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Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 1

This set of slides covers the fundamental concepts of structural dynamics of linear elastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) structures. A separate topic covers the analysis of linear elastic multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems. A separate topic also addresses inelastic behavior of structures. Proficiency in earthquake engineering requires a thorough understanding of each of these topics.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes

Slide 1

Structural Dynamics

• Equations of motion for SDOF structures • Structural frequency and period of vibration • Behavior under dynamic load • Dynamic magnification and resonance • Effect of damping on behavior • Linear elastic response spectra

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 2

This slide lists the scope of the present topic. In a sense, the majority of the material in the topic provides background on the very important subject of response spectra.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes

Slide 2

Importance in Relation to ASCE 7-05

**• Ground motion maps provide ground
**

accelerations in terms of response spectrum coordinates.

**• Equivalent lateral force procedure gives base
**

shear in terms of design spectrum and period of vibration.

**• Response spectrum is based on 5% critical
**

damping in system.

**• Modal superposition analysis uses design
**

response spectrum as basic ground motion input.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 - 3

The relevance of the current topic to the ASCE 7-05 document is provided here. Detailed referencing to numbered sections in ASCE 7-05 is provided in many of the slides. Note that ASCE 7-05 is directly based on the 2003 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, FEMA 450, which is available at no charge from the FEMA Publications Center, 1-800-480-2520 (order by FEMA publication number).

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes

Slide 3

The idealization assumes that all of the mass of the structure can be lumped into a single point and that all of the deformation in the frame occurs in the columns with the beam staying rigid. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 4 . damping. Represent damping as a simple viscous dashpot common as it allows for a linear dynamic analysis. The function u(t) defines the displacement response of the system under the loading F(t). u ( t ) t u(t) t Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.4 The simple frame is idealized as a SDOF mass-spring-dashpot model with a time-varying applied load. and stiffness as shown.g. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . The properties of the structure can be completely defined by the mass. Other types of damping models (e.Idealized SDOF Structure F(t) Mass Damping Stiffness F ( t ).. friction damping) are more realistic but require nonlinear analysis.

Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . However. dynamic equilibrium must be maintained. damping. at each point in time.5 Here the equations of motion are shown as a force-balance.5 f S ( t ) 0 . FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 5 . and elastic resisting forces do not necessarily act in the same direction.5 f S ( t ) F (t ) − f I (t ) − fD (t ) − fS (t ) = 0 fI (t ) + fD (t ) + fS (t ) = F (t ) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. At any point in time. the inertial.Equation of Dynamic Equilibrium f I (t ) fD (t ) F (t ) 0 .

Observed Response of Linear SDOF Applied Force. and acceleration. Also. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . the vertical lines show that velocity is zero when displacement is maximum and acceleration is zero when velocity is maximum.20 0.40 0.40 0. As a result of the loading.20 0. in/sec2 0.00 400. in/sec -15.00 0.00 Time.20 0. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 6 .00 15.50 0.80 1.00 0. Note that although the loading is discontinuous. in 0.00 0. the mass will undergo displacement.40 0. velocity.00 0.00 0. NONLIN is an educational program for dynamic analysis of simple linear and nonlinear structures.00 Acceleration. Version 7 is included on the CD containing these instructional materials.00 Velocity.80 1.60 0.80 1.20 0. Each of these quantities are measured with respect to the fixed base of the structure.40 0.60 0. the response is relatively smooth.00 Displacement.60 0.00 0. sec Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.80 1.00 -0. kips 40 0 -40 0.50 0.00 -400.6 This slide (from NONLIN) shows a series of response histories for a SDOF system subjected to a saw-tooth loading.00 0.60 0.

00 25.00 0. For a linear system. inches Velocity. Kips 4.00 -0.00 -10.00 -500 -250 0 250 2 500 Displacement.00 Inertial Force.00 -30. In/sec Acceleration. kips 30.00 -15. the resisting forces are proportional to the motion.00 0.00 -20.00 10. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 7 .60 -4.00 0.60 -0. kips 15.00 2.00 0.130 kip-sec2/in f S ( t ) = k u( t ) & f D ( t ) = c u( t ) && f I ( t ) = m u( t ) SDOF Dynamics 3 .7 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.00 Damping Force.00 -2.30 0. The importance of understanding and correct use of units cannot be over emphasized.00 -50. in/sec Slope = k = 50 kip/in Slope = c = 0.00 0. Design Examples These X-Y curves are taken from the same analysis that produced the response histories of the previous slide. Similar relationships exist for damping force vs velocity (slope = damping) and elastic force vs displacement (slope = stiffness).30 0.Observed Response of Linear SDOF (Development of Equilibrium Equation) Spring Force. The slope of the inertial-force vs acceleration curve is equal to the mass.00 -25.00 50.00 20.254 kip-sec/in Slope = m = 0.

the goal is to determine the response history of the system. acceleration.8 Here the equations of motion are shown in terms of the displacement. Given the forcing function. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 8 .5 f S ( t ) f I (t ) + fD (t ) + fS (t ) = F (t ) && & m u( t ) + c u( t ) + k u( t ) = F ( t ) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. F(t). and force relationships presented in the previous slide. velocity.Equation of Dynamic Equilibrium f I (t ) fD (t ) F (t ) 0 . Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .5 f S ( t ) 0 .

10 psf partition allowance. operating weight of all permanent equipment. The effective weight includes 25% of the floor live load in areas used for storage. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .0 Acceleration • Includes all dead weight of structure • May include some live load • Has units of force/acceleration Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.9 Mass is always assumed constant throughout the response.Properties of Structural Mass Mass Internal Force M 1.2 of ASCE 7-05 defines this mass in terms of the “effective weight” of the structure. and 20% of the flat roof snow load when that load exceeds 30 psf. Section 12.7. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 9 .

For cracked concrete structures.) FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 10 .0 Velocity • In absence of dampers. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .10 Except for the case of added damping. damping is higher because of the rubbing together of jagged surfaces on either side of a crack. real structures do not have discrete dampers as shown. (Damping force is proportional to velocity. In analysis. Real or inherent damping arises from friction in the material.Properties of Structural Damping Damping Force Damping C 1. we use an equivalent viscous damper primarily because of the mathematical convenience. is called inherent damping • Usually represented by linear viscous dashpot • Has units of force/velocity Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

Properties of Structural Damping (2) Damping Force AREA = ENERGY DISSIPATED Damping Displacement Damping vs displacement response is elliptical for linear viscous damper. Energy that is dissipated is irrecoverable. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. The area within the ellipse is the energy dissipated by the damper. The greater the energy dissipated by damping. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .11 The force-displacement relationship for a linear viscous damper is an ellipse. This is the primary motivation for the use of added damping systems. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 11 . the lower the potential for damage in structures.

**Properties of Structural Stiffness
**

Spring Force

Stiffness

K 1.0

Displacement

• • • •

Includes all structural members May include some “seismically nonstructural” members Requires careful mathematical modelling Has units of force/displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 - 12

In this topic, it is assumed that the force-displacement relationship in the spring is linear elastic. Real structures, especially those designed according to current seismic code provisions, will not remain elastic and, hence, the force-deformation relationship is not linear. However, linear analysis is often (almost exclusively) used in practice. This apparent contradiction will be explained as this discussion progresses. The modeling of the structure for stiffness has very significant uncertainties. Section 12.7.3 of ASCE 7-05 provides some guidelines for modeling the structure for stiffness.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes

Slide 12

**Properties of Structural Stiffness (2)
**

Spring Force

AREA = ENERGY DISSIPATED

Stiffness

Displacement

• Is almost always nonlinear in real seismic response • Nonlinearity is implicitly handled by codes • Explicit modelling of nonlinear effects is possible

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 - 13

This is an idealized response of a simple inelastic structure. The area within the curve is the inelastic hysteretic energy dissipated by the yielding material. The larger hysteretic energy in relation to the damping energy, the greater the damage. In this topic, it is assumed that the material does not yield. Nonlinear inelastic response is explicitly included in a separate topic.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes

Slide 13

**Undamped Free Vibration
**

Equation of motion: Initial conditions: Assume: Solution:

&& m u( t ) + k u( t ) = 0 & u0 u0

B = u0

u ( t ) = A sin( ω t ) + B cos( ω t )

A=

& u0

ω

ω =

k m

u (t ) =

& u0

ω

sin( ω t ) + u 0 cos( ω t )

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 14

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

In this unit, we work through a hierarchy of increasingly difficult problems. The simplest problem to solve is undamped free vibration. Usually, this type of response is invoked by imposing a static displacement and then releasing the structure with zero initial velocity. The equation of motion is a second order differential equation with constant coefficients. The displacement term is treated as the primary unknown. The assumed response is in terms of a sine wave and a cosine wave. It is easy to see that the cosine wave would be generated by imposing an initial displacement on the structure and then releasing. The sine wave would be imposed by initially “shoving” the structure with an initial velocity. The computed solution is a combination of the two effects. The quantity ω is the circular frequency of free vibration of the structure (radians/sec). The higher the stiffness relative to mass, the higher the frequency. The higher the mass with respect to stiffness, the lower the frequency.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes

Slide 14

Undamped Free Vibration (2) & u0 Displacement. the free vibration response is a simple cosine wave. If this term is zero. and period of vibration is emphasized.5 1. The higher the stiffness relative to mass. seconds 1. inches 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0. damping will eventually reduce the free vibration response to zero.0 u0 0. The period of vibration is probably the easiest to visualize and is therefore used in the development of seismic code provisions.5 sec 1. the lower the period of vibration. The higher the mass relative to stiffness. The relationship between circular frequency.0 T = 0. cyclic frequency.0 Time. Hertz) Period of Vibration (sec/cycle) ω = k m f = ω 2π T = 1 2π = f ω SDOF Dynamics 3 .15 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.5 2. Design Examples This slide shows a computed response history for a system with an initial displacement and velocity. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 15 . Note also that the undamped motion shown will continue forever if uninhibited. the longer the period of vibration. In real structures.0 Circular Frequency (radians/sec) Cyclic Frequency (cycles/sec. Note that the slope of the initial response curve is equal to the initial velocity (v = du/dt).

x = 0. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .016. x = 0.16 One of the first tasks in any seismic design project is to estimate the period of vibration of the structure.Approximate Periods of Vibration (ASCE 7-05) Ta = Ct hnx Ct = Ct = Ct = Ct = 0.2 of ASCE 705 provides equations for estimating the period.030.1N a For moment frames < 12 stories in height. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.9 0. minimum story height of 10 feet.020. N = number of stories. For preliminary design (and often for final design).8 0. These equations are listed here.028. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 16 . x = 0. Section 12. x = 0. an empirical period of vibration is used.75 0.75 for steel moment frames for concrete moment frames for eccentrically braced frames for all other systems Note: This applies ONLY to building structures! T = 0.8.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 17 . Hence.028hn . Because the empirical period formula is based on measured response of buildings. dams. As will be seen later.17 Ta is based on curve-fitting of data obtained from measured response of California buildings after small earthquakes. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .8 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. the larger the earthquake force that must be designed for. it should not be used to estimate the period for other types of structure (bridges.Empirical Data for Determination of Approximate Period for Steel Moment Frames 0 Ta = 0. the smaller the period. a lower bound empirical relationship is used. towers).

1 in is the simplest “reality check.1 sec T = 0. For building structures. the formula T = 0. If a computer analysis gives a period of 0.2 sec or 3.3 sec T = 0.Periods of Vibration of Common Structures 20-story moment resisting frame 10-story moment resisting frame 1-story moment resisting frame 20-story braced frame 10-story braced frame 1-story braced frame Gravity dam Suspension bridge T = 1. Engineers should develop a “feel” for what an appropriate period of vibration is for simple building structures.8 sec T = 0. something is probably amiss in the analysis.18 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.1 sec T = 0.0 sec for a 10-story building.2 sec T = 20 sec SDOF Dynamics 3 .15 sec T = 1.9 sec T = 1.” The period for a 10-story building should be approximately 1 sec. Design Examples This slide shows typical periods of vibration for several simple structures. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 18 .

Adjustment Factor on Approximate Period (Table 12.30g 0. 2. which is likely performed on a computer. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 19 . The empirical formula was developed on the basis of data from California buildings.1g Cu 1.40g 0.4 times the best-fit period. Chicago) where seismic forces are not so high will likely be larger than those for the same building in California.4 1. This lower bound period is about 1/1.15g < 0.5 1.19 In some cases.7 Applicable ONLY if Tcomputed comes from a “properly substantiated analysis.8-1 of ASCE 7-05) T = Ta Cu ≤ Tcomputed SD1 > 0. This conservatism arises from two sources: 1.6 1. This is done through use of the Cu coefficient. The lower bound period was used in the development of the period formula. Buildings in other parts of the country (e.g. it is appropriate to remove the “conservatism” from the empirical period formulas.20g 0.4 1. It is important to note that the larger period cannot be used without the benefit of a “properly substantiated” analysis..” Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

20 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. ASCE-7-05 will not allow the use of a period larger than CuTa regardless of what the computer analysis says. then: if Tc > CuTa use T = CuTa if Ta < Tc < TuCa use T = Tc if Tc < Ta use T = Ta SDOF Dynamics 3 . Design Examples This slide shows the limitations on the use of CuTa.Which Period of Vibration to Use in ELF Analysis? If you do not have a “more accurate” period (from a computer analysis). FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 20 . the NEHRP Recommended Provisions does not require that you use a period less than Ta. you must use T = Ta. If you have a more accurate period from a computer analysis (call this Tc). Similarly.

In particular.21 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Note that in many practical cases (x < 0.Damped Free Vibration Equation of motion: && & m u( t ) + c u( t ) + k u( t ) = 0 & Initial conditions: u0 u0 st Assume: u ( t ) = e ⎡ ⎤ & u + ξω u 0 u ( t ) = e − ξω t ⎢ u 0 cos( ω D t ) + 0 sin( ω D t ) ⎥ ωD ⎣ ⎦ Solution: ξ = c c = 2mω cc ωD = ω 1− ξ2 SDOF Dynamics 3 . Design Examples This slide shows the equation of motion and the response in damped free vibration. Critical damping (cc) is defined as the amount of damping that will produce no oscillation. note the exponential decay term that serves as a multiplier on the whole response. it will be effectively the same as the undamped frequency. The damped circular frequency is computed as shown. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 21 . See next slide. Note that the damping ratio is often given in terms of % critical.10). Note the similarity with the undamped solution. The exception is very highly damped systems.

ξ=1. sec Response of Critically Damped System. Displacement.0 or 100% critical Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.0) in computations. Sometimes ξ is expressed as a% (0 < ξ < 100%). ξ is expressed as a ratio (0.Damping in Structures ξ = c c = 2mω cc cc is the critical damping constant. in Time. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 22 .0 < ξ < 1. A good example of a critically damped response can be found in heavy doors that are fitted with dampers to keep the door from slamming when closing.22 The concept of critical damping is defined here. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .

00 -0.00 Inertial Force.23 An earlier slide is repeated here to emphasize that damping in real structures is NOT viscous. Kips 4.30 0.00 Damping Force.00 -15.00 0.00 0. However.Damping in Structures True damping in structures is NOT viscous.00 50.00 0.00 20.00 25. Use of viscous damping is acceptable for the modeling of inherent damping but should be used with extreme caution when representing added damping or energy loss associated with yielding in the primary structural system.60 -0. kips 15.00 0. for low damping values. in/sec Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. kips 30. It is frictional or hysteretic.00 0.60 -4.00 -20.00 -2. In/sec Acceleration.00 -500 -250 0 250 2 500 Displacement.00 -10. viscous damping allows for linear equations and vastly simplifies the solution.00 -25. Viscous damping is used simply because it linearizes the equations of motion. Spring Force.00 -50. inches Velocity.00 -30. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 2. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 23 .30 0.00 10.

0 0. inches 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 24 .0 0% Damping 10% Damping 20% Damping Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.5 1. peak is approximately ½ of the amplitude of the previous peak.24 This slide shows some simple damped free vibration responses. seconds 1. For 10% damping. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . When the damping is zero. the vibration goes on forever. When the damping is 20% critical.5 2.0 Time. very few cycles are required for the free vibration to be effectively damped out.Damped Free Vibration (2) Displacement.

The values for undamaged steel and concrete (upper five lines of table) may be considered as working stress values.100 ξ = 0.020 ξ = 0.150 ξ = 0. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 25 .020 ξ = 0.015 ξ = 0.075 ξ = 0.050 ξ = 0.035 ξ = 0.Damping in Structures (2) Welded steel frame Bolted steel frame Uncracked prestressed concrete Uncracked reinforced concrete Cracked reinforced concrete Glued plywood shear wall Nailed plywood shear wall Damaged steel structure Damaged concrete structure Structure with added damping Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.010 ξ = 0.25 Some realistic damping values are listed for structures comprised of different materials.250 SDOF Dynamics 3 . Design Examples ξ = 0.

Damping in Structures (3) ξ Inherent damping is a structural (material) property independent of mass and stiffness ξ Inherent = 0.0% critical Added damping C ξ is a structural property dependent on mass and stiffness and damping constant C of device ξ Added = 10 to 30% critical Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 26 .5 to 7.26 The distinction between inherent damping and added damping should be clearly understood. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .

Seconds 2.00 1.27 One of the simplest methods to measure damping is a free vibration test.00 2.50 3. Damping is determined from the formulas given. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 27 .00 ξ≅ u1 − u 2 2π u2 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 For very low damping values -1 0.5 u0 e − ξωt 0.50 1.50 Time.5 Amplitude ln u2 u3 u1 = u2 2 πξ 1− ξ2 0 -0. The structure is subjected to an initial displacement and is suddenly released. The second formula should be used only when the damping is expect to be less than about 10% critical.Measuring Damping from Free Vibration Test 1 For all damping values u1 0.

**Undamped Harmonic Loading
**

Equation of motion:

& m u&( t ) + k u ( t ) = p 0 sin( ω t )

ω

= frequency of the forcing function

T =

150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 0.00

2π

ω

T

= 0.25 sec

po=100 kips

Force, Kips

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00 Time, Seconds

1.25

1.50

1.75

2.00

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 28

The next series of slides covers the response of undamped SDOF systems to simple harmonic loading. Note that the loading frequency is given by the omega term with the overbar. The loading period is designated in a similar fashion.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes

Slide 28

**Undamped Harmonic Loading (2)
**

&& Equation of motion: m u ( t ) + k u ( t ) = p 0 s in ( ω t )

Assume system is initially at rest: Particular solution: u ( t ) = C s in ( ω t ) Complimentary solution: u( t ) = A sin(ωt ) + B cos(ωt ) Solution:

u (t ) =

p0 1 k 1 − (ω / ω ) 2

ω ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ sin(ω t ) − sin(ω t ) ⎟ ω ⎝ ⎠

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 29

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

This slide sets up the equation of motion for undamped harmonic loading and gives the solution. We have assumed the system is initially at rest.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes

Slide 29

Undamped Harmonic Loading Define

β =

ω ω

Loading frequency Structure’s natural frequency Transient response (at structure’s frequency)

Dynamic magnifier

u( t ) =

1 p0 (sin(ω t ) − β sin(ω t ) ) k 1− β2

Steady state response (at loading frequency)

SDOF Dynamics 3 - 30

Static displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Here we break up the response into the steady state response (at the frequency of loading) and the transient response (at the structure’s own natural frequency). Note that the term po/k is the “static” displacement. The dynamic magnifier shows how the dynamic effects may increase (or decrease) the response. This magnifier is a function of the frequency ratio β. Note that the magnifier goes to infinity if the frequency ratio β is 1.0. This defines the resonant condition. In other words, the response is equal to the static response, times a multiplier, times the sum of two sine waves, one in phase with the load and the other in phase with the structure’s undamped natural frequency.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes

Slide 30

50 0.75 1.00 sp ace e t.00 1.25 0.5 uS = 5. The static displacement is 5.00 Total response (in.50 0.25 1.50 1. is in phase with the loading.25 1. T = 1 sec).0 in.00 10 5 0 -5 -10 0. The transient response is at the structure’s own frequency.) 0.0 inches. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 31 . damping would cause this component to disappear after a few cycles of vibration.75 2. 0.00 1.00 1. Note how the steady state response is at the frequency of loading.75 1.50 0. T = 0.25 0.75 2.75 2.5.50 0.00 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.50 1. and has an amplitude greater than the static displacement. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 β = 0.5 sec).50 1.00 Transient response (in.75 1.31 This is a time-history response of a structure with a natural frequency of 4 rad/sec (f = 2 Hz.75 2. and a loading frequency of 2 rad/sec (f = 1 Hz.00 0.00 Steady state response (in.25 1.75 1. giving a frequency ratio β of 0. The harmonic load amplitude is 100 kips.00 Time.25 0. seconds 1.) 10 5 0 -5 -10 0. In real structures. 0.25 1.50 1.) 10 5 0 -5 -10 0.ω = 4π rad / sec ω = 2π rad / sec Loading (kips) 200 100 0 -100 -200 0.25 0.

) 0 -250 -500 0. The total response increases with time.2 5 1 .) 2 50 0 -2 50 -5 00 0 .00 80 .75 1.32 In this slide. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 32 .75 2. however.7 5 2. In real structures. The steady state response crosses the horizontal axis to the right of the vertical 1. it appears that they should cancel out. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . steady state response.0 0 1 .00 0.2 5 0 .50 1. the observed increased amplitude could occur only to some limit and then yielding would occur.00 1.0 in.75 sec into the response.00 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. p 40 0 -40 -80 0.25 1. If one looks casually at the steady state and transient response curves. seconds 1.25 1. that the two responses are not exactly in phase due to the slight difference in the loading and natural frequencies. This can be seen most clearly at the time 1.0 0 β = 0.25 0. ϖ has been increased to 4π rad/sec.75 sec line while the transient response crosses exactly at 1.00 500 250 Transient response (in.00 T ime.75 2.5 0 0 .75 1.ω ≈ 4 π rad / sec ω = 4 π rad / sec Loading (kips) 150 100 50 0 -5 0 -1 0 0 -1 5 0 0 .7 5 2 .99 u S = 5. and the structure is almost at resonance.50 1.75 sec. Note.7 5 1 .) 0. damped.0 0 5 00 Steady state response (in. but note the huge magnification in response.25 0. causing the transient response to disappear and leading to a constant.5 0 1 .5 0 1. The transient response is practically equal to and opposite the steady state response. The steady state response is still in phase with the loading.00 1.7 5 1.50 0.25 1 .50 0 .0 0 0. 0 .00 Total response (in. This yielding would introduce hysteretic energy dissipation (apparent damping).25 0.50 0.

seconds Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.25 1.00 1.75 1.33 This is an enlarged view of the total response curve from the previous slide. Note that the response is bounded within a linear increasing envelope with the increase in displacement per cycle being 2π times the static displacement.75 2. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 33 . 2π uS 0 -40 Linear envelope -80 0.25 0.50 1.00 Time.50 0.Undamped Resonant Response Curve 80 40 Displacement. in.00 0.

5 0 1 .0 0 500 β = 1.) 250 0 -2 5 0 -5 0 0 0 .2 5 1 .34 In this slide.2 5 1 .5 0 0 . FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 34 .) 250 0 -2 5 0 -5 0 0 0 .5 0 0 .0 0 1 .5 0 0 .0 0 Steady state response (in.0 0 T im e .5 0 0 .0 0 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. the loading frequency has been slightly increased.0 0 0 .0 0 80 . that the steady state response is 180 degrees out of phase with the loading and the transient response is in phase.) 40 0 -4 0 -8 0 0 .01 u S = 5.2 5 1 .7 5 2 .7 5 2 .7 5 2 .7 5 2 . however.2 5 0 . 0 . but the structure is still nearly at resonance.2 5 0 .ω ≈ 4π rad / sec ω = 4π rad / sec Loading (kips) 150 100 50 0 -5 0 -1 0 0 -1 5 0 0 .7 5 1 . s e c o n d s 1 .2 5 0 .7 5 1 . 0 .5 0 1 .5 0 1 .0 in.2 5 0 . The resulting total displacement is effectively identical to that shown two slides back. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .0 0 1 .7 5 1 .0 0 p Total response (in. Note.0 0 0 .2 5 1 .0 0 1 .7 5 1 .0 0 500 Transient response (in.5 0 1 .

0 in.0 0 T im e .7 5 2 .0 0 6 3 Transient response (in.0 0 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.50 0.2 5 0 .5 0 0 .7 5 1 .25 1.7 5 1 .2 5 0 . FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 35 .7 5 1 .ω = 4π rad / sec Loading (kips) 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 0.7 5 2 .2 5 1 .2 5 0 .0 0 Total response (in.5 0 1 .) 0 .) 3 0 -3 -6 0 .0 0 1 .0 0 6 .0 0 0 .2 5 1 .00 1.0 0 0 .5 0 0 .35 The loading frequency is now twice the structure’s frequency.0 0 1 .7 5 2 .75 2. 0.0 uS = 5.75 1.5 0 1 .00 6 ω = 8π rad / sec β = 2.00 Steady state response (in. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . s e c o n d s 1 .25 0. 3 0 p -3 -6 0 .2 5 1 .5 0 0 .5 0 1 . The important point here is that the steady state response amplitude is now less than the static displacement.50 1.) 0 -3 -6 0 .

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 36 . The resonance phenomena is very clearly shown. the structure effectively does not have time to respond to the loading so the displacement is small and approaches zero at very high frequency. At very high frequency loading.00 -12.50 3.50 2. indicating a nearly static response (as expected).00 180 degrees out of phase 0. the ratio is 1. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 0.00 2.00 -4. The change in sign at resonance is associated with the inphase/out-of-phase behavior that occurs through resonance.Response Ratio: Steady State to Static (Signs Retained) 12.50 1.00 1.00 In phase 4. At low loading frequencies.β 2) 8.00 Resonance 0.00 Magnification Factor 1/(1.00 -8.36 This plot shows the ratio of the steady state response to the static displacement for the structure loaded at different frequencies.0.00 Frequency Ratio β Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

00 0.00 0. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 6. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 37 .Response Ratio: Steady State to Static (Absolute Values) 12.00 Slowly loaded 2.00 4.00 8.00 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.50 3.00 1.50 Frequency Ratio β 2.00 Rapidly loaded 2.50 1.00 Resonance Magnification Factor 1/(1. This clearly shows the resonance phenomena.00 0.37 This is the same as the previous slide but absolute values are plotted.00 1.β 2) 10.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 38 .00 Time.38 We now introduce damping into the behavior.25 sec po=100 kips Force.50 0.50 1. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .25 0.75 2.00 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.25 1.75 1. Seconds 1.00 2π ω = 0. Kips 0. Note the addition of the appropriate term in the equation of motion.Damped Harmonic Loading Equation of motion: && & m u ( t ) + cu ( t ) + k u ( t ) = p 0 sin(ω t ) T = 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 0.

39 This slide shows how the solution to the differential equation is obtained. Design Examples ωD = ω 1− ξ2 SDOF Dynamics 3 . The transient response (as indicated by the A and B coefficients) will damp out and is excluded from further discussion. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 39 .Damped Harmonic Loading && & m u ( t ) + cu ( t ) + k u ( t ) = p 0 sin(ω t ) Assume system is initially at rest Particular solution: Equation of motion: u ( t ) = C sin(ω t ) + D cos(ω t ) Complimentary solution: u ( t ) = e − ξω t [ A sin(ω D t ) + B cos(ω D t ) ] Solution: ξ= c 2 mω u ( t ) = e − ξω t [ A sin(ω D t ) + B cos(ω D t ) ] + C sin(ω t ) + D cos(ω t ) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 40 .40 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. at loading frequency C= po 1− β 2 k (1 − β 2 ) 2 + (2ξβ ) 2 D= po − 2ξβ k (1 − β 2 ) 2 + (2ξβ ) 2 SDOF Dynamics 3 . The actual phase difference between the loading and the response depends on the damping and frequency ratios. Design Examples This slide shows the C and D coefficients of the steady state response. Note the exponential decay term causes the transient response to damp out in time. Note that there is a component in phase with the loading (the sine term) and a component out of phase with the loading (the cosine term).Damped Harmonic Loading Transient response at structure’s frequency (eventually damps out) u ( t ) = e − ξω t [ A sin(ω D t ) + B cos(ω D t ) ] + C sin(ωt ) + D cos(ωt ) Steady state response.

5 Beta=2. Seconds Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.00 5. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 Time.00 4.0 50 Displacement Amplitude.) FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 41 .00 2. which is now limited. (The undamped response increases indefinitely.00 3. Of significant interest is the resonant response.41 This plot shows the response of a structure at three different loading frequencies.00 1. Inches 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 0.Damped Harmonic Loading (5% Damping) BETA=1 (Resonance) Beta=0.

Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 5.42 For viscously damped structures.Damped Harmonic Loading (5% Damping) 50 40 Displacement Amplitude. Seconds Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.00 1 δ Static 2ξ 1. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 42 . the resonance amplitude will always be limited as shown.00 3. Inches 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 0.00 2.00 4.00 Time.

The undamped response has a linear increasing envelope.00 3.43 A comparison of damped and undamped responses is shown here. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 43 .00 1. the damped curve will reach a constant steady state response after a few cycles. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 5.00 2. Inches 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 0.Harmonic Loading at Resonance Effects of Damping 200 Displacement Amplitude.00 Time. Seconds 0% Damping %5 Damping Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.00 4.

00 Slowly loaded Rapidly loaded 1.50 2.00 0.00 4. the magnifier is zero.50 Frequency Ratio.0).00 2.44 This plot shows the dynamic magnification for various damping ratios.0% Damping 25.0% Damping 5. the dynamic amplification is 1. For high frequency loading.00 1.00 0.00 2.00 Dynamic Response Amplifier 0. β Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.50 3.0 % Damping 10.5 < β < 2.0 (effectively static). Note that for slowly loaded structures. the resonant response decreases significantly.00 Resonance 12. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 44 .00 0.00 8. Note also that damping is most effective at or near resonance (0. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .0 % Damping 10.14.00 RD = 1 (1 − β 2 ) 2 + ( 2ξβ ) 2 6. For increased damping.

• An undamped system. This is referred to as dynamic amplification. will have an unbounded increase in displacement over time. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 45 .Summary Regarding Viscous Damping in Harmonically Loaded Systems • For systems loaded at a frequency near their natural frequency. loaded at resonance. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. the dynamic response exceeds the static response.45 A summary of some of the previous points is provided.

which is recoverable. • Damping is most effective for systems loaded at or near resonance. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. will have a limited displacement over time with the limit being (1/2ξ) times the static displacement.46 Summary continued. loaded at resonance. • A damped system. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 46 . Unlike strain energy.Summary Regarding Viscous Damping in Harmonically Loaded Systems • Damping is an effective means for dissipating energy in the system. dissipated energy is not recoverable.

This is shown in Diagrams 3 and 4.) In the first diagram. If the bar is unloaded. If the bar were released. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . all of the energy would be recovered. (Note that some texts use the term “absorbed” energy in lieu of stored energy.CONCEPT of ENERGY STORED and Energy DISSIPATED F Energy Stored F u 1 Energy Dissipated 2 1 u YIELDING Total Energy Dissipated LOADING Energy Recovered F 2 u UNLOADING F 3 u 4 3 UNLOADED Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 47 . but the dissipated energy is lost. The energy shown in green is stored. the system remains elastic and all of the strain energy is stored. the applied deformation is greater than the elastic deformation and. the stored energy is recovered. the system yields. hence. but the energy shown in red is dissipated. In the second diagram.47 It is very important that the distinction between stored energy and dissipated energy be made clear.

General Dynamic Loading F(t) Time. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 48 . By general loading. it is meant that no simple mathematical function defines the entire loading history. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . T Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.48 The discussion will now proceed to general dynamic loading.

The Newmark method is useful for both linear and nonlinear systems. Only the basic principles underlying of each of these approaches are presented.General Dynamic Loading Solution Techniques • Fourier transform • Duhamel integration • Piecewise exact • Newmark techniques All techniques are carried out numerically. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 49 . Any text on structural dynamics will provide the required details. The piecewise exact method is used primarily in the analysis of linear systems.49 There are a variety of ways to solve the general loading problem and all are carried out numerically on the computer. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. The Fourier transform and Duhamel integral approaches are not particularly efficient (or easy to explain) and. these are not covered here. hence.

the piecewise exact method is truly exact. the load is almost always represented by a recorded accelerogram. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 50 . For earthquake loads. In a sense. When the actual load is smooth. for the earthquake problem. the accuracy of the method depends on the level of discretization when defining the loading function.Piecewise Exact Method F (τ ) = Fo + τ Fo dF dt dF dt τ dt Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. (There would be little use in trying to interpolate the ground motion with smooth curves. the loading function is broken into a number of straight-line segments.) Hence. the name of the method is a misnomer because the method is not exact when the actual loading is smooth (like a sine wave) because the straight line load segments are only an approximation of the actual load. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . which does consist of straight line segments.50 In the piecewise exact method.

Design Examples The basic idea of the piecewise exact method is to develop a solution for a straight line loading segment knowing the initial conditions.1 = u (τ ) LOOP Obtain exact solution for next time step & & u 2 = u (τ ) && && u 2 = u (τ ) SDOF Dynamics 3 . FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 51 .Piecewise Exact Method Initial conditions & uo .1 = u (τ ) u 2 = u (τ ) & & u 0 . The analysis then proceeds step by step until all load segments have been processed.51 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.0 = 0 uo . the solution at the end of the load step is determined and this is then used as the initial condition for the next step of the analysis.0 = 0 Determine “exact” solution for 1st time step u1 = u (τ ) & & u1 = u (τ ) && && u1 = u (τ ) Establish new initial conditions u o . Given the initial conditions and the load segment.

the nonlinearities are “right-hand sided. For example. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 52 . In FNA.Piecewise Exact Method Advantages: • Exact if load increment is linear • Very computationally efficient Disadvantages: • Not generally applicable for inelastic behavior Note: NONLIN uses the piecewise exact method for response spectrum calculations. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. the “fast nonlinear analysis” (FNA) method developed by Ed Wilson and used in SAP 2000 utilizes the piecewise exact method.” leaving only linear terms in the left-hand side of the equations of motion.52 It should be noted that the piecewise exact method may be used for nonlinear analysis in certain circumstances.

It is equally applicable to both SDOF and MDOF systems. The Newmark method is described in more detail in the topic on inelastic behavior of structures.53 The Newmark method is one of the most popular methods for solving the general dynamic loading problem. It is applicable to both linear and nonlinear systems. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 53 .Newmark Techniques • Proposed by Nathan Newmark • General method that encompasses a family of different integration schemes • Derived by: – Development of incremental equations of motion – Assuming acceleration response over short time step Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .

The principal advantage is that the method may be applied to inelastic systems. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .54 The advantages and disadvantages of the Newmark method are listed. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 54 .Newmark Method Advantages: • Works for inelastic response Disadvantages: • Potential numerical error Note: NONLIN uses the Newmark method for general response history calculations Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. The method also may be used (without decoupling) for multiple-degree-offreedom systems.

40 GROUND ACC. these deformations cause elastic forces to develop in the individual members and connections.Development of Effective Earthquake Force 0. no actual force is applied to the building. SECONDS 4. that impose deformations on the structure.40 0.00 5.00 6. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 1.20 0. g 0. It is the displacements in the structure. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 55 .20 -0. the ground moves back and forth (and up and down) and this movement induces inertial forces that then deform the structure. Through the elastic properties.00 2.00 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.00 3.00 -0. Instead. relative to the moving base.55 In an earthquake.00 TIME.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 56 .56 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples Earthquake ground motions usually are imposed through the use of the ground acceleration record or accelerogram.3 0 10 20 30 Time (sec) 15 Ground Velocity (cm/sec) 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 0 10 20 30 Time (sec) 40 50 60 40 50 60 Ground Displacement (cm) 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 0 10 20 30 Time (sec) 40 50 60 Many ground motions now are available via the Internet. SDOF Dynamics 3 .4 Ground Acceleration (g's) 0. 1940 El Centro 0.Earthquake Ground Motion.3 0.2 0.1 -0.2 -0. Some programs (like Abaqus) may require instead that the ground displacement records be used as input.1 40 0 -0.

The total acceleration at the center of mass is equal to the ground acceleration plus the acceleration of the center of mass relative to the moving base.00 3.00 && && & m[ug ( t ) + ur ( t )] + c ur ( t ) + k ur ( t ) = 0 && & && mur ( t ) + c ur ( t ) + k ur ( t ) = − mug ( t ) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. The equation is then solved for the response history of the relative displacement.00 TIME. The damping force in the system is a function of the velocity of the top of the structure relative to the moving base.40 GROUND ACC.Development of Effective Earthquake Force && ug && ut && ur Ground Acceleration Response History 0.20 -0.00 2. The inertial force developed at the center of mass is equal to the mass times the total acceleration. The equilibrium equation with the zero on the response history spectrum (RHS) represents the state of the system at any point in time. and displacement.57 In this slide. the spring force is a function of the displacement at the top of the structure relative to the moving base.00 6.00 -0. SECO D NS 4. it is assumed that the ground acceleration record is used as input. The zero on the RHS reflects the fact that there is no applied load.20 0. If that part of the total inertial force due to the ground acceleration is moved to the right-hand side (the lower equation).00 1. all of the forces on the left-hand side are in terms of the relative acceleration. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 5. This equation is essentially the same as that for an applied load (see Slide 8) but the “effective earthquake force” is simply the negative of the mass times the ground acceleration. g 0. velocity. Similarly.40 0. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 57 .

58 In preparation for the development of response spectra. and the ground acceleration record. When the substitutions are made as indicated. it may be seen that the response is uniquely defined by the damping ratio.“Simplified” form of Equation of Motion: && & && mur (t ) + cur (t ) + kur (t ) = −mu g (t ) Divide through by m: && ur (t ) + k c & && ur (t ) + ur (t ) = −u g (t ) m m k =ω2 m Make substitutions: c = 2ξω m Simplified form: && & && ur (t ) + 2ξω ur (t ) + ω 2ur (t ) = −u g (t ) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 58 . the undamped circular frequency of vibration. it is convenient to simplify the equation of motion by dividing through by the mass.

59 This restates the point made in the previous slide.For a given ground motion. the response history ur(t) is function of the structure’s frequency ω and damping ratio ξ. The spectrum is obtained by repeatedly solving the equilibrium equations for structures with varying frequencies of vibration and then plotting the peak displacement obtained for that frequency versus the frequency for which the displacement was obtained. A response spectrum is created for a particular ground motion and for a structure with a constant level of damping. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 59 . Structural frequency & & & u&r (t ) + 2ξω u r (t ) + ω 2 u r (t ) = −u&g (t ) Damping ratio Ground motion acceleration history Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .

60 The next several slides treat the development of the 5% damped response spectrum for the 1940 El Centro ground motion record. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 60 .1 -0. such as the Newmark method. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .2 -0. the damping ratio. The “solver” indicated in the slide is a routine. the sign of the peak response is lost.2 0. that takes the ground motion record. and the system frequency as input and reports as output only the maximum absolute value of the relative displacement that occurred over the duration of the ground motion.Response to Ground Motion (1940 El Centro) 0. The time at which the peak response occurred is also lost (simply because it is not recorded).1 0 -0. It is important to note that by taking the absolute value.3 0 10 20 30 Time (sec) 40 50 60 Excitation applied to structure with given ξ and ω SOLVER 6 Structural Displacement (in) 4 2 0 -2 -4 Computed response Change in ground motion or structural parameters ξ and ω requires recalculation of structural response Peak displacement -6 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (sec) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.3 0.4 Ground Acceleration (g's) 0.

a varying fundamental frequency ω (or period T = 2π/ ω). Seconds Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 61 . inches 12 8 4 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 PERIOD.The Elastic Displacement Response Spectrum An elastic displacement response spectrum is a plot of the peak computed relative displacement. 5% damped response spectrum for structure responding to 1940 El Centro ground motion 16 DISPLACEMENT. for an elastic structure with a constant damping ξ. responding to a given ground motion. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . ur.61 This slide is a restatement of the previous point.

10 sec (circular frequency = 62.10 sec Umax= 0.00 0. The first point on the displacement response spectrum is simply the displacement (0.00 Displacement. the ground motion record is the same and the damping ratio is set as 5% critical. Seconds 7 8 9 10 11 12 10. The response history from which the peak was obtained is shown at the top of the slide. When T = 0.00 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.04 0. Only the frequency of vibration. Seconds 1.02 0. is changed. Inches ξ = 0.06 -0.00 2.50 1.08 Displacement.00 0. Note the high frequency content of the response.06 0. represented by period T. but this time is not recorded.05 T = 0.00 Period.50 2. the peak computed relative displacement was 0.0543 inches) plotted against the structural period (0. Inches 0.04 -0.62 Here.00 Elastic response spectrum 8.0543 inches. For this and all subsequent steps.02 -0.8 radians/sec).00 -0.1 sec) for which the displacement was obtained. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 62 .00 0.Computation of Response Spectrum for El Centro Ground Motion 0. This peak occurred at about 5 sec into the response. the first point in the response spectrum is computed.00 4.08 Computed response 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time. 6.0543 in. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .

Seconds 1.20 0. which shows that the peak displacement was 0.254 inches. but the system period is changed to 0.63 Here the whole procedure is repeated. as before.00 Elastic response spectrum 8.40 Displacement.00 4.00 2.20 sec Umax = 0.40 Computed response 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time.254 inch) plotted against the system period.50 2. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 63 .30 0. Displacement.00 Period. The computed displacement history is shown at the top of the slide.00 0. Seconds 7 8 9 10 11 12 10.5 sec into the response but. This peak occurred at about 2.50 1.30 -0.Computation of Response Spectrum for El Centro Ground Motion 0.00 ξ = 0. Inches 0. The second point on the response spectrum is the peak displacement (0.00 0. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . which was 0.2 sec.00 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.2 sec.10 0.10 -0. Inches 6.20 -0.00 0.254 in.00 -0.05 T = 0. this time is not recorded. Note that the response history is somewhat smoother than that in the previous slide.

80 Displacement.00 -0.20 -0.00 0.40 0.00 0.40 -0.Computation of Response Spectrum for El Centro Ground Motion 0. Again.00 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.64 The third point on the response spectrum is the peak displacement (0.05 T = 0.00 2.622 inch) plotted against the system period. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 64 . Seconds 1.20 0. Inches 6.00 0. which was 0. the response is somewhat “smoother” than before.00 4. Seconds 7 8 9 10 11 12 10.80 Computed response 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time.30 sec Umax = 0.50 1.3 sec.60 0.60 -0.622 in. Displacement.50 2. Inches 0. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 ξ = 0.00 Elastic response spectrum 8.00 Period.

00 ξ = 0.65 The fourth point on the response spectrum is the peak displacement (0.90 -1.30 -0.00 2.90 0.00 4.00 0.00 -0.00 0. which was 0.40 sec.50 2.40 sec Umax = 0.05 T = 0.20 Displacement.00 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.60 0.30 0.Computation of Response Spectrum for El Centro Ground Motion 1.956 inch) plotted against the system period. Displacement.956 in.00 Period.20 Computed response 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time. Seconds 7 8 9 10 11 12 10. Seconds 1. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 Elastic response spectrum 8.60 -0. Inches 0.00 0. Inches 6. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 65 .50 1.

00 2.00 -0.80 -2.50 sec. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .40 Computed response 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time.00 Elastic response spectrum 8. Seconds 7 8 9 10 11 12 10.00 ξ = 0.80 1.00 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.20 -1.50 sec Umax = 2.66 The next point on the response spectrum is the peak displacement (2. Inches 6. which was 0.00 0.60 -1. Seconds 1. Displacement.50 1.05 T = 0.00 Period.02 inches) plotted against the system period.00 0. Inches 1.40 Displacement.20 0.60 0.50 2.02 in.00 4. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 66 .00 0.Computation of Response Spectrum for El Centro Ground Motion 2.

00 Period. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 4.50 2.60 0.00 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.00 in. The complete spectrum is obtained by repeating the process for all remaining periods in the range of 0. A real response spectrum would likely be run at a period resolution of about 0. For this response spectrum.05 T = 0.80 0.20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tim Seconds e. requiring 200 response history analyses.00 0.50 1. Seconds 1.00 2. 2/0. Inches 6. Note that only the absolute value of the displacement is recorded.0 sec.00 7 8 9 10 11 12 Computed response Elastic response spectrum 8.67 The next point on the response spectrum is the peak displacement (3. requiring 20 full response history analyses.00 0.40 1. which was 0.7 through 2. Displacement. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 67 .00 -0.00 ξ = 0.1 or 20 individual points are calculated.40 -3. 10.00 0.03 inches) plotted against the system period.60 sec.Computation of Response Spectrum for El Centro Ground Motion Displacement. Inches 3.01 sec.60 sec Umax= -3.80 -1.60 -2.20 2.

5 1. Note also that the displacement is nearly zero when T is near zero. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 68 .00 0. Note that the spectrum was run for periods up to 4. The displacement then generally increases with period. Inches 8.0 2.0 0.00 6. This spectrum was generated using NONLIN.0 Period.5 4.5 3.00 2.00 10.0 3.68 This is the full 5% damped elastic displacement response spectrum for the 1940 El Centro ground motion. Seconds Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. a different earthquake will have an entirely different response spectrum.00 0. The reductions in displacement at certain periods indicate that the ground motion has little energy at these periods.Complete 5% Damped Elastic Displacement Response Spectrum for El Centro Ground Motion 12.00 Displacement. although this trend is not consistent. As shown later.0 sec. This is expected because the relative displacement of a very stiff structure (with T near zero) should be very small.5 2.00 4. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .0 1.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 69 . in/sec PSV (T ) ≡ ω D 3.0 2. This comes from the rules for differentiating a harmonic function.0 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.00 25.Development of Pseudovelocity Response Spectrum 35. hence.0 1.0 Period. Because the velocity spectrum so obtained is not exact. Note that it appears that the pseudovelocity at low (near zero) periods is also near zero (but not exactly zero).00 0.00 0. an elastic (relative) velocity response spectrum could be obtained in the same way as the displacement spectrum.00 5% damping 30.00 10. that the velocity at each (circular) frequency is equal to the frequency times the displacement.00 20. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .69 If desired. Seconds Pseudovelocity.0 4. the velocity spectrum is obtained in an approximate manner by assuming that the displacement response is harmonic and. The only difference in the procedure would be that the peak velocity computed at each period would be recorded and plotted. Instead of doing this.00 15. it is called the pseudovelocity response spectrum.00 5.

Seconds 5% damping Pseudoacceleration.0 300.0 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. in/sec 2 PSA (T ) ≡ ω 2 D 3.0 0. In fact.0 4. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .0 2.0 100.0 350.0 Period.0 200.0 0.0 1.Development of Pseudoacceleration Response Spectrum 400. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 70 . Note that the acceleration at a near zero period is not near zero (as was the case for velocity and displacement).0 50. the pseudoacceleration represents the total acceleration in the system while the pseudovelocity and the displacement are relative quantities.70 The pseudoacceleration spectrum is obtained from the displacement spectrum by multiplying by the circular frequencies squared.0 250.0 150.

0 300.71 For very rigid systems (with near zero periods of vibration). It is nearly identical to the true total acceleration response spectrum for lightly damped structures. Seconds 5% damping Peak ground acceleration Pseudoacceleration.0 100.0 200. 400. in/sec 2 3.0 4. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .0 1.0 0.0 Period.0 350. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 71 . the relative acceleration will be nearly zero and.0 0.Note About the Pseudoacceleration Response Spectrum The pseudoacceleration response spectrum represents the total acceleration of the system. will be equal to the peak ground acceleration. the pseudoacceleration.0 250. not the relative acceleration. which is the total acceleration.0 50.0 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.0 150.0 2. hence.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 72 . SECO D NS 4.&& ug && ut PSA is TOTAL Acceleration! && ur Ground Acceleration Response History 0. g 0.40 0. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 5. The pseudovelocity then is multiplied by omega to get the total acceleration.72 This slide explains why the pseudoacceleration is equal to the total acceleration.00 TIME.00 3.00 -0.00 1.20 0. The relative displacement is multiplied by omega to get pseudovelocity.00 2.40 GROUND ACC.00 && && & m[ug ( t ) + ur ( t )] + c ur ( t ) + k ur ( t ) = 0 && & && mur ( t ) + c ur ( t ) + k ur ( t ) = − mug ( t ) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.20 -0.00 6.

and the differences can appear in a wider range of periods.00 0.00 0.00 150.00 200.00 50. or 30% critical.00 250. The difference in the two quantities is only apparent at low periods. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 73 . Note the similarity in the two quantities.00 Acceleration (in/sec ) 300.00 100.1 1 Period (sec) Total Acceleration Pseudo-Acceleration 10 2 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .Difference Between Pseudo-Acceleration and Total Acceleration (System with 5% Damping) 350. 20%. The difference can be much greater when the damping is set to 10%.73 This plot shows total acceleration and pseudoacceleration for a 5% damped system subject to the El Centro ground motion.

Difference Between Pseudovelocity and Relative Velocity (System with 5% Damping) 40 35 Ve lo city (in/se c) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0. and the larger differences occur at the higher periods. The differences will be greater for systems with larger amounts of damping.74 10 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Here.1 1 Period (sec) Relative Velocity Pseudo-Velocity SDOF Dynamics 3 . FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 74 . Design Examples This plot shows relative velocity and pseudovelocity for a 5% damped system subject to the El Centro ground motion. the differences are much more apparent than for pseudoacceleration.

00 0.Displacement Response Spectra for Different Damping Values 25.00 15.0 3.00 0. for example.0 5.00 10.0 4.0 1. The % reduction in displacement by going from 5 to 10% damping is much less that that for 0 to 5% damping. going from zero to 5% damping reduces the displacement amplitude by a factor of two.0 Period.00 Displacement. At a period of 2 sec. Seconds Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Inches Damping 0% 5% 10% 20% 20.0 2. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 75 . Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . While higher damping produces further decreases in displacement.00 5. there is a diminishing return.75 The higher the damping. the lower the relative displacement.

0 3. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . however.0 4. that the pseudoacceleration at a (near) zero period is the same for all damping values.00 2. Seconds Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 76 . Note. g 0% 5% 10% 20% 3.00 Peak ground acceleration 0. This value is always equal to the peak ground acceleration for the ground motion in question.00 Pseudoacceleration.0 2.0 5.00 1.76 Damping has a similar effect on pseudoacceleration.00 0.Pseudoacceleration Response Spectra for Different Damping Values Damping 4.0 Period.0 1.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 77 .77 Damping is generally effective at all periods (except at T = 0).Damping Is Effective in Reducing the Response for (Almost) Any Given Period of Vibration • An earthquake record can be considered to be the combination of a large number of harmonic components. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . The reason for this is that ground motions consist of a large number of harmonics. hence. • Damping is most effective at or near resonance. Damping is most effective at resonance and. • Any SDOF structure will be in near resonance with one of these harmonic components. When a response spectrum analysis is run for a particular period. there will be a near resonant response at that period. • Hence. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. each at a different frequency. a response spectrum will show reductions due to damping at all period ranges (except T = 0). damping will be effective over the full range of periods for which the response spectrum is generated.

0 Time (sec) • Example of an artificially generated wave to resemble a real time ground motion accelerogram.0 30.00 -2.0 18. each having equal amplitude of 1.0 24. an “artificial” ground motion is made up from the sum of five simple harmonics.0 60.0 48.0 54.00 2.0 90.Damping Is Effective in Reducing the Response for Any Given Period of Vibration Amplitude 4.0 78.00 0.0 84. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 78 .0 72.0 6.0 ` 12. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . • Generated wave obtained by combining five different harmonic signals.0 42.78 To demonstrate the point made in the previous slide.00 -4.0.0 66.0 36.00 0.

0 42.0 84.0 60.79 Each of the harmonics has an amplitude of 1.0 84.0 s 48.0 Amplitud e 1 0. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 79 .5 -1 0.0. and 3 sec are shown.0 12.0 60.0 66.0 s 48.0 54.0 78.0 6.0 36.0 12.0 ` T = 4.0 30.0 36.0 78.0 30.0 66.5 -1 0.0 s 48. The first three of the harmonics with T = 5.5 -1 0.0 24.0 30.0 6.0 72.The Artificial Wave Is the Sum of Five Harmonics 1 0.5 0 -0.0 42.0 90.0 ` T = 3.0 12.0 Time (sec) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.0 54.0 42.5 0 -0.0 84.0 ` T = 5.0 18.0 1 0.0 18.0 90.0 78.0 72. 4.0 54.0 24. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .0 24.0 36.0 66.0 90.0 18.0 60.5 0 -0.0 72.0 6.

0 72.0 24.0 30.0 24.00 -2.5 -1 0.0 12.0 Amplitude 1 0.0 72.0 36.0 42.0 ` T = 2.00 2.0 78.0 30.0 6.0 30.0 84.0 12.0 60.0 Time (sec) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.0 24.00 0.0 36.0 72.0 18.0 ` 48.0 s 48.0 6.0 66.0 84.0 54. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 80 .0 18.0 6.0 78.00 -4.00 0.5 -1 0.5 0 -0.0 18.0 42.0 Summation 4.0 90.The Artificial Wave Is the Sum of Five Harmonics 1 0.5 0 -0.0 78.0 s 48.0 42.0 ` T = 1.0 54.0 84.80 The remaining two harmonics (at T = 2 and 1 sec) and the sum are shown.0 90.0 60.0 36.0 60.0 90.0 66.0 66.0 54.0 12. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .

This spectrum shows the five discrete harmonics that are in the artificial motion. If the response spectrum is run at intervals of 0. β Frequency (Hz) FFT curve for the combined wave Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.00 1.Damping Reduces the Response at Each Resonant Frequency 14.0 % Damping 12.00 4. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .50 3.00 0. Damping will be very effective in reducing the response at each of the frequencies.00 Dynamic Response Amplifier 10.0 % Damping 10.00 0.0% Damping 5.2 sec.50 1.0% Damping 25.00 2.00 2.00 6.00 0.00 Frequency Ratio.81 The Fourier amplitude spectrum of the artificial ground motion is shown at the left.00 0. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 81 .50 2. there will be resonant response at each of these frequencies.00 Fourier amplitude 8.

64 sec.0 Period.0 1. the peak displacement may be easily computed. Seconds At T = 0.00 10.5 =9. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.00 W = 2.00 0.00 4.82 rad/sec T = 2π/ω = 0.0 2. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 2.5 3.5 2.5 4. Note that the sign of the displacement (positive or negative) and the time that the displacement occurred is not known as this information was discarded when the spectrum was generated. If the system is assumed to have 5% damping (matching the spectrum) and the system period is known. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 82 .03 in.18 k-sec2/in ω = (K/M)0.00 6. displacement = 3.Use of an Elastic Response Spectrum Example Structure K = 500 k/in M = 2000/386.0 3.5 1.4 = 5.000 k 8.0 0.64 sec 5% critical damping Displacement.82 This is a simple example of the use of an elastic displacement response spectrum. Inches 12.00 0.

/sec2 Base shear = M x PSA = 5.5 2.0 0.0 3.5 =9. Seconds At T = 0.0 0.0 250.5 4.0 300.0 350.83 This is a simple example of the use of an elastic pseudoacceleration response spectrum.18(301) = 1559 kips Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.0 200.000 k M = 2000/386.4 = 5.0 1.0 K = 500 k/in Period.18 k-sec2/in ω= (K/M)0.64 sec.5 3. pseudoacceleration = 301 in. in/sec 2 400.0 100.Use of an Elastic Response Spectrum Example Structure W = 2.82 rad/sec T = 2π/ω = 0. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 83 .64 sec 5% critical damping Pseudoacceleration.0 0.0 150. the peak base shear may be easily computed.0 50. Note that the sign of the shear (positive or negative) and the time that the shear occurred is not known as this information (related to pseudoacceleration) was discarded when the spectrum was generated.0 2.5 1. If the system is assumed to have 5% damping (matching the spectrum) and the system period and mass are known. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .

20 0. which is also called a demand spectrum. This kind of spectrum is most commonly used in association with “capacity spectra” developed from nonlinear static pushover analysis. T T = 0. inches Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.00 6.64s 0.00 Diagonal lines represent period values.Response Spectrum.00 Displacement. ADRS Space 1. displacement is plotted on the x-axis and pseudoacceleration is plotted on the y-axis. Here.00 10. Periods of vibration are represented as radial lines.00 0.40 0. g 0. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 84 .00 8.00 12.60 0.00 2. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 4. A demand spectrum is also useful in assessing stiffness and damping requirements of base-isolated systems.80 Pseudoacceleration.84 Another type of spectrum plot is the acceleration-displacement response spectrum (ADRS).

in/sec 1.0 0. On the plot.001 ω 0.0 0.85 Response spectra often are plotted on four-way log paper. The use of circular frequency on the horizontal axis is rarely used in practice but is convenient for illustrating the development of the plot. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 85 .1 1 10 100 1000 Circular Frequency ω. Radiand ω Second Circular Frequency per (radians/sec) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Lines of constant and logarithmically increasing displacement are generated as shown. pseudovelocity.1 . This type of spectrum is often called a “tripartite spectrum” because the displacement. and pseudoacceleration are all shown on the same plot.Four-Way Log Plot of Response Spectrum Line of increasing displacement 100 D=10.1 Line of constant displacement 10 1.1 0. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .01 D= 1 PSV 0.0 PSEUDOVELOCITY.01 0. pseudovelocity is plotted on the vertical axis.

Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .86 Lines of constant and logarithmically increasing pseudoacceleration are obtained in a similar manner. in/sec 10000 100000 Line of increasing acceleration 10 100 10000 PSA = PSV ω 1 10 100 1000 0.Four-Way Log Plot of Response Spectrum Line of constant acceleration 100 PSA=1000 PSEUDOVELOCITY. Radiand per Second Circular Frequency ω (radians/sec) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 86 .1 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Circular Frequency ω.

0.i ec 2 1 0. in/sec PL AC 0 EM 10 EN T.87 This is a completed spectrum for the 5% damped 1940 El Centro earthquake with maximum acceleration = 0. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 87 .Four-Way Log Plot of Response Spectrum 100 DI S PSEUDOVELOCITY. Radiand per (radians/sec) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. 1 10 100 1000 Circular Frequency Frequency ω Second Circular ω.1 0. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . 1 N IO AT 100 00 ER s n/ .1 1 1 0. 1 00 10 0 0. 0 10 01 0.35g. 10 10 in EL C AC 10 00 1.

n. 0 0.0 10 0 1.00 100. 1 0.88 Response spectra usually are plotted versus structural period or structural cyclic frequency.00 PERIOD.00 PSEUDOVELOCITY. 0. in/sec 10 . 1 00 0. 01 1.0 10.00 1.i n. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . ti o ra le ce Ac g 01 0. Slide 88 . 10 0.01 0. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes . Seconds Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.Four-Way Log Plot of Response Spectrum Plotted vs Period ac em en t D is pl . 00 1 10. This is the same spectrum as shown in the previous slide. but it is plotted versus period.10 0.10 0.00 1.

Problems with Current Spectrum: For a given earthquake.Development of an Elastic Response Spectrum 100. small variations in structural frequency (period) can produce significantly different results. 1 D 1 0. 01 10. 0 01 The use of a single earthquake spectrum in structural design is not recommended for the reasons shown on this slide. in/sec 10. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .00 0.10 0.01 0. 0 0 0. other earthquakes will have different Characteristics. It is for a single earthquake. 10 is pl a .g 0 0 10 .10 1. 1.00 0 1. The same site experiencing different earthquakes (or different components of the same earthquake) often will have dissimilar spectra. Seconds Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. PSEUDOVELOCITY. 1 1 0. 0 0.00 m en t. i c Ac ce el a er n tio n. 0 0.00 0.00 PERIOD.89 FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 89 . . 0 1.

01 0.i n. small variations in structural frequency (period) can produce significantly different results. In/Sec For a given earthquake. 0. 1 00 0.1 1 Period.35 g.5 sec period range. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .1940 El Centro.0 10 10 . 0. ti o ra le ce Ac n. 100 Pseudo Velocity. Seconds 0. 1 01 0. 0 1 0% Damping 5% Damping 10% Damping 20* Damping 10 0. . 10 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. D is pl 0 1.1 0. N-S ac em en t . FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 90 .90 Note the significant changes (for any given damping value) in the 1. 00 1 0.01 0.0 g 10 1.

Note the differences.4 g with 5% damping.0 1.0 El Centro Loma Prieta North Ridge San Fernando Average 0.5% Damped Spectra for Four California Earthquakes Scaled to 0.91 The spectra are scaled to 0.10 1. in/sec 10. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 91 . seconds Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.40 g (PGA) Different earthquakes 100.01 0.00 Period.0 will have different spectra.00 10. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . Pseuso Velocity.1 0.

One of the earliest of these empirical spectra was developed by Nathan Newmark. The spectrum used by ASCE 7-05 is simpler than the Newmark spectrum. The next several slides describe this in detail. a variety of empirical spectra have been generated.92 Because real ground motion spectra are difficult to work with in a design office.Smoothed Elastic Response Spectra (Elastic DESIGN Response Spectra) • Newmark-Hall spectrum • ASCE 7 spectrum Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . Certain key aspects of the ASCE 7 spectrum are presented in the topic on seismic load analysis. but explanation of the background of the ASCE 7 spectrum is more difficult. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 92 .

pseudovelocity. and pseudoacceleration are equal to the ground values times some empirical constant.1 max u v → max v && && at short T v→0 g g g v → max v v→0 && 1 Period (sec) 10 100 g at long T Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.93 The Newmark spectrum is based on the following observations: • • • The pseudoacceleration at very low periods is exactly equal to the peak ground acceleration. At intermediate periods. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 93 . The relative displacement at very long periods is exactly equal to the peak ground displacement. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .01 0.Newmark-Hall Elastic Spectrum 100 0% Dam ping 5% Dam ping 10% Dam ping Displacem ent (in) 10 max u & 1 Observations g max u && 0.1 0. the displacement.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 94 . Design Examples For very low period (high frequency) buildings. the maximum relative displacement will be zero.Very Stiff Structure (T < 0.01 sec) Relative displacement Total acceleration Zero Ground acceleration SDOF Dynamics 3 .94 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. The maximum acceleration will approach the ground acceleration.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 95 . the maximum relative displacement will be equal to the maximum ground displacement. The maximum total acceleration will approach zero.Very Flexible Structure (T > 10 sec) Relative displacement Total acceleration Ground displacement Zero SDOF Dynamics 3 . Design Examples For very high period (low frequency) buildings.95 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

0. 0. 0. 00 1 0% Damping 5% Damping 10% Damping 20* Damping 0.7 in/s 10 0. These lines clearly form a lower bound to the elastic response spectra.0 12.35g Ground Maxima 1 00 0. 01 0. velocity. ti o ra le ce Ac g ac em en t D is pl 0 1. 01 0. 0 10 . N-S 100 n.i . .1 0. Design Examples 10 SDOF Dynamics 3 . Pseudo Velocity.25 in. Seconds Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. 0.35 g. velocities.1940 El Centro.96 The yellow line shows the maximum recorded ground displacement.0 10 n. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 96 .01 0. In/Sec 10 1. and acceleration from the 1940 El Centro earthquake. Note also how the amplifications decrease with increased damping. 1 1 4. Note how the building response displacements. and accelerations are amplifications of the ground values.1 1 Period.

36 2.39 1.63 1.74 2.01 2.01 aa 3. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 97 .84 1.89 1.86 1.1%) av ad aa 5. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 .97 Newmark has developed a series of amplification factors to be used in the development of design spectra.26 1.24 2.Newmark’s Spectrum Amplification Factors for Horizontal Elastic Response Damping % Critical .38 Median (50%) av ad 2.66 2.84 3.65 1.64 1.24 2.46 2.37 1.38 3.20 1.85 1.64 2.17 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.99 1.01 2.03 1.38 2.29 1.52 1.71 2.69 1.59 2.21 2.82 2.12 1.08 1.68 3. Values are shown for the median and median plus one standard deviation.30 2.31 1.04 4.92 2.73 3.05 1 2 3 5 7 10 20 One Sigma (84.42 3.10 3.37 1.08 1.51 1. These are based on the average of dozens of spectra recorded on firm soil sites for the western United States.

FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 98 .98 These are the steps in the development of the Newmark spectrum. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . Note that actual values are not present.v .Newmark-Hall Elastic Spectrum 3 2 4 6 1 1) Draw the lines corresponding to max from Tb to Tc A v .v && & 2) Draw line α max v && g g g g 5 3) Draw line α V from Tc to Td max v & g 4) Draw line α D from Td to Te max v g 5) Draw connecting line from Ta to Tb Ta Tb Tc Td Te Tf 6) Draw connecting line from Te to Tf Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

For design purposes. T T = 1. the acceleration spectra is not reduced to the ground acceleration at low periods (Line 1 on the plot).4 SDS T0 Spectral Response Acceleration. Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . Note that the vertical axis is pseudoacceleration.99 This plot shows the basic relationships used for the ASCE 7 spectrum.0 TL Note exceptions at larger periods Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.ASCE 7 Uses a Smoothed Design Acceleration Spectrum “Short period” acceleration 2 “Long period” acceleration 1 2 3 4 Sa = 0.6 Sa = SDS SDS T + 0. The spectrum is derived from a series of maps giving spectral acceleration values for “short period” (T = 0.2 sec) or “long period” (T = 1 sec) buildings. Damping is assumed to be 5% critical. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 99 . Sa SDS SD1 1 3 SD1 T TLSD1 Sa = 2 T Sa = 4 TS Period. The maps are based on very stiff soils. Note that the part of the spectrum to the right of TL (Curve 4) was introduced in the 2003 NEHRP Recommended Provisions and in ASCE 7-05.

” This concept is covered in detail in the topic on seismic hazard analysis.100 This slide notes that the ASCE 7 spectrum is a “uniform hazard spectrum. The main purpose of this side is a transition into the hazards topic.The ASCE 7 Response Spectrum is a uniform hazard spectrum based on probabilistic and deterministic seismic hazard analysis. FEMA 451B Topic 3 Notes Slide 100 . Design Examples SDOF Dynamics 3 . Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

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