifice above another, one day above another, one deity above the others, he is clever. Now this great uktha (the nishkevalya-sastra) is the sacrifice above another, the day above another, the deity above others [*1]. 2. This uktha is fivefold. With regard to its being performed as a Stoma (chorus), it is Trivrit, Pankadasa, Saptadasa, Ekavimsa, and Pankavimsa. With regard to its being performed as a Saman (song), it is Gayatra, Rathantara, Brihat, Bhadra, and Ragana. With regard to metre, it is Gayatri, Ushnih, Brihati, Trishtubh, and Dvipada. And the explanation (given before in the Aranyaka) is that it is the head, the right wing, the left wing, the tail, and the body of the bird [*2].
in each hymn. This, is the first round. He then sings the three middle verses in each hymn. This is the second round. He lastly sings the last three verses in each hymn. This is the third round. This song is called Udyati. The Pankadasa stoma is formed out of one Sukta only, consisting of three verses. In the first round he sings the first verse [p. 225] three times, the second and third once. In the second round he sings the middle verse three times, in the third round he sings the last verse three times. This song is called Vishtuti. The Saptadasa stoma is formed in the same manner, only that in the first round he sings the first verse three times, in the second the middle verse three times, in the third round the middle and last verses three times. This song is called Dasasapta. The Ekavimsa stoma is formed in the same manner, only that in the first round he sings the last verse once, in the second the first verse once, in the third the middle verse once, while the other verses are each repeated three times. This song is called Saptasaptini. The Pankavimsa stoma is formed in the same manner, only that in the first round he sings the first verse three times, the second four times, the last once; in the second round the first once, the second three times, the third four times; in the third round the first five times, the second once, the last three times; or he sings in the third round the first verse four times, the second twice, the last three times.
Sayana in his commentary on the Ait. Ar. takes the Trivrit stoma to be formed out of three hymns, each consisting of three verses, while he says that the other stomas are formed out of one hymn only. B. and R., sv. trivrit, state that this stoma consists of verses 1, 4, 7; 2, 5, 8; and 3, 6, 9 of the Rig-veda hymn IX, 11, but, according to Sayana, the stoma consists (1) of the first verses of the three Suktas, upasmai gayata, davidyutatya, and pavamanasya at the beginning of the Sama-veda-Uttararkika, (2) of the second, (3) Of the third verses of the same three hymns. Mahidhara (Yv. X, 9) takes the same view, though the MSS. seem to have left out the description of the second paryaya, while Sayana in his commentary to the Tandya-brahmana seems to support the opinion of B. and R. There is an omission, however, in the printed text of the commentary, which makes it difficult to see the exact meaning of Sayana. The Pankadasa stoma is well described by Sayana, Tandya Br. II, 4. Taking the Sukta agna a yahi (Uttararkika I, 1, 4 = Rv. VI, 16, 10-12), he shows the stoma to consist of (1) verse 1 * 3, 2, 3 (2) verse 1, 2 * 3, 3; (3) verse 1, 2, 3 * 3. The five Samans are explained by the commentator. The [p. 226] Gayatra is formed out of the Rik (III, 62, 10) tat savitur varenyam. The Rathantara is formed out of the Rik (VII, 32, 22) abhi tva sura nonuma. The Brihat is formed out of the Rik (VI, 46, 1) tvam id dhi havamahe. The Bhadra is formed out of the Rik (X, 57, 1) ima nu kam. The Ragana is formed out of the Rik (VII, 27, 1) indram naro nemadhita. The metres require no explanation.
the body to the hymns tad id asa. and chewing. the head of the bird corresponds to the hymns indram id gathinah. Thus also are the Rik verses.. he performs the Pratihara in five ways. and that is the whole. he performs the Nidhana in five ways [*1]. 3. That (thousand) is the whole. &c. the right wing to the hymns abhi tva sura. &c. &c. the tail to the hymns ima nu kam. He obtains that food by those (three numbers. then follow the three sets of eighty trikas each. 4. ten. or by the three sets of eighty trikas). and what comes after is the fifth order [*3]. ten hundreds are a thousand. the left wing to the hymns tvam id dhi. Ten tens are a hundred. And this food also (the three sets of hymns being represented as food) is threefold. recited (by the Hotri) in five orders. he performs the Upadrava in five ways. These are the three metres (the tens. and ten. ten is called the whole. All this was explained in the first Aranyaka. that is one order.. drinking. hundred. 5. What precedes the eighty trikas. and thousand. All this together forms one thousand Stobhas.. contained in the Nishkevalya. &c. For number is such (measured by ten). 87 . eating. &c. pervading everything). he performs the Udgitha in five ways.. He performs the Prastava in five ways. This (the hymns of this Sastra) as a whole (if properly counted with the Stobha syllables) comes to one thousand (of Brihati verses). or musical syllables [*2].In identifying certain portions of the Nishkevalya hymn with a bird. Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.
consisting of Ushnihs. The Trivrit stoma. and lastly. IX. lastly. 13. and wings of the bird. as the emblem of the sastra. THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. each five times. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. ^226:2 The Stobha syllables are syllables without any meaning. in order to have a support for the music. Uttararkika I. seeing. and that is the most important day of the Soma sacrifice. added when verses have to be sung. breath or life. each consisting of three verses. and this prana was shown to be above the other powers (devatas). The Udgatri first sings the first three verses [*a]^224:a Hinkri with dative is explained as gai with accusative. S. The Udgatri and Pratihartri sing their portions. the fifth order. begins with ya indra somapatama. This (nishkevalya-sastra) becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihati verses. 11. the Prastava. The hymns [p. is as follows: There are three Suktas. five parts. This is one order. ^226:3 There are in the Nishkevalya hymn. The third. and in that Saman there are. head. when singing the Prastava portions. five times. 1. 1. See Kh. as usual. 88 . one thousand of such Stobha syllables are required. The Soma sacrifice. the Udgitha and Pratihara. as explained in the Sama-brahmana. I. The Prastotri. ^226:1 The Samagas sing the Ragana at the Mahavrata. Up. And all the Udgatris together sing the Nidhana five times. The second. Then follow the three sets of eighty trikas each. In singing the five Samans. The Udgatri again sings the Upadrava five times. hearing. FIFTH KHANDA. pratihara. three sets of eighty trikas each. These three sets form the food of the bird. The commentator says: The stoma is a collection of single Rik verses occurring in the trikas which have to be sung. is above all other sacrifices. and Nidhana. 1 = Rv. form the body. sings them five times. consisting of Brihatis. consisting of Gayatris. 227] which precede these.^224:1 The uktha is to be conceived as prana. begins with ya kid anyad. The first. mind. consisting of the hymns which form the belly and the legs of the bird. the first being upasmai gayata. Upadrava. SECOND ARANYAKA. The uktha belongs to the Mahavrata day. which the Hotri has to recite. begins with indro ya ogasa. V. ^224:2 All these are technicalities connected with the singing and reciting of the uktha. speech. Udgitha.
89 . a thousand of Trishtubh verses. 'Poets through their understanding discovered Indra dancing an Anushtubh. 6. X. Some teachers (belonging to a different Sakha) recognise a thousand of different metres (not of Brihatis only). 124. Let him work towards the Brihati. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. And as that self is on all sides surrounded by members.2.' This is meant to say: They discovered (and meditated) in speech (called Anushtubh)--at that time (when they worshipped the uktha)--the Prana (breath) connected with Indra. He (who takes the recited verses as Anushtubhs) is able to become celebrated and of good report. 9. the Brihati also is on all sides surrounded by metres [*2]. 8. That self (givatman) is surrounded on all sides by members. For that self (consisting of Anushtubhs) is incomplete. for the Brihati (breath) is the complete self. rather is such a man liable to die before his time. others a thousand of Anushtubh verses. 7.' 3. others a thousand of Gagati verses. They say: 'Is another thousand (a thousand of other verses) good? Let us say it is good. For if a man confines himself to speech. then driven by his mind. not to breath. Some say. 4. 9):-5. This has been said by a Rishi (Rv. he does not succeed with speech [*1]. No! he says.
For the self (in the heart) is the middle of these members. For the smaller is contained in the larger. is incomplete. For in speech without breath the Hotri cannot. One might translate. he does not by his speech obtain that sastra. or in the list of metres. I have followed the commentator as much as possible.' thus he said. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. the activity of all the senses being dependent on breath. which is speech. Footnotes ^228:1 This passage is obscure. SIXTH KHANDA. there being some that have more. but (the other) able to die before his time. 11. For the Brihati is the complete self. SECOND ARANYAKA. 90 . This (nishkevalya-sastra) becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihati verses. In this thousand of Brihatis there are one thousand one hundred and twenty-five Anushtubhs. not (if driven) by speech. and driven by his mind to the Anushtubh (speech). THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. 1. others that have less syllables. because he understands if driven to the mind by breath. He also would seem to have read prane na. then. 'He is able to become celebrated and of good report. He says: 'If the Hotri priest proceeds with reciting the sastra. neglecting the Brihati (breath). therefore let him work towards the Brihati (let him reckon the sastra recitation as a thousand Brihatis). which is speech. and not to the thousand of Brihatis which are breath.' The commentator therefore takes vagabhi for vakam abhi. or for some old locative case formed by abhi. looking to the Anushtubh.10. One might attempt another construction.' ^228:2 Either in the sastra. and probably corrupt. 'For that self. though it is very doubtful. and the Brihati is the middle of the metres. through the mere wish of the mind. say the sastra.
VIII. 'A speech of eight feet. or any portion (parvan) of it. the flower and fruit of speech. and therefore out of Prana as connected with Indra [*2].2. 6. a gatha [*1]. This has been said by a Rishi (Rv.'--because the Brihati becomes nine-cornered (having nine feet of four syllables each).'--because there are eight feet of four syllables each in the Anushtubh. 7. A Saman. for he speaks the true (Om). these are not measured (they are in prose). A Rik verse. 4. 76. This Mahaduktha is the highest development of speech. and untrue. 8. music. is music. and general remarks [*3]. What is true (Om) is the flower and fruit of speech. 'Touching the truth. Om is true. as a body [*3]. 12):-3. 'He (the Hotri) makes the body out of Indra. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 9. He is able to become celebrated and of good report. 91 . Na is untrue. measured. that is Anushtubh. he makes speech. 5. and it is fivefold. and out of the Brihati (which is Prana). touched by the verse (Brihati) [*1]. not measured. viz. A Yagus line. a kumbya [*2] are measured (metrical). true.--'for out of this thousand of Brihati verses turned into Anushtubhs. an invocation. 'Of nine corners.'--because speech (Anushtubh) is truth.
If he says Om (yes) to everything. Speech if uttered in a whisper is breath. and from the union of those two he grows. and would not be capable of any enjoyments. it becomes manifold and different. If a man says No to everything. and therefore it is perceptible. and as a tree whose root is exposed dries up and perishes. for what is incorporeal is almost hidden. and becomes greater and greater. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and manifested through different kinds of contact (mutes) and of wind (sibilants). it is body. not at the wrong time. 12. and that would ruin him even here. Therefore (if whispered) it is almost hidden. 14. Now the untrue is the root [*4] of speech. But if spoken aloud. and breath is incorporeal. Therefore let a man give at the proper time only. 13. A is the whole of speech. thus a man who says what is untrue exposes his root. 92 . it is body. That syllable Om (yes) goes forward (to the first cause of the world) and is empty. Thus he unites the true and the untrue. then he would empty himself. 15. then his reputation would become evil. Therefore if a man says Om (yes) to everything. That syllable Na (no) is full for oneself [*6]. he is clever. if spoken aloud. then that (which he gives away) is wanting to him here [*5]. but guard oneself from it. dries up and perishes.10. He who knows this speech of which this (the mahaduktha) is a development. for body is perceptible. Therefore one should not say what is untrue. 11.
&c. touches the true. the Brihati being breath. &c. ^230:2 A kumbya is a metrical precept. i. therefore the Anushtubh is called its body. breath. ^230:3 Such as arthavadas. keeps everything to himself. Prana. 2. e. explanatory passages. SEVENTH KHANDA. ^229:2 Cf. And with regard to this they say: 'If a man obtains the other world in this form (by meditating on the prana. THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. 2. He who thus knows Indra as the lord of all beings. and being joined with the Rik. it is Indra. ^230:4 As diametrically opposed to the flowers and fruits which represent the true. ^229:3 Because the Anushtubh is made out of the Brihati. 1. Comm. 3. such as. which is the uktha. Indra is the lord of all beings. not the absolute Brahman). ^230:6 He who always says No. taking the form of Anushtubh. It is glory (the glorious Brahman. divi ma svapsih. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 93 . laughing at people. Having departed he becomes Indra (or Hiranyagarbha) and shines in those worlds [*2]. which is to be meditated on under the form of the Brihati. Comm. departs from this world by loosening the bonds of life [*1]--so said Mahidasa Aitareya. SECOND ARANYAKA. brahmakaryasyaposanam karma kuru. also gossip. Ar. or the Brihati. pratah pratar anritam te vadanti. such as is common in the king's palace. This (nishkevalya-sastra) becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihatis.Footnotes ^229:1 Vak. speech. ^230:1 A gatha is likewise in verse. 4. ^230:5 Then that man is left empty here on earth for that enjoyment. Comm. for instance. breath. Ait. II.
94 .' and doing this while still alive. and in that form (belonging to man and the sun) he goes to this world (belonging to the woman and to fire ). Thus these two grow together. therefore no one should despise it. Footnotes ^231:1 The commentator explains visrasa by 'merging his manhood in the identity with all. the shaking off of all that ties the Self to this body or this life. bone. is provisional only. Visras is the gradual loosening of the body. And the seed of the man is a form of Aditya (sun). THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. EIGHTH KHANDA. and becomes deity. and marrow). does not [p. then in what form does he obtain this world ?' 3. 232] arrive at final liberation. Others. Comm. Some hold that he who enters on this path. blood. 1. and that self (man) gives his self (fat. the decay of old age. and through it with the prana (breath) and Hiranyagarbha. and flesh) to that self (fat. and intended to prepare the mind of the worshipper for the reception of the highest knowledge of Brahman. ^231:2 The fourteen worlds in the egg of Brahman. therefore no one should despise it.the hymn of the mahavrata). show that this identification with the uktha. and marrow) to this self (skin. and flesh). Here the blood of the woman is a form of Agni (fire). Here (with regard to obtaining Hiranyagarbha) there are these Slokas: AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. This self (the woman) gives her self (skin. however. blood. In this form (belonging to the woman and to fire) he goes to that world (belonging to the man and the sun). but here it has the meaning of vairagya rather. SECOND ARANYAKA. bone.
' or 'man' (all such names applying only to the material body. in that body (of the worshipper) all gods [*1] become one. that body which the harnessed horses (the senses) draw about. 3.' 'neither woman nor man. breath). After separating themselves from the Yes and No of language. and not to prana or breath). in it the gods exist all joined together. breath) by speech. That in which the poets rejoiced (the revealed nature of prana. poets have discovered (what they sought for). the universal spirit). 6. and of all that is hard and cruel. 4. No one wishing to describe him (prana. in that body all gods become one. proceeding from the indestructible (the highest Brahman). describes him by calling him 'woman. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.2. That body into which goes the indestructible (the breath) which we have joined (in meditation). 5. Having driven away evil by means of that Brahman (which is hidden in prana). that body where the true of the true follows after. 95 . dependent on names they rejoiced in what had been revealed [*2]. The fivefold body into which the indestructible (prana. that body which the harnessed horses (the senses) draw about. the enlightened man goes to the Svarga world (becomes one with Hiranyagarbha [*3]. that body where the true of the true (the highest Brahman) follows after. breath) enters.
i. By means of the syllable of life (the a) alone (which is contained in that thousand of hymns) does a man obtain the day of life (the mahavrata day. there are 36. sacrifice). This becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihati verses. the moon.' and (Rv. 8. So many are also the thousands of days of human life [*1]. Now there is a chariot of the god (prana) destroying all desires (for the worlds of Indra. and the I (ego) is gone there (the worshipper should know that he is uktha and prana). the twinkling of an eye [*2]. Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 9. he reaches Hiranyagarbha). which completes the number of the days in the Gavamayana.000 syllables. This has been said by a Rishi (Rv. X. by means of meditating on Prana. 73. and by means of the day of life (he obtains) the syllable of life. Brahman (as hidden beneath prana) is called the A. its wheels the cars. VIII. 12):-11. the earth. 96 . and of that hymn.' yea. 39. the driver the mind. e. Its front part (the point of the two shafts of the carriage where the yoke is fastened) is speech. 10. 2) 'Come hither on that which is quicker than the twinkling of an eye. Prana (breath) mounts that chariot (and on it. the horses the eyes.7. perfect with a thousand Brihad verses. all of which lie below the place of Hiranyagarbha). 'Come hither on that which is quicker than mind.
and their identity with it through meditation or worship. ^233:3 Sarvahammani hiranyagarbha iti sruteh. and is hence called shatkausika. and moves about in them. I think. according to his wish. be lost. Nor is the worship to be confined to the time of the sacrifice. He enjoins that the meditation on [p. 11. reaches a ray of the sun.^232:1 The last line on page 246 should. he creates also living souls in each. without such a body. and the reward of becoming a god. is realised. but it has to be repeated mentally during life. life with breath in the five elements. and other powers carry him on. ^233:1 The worshipper identifies himself by meditation with prana. three having a white appearance (fat. 97 . the Brihadaranyaka. enjoy all pleasures in mind only. the activity of the mind in breath. where he creates to himself every kind of enjoyment.. He may create for himself a material body and enjoy all sorts of pleasures.. having been absorbed in the Highest Self. three having a. and passing out by the channel of the head. ^233:2 The prana. Of these. Comm. 4. without any reference to the uktha or other portions of the Mahavrata ceremony. &c. The activity of the senses will be absorbed in the mind. as if in a dream. 235] the uktha as prana should be continued till the desired result. taught in the Khandogya. 4. At last the devotee gains the highest knowledge. the Mahavrata. where prana or life is represented as the object of meditation. &c. At the time of death. and these five elements will be absorbed up to their seed in the Paramatman or Highest Self. only. as he pleases. And as he creates these various bodies according to his wish. however. and going to the gods. Comm. be the penultimate line of page 247. and by meditating on the uktha to obtain identity with Hiranyagarbha. is different from the pranavidya. breath. red appearance. There are neither certain postures required for it. except that creative power belongs truly to the latter only. Comm. rises again in the lotus of the heart. and led by these he reaches the Brahma-loka. the knowledge of prana. bone. breath. that AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. But then the subtile body. as here taught. light. and that it should afterwards be repeated until death. will have his reward. fire. 2. ^232:2 The body consists of six elements. endowed with the internal organs of mind. as if in a state of waking. nor certain times and places. and marrow). breath in the activity of life. Comm. the identification of the worshipper with prana. &c. come from fire and from the woman. and goes at the northern or southern course of the sun to the road of Arkis or light. or he may. ^234:1 Cf. he who has become perfect in this meditation on uktha. which comprehends all gods. This ends the old birth. That Arkis. as the emblem of prana. ^234:2 The commentator remarks that the worship and meditation on the uktha as prana. whether by day or by night. come from the sun and from man. Up to a certain point his fate will be the same as that of other people. In fact this world is the same for the devotee (yogin) and for the Highest Self. These gods (Agni and the rest) appear in the forms of speech. ^232:3 It is well therefore to shake off this body. because otherwise the impression might vanish.
he obtains complete freedom with Brahman. what we call the fourth adhyaya of the second Aranyaka. and by Sankara. commented on. SECOND ARANYAKA. to show that the living principle in us is the same as the living principle in the sun. If treated separately. and often separately edited. FOURTH ADHYAYA. which was looked upon for a time as a sufficient explanation of all that is.' sometimes even as Indra. point in of a view more this prana is the conscious it appears self as mythological form Hiranyagarbha. placed at the end of each paragraph. who explains it independently. sometimes also. or life-knowledge. vary. FIRST KHANDA. and translated. prana meaning breath and life. 'the golden germ. I have given the divisions adopted by Sayana. becomes the first adhyaya of the Upanishad. who explains the Upanishad as part of the Aranyaka. The divisions adopted by Sayana. From Prana. With this adhyaya begins the real Upanishad. 98 . and that by a recognition of their identity and of the true nature of AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. at the dissolution of the Brahma-loka. and then. though Sayana states that he follows in his commentary on the Upanishad the earlier commentary of Sankara. and have marked those of Sankara's by figures in parentheses. Whence this world? had been. The difference between this Upanishad and the three preceding adhyayas is easily perceived. Hitherto the answer to the question. by counting all adhyaya from the beginning of the Aitareya-aranyaka. best known under the name of the Aitareya-upanishad.of the Highest Self in himself. From a psychological (pragnatman). the ninth. It is one of the chief objects of the pranavidya.
consciousness is prana. the devotee. and nearly in the whole of this Upanishad. prana is life. This is well expressed in the Kaushitaki-upanishad III. In some places this doctrine is laid down in all its simplicity. That final solution of the problem not simply of life. the Self.' This. Our true self. Life. Verily. as life. Adoration to the Highest Self. it is said. is the last and only cause of everything. meditate on me as the conscious self (pragnatman). Hari. where Indra says to Pratardana: 'I am Prana. by knowledge (pragna) true conception. is given in the Upanishad which teaches that Atman. 99 . fanciful. Om! 1. in the beginning [*1] all this was Self. has its true being in the Highest Self only. however. prana is immortality. but of existence. however. was not a final solution. though it may have satisfied the mind of the Brahmans for a time. and it is only towards the end that the identity of the self-conscious self with the Highest Self or Brahman is clearly enuntiated. arthavada. Immortality is prana. anarthavada. or he who has rightly meditated on prana during his life. one only. 2. but as it might often be more truly called. By prana he obtains immortality in the other world. as immortality. enters after death into the world of Hiranyagarbha. In other passages. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. as the commentators call it. Prana is consciousness (pragna). Life is prana. there was nothing else blinking [*2] whatsoever.prana. this simple doctrine is mixed up with much that is mythological. and absurd. and not Prana.
100 . (2) 5. and Ap (water). from sight Aditya (sun). The Mara (mortal) is the earth. 4. (3) 6.2. From the nostrils proceeded scent (prana) [*6]. shall I send forth guardians of the worlds?' He then formed the Purusha (the person) [*1]. From the ears proceeded hearing. Mariki (light). He thought: 'There are these worlds. Ears burst forth. and the waters under the earth are the Ap world [*3]. 3. the support. Nostrils burst forth. The Marikis (the lights) are the sky. He thought: 'Shall I send forth worlds?' (1) He sent forth these worlds. and when that person had thus been brooded on. from hearing the Dis (quarters of the world). a mouth burst forth [*4] like an egg. From the eyes proceeded sight. He brooded on him [*3]. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. from scent Vayu (air). Eyes burst forth. and it is heaven. taking him forth from the water [*2]. Ambhas (water). That Ambhas (water) is above the heaven. Mara (mortal). From the mouth proceeded speech. from speech Agni (fire) [*5].
i. from the hairs shrubs and trees.' we should lose heaven altogether. 190. from the five elements. like Sankara and Colebrooke. purushakaram viratpindam. Ambhas was probably intended for the highest heaven (dyaus). because all creatures living there must die. here used as a name of the sky. Ap is water. From the heart proceeded mind. under the earth. from Apana death. earth. ^238:1 Purusha. and heaven itself. The navel burst forth. and was then explained both as what is above the heaven and as heaven itself. the waters above the heaven. Here it is fourfold. from mind Kandramas (moon).. Mara means dying. and the earth is called so. the Kandrayana. yet heaven. visvasya mishato vasi. ^237:3 The names of the four worlds are peculiar. a being of human shape. Ambhas means water. but to conceive and to will and to create by mere will. is essential in the Indian view of the world. mishat. does not mean here and in similar passages to perform austerities (tapas). ^237:2 Blinking. If we translate. (4) Footnotes ^237:1 Before the creation. I have translated it by brooding. here explained as the waters under the earth. cf. The generative organ burst forth. From the navel proceeded the Apana (the downbreathing) [*7]. 101 . the support. 2. Rv. an embodied being. Comm. and is the name given to the highest world. and heaven. from seed water. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. The usual division of the world is threefold. or. sing. the lord of all living. Colebrooke. ^238:2 According to the commentator. antariksha. as the commentator observes. e. Sayana. Sayana seems to take mishat as a 3rd pers. From the skin proceeded hairs (sense of touch).Skin burst forth. I the water is the region above the heaven which heaven upholds. as the commentator says. though this expresses a part only of the meaning expressed by tap. ^238:3 Tap. Roer. That person is meant for the Virag. From the organ proceeded seed. Marikis are rays. &c. living. The heart burst forth. beginning with water. X. sky. as the third with sky and earth. such as the Krikkhra. the fourth division being the water round the earth.
(the person) with hunger and thirst. 2.' (3) AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. SECOND KHANDA. 4.' Therefore man is well done. was opened. 102 . e. They said: 'This is not enough. must be distinguished from the prana. SECOND ARANYAKA. apana is deglutition and digestion. ghranendriya. They said: 'This is not enough. 10. Those deities (devata). The deities then (tormented by hunger and thirst) spoke to him (the Self): 'Allow us a place in which we may rest and eat food [*2]. ^238:6 Prana. Agni and the rest. He said to them: 'Enter. down-breathing. after they had been sent forth. and likewise from the prana as the principle of life. 1. indeed. 3. 239] which are supposed to keep the body alive. one of the five pranas. the instrument of the sense.' (2) He led man [*3] towards them. ^238:5 Three things are always distinguished here--the place of each sense.' (1) He led a cow towards them (the deities). is generally one of the five vital airs [p. Then they said: 'Well done [*4]. as we shall see in II. i. in our place. ^238:7 The Apana. the upbreathing. however. and the presiding deity of the sense. FOURTH ADHYAYA. each according to his place. Then he (the Self) besieged him. fell into this great ocean [*1].' He led a horse towards them. 3.^238:4 Literally.
having become mind. virtue. I make you co-partners with them. entered the ears. ^239:4 Sukrita. The Dis (regions). Then Hunger and Thirst spoke to him (the Self): 'Allow us two (a place). Kandramas (the moon). the first created person. Vayu (air).4. Then Agni (fire). presided over by the various deities. it can only be intended for intelligent man. Death. Aditya (sun). having become speech. entered the generative organ. having become sight. entered the nostrils. hunger and thirst are co-partners in it. entered the heart.' Therefore to whatever deity an oblation is offered. having become hearing.' He said to them: 'I assign you to those very deities there. FOURTH ADHYAYA. self-made. THIRD KHANDA. the universal person. (4) 5. having become hairs. He thought: 'There are these worlds and the guardians of the worlds. Or they fell into the world. entered the mouth. 103 .' (1) AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. The shrubs and trees. (5) Footnotes ^239:1 They fell back into that universal being from whence they had sprung. Let me send forth food for them. or. having become seed. having become scent. the Virag. ^239:3 Here purusha is different from the first purusha. having become down-breathing. SECOND ARANYAKA. the last cause of which is ignorance. entered the navel. ^239:2 To eat food is explained to mean to perceive the objects which correspond to the senses. entered the eyes. The waters. 1. if taken for svakrita. well done. entered the skin.
it wished to flee [*4]. (8) AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. (6) He tried to grasp it by the skin. man would be satisfied by touching food.He brooded over the water [*1]. man would be satisfied by naming food. He could not grasp it by the ear. He could not grasp it by the eye. man would be satisfied by seeing food. 104 . man would be satisfied by hearing food. If he had grasped it by speech. He could not grasp it by speech. And that matter which was born. If he had grasped it by the skin. If he had grasped it by scent. man would be satisfied by smelling food. man would be satisfied by thinking food. If he had grasped it by the ear. If he had grasped it by the mind. From the water thus brooded on. When this food (the object matter) had thus been sent forth. (5) He tried to grasp it by the ear. that verily was food [*3]. If he had grasped it by the eye. (4) He tried to grasp it by the eye. (2) 2. crying and turning away. (3) He tried to grasp it by scent (breath). He could not grasp it by the mind. (7) He tried to grasp it by the mind. matter [*2] (murti) was born. He could not grasp it by scent. He could not grasp it by the skin. He (the subject) tried to grasp it by speech.
if the ear hears. That door is called the Vidriti (tearing asunder). 9. He could not grasp it by the organ. this dwelling-place (the throat). 8. and the Vayu is verily Annayu (he who gives life or who lives by food). if the organ sends forth. He thought: 'How can all this be without me?' 5. Thus it is Vayu (the getter [*1]) who lays hold of food. the payvindriya). if the mind thinks. then what am I?' (11) 7. three dreams. 3. And then he thought: 'By what way shall I get there [*2]?' 6. He got it.He tried to grasp it by the generative organ. (10) 4. he got in by that door. And then he thought: 'If speech names. the Nandana (the place of bliss). 105 . (12) AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. if scent smells. There are three dwelling-places for him. Then opening the suture of the skull. this dwelling-place (the eye). If he had grasped it by the organ. if the eye sees. this dwelling-place (the heart) [*1]. man would be satisfied by sending forth food. if the offbreathing digests. if the skin feels. (9) He tried to grasp it by the down-breathing (the breath which helps to swallow food through the mouth and to carry it off through the rectum.
1). but it is by no means certain that the explanation given in the commentaries represents really the old traditional interpretation. when repeating three times 'this dwelling-place. ^240:3 Offered food. Being Idamdra by name. &c. which is the knowledge of Brahman. as the throat. Sankara explains them as the right eye. as the heart. Roer. and the heart. 'I saw it. 106 . objects for the Devatas and the senses in the body. dreaming. 11. the one way being from the top of the foot (cf. and he remarks that waking too is called a dream as compared with the true awakening. (14) Footnotes ^240:1 The water.e. and profound sleep. ^240:4 Atyagighamsat. In the last sentence the speaker. Sayana explains the three dwelling-places as the right eye. Colebrooke. the throat. by which of the two ways shall I get in. in order to see whether anything wished to proclaim here another (Self). Netre gagaritam vidyat kanthe svapnam samadiset. II. ^241:1 An attempt to derive vayu from vi. This interpretation is supported by a passage in the Brahma-upanishad. ^242:1 Passages like this must always have required an oral interpretation. a being of organised form. or the five elements. When born (when the Highest Self had entered the body) he looked through all things. animal food for cats. and one's own body. For the Devas love mystery. (13) Therefore he was Idam-dra (seeing this). form. as mentioned before. the inner mind. yea. He saw this person only (himself) as the widely spread Brahman. atisayena hantum gantum aikkhat. the other from the skull? Comm. The three dreams or sleeps he explains by waking. ^241:2 Or.' thus he said [*2]. 4. in a state of dreaming. 1.10. Ait. Ar. for murtti. the body of the mother. sushuptam hridayasya tu. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.e. in a state of waking. ^240:2 Murti. vrihiyavadirupa mushakadirupa ka murtih. i. vegetable food for men.' is supposed to point to his right eye. to get. they love mystery. Sayana allows another interpretation of the three dwelling-places being the body of the father. in a state of profound sleep. and the ether in the heart. i. Sayana. they call him Indra mysteriously.
1. and thought he was a man. When he commits the seed to the woman. (1) AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. he developed forms and names. we expect anyad. which is strength gathered from all the limbs of the body. was the developed Brahman. SECOND ARANYAKA. First of all. the true Self. was himself. 'Did he see the other Self?' which is only a figure of speech to convey the meaning that he did not see it. as we should say. he thought the text was too easy to require any explanation. or. blind. from the beginning he (the self) is in man as a germ. and secondly. he (the man) bears as self in his self (body). as it is elsewhere expressed. Let the women who are with child move away [*1]! 2. he arrived at the conclusion. and after having considered. he identified himself with them. This (seed). are not removed by these explanations. That is his first birth. My own translation is literal. was the Atman. happy. or because the writers of the MSS. he did so. then he (the father) causes it to be born. Sayana explains vavadishat by vadishyami. the person he had created. Anandagnana explains: 'He looked through all creatures. 107 . unless anyam refers to atmanam. whether they existed by themselves or not. in order to find out. FIFTH ADHYAYA. Verily. 'What does wish to proclaim here another Self?' And when he saw there was nothing which did not come from himself. What shall I call different from the true Self?' The real difficulties. 'He considered all beings. either because. FIRST KHANDA.' or literally. &c.. viz. left out [p. 3. as Anandagnana says. And how did this mistake arise? Because he did not see the other. the person he had sent forth. which is called seed. we expect vavadisham before iti. 243] the passage. but I am not certain that it conveys the true meaning. Sankara fails us. which is very obscure. or. One might understand it as implying that the Self looked about through all things. e. (i. then he recognised that the Purusha. because what else could he have wished to proclaim?) But he allows another explanation. however. but before iti the third person cannot well refer to the subject of vyaikshat.^242:2 In this passage. The particle iti is then to be taken in a causal sense.
For thus are these worlds continued. 12. having done all he has to do. 9. 1): (4) AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. When he thus elevates the child both before and after his birth. He (the son). She nourishes his (her husband's) self (the son) within her. 7. as if one of her own limbs. and having reached the full measure of his life. That seed becomes the self of the woman. For the continuation of these worlds (men). 6. IV. 8. The woman bears the germ. is to be nourished. 27. departs. 11. But his other self (the father). This is his second birth. Therefore it does not injure her. He (the father) elevates the child even before the birth. And departing from hence he is born again. (3) 10. 13. That is his third birth. he really elevates his own self. being his self.4. is then placed in his stead for (the performance of) all good works. 5. and immediately after [*1]. 108 . And this has been declared by a Rishi (Rv. (2) She who nourishes.
and by performing certain ceremonies both before and after the birth of a child.14. SIXTH ADHYAYA. (5) And having this knowledge he stepped forth.' 15. namely. perception. may the women who are with child walk away! It is counted as a paragraph. became immortal. Who is he whom [*1] we meditate on as the Self? Which [*2] is the Self? 3. That by which we see (form). he became immortal. that by which we hear (sound). ^244:1 By nourishing the mother. I discovered all the births of these Devas. after this dissolution of the body. Let the women go back to their place. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 1. that by which we distinguish sweet and not sweet. SECOND ARANYAKA. (1) and what comes from the heart and the mind. 2. yea. that by which we perceive smells. A hundred iron strongholds kept me. command. lying in the womb. that by which we utter speech. 109 . and having obtained all his desires in that heavenly world. begin this adhyaya with the sentence apakramantu garbhinyah. (6) Footnotes ^243:1 Some MSS. has thus declared this. FIRST KHANDA. understanding. Vamadeva. but I escaped quickly down like a falcon. 'While dwelling in the womb.
willing.knowledge. having by this conscious self stepped forth from this world. and seeds of this kind and that kind. 6. it is Pragapati [*4]. born from eggs. ^245:2 Or. horses. yea. thinking. All these Devas. Knowledge is Brahman. born from germs [*6]. the real or the phenomenal. earth.) [*3]. desiring? 4. all these are various names only of knowledge (the true Self). (3) 8. born from heat. water. men. No. elephants. born from the womb. conceiving. (2) 5. small and mixed [*5]. The world is led (produced) by knowledge (the Self). Om. air. consisting of (knowledge). cows. as it were.. ether. seeing. and having obtained all desires in that heavenly world. It rests on knowledge (the Self). And that Self. readiness (or suffering). 110 . it is Indra. these five great elements. 7. the nirupadhika or sopadhika? AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Thus it is. remembering. and what is immoveable--all that is led (produced) by knowledge (the Self). considering. wisdom. loving. fire. He (Vamadeva). he became immortal. Which of the two. whether walking or flying. (4) Footnotes ^245:1 I read ko yam instead of ko 'yam. is Brahman (m. Knowledge is its cause [*1]. breathing. became immortal. these and those which are. holding. and whatsoever breathes.
1. Comm. are not mentioned. It is frequently left out in the MSS. Sayana explains it in his commentary on the Aitareya-aranyaka. of Sankara's commentary on the Aitareya-upanishad. may this protect the teacher! May it protect me. ^245:6 Cf. ^246:1 We have no words to distinguish between pragna. says the commentary. Roer has omitted it in his edition. the teacher! Footnotes ^246:2 This seventh adhyaya contains a propitiatory prayer (santikaro mantrah). the Highest Self)! You (speech and mind) are the two pins [*4] (that hold the wheels) of the Veda. and Dr. ^245:5 Serpents. I join day and night with what I have learnt [*6]. Comm. Appear to me (thou. May what I have learnt not forsake me [*5]. may it protect the teacher. where the svedaga. the Agnapalaka of Virabukka-maharaga. 1. FIRST KHANDA. yea. I shall speak of the real. ^246:4 Ant. Both are names of the Highest Brahman. Up. ^245:4 Virag. and in one MS.. SECOND ARANYAKA. May this protect me. ^246:3 The two depend on each other.^245:3 Hiranyagarbha. my mind rests in speech [*3]. which is the beginning and end (pratishtha) of everything that exists or seems to exist. act of knowing. VI. &c. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. the seventh adhyaya is added with the commentary of Madhavamatya. which is in my possession. My speech rests in the mind. I shall speak the true. state of knowing. Kh. and pragnana. born from heat or perspiration. which contain the Aitareya-upanishad with Sankara's commentary. SEVENTH ADHYAYA [*2]. 3. 111 . explained by the commentator as anayanasamartha.
the latter half the heaven. therefore I do not agree with his (Manduka's) son. So far with reference to deities (mythologically). thus says Agastya. The former half is speech. the latter half speech. therefore air is considered independent. the latter half is mind. their union is the ether. the two are the same. now with reference to the body (physiologically): 6. 7. 2. their union the air [*3].^246:5 Cf. thus says Suravira Mandukeya. 1. FIRST KHANDA. IV. FIRST ADHYAYA. Up. THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. For it is the same. 112 . their union breath (prana). The former half is the earth. whether they say air or ether . That air is not considered [*4] independent [*5]. 3. 4. Verily. thus says Mandukeya. ^246:6 I repeat it day and night so that I may not forget it. Kh. 5. and then we utter AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 2. But his eldest son said: The former half is mind. 5. For we first conceive with the mind indeed . thus did Makshavya teach it. Next follows the Upanishad of the Samhita [*2].
joined with mind. we really worship Vishnu. and described by him in the journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. the i uttararupa. sing. The commentator. in agnim ile the m is purvarupa. And he who thus knows this union. not the ether in the air. 36. 8. 113 . 10. or almost entirely obliterated. the second the uttararupa. speech. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Comm. is (like) a chariot drawn by two horses and one horse between them (prashtivahana).with speech. 9. 11. glory of countenance. niskitavan. Footnotes ^247:1 This last portion of the Upanishad is found in the MS. but their union is really breath. however. it is the same with both. The joining together of two letters is called their samhita. and mi their samhita or union. so we ought to perceive the earth.). the father (Mandukeya) and the son. and breath. the heaven. Buhler in Kashmir. Therefore the former half is indeed mind. discovered by Dr. ^247:3 As in worshipping the Salagrama stone. I have collated it. passive. perf. Verily. He lives his full age. many lines being either broken off altogether. so far as it was possible to read it. ^247:4 Mene has here been taken as 3rd pers. and that group itself. the latter half speech. explains it as an active verb. ^247:5 Because it is included in the ether. For instance. p. ^247:2 Samhita is the sacred text in which all letters are closely joined. This (meditation as here described). fame. and the air when we pronounce the first and the second letters of a group. Now all this comes from the Mandukeyas. becomes united with offspring. the first letter of a joined group the purvarupa (n. 1877. cattle. and the world of Svarga.
their uniting the rain. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. So much with regard to the deities. 4. Next comes the meditation as taught by Sakalya. 2. There are two halves [*4] (of him). without ceasing. 3. And so it is when he (Parganya) rains thus strongly.THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. Every man is indeed like an egg [*3]. Then they say also (in ordinary language). FIRST ADHYAYA. there is this seed in the member. thus they say: 'This half is the earth. that half heaven. SECOND KHANDA. As there is that sun in heaven. there is this heart in the body. The first half is the earth. As there is that lightning in the sky. In this ether there (in the mouth) the breath is fixed. there is this eye in the head. now with regard to the body:-6. 1. And as there are those three luminaries (in heaven). as there is that fire on earth. the uniter Parganya [*1]. the second half heaven.' And there between them is the ether (the space of the mouth). day and night [*2]. like the ether between heaven and earth.' 5. 114 . 'Heaven and earth have come together. there are these three luminaries in man. as in that other ether the air is fixed. 7.
that half heaven. Now. THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. 4. 115 . that is the form of Pratrinna [*6]. and the world of Svarga. glory of countenance. becomes united with offspring. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Pratrinna in heaven. the Ubhayamantarena in the sky.8. let him answer: 'Thou art fallen from the two higher places [*4]. 2. By the Ubhayamantara (what is between the two) both are fulfilled (both the sandhi and the pada). FIRST ADHYAYA. Next come the reciters of the Nirbhuga [*2]. 9. if any one should chide him who recites the Nirbhuga. THIRD KHANDA [*1]. Having thus represented the self (body) as the whole world. Sakalya said: This half is the earth. For when he turns out the Sandhi (the union of words). let him answer: 'Thou art fallen from the two lower places [*3]. cattle. Nirbhuga abides on earth. and when be pronounces two syllables pure (without modification).' But he who recites the Ubhayamantarena. fame.' If any one should chide him who recites the Pratrinna. that is the form of Nirbhuga [*5]. This comes first [*1]. 3. He lives his full age. He who thus knows this union. there is no chiding him. 1.
'--thus says Suravira Mandukeya. Let him who wishes for proper food say the Nirbhuga. 'I bow before Brahmanas. the deity. let him say to him: 'Thou hast offended the sky. will strike thee. the deity. let him who wishes for Svarga. the deity. the deity. Nay. the sky. will strike thee. but he should say. Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Now if another man (an enemy) should chide him who says the Nirbhuga. the deity. the deity. 8. 10. let him say to him: 'Thou hast offended the earth. let him say to him: 'Thou hast offended heaven. let him who wishes for both say the Ubhayamantarena.' 7. it will come to pass. 9. But to a Brahmana let him not say anything except what is auspicious. heaven. the earth. 116 . say the Pratrinna. not even in excessive wealth should he curse a Brahmana.' If another man should chide him who says the Ubhayamantarena. depend upon it. 6. will strike thee. And whatever the reciter shall say to one who speaks to him or does not speak to him. Only he may curse a Brahmana in excessive wealth [*2].' If another man should chide him who says the Pratrinna.5.
the two words forming. II. ed. ii. p. the between the two. therefore the same as Samhita. and both are united as ya. one may use forms which belong to the Samhita-text. Up. and Nachtrage. a reading confirmed both by the commentary and by the Kashmir MS. Kashmir MS. or with two arms stretched out. Comm. or he may curse him. ^249:3 Andam. ^250:1 Cf. as declared and explained in this peculiar act of worship. Kh. heaven and earth seem to be one in rain. and therefore mistakes are less likely to happen. as it were. or he may wish him the curse of excessive wealth. ^250:2 Nirbhuga(n) is the recitation of the Veda without intervals. reads manasaivagre.^248:1 Both views are tenable. if he is exceeding rich. the god of rain. 3. ^250:6 Pratrinna means cut asunder. andasadrisam. before they were united according to the laws of Sandhi. Rig-veda-pratisakhya. Comm. ^248:3 The Kashmir MS. By reciting the Samhita inattentively. ^248:2 The man among heroes. ^250:4 From the sky and from heaven. Thus Parganya. 22. ^248:4 Both views are admissible. ^249:2 When it rains incessantly. if something great depends on it. is the cause which unites earth and heaven into rain. but their names. ^248:5 Pranasamhitah. 117 . Here a is the cause which changes i into y. Comm. one may use forms which belong to the Pada-text. Max Muller. as if the arms of the words were taken away. We should read akasasketi. Comm. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. ^249:4 The one half from the feet to the lower jaw. the so-called Krama-patha. is the intertwining of Samhita and Padapatha. Pratrinna is the recitation of each word by itself (pada-patha). p. every word being separated from the others. ^250:5 Nirbhuga may mean without arms. Ubhayamantarena. the other half from the upper jaw to the skull. But in reciting the Krama both the Samhita and Pada forms are used together. the i is changed to y. ^251:2 He may curse him. ^251:1 The words were first each separate. two arms to one body. and by reciting the Pada inattentively. Comm. ^250:3 From earth and sky. ^249:1 If i is followed by a. Cf. for it is not the actual air and ether which are meditated on. iii.
he says: 'I grasped the breath. Breath. well. thou dost not prevail against me who have grasped the breath as the beam. it will come to pass. FOURTH KHANDA. the beam. not even in excessive wealth should he curse a Brahmana. let him say to him: 'Thou couldst not grasp him who wishes to grasp the breath as the beam. Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. depend upon it.'--thus says Suravira Mandukeya. if he thinks himself strong. But to a Brahmana let him not say anything except what is auspicious. who by meditation has become that breath as beam [*3].' 5. will forsake thee. Only he may curse a Brahmana in excessive wealth. And whatever the reciter shall say to one who speaks to him or does not speak to him. but he should say. the beam. Let him know that breath [*2] is the beam (on which the whole house of the body rests). the beam. If any one (a Brahmana or another man) should chide him. 'I bow before Brahmanas. 2. FIRST ADHYAYA. 118 .' 4. Nay. Next follow the imprecations [*1].' Let him say to him: 'Breath. 1. then. will forsake thee. 3.THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. But if he thinks himself not strong.
the former half is the first syllable. He lives his full age. "Yes. Now Hrasva Mandukeya says: 'We reciters of Nirbhuga say. cf. and the space between the first and second halves is the Samhita (union). not as imprecations. the latter half the second syllable. 1. but as referring to those who leach or use the imprecations. Now those who repeat the Nirbhuga say: 2. as explained before. ^252:3 If he should tell him that he did not meditate on breath properly. 1. and the world of Svarga. fame. 'The former half [*1] is the first syllable. cattle.^252:1 The commentator explains anuvyahara. THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. 119 . FIRST ADHYAYA. FIFTH KHANDA. III. becomes united with offspring. but the Samhita is the space between the first and second halves in so far as by it one turns out the union (sandhi)."' AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. such teachers say what follows. and distinguishes what is the mora and what is not. 4.' 3. He who thus knows this Samhita (union). and knows what is the accent and what is not [*2]. 1. the union of mind and speech. ^252:2 Breath. glory of countenance. such imprecations being necessary to guard against the loss of the benefits accruing from the meditation and worship here described. 2. and the latter half the second syllable. This is the opinion of Sthavira Sakalya.
5. He who thus knows this Samhita (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age. 6. Now his middle son, the child of his mother Pratibodhi [*3], says: 'One pronounces these two syllables letter by letter, without entirely separating them, and without entirely uniting them [*1]. Then that mora between the first and second halves, which indicates the union, that is the Saman (evenness, sliding). I therefore hold Saman only to be the Samhita (union). 7. This has also been declared by a Rishi (Rv. II, 23, 16):-8. 'O Brihaspati, they know nothing higher than Saman.' 9. He who thus knows this Samhita (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age. Footnotes
^253:1 As spoken of before, III, 1, 1, 1. ^253:2 In agnim ile, ile by itself has no accent, but as joined by sandhi with agnim, its first syllable becomes svarita, its second prakita. In tava it, the vowel i is a short mora or matra; but if joined with va, it vanishes, and becomes long e, tavet. Comm. ^253:3 Pratibodhiputra, the son of Pratibodhi, she being probably one out of several wives of Hrasva. Another instance of this metronymic nomenclature occurred in Krishna Devakiputra, Kh. Up. III, 7, 6. The Kashmir MS. reads Prakibodhi, but Pratibodha is a recognised name in Gana Vidadi, and the right reading is probably Pratibodhi. The same MS. leaves out putra aha. ^254:1 So that the e in tavet should neither be one letter e, nor two letters a + i, but something between the two, enabling us to hear a + i in the pronunciation of e.
THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. FIRST ADHYAYA. SIXTH KHANDA. 1. Tarukshya [*2] said: 'The Samhita (union) is formed by means of the Brihat and Rathantara [*3] Samans.' 2. Verily, the Rathantara Saman is speech, the Brihat Saman is breath. By both, by speech and breath, the Samhita is formed [*4]. 3. For this Upanishad (for acquiring from his teacher the knowledge of this Samhita of speech and breath) Tarukshya guards (his teacher's) cows a whole year. 4. For it alone Tarukshya guards the cows a whole year. 5. This has also been declared by a Rishi (Rv. X, 181, 1; and Rv. X, 181, 2):-6. 'Vasishtha carried hither the Rathantara; 'Bharadvaga brought hither the Brihat of Agni.' 7. He who thus knows this Samhita (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age. 8. Kauntharavya said: 'Speech is united with breath, breath with the blowing air, the blowing air with the Visvedevas, the Visvedevas with
the heavenly world, the heavenly world with Brahman. That Samhita is called the gradual Samhita.' 9. He who knows this gradual Samhita (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga, in exactly the same manner as this Samhita, i.e. gradually. 10. If that worshipper, whether for his own sake or for that of another, recites (the Samhita), let him know when he is going to recite, that this Samhita went up to heaven, and that it will be even so with those who by knowing it become Devas. May it always be so! 11. He who thus knows this Samhita (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age. 12. Pankalakanda said: 'The Samhita (union, composition) is speech.' 13. Verily, by speech the Vedas, by speech the metres are composed. Friends unite through speech, all beings unite through speech; therefore speech is everything here [*1]. 14. With regard to this (view of speech being more than breath), it should be borne in mind that when we thus repeat (the Veda) or speak, breath is (absorbed) in speech; speech swallows breath. And when we are silent or sleep, speech is (absorbed) in breath; breath swallows speech. The two swallow each other. Verily, speech is the mother, breath the son.
This has also been declared by a Rishi (Rv. becomes united with offspring. glory of countenance. For Aditi (indestructible) is all this whatever there is. Next follows the Pragapati-Samhita. 'Aditi is mother. The former half is the wife. becomes united with offspring. father. 21. is father. He who thus knows this Samhita (union). and the world of Svarga. With my ripe mind I saw him close to me (in the heart). cattle. glory of countenance. is son. and begetting. 4):-16. 123 . and he absorbs the mother (speech). He who thus knows this Samhita (union). 'There is one bird. the latter half the man. 189. (as wind) he has entered the sky. 10)-22. that Samhita is Aditi (indestructible).' 17. fame. This has been declared also by a Rishi (Rv. I. fame. He lives his full age. the result of their union the son. He lives his full age. X. 19.' 23. mother. son. the act of their union the begetting. (as breath or living soul) he saw this whole world.15. Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 18. and the world of Svarga. 20. cattle. the mother (licks or) absorbs him (breath). 114.
the senses. like the semivowels [*4]. bones. reads Tarkshya. Comm. and the rest. THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Of that self the breathing is like the sibilants. there are 360 (parts) on this side (the right). blood. 4. the bones like the mutes. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. the mind. and joints. 1-4. 2. a name used before as the title of a hymn (Ait. marrow. Sthavira Sakalya said that breath is the beam [*2]. and speech is like unto the days. viz. 124 . 3. the whole self rests on this [*3] breath. the marrow like the vowels. Of that triad. the speech. I. 2. Ar. IV. ^254:3 See Ait. 1. and the fourth part. and they are to remind the worshipper that speech and breath are required for all actions. ^254:4 These two. and as the other beams rest on the house-beam. and 360 on that side (the left). I. the body. FIRST KHANDA. thus the eye. metre. the ear.^254:2 The Kashmir MS. flesh. and 720 [*6] are the days and nights of the year. 1. see Pan. Ar. 5. hearing. mind. 4. 105. ^255:1 Everything can be obtained by speech in this life and in the next. To us it was said to be a triad only [*5]. Here Tarakshya seems preferable. 8). Thus that self which consists of sight. the Brihat and Rathantara. They make 720 together. are required for the Prishthastotra in the Agnishtoma.--so said Hrasva Mandukeya. 2.
metre. There are 360 syllables (vowels). AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. not four. ^257:6 The Kashmir MS. Ar. what we called sibilants are the nights. ^257:5 Sakalya. reads etasmin prane. while it is otherwise most careful in writing all sibilants. likeness. 360. pada. ^257:2 Ait. SECOND KHANDA. The self here is meant for the body. Now follow meditations suggested by certain classes of letters. or nearness with the days. So far with regard to the gods (the days). THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. What we called syllables are the days. mind. told his disciples that there were three classes only.5. Footnotes ^257:1 In the first adhyaya meditations suggested by samhita. III. and speech. Next comes Kauntharavya: 2. groups. 4. obtains union. and lives his full age. which consists of sight. and yet it seems to be different from sarira. reads trayam tv eva na ityetat proktam. hearing. has sons and cattle. 1. reads sapta vimsatis ka satani. 3. as we saw. ^257:3 The Kashmir MS. 1. The Kashmir MS. He who thus knows this self. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. 125 . as like unto the days. and krama have been discussed. 360 sibilants (consonants). writes antastha without visarga. what we called groups are the junctions of days and nights. Comm. ^257:4 The Kashmir MS.
and three times ten. metre. and 540 on that side (the left). 126 . viz. 7. 9. Thus that self which consists of sight. 5. and joints. are physiologically the marrow. 1080. there are 540 (parts) on this side (the right). mind. are physiologically the joints. likeness. obtains union. 6. ten would give 360 syllables. and 1080 are the rays of the sun. has sons and cattle. They make 1080 together. Of that triad. He who knows this self which consists of sight. it will decay. and speech is like unto the syllables. hearing. bones. hearing. for marrow is seed. Marrow is the real breath (life). and as each Brihati is decreed to consist of thirty-six syllables. metre. it will not grow. Footnotes ^258:1 There are in the Mahavrata eighty tristichs of Brihatis. and lives his full age. are physiologically the bones. and without breath (life) seed is not sown. The syllables which we explained mythologically. 8. and speech. as like unto syllables.4. marrow. Now with regard to the body. the sibilants which we explained mythologically. or nearness with the syllables. They make the Brihati verses and the day (of the Mahavrata) [*1]. Or when it is sown without breath (life). AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Comm. mind. The groups which we explained mythologically.
Its essence is the incorporeal conscious self. and Sama-veda. 3. What we call the person of the Veda is (the mind) by which we know the Vedas. 5. What we call the person of the metres is this collection of letters (the Veda). Its essence is Brahman [*2](m. 1. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and is able to see any flaw in the sacrifice. the person of the metres. Yagur-veda. there are four persons (to be meditated on and worshipped). and the Great person. 4. What we call the Great person is the year. THIRD KHANDA. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. the Rig-veda. 7. which causes some beings to fall together.THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. Its essence is the vowel a. Badhva [*1] says. The person of the body. What we call the person of the body is this corporeal self. the person of the Veda. and causes others to grow up. 127 . Its essence is yonder sun.) 6. 2. Therefore let one chose a Brahman-priest who is full of Brahman (the Veda).
--the sun is the self of all that rests and moves. hearing. mind. 'This I think to be the regular Samhita as conceived by me. 14. in all beings. ^259:2 Hiranyagarbha. in the water. in the air. Footnotes ^259:1 Instead of Badhya. in the moon. in herbs. Him they see in this earth. That self which consists of sight. in the stars. metre. and speech. 1):-10. metre. One should know that the incorporeal conscious self and yonder sun are both one and the same. the commentary and the Kashmir MS. and Agni. 12. and is like unto the year. it filled heaven and earth and the sky. read Badhva. 9. and speech is like unto the year. 128 . This has also been declared by a Rishi (Rv.' 11. 115.' thus said Badhva. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. the eye of Mitra. Varuna. in heaven. Therefore the sun appears to every man singly (and differently). hearing. with whom he who knows the Veda becomes identified. mind.8. 13. the Adhvaryus in the sacrificial fire. in trees. For the Bahvrikas consider him (the self) in the great hymn (mahad uktha). He who recites to another that self which consists of sight. the Khandogas in the Mahavrata ceremony. Comm. 'The bright face of the gods arose. Him alone they call Brahman. I. in the ether.
let him willingly do this for a father or for an Akarya. 6):-3. This has also been declared by a Rishi (Rv. his head smells bad like a AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Though he hears. However.' 4. lay the sacrificial fire (belonging to the Mahavrata) for another. We have said that the incorporeal conscious self and the sun are one [*1]. he hears in vain. the patient cannot retain the wind. Here it is clearly said that he has no luck in what he has learnt. 1. let him not sing the Samans of the Mahavrata for another. he does not know the path of virtue. that knows his friends. 6. When these two become separated [*2]. no rays spring from it. 'He who has forsaken the friend (the Veda). Therefore let no one who knows this.THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. X. in his speech there is no luck. the sky is red like madder. the sun is seen as if it were the moon [*3]. 5. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. and that he does not know the path of virtue. for that is done really for himself. he has no luck in what he has learnt (from his Guru). 2. let him not recite the Sastras of that day for another. for he does not know the path of virtue. 129 . 71. FOURTH KHANDA. 7. To him the Vedas yield no more milk.
2127). or without a head [*5]. when the sun is seen pierced. that he is going to die soon). or when he sees as it were bright rays in a dark cloud. 6. 10. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. But if he does not hear it. 30). 13. let him cover his ears and listen. and there will be a sound as if of a burning fire or of a carriage [*2]. when he sees his own shadow pierced. Ad it pratnasya retasah (Rv. Yatra brahma pavamana (Rv. and seems like the nave of a cart-wheel.raven's nest:--let him know then that his self (in the body) is gone. then threads are seen as if falling together [*1]. 10). let him know then that it is so. Next. Ud vayam tamasas pari (Rv. VIII. 67. 9. let him know then that it is so. when he sees himself in a mirror or in the water with a crooked head. let him cover his eyes and watch. 12. Next. 6-11). 8. 113. or when his pupils are seen inverted [*6] or not straight. e. or when he sees lightning in a cloudless sky. Next. let him do it. Next. But if he does not see them. or no lightning in a clouded sky. IX. and let him recite the following hymns: Yad anti yak ka durake (Rv. i. let him know then that it is so (as stated before. and that he will not live very long [*4]. Next. let him know then that it is so. when fire looks blue like the neck of a peacock [*3]. IX. 50. 11. 130 . let him know then that it is so. Then whatever he thinks he has to do.. I.
17. let him fast. let him know that it is so. 131 . not reached. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. These are the visible signs (from 7-14). not seen. a monkey jumps on [*5] him. accompanying each oblation with a verse of the Ratri hymn (Rv. and then. wearing a wreath of red flowers (naladas) he drives a black cow with a black calf. he chews stalks. classing. when he sees the ground as if it were burning. seeing. 8. sacrifice it. 19. X. the wind carries him along quickly. Footnotes ^261:1 Ait. or a boar kills him. 16. after having fed the Brahmanas. If he sees a black man with black teeth. Next. Next come the dreams [*4]. 18. not understood. he carries a red lotus. thinking. If a man sees any one of these (dreams). Ar. but hearing. III. 2. and cook a pot of milk. not thought. sounding. not subdued. 3. he drives with asses and boars. 12 7). with other food (prepared at his house) eat himself the (rest of the) oblation. 15. is his Self. facing the south [*7]. having swallowed gold he spits it out [*6]. not classed.14. Let him know that the person within all beings. knowing. and that man kills him. understanding. he eats honey. not heard here [*1].
the sibilants the sky. Hist. the vowels heaven. but this they call so (chiefly). 8. ^262:2 See Kh. ^261:4 The Kashmir MS. 10. ^262:5 The Kashmir MS. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. ^261:3 elios menoeides Xen. and therefore a number of premonitory symptoms are considered in this place. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. reads avagirati. The Kashmir MS. ^262:3 The Kashmir MS. so as to bring their number to ten. reads mayuragriva ameghe. 4. 3. Comm. reads askandati. ^261:5 The Kashmir MS. THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. reads givayishyati.^261:2 This separation of the self of the sun and the conscious self within us is taken as a sign of approaching death. ^263:1 The Kashmir MS. 2. The mute consonants represent the earth. III. ^262:4 The Kashmir MS. reads batirakani sampatantiva. Up. which are left out in the printed text. Now next the Upanishad of the whole speech. reads gihmasirasam vasariram atmanam. and the commentary give the words rathasyevopabdis. ^262:6 The Kashmir MS. True all these are Upanishads of the whole speech. 132 . gr. ^261:6 A white pupil in a black eye-ball. 13. FIFTH KHANDA [*2] 1. reads sa yatas sruto. reads svapnah. ^262:1 The Kashmir MS. ^262:7 The commentator separates the last dream.
The mute consonants represent the eye. made by man). 133 . so that is endowed with sound and firmly strung. the sibilants the Yagurveda. Verily. 5.The mute consonants represent Agni (fire). the vowels the sun. As there are consonants of this. As there are vowels of this. so there is a head of that (lute. the vowels the back-breathing. As there is a stomach of this. As there is a tongue of this. 4. The mute consonants represent the up-breathing. so there are touches of that. As this is endowed with sound and firmly strung. in former times they covered a lute with a hairy skin. so that is covered with a hairy skin. the sibilants air. so there are strings of that [*3]. As this is covered with a hairy skin. so there is a tongue [*2] in that. As there is a head of this. Next comes this divine lute (the human body. so there are tones of that. As there are fingers of this. the sibilants the ear. so there is the cavity [*1] (In the board) of that. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. the sibilants the down-breathing. the vowels the Sama-veda. The mute consonants represent the Rig-veda. the vowels the mind. 3. The lute made by man is an imitation of it. made by the gods).
is willingly listened to. as it were. hastena. 1. 7. Next follows the verse. ^264:3 Here the order is inverted in the text. help me to speak well. who is covered. &c. let him say this verse: 8. his glory fills the earth. and wherever they speak Aryan languages. Next Krishna-Harita [*4] confided this Brahmana [*5] concerning speech to him (his pupil): 2. ^264:2 Vadanam. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. Footnotes ^263:2 After having inserted the preceding chapter on omina and the concluding paragraph on the highest knowledge. called vagrasa. He put himself together again by means of khandas (Vedas). surrounded by teeth. the essence of speech. 134 . Because he AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. what makes the instrument speak. Comm. the year. SIXTH KHANDA. ^264:1 The Kashmir MS. he now returns to the meditation on the letters. 'May the queen of all speech. the essence of speech. by the lips. THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. after having sent forth all creatures.6. who is a thunderbolt. reads udara evam. there they know him. burst. He who knows this lute made by the Devas (and meditates on it).' This is the vagrasa. When a man reciting or speaking in an assembly does not please. as if by spears. Pragapati.
'Shall I say it with the letter n or without it? 'let the teacher say. and if we say the adhyaya of Mandukeya (Ait.' 8. the letter sh the breath and self (Atman). Here the Rishis. knowing this. the Kavasheyas [*3]. Let him know that this is the life of the Samhita. and if we say the adhyaya of Mandukeya. 3.' 6. 1). therefore (the text of the Veda) is called Samhita (put together). 'With the letter n. 5. or speech in breath. III. 'Shall I say it with the letter sh or without it?' let the teacher say.' And if he asks. said: 'Why should we repeat (the Veda). 135 .' 7. Ar. What is the beginning (of one). 4. Hrasva Mandukeya said: 'If we here recite the verses according to the Samhita (attending to the necessary changes of n and s into n and sh [*2]). Sthavira Sakalya said: 'If we recite the verses according to the Samhita.' AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 'With the letter sh [*1].put himself together again by means of khandas. Of that Samhita the letter n is the strength. he knows the Samhita with strength and breath. that is the end (of the other). why should we sacrifice? We offer as a sacrifice breath in speech. He who knows the Rik verses and the letters n and sh for every Samhita. If the pupil asks. then the letters n and sh have by this been obtained for us. then the letters n and sh (strength and breath) have by this been obtained for us.
Thus say the teachers.9. yea. Ar. 136 . 1-III. Even if he has read many other things. he should not read [p. III. and who is not himself to become an instructor [*1]. and even if he should forget anything else. 11. 2) to one who is not a resident pupil. 16. he should never forget this. 268] anything else. nor amuse himself with any one who does not know it. 17. 'It is enough. let him know this to be true. he should not forget this. who has not been with his teacher at least one year. 'And in the place where he reads this. though he may read this (the Mahavrata) where he has read something else. 15. 13. 'Let him who knows this not communicate. Let no one tell these Samhitas (Ait. he should not become a snataka if he has not read this. and then rest in another place finishing it. nor dine. 'If he does not forget this. 'No one should bathe and become a snataka [*1c] who does not read this. it will be enough for himself (or for acquiring a knowledge of the Self).' AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 12. 14. 'No. thus say the teachers. 'Nor should he forget it.
when the shadows meet (he should begin at sunrise so soon as the shadows divide. not even during the night. like the svishtakrit at the end of a sacrifice. he becomes Brahman.' which the commentator explains as restrictive or useless. who was dark. When speech begins. ^265:3 The Kavasheyas said that. Nor should he at that time tell stories. ^265:2 If we know whenever n and s should be changed to n and sh in the Samhita. may mean. when they are silent or asleep. 137 . August and September [*4c]) he should stop his Vedic reading for three nights. and he who thus knows the name of that Great Being. when breathing begins.Then follow some more rules as to the reading of the Veda in general: 18. and when there is an unseasonable rain (after the months of Sravana and Bhadrapada. January to February [*2c]) he should not read. 19. the changing of n and s into n and sh. 'This (the Veda thus learnt and studied) is the name of that Great Being. 'When the old water that stood round the roots of trees is dried up (after about the month of Pausha. Nor should he read [*3c] when a cloud has risen. e. It forms an appendix. 'Iva. he becomes Brahman. whenever they speak. nor should he glory in his knowledge. speech ceases. Comm. ^265:1 The letters n and sh refer most likely to the rules of natva and shatva. breathing ceases. this secret doctrine or explanation. 266] required. in the sense of Upanishad. yea. i. nor (at any time) in the morning or in the afternoon. or speech in breath. after they had arrived at the highest knowledge of Brahman (through the various forms of meditation and worship that lead to it and that have been described in the Upanishad) no further meditation and no further sacrifice could be [p.' Footnotes ^264:4 One of the sons of Harita. ^264:5 Brahmana. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and end in the evening before they fall together). something like a Brahmana. Instead of the morning and evening stoma they offer breath in speech.
anybody might be the sacrificer. or ornamented himself with flower-wreaths. the sacrificer is a Hotri priest. when he has seen blood. and every portion of it. No one is permitted to do so. He should not be covered with too much clothing. nor lie down. It would have seemed self-evident that.^266:1 The strict prohibition uttered at the end of the third Aranyaka. 'Not to a child. 9. or a corpse. 'Let no one tell these Samhitas to any pupil who has not at least been a year with his master. 'Let no one teach this day. 'The teacher and pupil should not stand. the initiation for the Agnishtoma. put colour on. Here we have first some rules as to who is qualified to recite the Mahavrata. should recite it for another person. so says Gatukarnya. follow other restrictions as to the teaching of it. nor should he do so. and has been so for one year. certainly not to one who does not study the same Veda. oiled or rubbed his body. by a pupil performing all the duties of a student (brahmakarin [*2a]). 6. and here we read. After these restrictions as to the recitation of the Mahavrata. and who does not mean to become a teacher in turn. nor lean forward. when he has anointed his eyes. 8. when he has eaten flesh. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. when he has been shaved or bathed. [p. to one who is not a regular pupil (antevasin). as at the end of the Upanishad: 4. III. or when he has done an unlawful thing [*2b]. 'The pupil should not lean backward while learning. is peculiar. But if the Mahavrata is performed as an Ekaha or Ahina ceremony. but without using any of the apparel of a devotee. not to divulge a knowledge of the Samhita-upanishad (Ait. Nor should he learn. nor to one who is not a brahmakarin and does not study the same Veda [*1b]. 5. 138 . i. e. uninitiated. when he has been writing or effacing his writing [*3b]. that one should not recite the Mahavrata for another person. the Mahavrata. is done for ourselves. Ar. however.' That this is the right view is confirmed by similar injunctions given at the end of the fifth Aranyaka. like the rest of the sruti or sacred literature. and to translate. 'One man should tell it to one man. Nor can there be any doubt that we ought to take the words asamvatsaravasin and apravaktri as limitations. and therefore it was necessary to say that no one who is adikshita. nor sit on a couch. nor walk. could have been learnt from the mouth of a teacher only. certainly not to one who has not been so for one year. parents and teachers are not to be understood as included. the Aranyaka too. nor to one who does not come to him. simply elevate his knees. nor assume the postures of a devotee. and he naturally has passed through that ceremony. so that no one except a regular pupil (antevasin) could possibly gain access to it. If the Mahavrata is performed as a Sattra. because what is done for them. and according to rule (niyamena). nor to a man in his third stage of life. 1-2). In saying. who has not passed through the Diksha. twice only. 'Let the teaching not be more than saying it once or twice. or if it does not last one year. as here explained. 7. but they should both sit on the ground. 267] when the Mahavrata is performed without (or with) an altar.
translated by Buhler. akramya is explained by the commentator by ^266:3b This. Ar. ^266:1b See Gautama-sutras XIV. 4. 92 (I. and Buhler's note. translated by Buhler. p. 2). 1). 31). 21. ^266:2a Apastamba-sutras. translated by Buhler. so says Gatukarnya. 3. ^266:1c Apastamba-sutras. 'Nor should he finish the reading in one day. 1-4. 139 . 3. 3. I. ^266:3c Apastamba-sutras. 2. p. 9. while according to Galava. translated by Buhler. 33 (I. Agnivesyayana holds that he should finish all before the Trikasitis [*4b]^266:4b See Ait. ^266:2c Apastamba-sutras. p. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. if rightly translated. he should finish it in one day. p. 30. 18. translated by Buhler. 33 (I.10. 44 (I. ^266:4c Apastamba-sutras. would seem to be the earliest mention of actual writing in Sanskrit literature. 3. 9. ^266:2b Navratyam ukkhishtadyakramana. 11. p. 4).
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