OWE N

GRAMMAR
W
it Ii

.ION BS'
of

ORNAMENT.
I

THE TEXT COMPLETE
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THE

GRAMMAR OF ORNAMENT
BY

OWEN

JONES.

ILLUSTRATED BY EXAMPLES FROM VARIOUS STYLES OF ORNAMENT.

ONE HUNDKED AND TWELVE PLATES.

LONDON

BEENARD QUAEITCH,
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PEEFACE TO THE FOLIO EDITION.

It would be far beyond the limits of the powers of any one individual to

attempt to gather together illustrations of the innumerable and ever-varying
phases
of Ornamental
Art.
it

It

would be barely possible
to

if

undertaken by a

Government, and even then
All, therefore,

would be too voluminous

be generally useful.
I

that
to

I

have proposed to myself in forming the collection which
the

have ventured

call

Grammar

of Ornament, has been to

select a

few of

the most prominent types in certain styles closely connected with each other, and
in

which certain general laws appeared
of
each.
I

to reign independently of the individual

peculiarities

have ventured to

hope

that,

in

thus

bringing into

immediate juxtaposition the many forms of beauty which every
presents,
I

style of

ornament
to

might aid

in

arresting

that

unfortunate
lasts,

tendency of our time
the

be content with copying, whilst the fashion

forms peculiar to any

bygone
peculiar

age,

without attempting to ascertain, generally completely ignoring, the
because
it

circumstances which rendered an ornament beautiful,

was

appropriate, and which, as expressive of other wants
entirely
It
is

when

thus transplanted, as

fails.

more than probable that the

first

result of sending forth to the
l

world

B

PREFACE. collection will be will this seriously to increase this dangerous tendency. that the future progress of Ornamental Art may be best secured by engrafting on the to experience of the past the knowledge we may obtain by a return to build Nature for fresh inspiration. That the modifications and developments which have taken place another have been caused by a sudden throwing set off of from one style to some fixed trammel. Secondly. I there are it to the judgment of am fully aware that the collection artist. have endeavoured to show. or to form a style. facts. but employing them simply as guides to find the true path. this tendency. To attempt up theories of art. may up for himself. knowledge of of On the contrary. which thought free for a time. I half-filled stagnant reservoir. in the twentieth chapter. he may assuredly hope to find an ever-gushing fountain in place of a In the following chapters First. That however varied the manifestations in accordance with these laws. to give birth in its turn to fresh inventions. it will always be found to be in accordance with the laws which regulate the distribution of form in nature. the leading ideas on which they are based are very few.— . place side by side types of such styles as might best serve . Thirdly. would be thousands at once to reject the experiences and accumulated years. If the student will but endeavour to search out the thoughts which have been expressed in so many different languages. not blindly following them. It independently of the past. My chief aim. we should regard as our inheritance all the successful labours of the past. I fixed. has been my desire to arrest and to awaken a higher ambition. is very far from being complete readily fill many gaps which each to however. have endeavoured to establish these main style That whenever any of ornament commands universal admira- tion. till the new idea. In taking leave of the subject. and finally surrendering the public. would be an act of supreme folly. became again Lastly. like the old. and that many be content to borrow from the past those forms of beauty which It have not already been used up ad nauseam.

I am J. been It remains for me to offer my acknowledgment to all those friends who have kindly assisted me in the undertaking.PREFACE. Albert Warren and Mr. T. Stubbs. Charles Aubert. 8 of the twentieth chapter. exhibiting the geometrical arrangement of natural flowers. from Mr. his long residence in Cairo large collection having afforded him the opportunity of forming a very of Cairean Ornament. I Bury for the plate of Stained Glass. Whenever the material in the has been gathered from published sources. Richardson obtained the principal portion of the materials of the Elizabethan Collection. Digby Wyatt. Waring. M. have reduced the whole of the original drawings. the Celtic Collection. My colleague his at the Crystal Palace. and I am also indebted to him for the very valuable essays on Byzantine and Eliza- bethan Ornament. I trust. the Mr. it has been acknowledged body of the work. Mr. Bonomi. has. of which the portion contained in this work can give but to publish an imperfect idea. as landmarks and aids to fulfilled. B. and written the very remarkable history and exposition of the style. has provided the interesting plate No. and from Mr. 3 . who has for con- tributed the materials the Arabian Collection. J. with Mr. drawings have been chiefly executed by The remainder of the my pupils. Dresser. Mr. who. C. O. T. J. Westwood having has assisted directed in special attention to Ornament of the Celtic races. indebted to Mr. the student in his onward path. J. and prepared them for publication. has enriched the wo v k with admirable essays on the Ornament of the Renaissance and the Italian periods. James Wild. of Marlborough House. and which I trust he may some day be encouraged in a complete form. In the formation of the Egyptian Collection I received much valuable also assistance from Mr. C. those of the Byzantine. From Mr.

Francis of the whole collection was entrusted Messrs. Sedgfield. Dec. to the care Bedford. the printers and uncertainties of publishers. Warren. 15. and the vast amount of printing to be performed. with his able S. 9 Argyll Place. at all in any way acquainted with the Messrs. the enterprising and the same time notwith- work. OWEN JONES. and fully feel persuaded that his valuable services will be difficulties recognised by this process. have executed One Hundred Plates in less than one year. to render this the advanced stage of chromolithography demanded. A.PREFACE. Bedford for the care and anxiety which of all he has evinced. assistants. have put forth their strength. Tymms. 1856 . but even to complete it before the appointed time. My work I special thanks are due to Mr. the R. as perfect quite as regardless personal consideration. H. and with occasional help. Fielding. and standing the care required. who. not only to deliver the work with perfect regularity to the Subscribers. all Day and of the Son. -> The drawing upon stone of Mr. the resources of their establishment have enabled them. W.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES IN THE ARRANGEMENT OF FORM AND COLOUR,
IN ARCHITECTURE

AND THE DECORATIVE

ARTS,

WHICH

ARE ADVOCATED THROUGHOUT THIS WORK.

Proposition
General
principles.

1.

Proposition

6.

The Decorative Arts
chitecture.
Proposition

arise from,

and

Beauty of form

is

produced by
the

lines On

general

should properly be attendant upon, Ar-

growing out
crescences

one

from
:

other

in

gradual undulations
;

there are no ex-

nothing could be removed

2.

and leave the design equally good or
better.
Proposition
7.

Architecture

is

the material expression

of the wants, the faculties, and the senti-

ments, of the age in which
Style in Architecture
is

it is

created.

the peculiar form that

general forms being The ~ °
for,

first

cared

Decoration of the surface.

expression takes under the influence of climate

these should be subdivided and ornalines; the interstices in

and materials

at

command.
3.

mented by general

Proposition

may
works of the
fitness,

then be

filled

with ornament,

As

which may again be subdivided and enriched for closer inspection.

Architecture, so

all

Decorative Arts, should possess
proportion, harmony, the result

of

all

Proposition

8.

which

is

repose.
Proposition

All ornament should be based upon a
4.

geometrical construction.
Proposition
9.

True beauty

results
feels

from that repose
the eye, the

which the mind intellect, and the

when

affections, are satisfied

As

in every perfect

work

On proporof Archi- tion.

from the absence of any want.
Proposition
5.

tecture a true proportion will be found
to reign

between
it,

all

the

members which

compose
be
decorated.

so throughout the Decorative

Construction

should

Arts every assemblage of forms should

Decoration should never be purposely
constructed.
That which is beautiful is true that which must be beautiful.
;
.

be arranged on certain definite proporthe whole and each particular tions
;

is

true

member should be
simple unit.

a multiple of

some

5

;

PROPOSITIONS.
Those proportions will be the most beautiful which it will be most difficult for the eye to
detect.

Proposition 15.

Colour
square,
or 4 to 8, will be less beautiful than

is

used to

assist

light

and

Thus the proportion of a double
the more subtle ratio of 5 to 8
;

shade, helping the undulations of form

by the proper
colours.

distribution of the several

3 to

6,

than 3 to 7; 3 to 9, than 3 to 8 3 to 4, than 3 to 5.

Proposition 16.

Proposition 10.

On harmony
and
contrast.

Harmony

of

form consists

in
of,

the the

proper balancing, and contrast
straight, the inclined,

These objects are best attained by the use of the primary colours on small surfaces and in small quantities, balanced

and the curved.

and supported by the secondary and tiary colours on the larger masses.
Proposition 17.

ter-

Proposition 11.
Distribution.

In surface decoration

all lines

should

Radiation. Continuity.

The primary

colours should be used
objects, the

flow out of a parent stem.

Every orna-

on the upper portions of

ment, however distant, should be traced
to its

secondary and tertiary on the lower.
Proposition 18.

branch and root.

Oriental practice.

Proposition 12.

(Field's Chromatic equivalents.)

All junctions

of curved

lines

with

The primaries of equal

intensities will On
,

curved or of curved lines with straight
should

harmonise or neutralise each other, in
the proportions of 3 yellow, 5 red, and
.

be

tangential

to

each

other.
in

ii

the proportions by which har-

mon y

m

Natural law.
cordance with
it.

Oriental practice

ac-

8 blue,

— integrally as
.

.,

colouring is produced.

16.

The secondaries
8 orange,
1

in the proportions of
11

3 purple,

green,

—integrally
of

Proposition 13.
On the conventionality of natural forms.

as 32.

Flowers or other natural objects should
not be used as ornaments, but conventional representations

The
and

tertiaries, citrine

(compound
(green

orange and green), 19; russet (orange
purple),
;

founded upon them
convey the
in-

21

;

olive

and

sufficiently suggestive to

purple), 24

—integrally

as 64.

tended image to the mind, without destroying the unity of the object they are

It follows that,

employed
when Art

to decorate.

Universally obeyed

in the best periods of Art, equally violated
declines.

Proposition 14.

On

colour

Colour

is

used to
form,

assist in the devel-

generally.

opment
objects

of

and

to

distinguish

or parts

of objects

one

from

another.
6

Each secondary being a compound of two primaries is neutralised by the remaining primary in the same proportions: thus, 8 of orange by 8 of blue, 11 of green by five of red, 13 of purple by 3 of yellow. Each tertiary being a binary compound of two secondaries, is neutralised by the remaining secondary as, 24 of olive by 8 of orange, 21 of russet by 11 of green, 19 of citrine by 13 of purple.
:

LIST OF PLATES.

Chap.
Plato.

I.

Ornament of Savage
to various

Tribes.

No.
i

1

Ornaments from Articles belonging
British

Savage Tribes, exhibited in the United Service and

Museums.
ditto
ditto. ditto.

2
3

2
3

Ditto
Ditto

ditto

Chap.
4
5
l

II.

Egyptian Ornament.

The Lotus and Papyrus, types of Egyptian ornament.
Ditto
ditto

2 3

with Feathers and Palm-branches.

6

Capitals of Columns, showing the varied applications of the Lotus and Papyrus.
ditto
ditto.

6* 7 8
9

3* Ditto
4 5
6 7

Various Cornices, formed by the Pendent Lotus.

Ornaments from

Mummy

Cases in the British

Museum and

the Louvre.

Geometrical Ornaments from Ceilings of Tombs.

10
11

8

Ornaments with Curved Lines from Ceilings of Tombs. Various Ornaments from Ceilings and Walls of Tombs.

Chap.
12 13
i

III.

Assyrian and Persian Ornament.

Painted Ornaments from Nineveh.
Ditto
ditto.

2 3

14

Carved Ornaments from Persepolis, and Sassanian Ornaments from Ispahan and Bi-Sutoun.

Chap. IV.
15
l

Greek Ornament.

The Various Forms

of the Greek Fret.

16 17 18 19

2
3 4

Ornaments from Greek and Etruscan Vases

in the British

Museum and

the Louvre.

5
6

20 21 22

7
8

J

Painted Greek Ornaments from the Temples and Tombs in Greece and

Sicily.

VII. 44 45 46 l Persian Ornament. Mosaics from Pompeii and the Museum at Naples. Arabian Ornaments of the Ninth Century from Cairo. South Kensington Museum. ditto. Tombs. ditto. Ornaments from Persian MSS. Painted ditto. No. 4* Ditto 5 a Persian MS. Lozenge Diapers.LIST OF PLATES. XI. Chap. 31 l Arabian Ornament. VIII. 39 l Moresque Ornament from the Alhambra. Chap. Casts in the Crystal Palace. ditto ditto. 1 23 Collection of Borders from different Edifices in Pompeii. Carved Byzantine Ornaments. Ditto 32 33 2 Thirteenth Century ditto. in the British Museum. Chap. V. 41* 42 3* Ditto 4 Square Diapers. and Fountains of the 37 33 2 3 Painted Ornaments from the Mosque of Soliman at Constantinople.. 28 29 30 l Byzantine Ornament. 3 Ditto 34 35 4 Portion of 5 an Illuminated Copy of the " Koran. Pompeian Ornament." Mosaics from Walls and Pavements from Houses in Cairo. Decoration of the Dome Tomb of Soliman I. 36 l Turkish Ornament. Chap. 42* 4*Ditto 42f 4fDitto 43 5 Mosaics. Plate. 47 47* 48 4 From From 10 a Persian Manufacturer's Pattern-Book. . Ornaments in Relief from Mosques. Chap. 2 29* 2*Ditto 3 ditto. ditto ditto. 2 Ditto 3 Ditto ditto. 24 25 2 3 Ditto Pilasters and Friezes ditto. Roman Ornaments from Ditto from the 27 2 Museo Bresciano. at Constantinople. at Constantinople. ditto. Chap. IX. Chap 26 l VI. ditto. Roman Ornament. South Kensington Museum. X. Varieties of Interlaced Ornaments. Mosaics. 40 41 2 3 Spandrils of Arches.

Chap. 4 69* 4*Ditto 70 5 Encaustic Tiles ditto. ditto. 59 60 61 l 1 Chinese Ornament. Diagonal. XVI. Chap. and on Wood. XV. ditto ditto. and Paintings. 3 ditto Fourteenth and Fifteenth 11 . Interlaced Styles. and Backgrounds of Pictures. now at South Kensington Museum. Ornaments from a Statue 57 58 2 3 From From the Collection at the Crystal Palace. 63 l Celtic Ornament. 2 3 V ) Chinese Ornaments painted on Porcelain. XIII.-^ ltto fr° 2) 3 m Embroidered and Woven Fabrics and Paintings on Vases exhibited in the Indian 52 53 g^ 54* 55 4) 5 ^ Collection in 1851. Indian Ornament. 62 4 Conventional Renderings of Fruits and Flowers. 71 l Portions of Illuminated Ditto Ditto ditto MSS. 66 67 67* 68 69 l Mediaeval Ornament. 2* Ditto 3 Diapers from Illuminated MSS.LIST OF PLATES. Illuminated MSS. (. Chap. 6*J 7 Ornaments from Woven and Embroidered Fabrics and Painted Boxes exhibited at Paris in 1855. Chap. l 49 50 51 Ornaments from Metal. of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. 2 Borders from Illuminated MSS. Chap. 72 73 2 Thirteenth and Fourteenth ditto. Lapidary Ornamentation. No. 56 l Hindoo Ornament. and from Woven Fabrics. XII.work from the Exhibition of 1851. Plate. 53* 5* 6 JSpecimens of Painted Lacquer-work from the Collection at the India House. at the Asiatic Society's House. and later Anglo-Saxon Ornament. Stained Glass of various periods. Zoomorphic. the Collection at the India House. ditto. Sydenham. 64 65 2 3 Spiral. XIV. Conventional Leaves and Flowers from Illuminated MSS.

Various Flowers in Plan and Elevation. Mantua. Yew. Ornaments from Pottery at South Kensington Museum. 92 93 2 3 4 Vine Ivy leaves. ditto fr° ditto. leaves. 100 10 Passion Flowers. i j 74 _g _„ ( I Renaissance Ornaments in Relief. Mantua. XVIII. ditto Ditto Hotel Cluuy and the Louvre. White Bryony. full-size Pilasters and Ornaments from the Loggie of the Vatican. 91 l Leaves and Flowers from Nature. Ditto from the Palazzo Ducale and the Church of from the Palazzo del Te. Laurel. 87 88 89 90 2 3 Ornaments from the Palazzo Ducale. 98 99 8 9 Honeysuckle and Convolvulus. XX. 12 . 86 l Italian Ornament. 80 81 7 Ditto 81 o 1 82 ^ r naments m Stone and Weed from the Collections of the Louvre and Hotel Cluny. and Bay-tree. Chap. ditto. Sydenham. reduced from the ditto Paintings at South Kensington Museum. and Blackberry. Andrea. XVII. Chap. Plate. St. Painted Ornaments and Ornaments on Woven Fabric. Chap. n 2J 3 ^ai™ us Ornaments in Relief from the Time of Henry VIII. to that of Charles II. Ivy. XIX. Hollyoak. 96 97 6 7 Wild Rose. Ivy. Hawthorn. Chap. Fig-tree. and Laburnum. Horse-chestnut leaves. No. Mantua. 5 Leaves of the Vine. 83 84 85 Elizabethan Ornament. 4 5 Ditto Ornaments from Printed Books.LIST OF PLATES. Maple. Renaissance Ornament. 94 95 Leaves of the Oak. 77 78 79 4 5 6 Enamels from the Louvre and H6tel Cluny. and Strawberry-tree. from Photographs taken from Casts in the Crystal Palace. 86* i*Ditto ditto ditto. Turkey Oak.

—— —

Chapter

I.

Plates

1,

2, 3.

ORNAMENT OF SAVAGE
.-o_)-0«o~$-«-

TRIBES.

PLATE
1.

I.

Cloth.

Otaheite.

United Service Museum.

9.

Cloth Matting from Tongotabu, Friendly Islands.
Cloth.

2.
3.

Matting from Tongotabu, Friendly Islands. Cloth. Otaheite.— U. S. M.
Cloth.

10.
11.

Cloth.
Cloth.

Otaheite.— U. S. M. Sandwich Islands.— B. M.

4.

5-8.

Cloths.

Sandwich Islands.— U. S. M. Sandwich Islands. British Museum.

12.
13.

Cloth

made from Paper Mulberry, Feejee

Islands.

—B. M.

PLATE
1.

II.
9, 10.

2.
3. 4.

South America. United Service Museum. Sandwich Islands. U. S. M. Owhyhee. U. S. M. New Hebrides. Inlaid Shield. U. S. M.

Tahiti.

Adze.

U.

S. S.
S.

11, 12.
13, 14.

Friendly Islands.
Tahiti.

Drum.

U.
U.

Adze.
Islands.

15.

Sandwich

U. S.

5.
6.

7.

Sandwich Islands. South Sea Islands. 8. Sandwich Islands.

U. U. U.

S.

S. S.

M. M. M.

16, 17.

New

Zealand.
Islands.

U. U.

S. S.

18-20.

Sandwich

M. M. M. M. M. M.

PLATE
1.

III.
6.
7.

2.
3.

Owhyhee. Sandwich

Club.
Islands.

United Service Museum.
Club.

New Zealand.
South Sea
Handle,
Isles.

Pajee, or

New

Zealand.

Patoo-Patoo.
Paddle.

U. U.
U.

S. S. S.

4. 6.

Tahiti.

Adze.

M. M. M.

War War Club.

Club.

8.
9.

full size of Fig. 6.

Feejee Islands.

Club.

U. S. M. U.S.M. U.S.M. U.S.M.

New Zealand.

U. S. M.

From

the universal testimony of travellers

it

would appear, that there
is

is

scarcely a people, in however

early a stage of civilisation, with

whom

the desire for ornament
all in

not a strong instinct.

The

desire is

absent in none, and

it

grows and increases with

the ratio of their progress in civilisation.

Man

appears everywhere impressed with the beauties of Nature which surround him, and seeks to imitate to the
extent of his power the works of the Creator.

Man's

earliest

ambition

is

to create.

To

this feeling

must be ascribed the tattooing

of the

human

face

and body, resorted to by the savage
enemies or
rivals, or to create

to increase the expression by which he seeks to strike terror on his

what appears to him a new beauty.*

As we advance higher, from the

* The tattooing on the head which we introduce from the Museum at Chester is very remarkable, as showing that in this very barbarous practice the principles of the very highest ornamental art are manifest, every line upon the face is the best adapted to develope the natural features.

E

13

ORNAMENT OF SAVAGE
decoration of the rude tent or

TRIBES.
is

wigwam

to the sublime
is

works of a Phidias and Praxiteles, the same feeling

everywhere apparent
individual mind.

:

the highest ambition

still

to create, to stamp on this earth the impress of an

From time
it

to time a

mind

stronger than those around will impress itself on a generation, and carry with

a host of others of less power following in the same track, yet never so closely as to destroy the individual
;

ambition to create

hence the cause of

styles,

and of the modifications of

styles.

The

efforts of

a people in
those of

an early stage of
children,

civilisation

are

like

though presenting a want of power, they

possess a grace

and naivete rarely found in mid-age,
decline.

and never in manhood's
the infancy of any
art.

It is equally so in

Cimabue and Giotto have manly

not the material charm of Raphael or the

power of Michael Angelo, but surpass them both in
grace and earnest truth.

The very command
:

of

means leads
succeeds;
signally

to their abuse

when Art
own

struggles, it

when
fails.

revelling in its

successes, it as

The pleasure we

receive

in

con-

templating the rude attempts at ornament of the

most savage tribes

arises
;

from our appreciation of

a difficulty accomplished

we

are at once

charmed

by the evidence

of the intention,

and surprised at

the simple and ingenious process by which the result
is

obtained.

In
it

fact,

what we seek

in every

work
is

of

Art, whether

be humble or pretentious,

the

evidence of mind,
create
to

—the
it

evidence of that desire to
all,

which we have referred, and which

feeling a natural instinct within them, are satisfied

with when they find
Female Head from

developed in others.

It

is

New

strange, but so it
Zealand, in the Museum, Chester.

is,

that this evidence of

mind

will

be more readily found in the rude attempts

at

ornament of a savage

tribe

than in the innumerable productions of a highly-advanced

civilisation.

Individuality decreases in the ratio of the power of production.
effort,

When

Art

is

manufactured by combined

not originated by individual

effort,

we

fail

to recognise those true instincts

which constitute

its

greatest charm.

Plate
of trees.

I.

The ornaments on

this

Plate are from portions of clothing

made

chiefly

from the bark

Patterns Nos. 2 and 9 are from a dress brought by Mr. Oswald Brierly from Tongotabu, the
It is

principal of the Friendly Island group.

made from

thin sheets of the inner rind of the bark of

a species of hibiscus, beaten out and united together so as to form one long parallelogram of cloth, which

being wrapped
bare,

many

times round the body as a petticoat, and leaving the chest, arms, and shoulders

forms the only dress of the natives.

Nothing, therefore, can be more primitive, and yet the
skill.

arrangement of the pattern shows the most refined taste and
of the cloth
;

No. 9

is

the border on

the edge
it.

with the same limited means of production,

it

would be

difficult to
is

improve upon

The

patterns are formed by small wooden stamps, and although the work in execution, the intention
of the masses,
is

somewhat rude and irregular
skilful

everywhere apparent

;

and we are at once struck with the
to

balancing

and the judicious correction of the tendency of the eye

run in any one direction by

opposing to them lines having an opposite tendency. 14

ORNAMENT OF SAVAGE
When Mr.
and
for every

TRIBES.
all

Brierly visited the island one

woman was
equally

the designer of

the patterns in use there,

new pattern
2,

she designed she received as a reward a certain
is

number

of yards of cloth.

The pattern No.

from the same place,

an admirable lesson in composition which we

may

derive from an artist of a savage tribe.

Nothing can be more judicious than the general arrange-

ment of the four squares and the

four red spots.

Without the red spots on the yellow ground there
lines

would have been a great want of repose in the general arrangement; without the red
red spots to carry the red through the yellow,
triangles
it

round the

would have been

still

imperfect.

Had

the small red
lost,

turned outwards instead of inwards, the repose of the pattern would again have been
effect

and the

produced on the eye would have been that of squinting; as

it

is,

the eye

is

centred in

each square, and centred in each group by the red spots round the centre square.

The stamps which
:

form the pattern are very simple, each triangle

A

and each

leaf

.

how readily

the possession of a simple tool, even

M^

by the mosl

A
y

being a single stamp
uncultivated, if
are

we thus

see

guided by an in-

stinctive observation of the forms in

which

all

the works of Nature

arranged, would lead to the

creation of all the geometrical arrangements of form with which

we
No.

are acquainted.

On

the upper left-hand corner of pattern
is

2, the eight-pointed star
;

formed by eight applications of
sixteen pointing

the same tool

as also

the black flower with
j

inwards

J

and sixteen pointing outwards.

The most comand

plicated patterns of the Byzantine, Arabian,

1

Moresque
ornament
is

mosaics would be generated by the same means.

The

secret of

success in all
;

the pro-

duction of a broad general effect by the repetition of a few simple elements

variety should rather be

sought in the arrangement of the
forms.

several

portions of a

design,

than in the multiplicity of varied

The stamping
as this,

of patterns on the coverings of the body,
first

when

either of skins of animals or material such

would be the

stage towards ornament after the tattooing of the body by an analogous process.

In both there

would remain a greater variety and individuality than in subse-

hbhhhb|hj

quent processes, which would become more mechanical.

The

first

notions of

weaving, which would be given by the plaiting of straws or strips of bark,
instead of using

them

as thin sheets, would have equally the

same

result of

gradually forming the

mind

to

an appreciation of a proper disposition of
to

masses

:

the eye of the

savage, accustomed only

look

upon Nature's

harmonies, would readily enter into the perception of the true balance both
of form and colour; in point of fact,

we

find that it is so, that in savage

ornament the true balance of both

is

always maintained.

After the formation of ornament by stamping and weaving, would naturally
follow the desire of forming

ornament in

relief or carving.

The weapons
skilful

for

defence or the chase would

first

attract attention.

The most

and the
Plaited Straw from the Sandwich Islands.

bravest would desire to be distinguished from their fellows by the possession
of weapons, not only
for

more

useful,

but more beautiful.

The shape

best fitted

the purpose having been found by experience, the enriching of the surface by carving would naturally
;

follow

and the

eye, already

accustomed to the geometrical forms produced by weaving, the hand would
similar repetition of cuts of the knife.

seek to imitate

them by a
They

The ornaments on Plate
and exhibit great
taste

II.

show

this

instinct very fully.

are executed with the utmost precision,

and judgment
this taste _and

in the distribution of the masses.
skill

Nos. 11 and 12 are interesting, as showing

how much

may

exist in the formation of geometrical patterns, whilst those resulting from curved
especially,

lines,

and tho

human form more

remain in the very

first stage.

15'

Zealand. on Plate III. New Guinea. and the manufacturer. children or as savages we must get rid of the and return to and develope natural instincts. geometrical patterns formed by the interlacing of equal lin?s in the orna- ment of every savage tribe. necessarily always true to its purpose. the ornament times misapplied. and instead of destroyed.ORNAMENT OF SAVAGE The ornaments in the TRIBES. the first is impulse which generated received forms being enfeebled by constant repetition. New Guinea. From the New is Side of a Canoe. whilst in much of the ornament of civilised nations. The uniting of two strands for additional strength would early accustom the eye to the spiral line. the twisted rope forming the type as naturally would be of all curved lines in ornament. with his decoration everywhere the best adapted to develope A modern 16 . 5-8. Zealand paddle. and we always find this form side by side with Head of Canoe.. because all first oftenis seeking the most convenient form and adding beauty. and retained in the more advanced art of every civilised nation. all beauty fitness. . woodcuts below and at the side show a far higher advance in the distribution it of curved lines. Head of Canoe. The ornament of a savage tribe> being the result of a natural instinct. by superadding ornament little If we would return to a more healthy condition. we must even be as acquired and artificial. Nos. to ill-contrived form. The tion : beautiful New would rival works of the highest is civilisa- there is not a line upon its surface misapplied. most elegant. The general shape the form.

The is swelling form of the handle where additional weight was required is most beautifully contrived. 1841 Ditto. Eastern Archipelago. 1841-42: Pkichard's Natural History of Man. their mats. would have continued the bands or rings round the handle across the blade. 8vo. out like the centre one. Lond. . Lond. Earle's Native Races of . and the springing of the swell well defined by the bolder pattern of the rings. The centre band in the length of the blade Handle of a. V * Captain Cook and other voyagers repeatedly notice the taste and ingenuity of the islanders of the Pacific and South Seas instancing especially cloths. constantly mentioned. Kerr's General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels.* Club. 1852. but should appear and his ornament disposed as to give an appearif ance of additional strength to what it would have had the surface had remained undecorated. W. 2 vols. they would have appeared to slip The centre one was the only one that could do so without disturbing the repose. 17 . M. binding together the border on the edge. . Paris.— B. which itself fixes the other bands. are. Dumont d'Urville's Voyaye au G. besides some original patterns of their own. Lond. Indian Archipelago. and plaids. and the fancy displayed in their rich carvings and inlaid shell-work. 1811-17. See The Three Voyages of Captain Couk." The "thousand different patterns" of their basket-work. is so The New Zealander's instinct so. is continued round on the other all side. Pole Sud. 1855 fol. painted " in such an endless variety of figures that one might suppose they borrowed their patterns from a : mercer's shop in which the most elegant productions of China and Europe are collected. London. Had these bands run off. He desired not only that his paddle should be strong. taught him better.ORNAMENT OF SAVAGE stripes TRIBES. likewise. Paddle. Atlas d'Histoire.

.

The Base of the Stem of the Papyrus. from an Egyptian round with Matting. from Aboo-Simbel. drawn from Nature.C. 9. Representations Painting. 7. drawn from Nature.C. 11. in a different stage of growth. 8. j i. and around nating. A Ribbons.. of The Lotus and Buds in the form of a Column. V.C. Insignia borne by certain Officers of the time of the Feathers from the Head-dress of the Horses of the Royal Chariots. The same. The Lotus. Ditto.1 14. 9. 4. . 11. Thebes. 7. 5. representing a Column bound with Matting and Ribbons. decorated with the coloured pendent Fascia? that are seen in the painted representations of Columns of Capital of the large Columns It it of the Temple III. less advanced stage of growth. 16 :} 16. Gold and enamelled Vases in the form of the Lotus. Royal Head-dress. Expanding Bud Another. Another variety of Desert Plants. Pharaohs. 17. of dried Leaves. 6. 11. and three full-blown Lotus Flowers with two Buds. combination of the Lotus and Papyrus. Three Papyrus Plants. 5. 10. IV. Amunoph of Luxor. e Egyptian representation of the Lotus and Buds. 4. 3. 2. 19 . Another > variety. the form of a Lotus. jg' > Boats made of Papyrus Plants bound together.—Plates 4. Capital of the smaller B. representing the Divinity. 10. bound together with 12. inserted into a wooden Stem in 10. The true Lotus. Papyri and Lotus Buds Columns of the Temple of Luxor. bound Representing eight Buds of the Papyrus together. Fan made of Feathers. Another variety. Grapes. 18. 9. ) 18 Representation of a species of Lotus. 1250. Thebes. Ditto. Representation of Plants growing in the Desert. from a Tainting representing the Portico of a Temple. in combination with Lotus Buds. 17. 13. 6*. another variety. and adorned with pendent and Represents a single Bud of the Papyrus coloured Fasciae.. A Rudder Oar decorated with the Lotus and the Eye. Nos. the Papyrus. 12. 3. 1250 B. 2. of the time of according to Sharpe. drawn from Nature the type of the Bases and Shafts of Egyptian . the type of the Capitals of Egyptian 13. represents the full-blown alter- Plate IV. in a of the Papyrus. PLATE 1. Columns. 1200. 8. Papyrus. Columns of the Memnonium.Chapter II. 6. EGYPTIAN OENAMENT. VI. Ivy.) 16. 7. bound 14. Capital of the smaller B. 5. Columns. 6. Shaft. PLATE 1. Another. Egyptian representation of the Lotus. 12. and Base of the Egyptian Columns. 15. Egyptian representation of the Papyrus Plant the complete type of the Capital. A full-blown Lotus and two Buds. and 5. Fan. Representation of the Lotus and Papyrus growing in the Nile. held in the hand of a King as an offering to a God. 8.fri *->- PLATE 1. 2. Fans made Ditto.

the Wall of a Tomb. 12. of the Papyrus Plant in three stages of growth. full- the shaft.EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. 20 . are all derived from the same elements. VII. Capital from the unfinished hypaethral Temple. the Tombs. 23. of the Lotus. See Plate IV. Ditto. always occur on vertical surfaces. tiers. Nos. 7. Gourna. From the Wall of a Tomb. that we can hardly doubt that the Greek moulding was derived from this source. 16. 12. of sixteen. a Necklace. the Papyrus in two stages of growth. in three stages of growth. sixty-four plants. In this capital the form is not disturbed. the Tombs. the Tombs. Capital from a Temple in the Oasis of Thebes. 20. Repre- senting a collection of Aquatic Plants. exhibit another element of Egyptian ornamentation derived from the separated leaves Portions of a Necklace. and the third tier. 10. by the size and colour of its stalk. Capital from the unfinished hypaethral Temple. with the Acanthus leaf and the period. 33. 5. Papyrus in two stages of growth. 7-9. at Thebes. of Lines From From Ditto. 19. the From a Necklace. ditto. From the Wall of a Tomb. tendrils of the Honeysuckle. with triangular Stalks tied round a single full-blown Papyrus. down 12. . B. viz. second tier. of eight smaller expanding flowers of sixteen buds: . Very remarkable. Thebes. 18. Lotus. B.C. Sakhara. 27. Benihassan. 26. 9. bands or fasciae. > From From a wooden Sarcophagus. in plan as well as in elevation. 31. El Kab. immediately under the Ceiling. 15. or faces.\ 8. 11. 11. PLATE Ornament on the top hassan. 17. 106. same flower of eight smaller. The Capital No. From the upper part of a Picture. Lotus in a pendent position. 145. Temple in the Oasis of Thebes. as showing the Egyptian and Greek elements combined. and continued down to the horizontal bands which bind them together round : buds circular . Thebes. The stem of each plant is distinguished by its size and colour. representing the 10. Philae. Capital from the principal Temple. Ditto. Ditto. The grown Papyrus surrounded by various flowers. The full-blown Papyrus surrounded by the in various stages of growth. 30. This very constant Egyptian ornament in some of its forms so much resembles the Greek moulding. 11. The stem of each plant may be traced. Capital from the Portico of Edfu. Representing two tiers of the Papyrus. of similar structure to No. and a the third tier. four full-blown and four expanding the second tier composed of eight . 10. 1-5. PLATE Capital from a VI*. RomaD : period. from Karnac. Composed of three tiers of the Papyrus Plant in three stages of growth. 32. 16. 34. sixteen expanding flowers. the From Wall of a Tomb. From From the Wall of a Tomb. Nos. 2. of the Walls of a Tomb at Beni- From the upper part of the Wall of a Tomb.c. From a Necklace. Capital from the Portico of Edfu. with nine branches. 6. 21. Representing eight Lotus Flowers bound together in two 15. Arrangement from dados. Shown in elevation. making in all bundle of thirty-two plants. in Tombs. 13. The first composed of four full-blown and four expanding flowers the second of the Composed arranged in three tier. 20. From a Sarcophagus. Philae. Capital of the Graco-Egyptian form. 14. Gourna. to the horizontal 6. and on the upper part of the walls of tombs and temples. Nos. making sixteen plants. Philae. The first tier composed of eight plants. 11. Represents the Palm-tree. 4. 13. 32. From a Sarcophagus. 3. 29. full-blown still . The first tier has eight full-blown and eight expanding plants the second tier. 13.C. usually termed the egg-and-tongue.C. tiers. Temple in the Island of Philse. Capital from the principal B. From From From a Sarcophagus in the Louvre. Capital from the Temple at Koom-Ombos. 22. 25. smaller. Temple in the Composed 14. The horizontal fasciae of the Palm-tree Capital differ from the fasciae of is all the other capitals. 12. 145. 15. inasmuch as there always a pendent loop. or egg-and-dart moulding. 8 seen in Perspective. from Sakhara. 24. Capital from a Temple in the Oasis of Thebes. Capital from the unfinished hypaethral Island of Philae. 17. Ditto. thirty-two buds of the Papyrus: in all. 140. Gourna. 14. with a bunch of grapes intervening. Nos. 4. 24. Decoration of the Torus moulding of some of the early Tombs in the neighbourhood of the Pyramids of Giza. Representing sixteen Lotus Flowers bound together in three tiers. Arrangement of Lines from dados. a Ceiling at Medinet Haboo. Ditto Ditto. from Gourna. 28. b. but of the Roman Capital from the Colonnade of the Island of Philse. 18. viz. as in No. 5. and arranged in three tiers the first composed of four full-blown and four large expanding Papyri the . Gourna. and the third tier.

as it occupies a similar position to those dados of a later period 10. 4. 1. derived from feathers. It represents the Scales of the Egyptian torus of the lower portion from the dado Armour worn by 18-20 are similar. 7 we have the chequered pattern. EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. at a late period. the Embroidery on a King's Robe. by the interwoven strands of a rope and in No. bably representing. Each circle is formed of four 10-24 are from Ceilings of Tombs in various parts of Egypt. PLATE XL 1. covered with a Vine It is by no means an uncommon ornament for the curved ceilings of small tombs. PLATE The Ornaments on this Plate are taken from Paintings on Tombs in various parts of Egypt. 21 . very common in the tombs. In Nos. Biban el Moluk. Geometrical arrangements of the single Lotus-leaf. duced by the loom. and usually occupies Trellis-work of a Garden the whole ceiling of each excavation at the period of the nineteenth dynasty. Ornament on the Dress of the god Amun. 11-16 are 17. usual the Dress of a figure in one of the Royal Tombs Lepsius. upper part represents is of Biban el Moluk. is a white ornament on In the lower we have another very common orna- a black ground. The transition from this state to the formation of patterns. the Heroes and Gods of Egypt and most probably were suggested by the imitating grained antiquity. Nos. pro- No. unless they arrived at themselves by a similar process. above the Lotus-leaves. 1-8 are representations of Mats on which the kings stand. In No. 24 the continuous blue line is the volute. at Gourna. 0. are mostly composed of the ornaments. part of No. which were formed of buds and flowers of the papyrus. the same tomb. . X. From From From a Mummy-case. which may have given the first suggestion of In No. 18-23. PLATE The whole of the VIII. and are further examples Rope Ornament given in the last Plate. From Mummy-cases in the Louvre. 17-19. Ornaments on this plate are from Mummy- cases in the British Museum and the Louvre. 7. varieties of Borders from Paintings in Tombs. They were evidently formed of interwoven straws of different colours. and they are most probably only repro- Walk. 6. opened the by Dr. Nos. evidently derived from the weaving together of different-coloured strands. From a Fragment in the Louvre. 9.. a Papyrus -grove. are of the from Tombs at Thebes. would be very rapid. like those of the last Plate. From a Tomb at Thebes. 2 and 3 are varieties of arrangements of Stars. 2 9. 8. From a very ancient Tomb at Giza. From a Mummy-case. 21-23 are derived from Mummy-cases in the Louvre.3-16. and shows that the practice of woods in painting is of the highest feathers of birds. PLATE 1-5. very common on the ceilings both of tombs and temples 22. Dado from the Tomb of Ramses. in diagram. No. 10. are various examples of an Lotus -flowers and four Buds. of a late period. From a Tomb at Thebes. is formed on squares. . It represents the 20 is from a Ceiling of a Tomb most of them. 7. 23. 2. 21. 21. evidently from the same type. from original DrawThey are chiefly patterns that could be proings. from Aboosinibel. such as 9-12. 24. ornament representing the unwinding of a pile of rope. the intermediate star probably intended for four Lotus-leaves. and. 9 and 10 may have suggested the fret to the Greeks. The . one of the earliest . suggested ment. <1 actions of woven it articles of daily use. and a single glance will show that this is doubtless the origin of IX. 18 Lotus-flower and single leaves of the same plant. 3 on equilateral triangles.

growing on the banks of their river. the covering of their persons. believe that they to consider is went for inspiration from nature. from the wooden spoon which fed them across the Nile to their last to the boat which carried their similarly adorned embalmed bodies Following these types as they did in a home in the valley of the dead. the palaces of their kings. the Roman. ivory. style. always true. however conventionalised. . a state of decline. It is very remarkable. founded on some bygone a culminating point of perfection. such as the Arabian and Moresque. forming a graceful termination to a column. representing the conquests of Karoses II. supposed to be Ethiopians. The Architecture of Egypt has this peculiarity over perfect is all other styles. it is difficult to discover the original type from which the ornament has been by successive mental efforts developed. therefore. the Moresque. Inferior as this state doubtless . destroyed the consistency of the A lotus carved in stone. and the Gothic. own elements. these highly-elaborated articles of luxury were derived by the Egyptians from the interior of Africa. there are three ivory carved chairs precisely similar to that on which the King sits to receive them from which it would appear that . the feathers of rare birds. same laws which the works of nature ever display is and we find. feeding on of infancy or of any foreign influence direct . The lotus and papyrus. gold. mind . that the more ancient the monu- ment the more the art. was never such a one as might be plucked.EGYPTIAN OENAMENT. principle. which were carried before the king as its emblems of sovereignty which form the the basis palm-branch. with the twisted cord made from stems . in much ornament. the representation but slightly removed from the type. ruins of still Monuments more ancient and more "We are thus carried back . they could hardly fail to observe the . to be a pure original style. manner so nearly allied to their natural form. over a black people. far beyond all that followed after the Egyptians are inferior only to themselves. by a too representation. besides the leopard-skins and rare animals. to In all other styles we can trace a rapid ascent from infancy. This view is strengthened when we come more especially the ornament of Egypt later the types are few and natural types. therefore. symbolising the food for the body and . their articles of luxury or of more modest daily use. the Arabian. the Byzantine. lingering decline. from this great parent. they never. that amongst the presents which these people are represented as bringing with them as a tribute to the King. but an architectural * In the British Museum may be seen a cast of a bas-relief from Kalabshee in Nubia. All the remains with which we are acquainted exhibit Egyptian Art in erected two thousand years before the Christian era are formed from the perfect buildings.* passed through countless ages. to the culminating point of perfection and the state of decline in it is which we see it. when its the foreign influence was modified or discarded. In the Egyptian we have no traces and we must. and other products of the country. servile imitation of the type. The we descend in art. or painted on the walls as an offering to their gods. to a period too remote from our time to enable us to discover any traces of its origin and whilst we can trace in direct succession the Greek. the more and more do we find original types receded from till. we must believe the architecture of Egypt which arose with civilisation in Central Africa. We are never shocked by any misapplication or violation of a natural On the other hand. . to a period of slow. these are the few types of that immense variety of ornament with which the Egyptians decorated the temples of their gods. with its offshoots. that Egyptian ornament. is to the unknown perfection of Egyptian Art. 22 .

In No. but each column was in itself a grove. when the column was formed by a union of four or eight shafts bound together. lines. is of three kinds : that which is constructive. to which even their hieroglyphical writing. show how little this possession of The lotus and papyrus form the type of fifteen of the capitals we have selected for illustration. whilst in the centre was the winged globe. Egyptian ornament itself. these had or cornice of each a sharp arris on their outer face with the same intention.). surrounded by a bouquet of smaller plants (No. when circular. The arrangement is symmetrical and graceful. pointed representations of columns forming parts of temples. EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. of daily use. which were but slightly changed during the whole period of Egyptian civilisation. sacred. viz. once took a more permanent character. same change were attempted still with the Corinthian capital. we have on Plate IV. that which is representative. and. as and that which is simply decorative. or forming part of the . but at the same time conventionally rendered symbolic. not as a reality. beginning with the If the circle. means of support and the feet. eight. at Luxor and Karnac. formed on some few types. we have a representation of a grove of papyri in various stages of growth.. and what a lesson do they teach us! From the Greeks to our own time the world has been content all with the acanthus leaf arranged round a bell for the capitals of columns of classic. the stalk 1. -we have an example in the representation of three papyrus-plants and three lotus-flowers. which appear to have been an emblem of sovereignty divinity.. and sixteen other it circles. The crowning member an Egyptian building was decorated with feathers. with four. and VI*. was made to retain the idea of the triangular its of the papyrus stalk. by bands. 5. by three raised which divided circumference into three equal portions. and 23 . was an enlarged papyrus plant the base representing the root the shaft. 10. which would only have to be assembled as they stand. but a single glance. 17 of Plate IV. it And this was that opened the way to they surrounded it so much development to in the Egyptian capital. their will religious laws forbade a change. or the graceful or otherwise proportions of the bell: a modification in plan has but rarely been attempted. Of the first kind. of their domestic It is life. in the hand of a king as an offering to the gods. when their art These forms. in which the original idea is unmistakably portrayed. in the paintings of actual scenes portrayed. In all cases it we have observed. could not fail produce an entirely new order of forms whilst retaining the idea of applying the acanthus leaf to the surface of a bell-shaped vase. and be tied round with a string. . 11. and we should have the Egyptian shaft and in Nos. of the Egyptians in early times to decorate the tied We may imagine it the custom wooden posts of their primitive temples with their native flowers round them. as crowning members of the The column only a few : feet high. became solidified in their monuments of stone. without shocking his feeling of consistency. its highly-ornamental capital . tied together Plate VI. architecture called differing only in the more or less perfection of the modelling of the leaves. one leading idea resulted in uniformity. the full-blown flower. 12. Not only did a series of columns represent a grove of papyri. and further. with two buds. at Plates VI. and at No. and this custom. however. 4. every but as an ideal representation. and the capital. in either case the best adaptecr*for the purpose it it had to fill. emblem of The second kind of Egyptian ornament on the walls of the temples and tombs or of the various articles flower or other object is . on Plate IV. results from the conventional representation of actual things in the representations of offerings to the gods and here again. constructive ornament. or one forty or sixty . by its symmetrical arrangement added effect. explanatory of the scene. The shape shaft of the Egyptian column. monument was of which it is the outward and graceful covering of the skeleton within . at the same time the record of a fact and an architectural decoration.. sufficiently resembling the type to call forth in the beholder the poetic idea which was sought to supply. 6. representation . yet how ingeniously varied. are the decorations of the walls.

and are from paintings on tombs. 4. Nos. would give to a rising people the first notions of symmetry. —they painted everything . Plate V. in the drawing of the individual flower. 12. but also in the grouping of several flowers together as may be seen. i. styles. to claim for the of art. not only in No. the harmony of subordination of one part to the other found in the model. and the distribution of masses. this and law veins on the leaves. are devoted to this class of ornament.): the from the feather. The formation of patterns by the equal division of similar lines. we here see that the Egyptians. induced the employment at first natural colours. and to be found in some shape or other amongst the their having attempts of ornament of every savage tribe. The Egyptians. are from Egyptian paintings. instinctively viz. but which had doubtless so own laws and reasons for its application. They are all distinguished by graceful symmetry referred and perfect to is distribution. to afterwards replaced by artificial dyes. and in No. As we proceed with other styles. and not only do they follow . obeyed the law which we find everywhere in the leaves of plants. Plate XI. show how readily the meander or Greek fret was produced by the universality of this first same means. in common with should the Egyptians.. and rigid . but the ideas and the teachings it conveys to us are of the soundest. or which appears our eyes.. Flowing lines are very rare. XI..) Here the several coils of rope are is subjected to a geometrical arrangement. on Plate X. and sarcophagi. they learned the same lesson 12. though the germ of even this mode of decoration. comparatively. X. 9. another type of ornament (11 and at Nos. viz. 16 and 18 of the same plate. 7. 2. in graceful curves from the parent stem . IX. 9 and 10 of Plate V. 6 and 7 are from the ceilings of tombs. They dealt in flat tints. and never the motive of the composition. Side by side with things. which evidently represent tents covered by mats. the reason its of its endeavour to rival the grace of construction. 13. Plate IX. formal. and 1. The architecture of the Egyptians to learn is thoroughly polychromatic. . Nos. 4. all the radiation of the leaves. in their decoration of large surfaces. where the type is one of the many forms of palm-trees so is common in the country so to The third kind of Egyptian ornament. we shall see that they approach perfection only so far as they followed. e. but also in their representation of plants growing in the desert. On Plate IX. disposition. in thus conventionally rendering the lotus and papyrus. dresses. EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. 13-16. and appear to be reproductions of woven patterns. The language in which reveals itself to us may seem foreign. or the ground of straws and bark of different first on which be - they reposed. but the unrolling of this cord gives the very form which the source of so much beauty in many subsequent is. In Nos. the covering of their rude dwelling. We venture. therefore we have much 24 from them on this head. varied forms. although they are not apparent to us. that though the oldest. Nos. The variety that can be produced by the few simple types we have very remarkable. therefore. and due proportion and find When we any of these characteristics wanting in a work of ornament. Like these favourites of application. It Nature. peculiar. is an additional proof of had a similar origin. for the formation of articles of clothing. Egyptian style. arrangement. The ornament in every style of architecture.. it in all it that is requisite to constitute a true style the most perfect. are patterns of ceilings.. every ornament should have its perfume . that which its simply decorative. 10. as by weaving. exists in their rope ornament # (Nos.. the volute form. 4 same instinct is again at work and 5. where the spirit which animated the original work has been the copy. the first attempts of every people to produce works of ornament take The early necessity of plaiting together straw or bark of trees. not only of ornament. never appear to have gone beyond a geometrical arrangement. Plates VIII. we may be sure that lost in it belongs to a borrowed style. utensils. representing mats whereon the king stands whilst Nos. 10. the conventional rendering of actual this direction. which gave the trical idea. the true principles to be observed in every flower that grows. 1-4. and used neither shade nor . but of geome arrangement. 18-24..

also. The to colours used by the give Egyptians were principally red. and are the prevailing art is colours. and there successfully. 25 . and green during the Ptolemaic effect. blue. though rarely with equal We shall have many opportunities of pointing this out in subsequent chapters. to and yellow. with black and white define and as distinctiveness local the various colours. and art. indifferently coloured green or blue. and derive an additional pleasure in the perception of the mental effort which has produced it. is period. blue in the more ancient times. blue. 1). appears to be a universal rule that. shadow. however.) with the natural flower (No. variety. Plate IV. and shades of success. 3. all lower in tone than that of the ancient times. though not of universally. a colour. conventionally. is Whilst periods when practised and not every a tendency to employ the secondary colours and hues. which most completely recalls the yellow glow of the original. also. red. and the inner protected leaves by a lighter green. were is added both purple and brown. at which time. in yellow. as with green used generally. such the green leaves the lotus.EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. Compare the representation are the characteristics of the lotus (No. how charmingly of the natural flower reproduced in the representations ! See how the outer leaves are distinguished by a darker green. These were. yet found no difficulty in poetically conveying to the mind the identity of the object they desired to represent. We have here Art added to Nature. whilst the purple and yellow tones of the inner flower are represented by red leaves floating in a field of yellow. in archaic periods of the primary colours. but with diminished The red which found on the tombs or mummy-cases of the Greek or it Eoman period. They used colour as they did form. harmoniously instinctively. and these used most traditionally.

.

18. 12. 2. We ciples indicated by those above. Khorsabad. & C. Bi Sutoun. 11.— F. Ditto. Persepolis. Nos. from Khorsabad. 8. 24. 12. F. F. Sculptured Pavement. From a Sassanian Moulding. 4. Layard. 6-11. &C. way which we 9. Enamelled Brick. 23. 7. 5. from Mr. from Khorsabad. from Nimroud. &C. Ispahan. Ornament on a King's Dress. Plates 12. 5. 14. Base of Column from Ruin No. Pilaster. Kouyunjik. Enamelled Brick. and the three Sacred Trees. Base of Column at Istakhr. Persepolis. from Khorsabad. Nos. 22. Sculptured Pavement. 8. F. Portico No. Nimroud. 6. from Khorsabad. Ornament on King's Dress. The remainder of the ornaments on this Plate are coloured as they have been published by Mr. &C. 6. Base of Column of Colonnade No. 13. F. Flandin & Coste. 15. 20. 1. 2-4. Ornament on the Side Persepolis. 9-12. 13. Painted Ornaments from Nimroud. Layard and Messrs. t oou ( PLATE 1. Nimroud. 14. 5. 5. Flandin and Coste. Layard. Enamelled Bricks. Ornaments on a King's Dress. Flandin F. Sassanian Capital. The Monuments of Nineveh. Archivolt from Tak I Bostan. Base of Column. 24.— F. Flandin & Coste. 16-21. are coloured as published in his work. 7. Ornament from Tak I Bostan. 8. Kouyunjik. & C. of the Staircase of Palace No. Ornament from a Bronze Vessel. 2. PLATE XIV. XIII. Ornaments on a Bronze Shield. 9. 12-14. from Bashikhah. We have restored the colouring in a consider best adapted for developing the various patterns. & F. &C. 23. The ornaments Nos. Enamelled Bricks. at Ispahan. supplying the colours in accordance with the prinof which the colours are known. &C. 16. Layard. 13. 2. &C. & Flandin & Coste. 17. &C. F. 2. Coste. 8. Ornaments from a Bronze Vessel. Tak I Bostan. —F. F. XII. in outline. 13. 0. Persepolis. & 0. & C. PLATE 1-4. Sassanian Ornaments from Ispahan 19. From Sassanian Capitals. Ditto. From Sassanian Capitals. 13-15. Palace No. Capital of Pilaster. Persepolis. & C. 3 T Nos. Ditto. Layaed. 22. Upper part of Pilaster. F. & C. 12. Bi Sutoun. —F. Palace No. Sacred Trees from Nimroud. Ditto. 14. & C. are in relief. Ispahan. very common on the royal robes. from Khorsabad. 11. 5. 2. Base of —F. 1. 6. ASSYRIAN AND PERSIAN ORNAMENT. 25. Feathered Ornament in the Curvetto of the Cornice. 10. are from Khorsabad. & C. & C. Flandin & Coste. Painted Ornaments from Nimroud. Layard's great work. &C. & C. The whole and only of the ornaments on this Plate are taken 4. Persepolis. Flandin & Coste. 1.— — — — — — — — . F. Column. 27 . 21. 7. &C. Sassanian Capital. 8. Chapter III. Tak I Bostan. Ornament on a Battering Ram. have treated them here as painted ornaments. Tak I Bostan. &C. 10. and represent embroidery.

exist are only those from the representation of the habits of two different people the art appears to us to be the same. to us do not appear to carry us monuments which they have made known back to any remote period of Assyrian Art. ers. became coarse and abrupt the swelling of the limbs. that Egyptian. strongly inclined to We style. or the remains of a more perfect form of art have yet to be discovered. modified by the difference of the religion and habits of the Assyrian people. Layard from the ruins of Assyrian Palaces. but the objects repre- sented are oftentimes so similar. which were first and graceful. The mode tree. On comparing the bas-reliefs of Nineveh with those of Egypt we cannot but be struck with the many points styles. instead of being carried forward. and of a decline much further removed from a culminating point of perfection. —the differences which which would result . a city. Botta and Mr. either been a The Assyrian must have borrowed style. are almost identical. those hitherto discovered belong to a period of decline. declined from the time of the Pharaohs to that at first flowing of Egyptian sculpture gradually . same the Egyptian as the Roman does to the Greek. not of resemblance in the two only is the same mode of representa- tion adopted. a a besieged group of prison- a battle. a king in his chariot. which was at 28 . the . of representing a river. Greeks and Romans the forms. Assyrian sculpture of seems to be a development the Egyptian. it is difficult to believe that the same style could have been arrived at by two people independently of each other. Like the monuments of Egypt. but. descending in the scale of relation to perfection. Rich the as has been the harvest gathered by Mons. bearing the Assyrian.ASSYRIAN AND PERSIAN ORNAMENT. are believe that the Assyrian is not an original but was borrowed from the Egyptian.

ASSYRIAN AND PERSIAN ORNAMENT. Nature should be idealised not copied. that there There can be was as is much ornament employed a total absence of plain in the Assyrian monuments as in the Egyptian : in both styles there subjects surfaces on the walls. to The Byzantines returned again the relief still moderate relief. as were. the Eomanesque is distinguished same way from the Early Gothic. rather indicated than expressed. we think. having been. still 4 and 5. Assyrian Ornament. The natural laws radiation and less tangential curvature. we are but imperfectly acquainted with it. but of the masses! how inferior they are the Greek in purity of form and in the distribution I 29 . carried it to who retained till it within its true limits. In Assyrian sculpture this attempt was carried still still farther. but little surface-modelling. but much truly. as well as those painted. the conventional was abandoned for an imperfect attempt at the natural. as yet. an attempt was made to express the muscles of the limbs and the rotundity of the this is a flesh in all art differ symptom of decline. pure ornament must have been employed to sustain the general effect. the upper portions of the walls and the edifices. however. some few fragments painted some objects of bronze. from Persepolis. and in situations where these would have been inapplicable. the Arabs reduced farther. and subject to other influences. species of lotus. Nos. as Many modern statues in the same way from the Venus de Milo. destroyed. which are either covered with or with writing. presents also the same aspect of a borrowed style and one in a state of decline. the portions of the ceilings.— rather. would be very unsafe guides in any attempt ornament of the Assyrian Palaces. is represented in the same way. effect than the later Gothic. It is true that. which was the peculiar invention of the Greeks.. traditionally than instinctively. being everywhere destroyed structive ornaments the con- which we have given in Plate XIV. are in the nature of diagrams. are equally observed here. Nature is not followed so closely as by the Egyptians. little Palaces which would contain the most ornament. being evidently of a much later date. What we possess is gathered from the of dresses on the figures of the bas-reliefs. 2 and 3. the Assyrian is farther strengthens the idea that not an original style. though not based on the same types as the Egyptian. in the in In the other direction. are be the to types from which the Greeks derived some of their painted ornaments. Plate XIII. the columns and other means of support. and the representations of the sacred trees in the bas-reliefs. where the surface at became laboured that all repose was destroyed. Nos.. would have been so decorated. nor generally supposed so to exquisitely conventionalised as by the Greeks. became at last exaggerated . while with the Moors a modelled surface became is extremely rare. but the Eomans great excess. and while the general arrangement of the subject and the pose of the single figure were conventional. to restore the constructive Egyptian. from the nature of the construction of Assyrian doubt. Assyrian Ornament. Plate XII.. at last all breadth of effect was destroyed. In both styles the orna- ments in There is relief. bricks. which . which it we find in Egyptian ornament. With the exception and a which of of the pine-apple on the sacred trees. do the bas-reliefs of the Ptolemies from those of the Pharaohs. which itself much last broader so Assyrian. and in the painted ornaments. . the ornaments do not appear to be formed on any natural type. As yet we have had no remains of their con- structive ornament.

at Bi It is the earliest Sutoun. all Byzantine in their general outline. 16. 5. The ornaments. Sas«iiiian Capital from Bi Sutoun. orange. on their sculptured ornaments .. red. 12 and presenting only a similar modification of the modelled we find in Byzantine ornament. and green. example we meet with of lozenge-shaped diapers. appear to be modifications of Roman influ- Nos. 6. 21. 24. from Sassanian capitals. The colours in . 8. which evidently betray a I Eoman ence. The Egyptians and the Assyrians appear lines . all By the prin- No. and which they resemble in a most remarkable manner. 3. represented on Plate XIV. 20. and black.— ASSYRIAN AND PERSIAN ORNAMENT. of Persepolis. use by the Assyrians appear to have been blue. on their painted ornaments blue. buff. to have covered first large spaces with patterns formed by geometrical arrangement of but this is the instance of the repetition of curved ciple contained in lines forming a general pattern enclosing a secondary form. are from bases of fluted columns. —are all constructed on the same surface. such as principle as Roman ornament. — 17. 16 would be generated those exquisite forms of diaper which covered the domes of the mosques of Cairo and the walls of the Alhambra. 23. white. and gold. The ornaments from Tak Bostan. Flandin & Coste 30 . white. and black. contain the germs of the ornamentation of the Arabs and Moors. on their enamelled bricks. The ornaments details. 7. red.

—Plates 15. Hittobpp From the Propylsea. which decline was carried farther. 21. 19. supplied. Published by Mr. the blue and red 30-33. —L. Painted Ornaments.— — — — Chapter IV. GREEK ORNAMENT. PLATE XVI. ii I l acci ( PLATE XV. was the . that it it was founded on a few types. possessing We of have further expressed of our belief that the none the characteristics original its inspiration. From a Sarcophagus in Sicily. A collection of the various forms of the Greek Fret from Vases and Pavements. Hittorff. From the Coffers of the Ceiling of the Propylsea . already in decline. 29. Greek Art. Ornaments in Terra Cotta. 18. Vulliamy. the traces of which exist on all the Temples at Athens. Athens. PLATE 1 3. 22 and 27. The colours supplied. unrestrained by religious laws. the the whole course of Egyptian the more or less' more ancient monuments being Assyrian was a borrowed style. 18. Various Frets. and 4. and that civilization. Ornaments from Greek and Etruscan Vases in the British Museum and the Louvre. Hittorff. on the contrary. we have supplied the blue and 19-21. String-course over the Panathenaic Frieze. . 22. Penrose. development of an old idea in a new direction and. Painted Ornament from the Cymatium of the raking Cornice of the Parthenon. 5-18. XXII. Penrose in gold only. except in remained unchanged during perfection of the execution. We have seen that Egyptian Ornament was derived direct from natural inspiration. but appearing to have been still suggested by the Art of Egypt. 24-26.-XXI. as would appear 31 . 16. red. 17. though borrowed partly from the Egyptian and partly from the Assyrian. 12-17. 20. rather the most perfect.

— L. and from the very taste abundant remains we have of Greek ornament. to have been both the Assyrian and the Egyptian. the perfection of pure form to a point which has never. we must believe the presence of refined 32 was . it from which was itself able to give forth the elements of future greatness to other styles.— L.GREEK ORNAMENT. Greek Art rose rapidly to a high state of perfection. since been reached. It carried Termination of the Marble Tiles of the Parthenon— L. Upper Part of a Stele. Vulliamy. Vulliamy. The Upper Part of a Stele. Vulltimv.

Egyptian In but the types are few. various forms on examining the paintings on the vases. meaningless. and how faint indeed the resemblance ! What is evident is. in the highest. of a Greek we are rather tempted to believe that the of the leaves flower have been generated by the brush of the painter. but abandoned during Byzantine period. indeed. — to remove any portion of would destroy it. However much we admire the extreme and almost divine sculpture. fully reproduce Greek ornament. however. which they did. as at No. continued by the Romans. we have Like the doubt that we are acquainted with Greek ornament in is all its phases. and which only very the line. to well-known honeysuckle ornament an appreciation of it is difficult recognise any attempt . with the exception of the wave ornament used to distinguish water from land in their pictures.GREEK ORNAMENT. and Early English styles. Greek ornament was wanting. and although they did not copy. but the conventional rendering the much further removed from the types. differ and the painted ornaments of the Temples which have as yet been discovered in no way little from them. which excites our astonishment. The ornament was no part of the construction. and in later times both carved and painted. the side In either Byzantine. — viz. and can hardly be said be constructive for members of a Greek monument rather present first. and the structure remained unchanged. applied. proportionate distribution of the areas. The examples and the fret of representative ornament are very few. XCIX. at imitation. A characteristic Greek ornament. or attempt to imitate. Plate XXI. as with the Egyptian: it could be removed. so rarely done with success. and likely that more the slight resemblance to the honeysuckle may have been have ever an after recognition than that In Plate the natural flower should will served as the model. we have little than can deserve this appellation but of decorative as ornament the Greek and Etruscan vases supply us with abundant materials. that the Greeks ornament were close observers of nature. at painted. and that the land was overflowing with artists. but we are bound to consider this an abuse of means. and the tangential they are. We have here an instance how slight a change in any K 33 . is curvature in of the lines —are of always obeyed. be found a representation is of the honeysuckle in their . never representative. the Arabian Moresque. 12. almost universal. it The frieze of the Parthenon was placed so far from the eye that became a diagram so far as if : the beauties which so astonish us when seen near the eye could only have been valuable they evidenced it the artist-worship which cared not that the eye saw the perfection of the work to conscious that was be found there . not constructed : On . whose system of incavo relievo for monumental sculpture appears to us the more perfect. in its perfection of the Greek monumental application the Greeks frequently went beyond the legitimate bounds of ornament. they worked on the same principles. Symbolism. surfaces exquisitely designed to receive ornament. and that the Greeks were to in this respect inferior the Egyptians. the Corinthian capital the ornament is it is not so on the Egyptian capital it there we feel the whole capital is the ornament. The three great laws which we find everywhere in nature —radiation from the parent stem. and some conventional renderings . to It was . as the that the various parts of a scroll grow out of each other in a continuous ornament from the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. and as to it is the unerring perfection with which the most realised humble works on attempting feature is. the flowers flow off on from a continuous line. of trees.. the various purely decorative. whose hands and minds were so trained as to enable them to execute these beautiful ornaments with unerring truth. according as the hand is turned upwards or downwards it in is the formation of the leaf would the character be given. in one of the great charms which should always accompany ornament. rather the principle on which the flower grows and.

of one point. 1. Vuliiai another stem. What the particular colours were. be quite certain. that they must have been coloured in a manner to render them distinct and to bring out the pattern. — or imagines gold where another sees brown. that the variety of arrangement of form that can be produced by the interlacing of lines at right angles in this form is very limited. running in one direction with a single line . all of forms and ideas. to the more complicated meander No. 34 . which may be taken as a type of of other a Roman stem ornament. there can be none as to the ornaments of the mouldings. first. another finds blue. It is no difference whatever in the character of the drawing to those found on the universally recognised. 15. encircling a flower. of a These changes have the same influence in the development new style of ornament as the sudden discovery of a general law in science. The traces of colour exist everywhere so strongly. Plate XXII. is not so certain. Plate XV. — L. Different give them differently: where one will see green. however. is It will be seen that there vases. however. 32. We may — all these ornaments on the mouldings were so high from the ground. or the lucky patented lets loose idea which in any work of industry suddenly thousands of minds to examine and improve upon the first crude thought. Athens. It is with this consideration that we have ventured to supply the colour to published only as gold or 18. getting as rid The change which took place during the Byzantine period as in of this fixed law was important in its results to the development of ornament was the substitution of the arch by the Romans for the straight architrave. that the white marble temples of the Greeks were less now almost entirely covered with painted ornament. No. 29. It will be seen. fitting ever got beyond the arrangement a volute springing from into From the Chomgic Monument of Lysicrates. or the introduction of the pointed arch in Gothic architecture. Whatever doubts may exist as to the more or colouring of the sculpture. Roman ornament Roman chapter is which scarcely constantly fine struggling against this apparently fixed At the head of the a example. is devoted to the remains of coloured ornaments on the Greek monuments. We have. which have hitherto been brown ornaments on the white marble. from the simple generating form No. In this Plate are given a collection of the different varieties of the Greek fret. 31.GREEK ORNAMENT. 3. and so small in proportion to the distance from which they were seen. the simple fret. generally received principle is is sufficient to generate an entirely new order law. 33. that in taking casts of the mouldings the traces of the pattern are strongly marked on the authorities plaster cast.

as at No. gave birth to an immense variety of new forms.GREEK ORNAMENT. The Mexican ornaments and frets. They are also most frequently used fragmentally. very far removed from any natural 35 . there is a repetition of one fret after the other. the intersection equidistant which the Moors carried to such perfection in the Alhambra. and the meander is more often elongated in the horizontal (ElfElfElfElfD Chinese. have a remarkable affinity with the Greek fret and m m in Mr.— 2. especially is thoroughly Greek. Moresque. in general. all the others are formed by . is the that is. like the Greek. running in different directions. The ornaments on Plate XVI. the double fret. placing these frets one under the other. by the intersection not the perpendicular with horizontal but they have direction.—that is. 17 as at Nos. sBSS Greek. All the fret. 20. with the second line interlacing with the first. or enclosing squares. same regularity. not forming a continuous meander. formed. Chinese. Arabian. parent of this all the other forms of interlacing ornament in styles which succeeded the Greek. other kinds are imperfect frets. of of The knotted-rope ornament influence in the Greeks these may also have had some the formation both and the Arabian and Moresque interlaced ornaments. and 19. without forming a continuous meander. fragmentary. No. From was first derived the Arabian fret. 11. or one below the other. of Catherwood's illustrathe architecture of ____^_^__^^^_______^___^_ tions Yucatan we have several varieties of the Greek fret : one \ From Yucatan. as at No. J Chinese. which in of its turn gave birth to that infinite variety of interlaced ornaments formed by diagonal lines. Celtic The knotted work curved of the Celts differs from the Moresque interlaced patterns lines. They are lines. 18 back to back. of which we here give some illustrations from Mexican pottery : in the British Museum. have been They are all selected to show the various forms of conventional leafage to be found on the Greek vases. The raking No. only in adding terminations to the diagonal intersecting it The leading idea once obtained. Arabian. rao^ Greek. The Chinese frets are less perfect than of any of these. there is also to be found at Yucatan a fret with a diagonal which is peculiar. But they From Yucatan. like the Chinese: line. are.

they ) \ depend for their effect on pure form: they have all l\ mostly this peculiarity. and °^ the lines grow out Jv P arent s* em i Q tangential curves. XX. present further from borders.. hut can hardly be called an attempt to nearer to Nature : represent it.. ^0 Vo^ //// a curved stem. and * . Being produced by one or two colours.GREEK ORNAMENT. 36 . with a volute at either end. the British Museum and the Louvre. type. it —that is. 2 is the nearest approach to the honeysuckle. lips of vases in all Plates XVIII. that the groups of leaves or flowers all spring from (O^^^s. are much the laurel. Several of the ornaments on Plate XVII. the ivy. necks. and that from the which appear we may be sure no mechanical aids were employed. The individual leaves all radiate from the centre of the group of leaves. varieties and vine will be readily distinguished. the leaves have the peculiar turn upwards of that flower. each leaf diminishing in exquisite proportion as it approaches the 8 ^ springing of the group. and XXI. When we differences at consider that each leaf was done with a single stroke of the brush.. than attempts to represent any particular one. and are rather constructed on the general principles which reign in all plants. The ornament No.. we must be astonished artists to skill of the high state of the Arts which must have existed for be found in such numbers able to to execute with unerring truth what it is almost beyond the modern times even copy with the same happy result. XIX.

GREEK ORNAMENT. tttt* ej 1 1 i j\j\j\jjif xi € [ i_a i^tnL* i^i 137 nm 37 . ORNAMENTS FROM MEXICAN POTTERY IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM.

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PLATE XXV.— Zahn's Pompeii.) are evidently of Greek origin. par house Beaux Ornament tt lei Tableaux les plus Itemnnjuublts de Pompeii. at relief. (Plate XXIII.— Plates 23. 39 . —From the Author's Sketches. iCc. based upon the acanthus and interwoven with ornament in direct imitation of Nature. An examination of this work will show that this system was carried to the very and that almost any theory of colouring and decoration could be supported by authority from Pompeii. The ornament we have thought illustrate of Pompeii has been so ably it and so fully illustrated in Zahn's magnificent work. composed of conventional ornaments in flat tints. The general arrangement * Las jilus of the decoration on the walls of the interior of a Pompeian Hcrciilannm. Berlin. The first either painted dark on a light ground. the second (Plate XXIV. PLATE XXIV. We refer the reader to Zahn's work'* for a full appreciation of the system of ornamentation in use at Pompeii. Houses in Pompeii. or light on a dark ground. Collection of Mosaics from Pompeii and the Museum at Naples.— Chapter Y. de Slabia. Zahn's Pompeii. POMPEIAN ORNAMENT. 24. 25. PLATE Collection of Borders from different XXIII. limit of caprice. that only necessary for this series to borrow from him the materials for two plates. to the two distinct styles of ornament which prevail in the decorations of the edifices of Pompeii. Variou s Pilasters and Friezes from different Houses in Pompeii. </' el Guillaume Znl-n. 1888.) are more Eoman in character. but without shade or any attempt scroll.

of about one-sixth of the height of the wall. consists of a dado. very from being a fixed We select from the coloured illustrations in Zahn's work several varieties. generally representing the open air. and always sub- much less severe treatment than the parts below.POMPEIAN ORNAMENT. upon which stand the broad pilasters half the width dado. and upon the ground are painted those fantastic architectural buildings which excited the ire of Vitruvius. The pilasters are top. which will show how little this was the result of system: — . united by a frieze is of varying width. dation In the best examples there ceiling is is a gra- of colour from the downwards. but this law. about one-fourth of it is the height of the wall from the The upper space jected to a frequently white. ending with far black in the dado. dividing the wall into three or more panels.

the of Pompeii invented as they drew . which is Their charm lies in still further heightened when surrounded with other colours in situ. Sydenham. page. XXV. nor perfect distribution of masses and proportional an agreeable contrast of colour. we home several have gathered together of all forms ot mosaic pavement. became the foundation of In Plate a Italian ornament. formed no longer so refined as that of their sides Greek teachers. which has never been accomplished in any restoration of the artists style. admirable and faithful as it is in all other respects. We have here the acanthus-leaf flowers forming the with animals. which show a marked inferiority we no longer find radiation of lines from the parent stem. and which have are evidently a Greek character. that paintings were the same time too well executed and not sufficiently individual. and which. The reason is obvious . are shaded give rotundity. and are executed with stencils. of character perfect areas. that their taste was relief shown in of the examples. every touch of their brush had an intention which no copyist can seize. They have . compared with Greek models. groundwork. scroll altogether lost sight subsequent times. Mr. a thinness generally borders on the panels.. but not sufficiently so to detach them from the ground. and Moresque mosaics. The ornaments which are given on Plate XXIII. 41 . experience. after the Eoman type. we have evidence borders. necessarily failed in zeal to this . In this the Pompeian artists showed a judgment of in in not exceeding that limit of the treatment of ornament in the round. Digby Wyatt's restoration of a Pompeian house in the Crystal Palace. and the decorations consisted bear upon the realisation did of that accuracy in his which in was so much his desired than Signor at Abbate. on which are engrafted representations of leaves and precisely interlaced similar to the remains found in the Eoman the baths. Arabian. which was such In the attempt at feature in every the Eomans. wherever their dominion extended. in the time of Raphael. are The by a repetition of hexagons at the top and the of the the types from which we may directly trace all that immense variety of Byzantine. The ornaments from to pilasters and friezes on Plate XXIV. The want of perfect success the fact.POMPEIAN ORNAMENT.. no one could possibly have brought greater knowledge.

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ROMAN ORNAMENT. Fragments of the Frieze of the Brescia. Nos. London. 1838. Fragment of the Soffits of the Architraves of the Roman Temple at Brescia. 1-4 from the Museo Bresciano . by Lewis Vulliamy. Fragments from the Villa Medici. Rome.\ No. Taylor and Cbesy's Rome. 43 . Rome. at No. PLATE XXVII. from a Cast South Kensington Museum. From the Frieze of the Arch of the Goldsmiths. 4.— L. 27. 5. Architect. 3. Rome. Nos.— Fragment in White Marble from the Mattei Palace. Roman Temple at 5. 1-3. PLATE XXVI. Rome. Fragment of the Soffits of the Architraves of the Roman Temple at Brescia. illustrato. Rome. 1-5 are from Casts in the Crystal Palace . Vulliamy. Fragments from the Forum of Trajan. 6.* Chapter VI. Rome. Plates 26. Pilaster from the Villa Medici. 1. f Museo Bresciano. 2. 4. 5 from * Examples of Ornamental Sculpture in Architecture. Pilasters from the Villa Medici. 6. Brescia.

and of is so completely a their manufacture. is by applying acanthus leaves to any form and in any direction. and the . it It requires so little thought. In however. as it were. This example. which being the expression of a little faith. but is wanting Greek refinement. In the Greek temple it is everywhere apparent that the struggle was to arrive at a perfection the is worthy of the gods. where the stems of the flowers round the bell are continued through the necking. is constructed Greek principles. and it. The religion real greatness of the Romans is rather to be seen in their palaces. than in their temple architecture. but they are much more delicate the point of junction. They Unlike not even bound this by the necking at the top of the but rest upon the Egyptian capital. The Greeks confined themselves to expressing the its principle of the foliation of the leaf. The acanthus leaf is also seen. Greek ornament the at scrolls grow out of each other in the same way. of this the chief cause of the invasion ornament into most modern works. and those round the are in of Corinthian together capitals. were as ornamented as those of the Romans. The ornament engraved consists universally of a scroll the head of the chapter is typical of all Roman ornament. which in growing out of another on scroll. in the exquisitely designed surfaces which received The Romans moulded carved surfaces. tending rather to dazzle by quantity than to excite admiration by the quality of the work. that provinces.ROMAN ORNAMENT. In the use of the acanthus leaf the Romans showed but little art. The fatal facilities which the Roman system of decoration gives for manufacturing ornament. it. They received it from the Greeks beautifully conventionalised. most unartistically. ceased to value the general proportions of the structure and the contours of the which were entirely destroyed by the elaborate surface-modelling of the ornaments on them and these leaves ornaments do not grow naturally from the surface. and in which probably they had exhibits a corre- sponding want of earnestness and art-worship. theatres. The acanthus are under the modillions. and bestowed all their care in the delicate undulations of at surface. they went much nearer to the general outline. in side elevation. baths. but exaggerated the surface-decoration. in The purely Roman method of using the acanthus 44 leaf is seen in the Corinthian capitals. but with a very different arranged that it The ornament was no way disturbed so threw a coloured bloom over the whole structure. From the base of the column to the apex of the pediment every part overloaded with ornament. In the Roman temple aim was self-glorification. . has encouraged architects in an indolent neglect one of especial and the interior decorations of buildings have fallen into hands most unfitted to supply their place. The Greek temples when painted result. and other works of public utility. bell but are applied the on it. aqueducts. borrowed from the Greeks. and at the same time represent a beauty and express a truth. encircling a flower or group of leaves. placed one before the other shaft.

as it appears in the narrow border top and bottom. Plate XXVI. As specimens 5. to show how variety the Eomans were able to produce in following out this application of the acanthus. and XXVII. ing off ornaments on either that pure conventional ornament received any develop- ment. 3 and 4.. although the swelling at the stem and the turned-back leaf at the junction of stem and stem have From tlie Abbey of St. The leaves are flattened out. entirely disappeared. the decline in this proportion from that of Jupiter Stator may be seen readily. Fragment of the Frieze of the Temple of the Sun. The various capitals which we have engraved from Taylor and Cresy's work have been placed in little juxtaposition. Denis. The pilasters from the Villa Medici. Colonna Palace. viz. where. How to from the immense capital. and thirteenth and is the foundation of Early English foliage. be obtained by working out this principle of leaf within leaf and very limited and it was not this principle of one leaf growing out of another in a continuous line was abandoned for the adoption of a continuous stem throwside. Denis. more elegant than those from the 45 N . Paris. Sophia at Constantinople and we introduce here an example from St. adaptation to the purpose they have to fill. ROMAN ORNAMENT. are The fragments on Plate XXVII. are as perfect specimens of Roman ornament as could be found. XXVI.— L. Nos. The earliest examples of the charjge are found in St. of modelling and drawing they have strong claims to be admired. Rome.. but as ornamental accessories to the architectural features of a building they most certainly. from their excessive relief and elaborate surface treatment. but rather increases the deformity. the continuous stem is not yet fully developed. twelfth. examples on Plates as in the cut. variety of Egyptian capitals which arose from the modification of the general plan of the fails even the introduction of the Ionic volute in the Composite order add a beauty. and the fragment. and they lay one over the other. The amount leaf over leaf is till of design that can .. from the Museo Bresciano. Vhlliamy. No. of the eleventh. The only difference which exists is in the proportion of the general form of the mass different . This principle became very centuries. common in the illuminated MSS. are deficient in the first principle.

full size. and show rather what to avoid than what to introduce the two subjects from the said to we have thought it sufficient to scrolls Forum in which figures terminating in may be be the foundation of that prominent feature in their painted decorations. in this series We have not thought it necessary to give in any of the painted decorations of the Komans. of which remains exist the Eoman baths. they are so similar to follow. 4(i . and. from a Photograph.. ROMAN ORNAMENT. The frieze from the Arch of the Goldsmiths on the contrary. Villa Medici . that those at Pompeii. treated. The Acanthus. further. defective from the .opposite cause. We had no reliable materials at command of Trajan.. the leaves are more sharply accentuated and more conventionally is.

Architects. Portico. L. 1821. Interior of Pantheon. Rome. Arch of Constantino. Pautheon. Rome. ? Arch of Trajan. Temple of Jupiter Stator. Tivoli. Temple of Vesta. Temple of Mars Victor. Pantheon. Rome. Taylor and Cresy. Rome. Corinthian and Composite Capitals reduced from Taylor and Cresy's Rome* London. Rome. Rome.ROMAN ORNAMENT. Rome. by G. Ancona. 47 . * The Architectural Antiquities of Ron: e. Arch of Titus. Arc'ii of Bepttabu Scverus. Rome.

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6. Amalfi. Sta. — — — —— — — — Chapter VII. Constantinople. Mosaics of the Middle Ages. Constantinople. Mark's. Sta. 22. Denis. preserved at Murrhard Monastery.—Plates 28. Romanesque tion of Wood and Ivory Carving.d.— Salzenberg. 12th century. Sta. From St. Milan. a. 17. and the Church of Nosson. Sofia. Sebald. Bavaria. From —Heideloff. 31. Constantinople. From Lincoln J. Sta. Spain. Composition of Bosses. Schwabisch Hall. 12th century. Us Arts qui en dependent. 11th 27. B. Salzenbebg. Stone Sculptured Ornament. John. the Porch of Lucca Cathedral. B. Herefordshire. Salzenbebg. from St. B. — 11th and 12th cenof From J. 4. 12th Century. 12th et Luynes. Venice. W. 6th century. From the Bronze Gates. Monastery. near Paris. 7. Denis (Porch). 8. near Burgos. Illuminated Greek MSS. Ornament ik des Mittelalters. Heideloff. 32. From From J. Heideloff. 3. the Bronze Door of the Beauvais Cathedral apparently Anglo-Saxon work of the 11th century. a. From the principal Monreale. 12th century. 5. Marble Pavement. St. From the Kilpeck Porch. u. Church of Heideloff. 12th century. Pugin. W. Bethlehem. 23. Salzenbebo. 14. Bronze Door. a. The Centre. the Bronze Ravello. W. 9. J.—J.— 9-13. Borders. from a Doorway. 49 .— J. from St. Recherches sur Us Kormands en Sidle. Portion of a Capital. B. B. Sofia. 30. J. 6th century. 33. XXVIII. PLATE XXIX. Antiquities 18. century. Willemin. Saxony. B. Agios Pantokrator. Door near the turies. From the Chapel of Heilsbronn. Portion of Bronze Door. W. From century. the St. 7. Circa 1204 a. L' Architecture et Stone Sculpture. Close of 12th century. From the Cloisters of Sant' Ambrogia. W. Bayeux Cathedral. from Illuminated Greek Champol- lion Figeac. From St. 10-11. 1-0. Trani. 10. Marble Pavement. Ivory Diptychs.. B. Babbas des Monuments 26. J. Denis.— — —— — — . Digby Wyatt. 15. Portions of Sofia. Monuments Francois incdilx.B. Venice. Stone Sculptures. B. 3rd or 4th century. W. Duomo. From Bayeux Cathedral. — W. 18. Constantinopel. Swabia.—J. 20. Mosaics. 19. Heideloff. Michael's Church. u. British Museum. Cologne. Mosaics from Sta. First half of 12th century. 17. 30. Palccographie UniverselU. 2. B. Constantinopel. Nuremberg.a. — W. Mark's. B. u. 34. 36. W. PLATE 1. From J. 28. B. Duomo. W. Cathedral Porch. near Palermo. — 8. from the small Cloister. Alt Christliche Baudenkmale von — 12-15. 29. 36. St. Gniund. Alt Christliche Baudenkmale. 16. 21. Huelgas J. 29. 24. Sofia. J. Basilica of the Nativity.from Casts at Sydenham. in the CollecHerr Leven.— Salzenbebg. Pugin. Friezes of Normandy. Heideloff. Sofia. BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. from St. 29*.W. Gailhabaud. 25. W. MSS. h.

—— — — — — — — —— — — — — — BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. — J. a. B. Digby Wyatt. Denis. of the Middle Ayes. Rome. St. Greek MS. Statue of Jean. B. W. B. Hessemer. Venice. styles of vagueness with which writers on Art have treated the Byzantine and Komanesque decoration. Mosaics From Ara Rome. Rome. 21. ^^ „ .— Waring and MacQuoid. Rome—J. Rome. Mosaics dral. Mark's. W. Rome. Rome. 25. and the Cathedral of Monreale. 28. M. though thoroughly Byzantine as to its architecture. Limoges Enamel. 13. — B. Monreale Cathedral. 1 1. 26. W. 22. Digby Wyatt.— J. but a very Vitale at Kavenna. From the Enamelled Tomb of Jean. PLATE XXX. a. Rome.—J. 1>. Mark's. probably century.—J. San Lorenzo. even to within the last few years. 30. 10th century. a. Maggiore. — J. u. W. St. B. 27. From the Acts of Library.— J. Cceli. 1. W. Rome. (opus Grecanicum) from Palermo. Architectural Art in and Spain. 2. W. ^ 1 ^ 7-10. From an Enamelled Casket (the centre from the 20. 19. Marble Pavement. Enamel of the 13th century (French). W. 14. From St.—J. A. Rome. 39. W. Architecture. W. Digby Wyatt. 32.D. W. 26. 24. 1247. B. 23. B. by Waring and MacQuoid. of the Middle Ayes. and Spain. B. Baptistery of St. 12th century. in Cosmedin. Marble Pavement. W. 15. Architectural Art in Italy and Spain. From a Greek MS. From the Duomo. Cceli. Monreale. — J. Monuments Francois incdits. Ayes. Palermo.— J. Hessemer.CivitaCastellana. Rome. Willemin. San Vitale. B.) W. Venice. Marble Pavement. 23. Venice. Preserved Willemin. 29. still afforded us San Marco at Venice represented but a phase of the incomplete notion of Byzantine ornamentation definite idea of : Byzantine school. Sofia at Constantinople. — WiLLEMIN. 36-38. a. From San Lorenzo tany. u. Vatican 29. 18. 30. at St. Rome. St. Digby Wyatt's Mosaics of the Middle Ayes. — San Lorenzo Fuori. 41. 3. Portion of a Greek Diptych. W.—J. Rome.— Digby Wyatt. Mark's. W. Arabische und M. Monreale Cathedral. B. 5. a. Hesse- From the Cathedral. Architectural Art and Spain. Venice.. Digby Wyatt. served only to show the influence. 4. > Quoid. B. Moyen Aye.. Venice. Rome. son of St. Venice. in Italy 31. B. \ W. 24. 17. B. From the Baptistery. Museum. J. J. Ara 12. 19.. From the Homilies of Gregory Nazianzen. British Museum. PLATE XXIX*. 12th cen- tury. The border beneath from Monreale. Florence. to be of J. Ravenna. 27. =-§-= BYZANTINE OENAMENT. j San Lorenzo Fuori. u. S. 25. B. Mark's. St. Marble Pavement. Fuori. son of St. Mark's. B. Italy Mosaics from the Church of Ara Cceli. 42. semer. that we could obtain any complete and San what constituted pure Byzantine ornament. Monreale. J. alt Italidnische Bau Verzierunyen. u. the Apostles. Mark. Close of near Monreale Cathe12th century. of pure Byzantine Art: 50 . B. M. Mosaics of the Middle 33-35. Close of 12th cen28. a. ("From Digby Wyatt's SanGiovanm Laterano. St. Specimens of the Mosaics Mosaic. Rome. Architectural Art in Italy — 21. 20. —Du Sommerard. S. Ara Coeli. Marble Pavement. Champollion Figeac. Waring and MacRome.—J. 22. has extended itself also to their concomitant The refer. near Paris. W. Louis. Ara Cceli. 16. Marble Pavement.JW. and other examples of the same style in Sicily. S. mer. — J. Les Arts du. Mark's. nor This vagueness has arisen chiefly from the want of examples to which the writer could was it until the puhlication of Herr Salzenberg's great work on Sta. British u. Hes- 40. Portion of Mastic Pavement. From Greek MSS. a. Willemin. Rome. San Lorenzo. Louis). San Lorenzo Fuori. Mark's. Venice. TheDuomo.— Digby Wyatt's Mosaics. but hardly to illustrate the true nature. u. M. a. Maggiore. St. — later (The Jleurs-de-lys are believed workmanship. J. 6. Venice. B. San Giovanni Laterano. W. of the close of the 12th u.

is the observation. and we shall proceed to point out briefly what were the principal formative causes. of employing Oriental in artists and workmen. when newly settled in Byzantium. wmnkikj In this result we cannot fail to be struck with the important influence exercised by the great temples and theatres built in Asia Minor during the rule of the Caesars. we required what the ravages of time and the whitewash us of. which characterise Byzantine ornament. and been made public to the world by the liberality of the Prussian Government. civilisation and its capacity for Art. Such an invaluable source of information has been opened to us through the enlightenment of the present Sultan. that Eome had it is given less . more applicable than in Thus. fit. ex nihilo nihil style. In no branch of decorative art. On the frieze of the theatre at 51 . and we recommend all those who desire to have a graphic idea of what Byzantine decorative art truly was. Even before the transfer of the seat of the Eoman Empire from Eome style to Byzantium.BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. and thin continuous foliage without the and flower. of the Mahom- medan had deprived namely. in these we already see the tendency to springing-ball elliptical curved outlines. probably. its art. until at last the motley mass became fused into one systematic whole during the long and (for Art) prosperous reign of the first Justinian. a Byzantine building on a grand scale. wrought a little still more vital and marked change the traditional style its . is we see all the arts in a state either of decline or transformation. reacted affected no certain that the hybrid art of her provinces had powerfully on the centre of style civilisation and even at the close of the third century had materially that lavish of decoration necessity which characterised the magnificent baths and other public buildings of Eome. in the Byzantine we perceive that various schools have combined to form peculiar characteristics. fully to understand that. acute-pointed leaves. to study Herr Salzenberg's beautiful work on the churches and buildings of ancient Byzantium. and there can be newly-formed doubt but that each surrounding nation aided in according to the state of its giving impress to the school. The which Constantine found himself under. executed during the best period of the Byzantine epoch. at the commencement Certain as it of the fourth century. her peculiar of art to the numerous foreign peoples ranged beneath her sway.

and the pilaster capital is of a small temple at Patara identical by Texier to the first century of the Christian era. with slight variation. satisfactorily artists how far Persia influenced the at but it is certain that Persian workmen and were much employed Byzantium in several and in the remarkable monuments at Tak-i-Bostan. Interesting and it is instructive as it is to trace the derivation of these forms in the Byzantine style. reappear at Sta. Plate XXVIII.) to be remarked a generic resemblance in subjects from Germany. and Tak-i-Ghero.. Sofia (/). and at the Temple of Venus at Aphrodisias (Caria). I I ) but we are inclined to believe that they are posterior. 1 (Sta. still However that may earlier period be. almost part of with one drawn by Salzenberg at Smyrna (d). inscribed a still more characteristic type. XXVIII. tween is all the examples on the last row but one (Plate XXVIII. Patara (a). 35 (St. 1. Italy. The last row of subjects in this plate illustrates so more especially the Romanesque style (Nos.. of others to later no less so to mark the transmission of them and epochs. The toothings of the leaves (Germany) and be- are almost identical with those of No. e. and ancient capitals at Ispahan Coste's — given in Flandin and great work on Persia — we are struck at once with their thoroughly Byzantine character. period of Byzantine that is. Thus in No. erected during or shortly after his retreat with Julian's army from their Persian expedition. 4 of the sixth century (Sta. at a later period. which he believes to be of the first Justinian's reign. at No. we perceive the peculiar as given at in 3. and Spain. or at most contemporaneous. Denis) we have one instance out of numbers of the reproduction 52 . so is the as foliated St. during the rule of the of we remark at the Doric temple of Kangovar (g) contours moulding precisely similar to those affected in the Byzantine style. in to. 17 from Germany. BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. are to be seen examples of flowing foliage such as we allude (6). Sofia). Bi-Sutoun. On the same frieze is a design repeated with but slight alterafoliated tion at No. Plate circle. and Caesars.: and in Jovian's column Ancyra (e). we find the forms of a reproduced so late as the year 363 at A. showing the interlaced ornament native type. whilst at affected by the Northern nation. of the sixth century. Sofia) of the seen reproduced. 19 century (St. also At Persepolis channelled are to be seen the pointed and leaves so characteristic of Byzantine work..D. we recognise an application of one of the most general ornamental forms of ancient Persepolis. No. Texier and in Salzenberg. 11 Mark's). as seen d in the accompanying example from i. (c).D. 27 and 36). On the doorway of the temple erected by the native rulers of Galatia is at Ancyra honour of Augustus. with the best art. The curved and is branch of No. or about the year 525 A. In the absence of authentic dates we cannot decide Byzantine style. Sta. founded mainly on a No. eleventh of No. Andrew's cross within Gothic a common a Komanesque and ornament. Sofia. founded on a Byzantine type. leaf.

and produced in some the Celtic. - The opus Alexandrinum. XXIX*. 24. 35. Syria. seen in 5. and these modifying causes. 7. — being between Dijon and Chalons-sur-Saone. chiefly from the or marble mosaic work. Plate XXIX*. common one in the Komanesque style. in which may recognise. Lombardic.— a at Cussy. The place of mosaic work is generally supplied by paint. which in drilled sculpture are bevelled at the edge. Persia. 26. of the Veneto-Byzantine style limited in its range. exhibiting variety or feeling. and 11. thin interlaced is patterns geometrical is designs. Pure Byzantine ornament is distinguished by broad-toothed and acute-pointed leaves. however. 26. animals are as freely introduced as in sculpture. art. series are given in Plate XXX. Eoman models. are Nos. The introduction of animal or other cipally to holy subjects. massive projections. conventional style. arising from the it of religion. 33. Plate XXIX. with interlaced and the step ornament. of geometrical mosaic work.least the influence. such as we have noted. and even the close of One period. and yet of ornament in Anglo-Saxon. near Palermo. and are springings of the teeth with deep holes. retains much of the Byzantine character and in the case of painted the thirteenth century. Plate XXIX*. that in Italy . The ground.. are much simpler than those of the southern provinces and Sicily. or glass the principal (that of complicated different nature of the material. 39. Some are so more markedly Byzantine. circles . Altogether of a different character. arrangement of small diamondthe direction of which is shaped pieces of glass into a complicated stopped. we the other. from the opus Grecanicum. 23. from Monreale. and in colour little confined prinsculpture is stiff. red. Thus we see that Eome. as at in mosaic or painted work. common at Sta. as seen at Nos. glass. there can be no possible doubt that the character of the Byzantine school of ornament is very strongly impressed on all the earlier works of central and even Western Europe. of diagonal now now defined. as No. 31. frequently gave distinct styles it a specific character. deep cuttings. P 53 . The examples from central Italy. and or artists were Arabian schools. Nos. Plate it In other respects. 33. interlacings. 27. where Saracenic artists introduced their innate love of intricate designs. complete as we find in Justinian's new and systemised form upon the Western world. 41. or green. is 1. This art flourished principally in the twelfth and thirteenth and consists in the lines . belongs particularly to the it Eomanesque especially numerous examples of centuries. the type found on the Roman column of of the present subject. such as Nos. undergoing certain changes state course . as may be seen by reference Plate XXIX. and manners in the countries where cases co-relative was received. 10. as at Nos. style of ornament. and 20. art. of very secondary importance. 9. for example. which are generically termed Eomanesque. Eomanesque ornament. all took part as formative causes in it the Byzantine style of time. and a great intermixture of figure-subjects of every kind with foliage and conventional ornament. 11. 28. 29. and peculiar in style. as at Nos. . : It is to be remarked. in a figures very limited in sculpture. whether are preferred to almost universally gold . 14. Plate differs XXIX. Sofia. reacted in in its its and accompanying decoration. vide No. its and other countries.. 40. at the several the running foliage is generally thin and continuous. allowing for local differences. mosaic work. of Byzantine artists. which. some ordinary examples of which are to be Nos. being almost local. 1. if not the hand. 22. and eminently Moresque consisting in character. in coloured ornament. that there are two consisting of diagonal to distinct styles of design coexistent in Sicily the one. 3. BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. depended mainly on sculpture light for effect: it is rich in and shade. though of about the same period. also from Monreale. handed it down to the middle. on the other hand. by means of different colours. of interlaced curves. but blue. 34. the ground is no longer gold alone. at. Placing on one side the question of how far Byzantine workmen employed in Europe. are deeply channelled throughout. which serve as examples .

21. J. conquered the countries of the and finally obtained a footing even in Europe. Local styles. whom it Important as we perceive the influence of Byzantine Art to have been in Europe. BOOKS REFERRED TO FOR ILLUSTRATIONS. and they have served. Baruas et Luynes (Due de). who propagated the East. Alt Christliche Baudenkmale von Constantinopel. of the and thirteenth centuries. the effect is produced by black and white marble only with these exceptions. Recherches sur les Monuments de Normands en Sidle. Perse. the same. of which striking examples are given in Plate XXV.— Wyatt and Waring. there is no people affected more than the great and finest spreading Arab race. B. Hessemer. * * For # more information on this subject. geometric design) is still . BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. September. from San Vitale. Waring and MaoQuoid. Ravenna. Cordova. 20. Flandin et Coste. Architectural Studies at Burgos and its Neighbourhood. Texier. Heideloff. Digby Wyatt. Description de I'Armdnie. Champollion Figeac. from the sixth to the eleventh century. and still later. . creed of Mahomet. Src. Kreutz. Florence. the influence of the Byzantine style is very strongly . marked. Les Arts du Moijen Age. WI7J.. as the basis to all decorative art in the East and in Eastern Europe. 19. L' Architecture Arts qui en dependent. 54 . twelfth. Palceographie Universelle. and those produced by Moresque influence in the South of Italy. 36. see " Handbook " to Byzantine and Romanesque Court at Sydenham. the principles both of the glass and marble inlay ornament are to be found in ancient in Roman inlay. Voymje en Perse. The pavements of the Romanesque churches in Italy are rich in examples of this class the tradition of which was handed is down from the Augustan age of Rome a good idea of the nature of this ornament given in Nos. and especially is it remarkable in the various mosaics found at Pompeii. Waring. Monuments Francais inedits. on the system of marble inlay. such are the pavements of the Baptistery and San Miniato. The traditions of the Byzantine school affected more or less all the adjacent countries in Greece they remained almost unchanged to a very late period. Du Sohmerard. Basilica di La San Marco. WARING. Geometrical Mosaics of the Middle Ages. 37. Jerusalem. in a great degree. and Sicily. in eleventh. Such is No. every province under Roman sway. Die Ornamenlik des Mittelalters. et les Gatlhabaud. Arabische und alt Ilalidnische Bau-Verzie'rungen. and 38. Alexandria. existed in several parts of Italy during the Romanlittle esque period. Architectural Arts in Italy and Spain.EMIN. 1856. Salzenbebq. In the earlier buildings executed by them at Cairo. which bear relation either to Roman these or Byzantine models.

d. Mosque in En Nasireeyeh. The Mosque of Tooloon is was founded a. 27. 4— PLATE XXXI. ARABIAN ORNAMENT. XXXIII. They are executed in plaster. From Door the Mosque El Barkookeyeh. There is too great a variety on the patterns. Curved Architraves from Soffit of Wooden Wooden Arch. and specially interesting as one of the earliest and these ornaments are certainly of that date. 15-21. 14. The rest of the patterns are from their soffits and jambs. Ornaments round curved Architraves Sultan Kalaoon. and even disparities on the corresponding parts of the same pattern. Ornaments on the Mosque of Kalaoon. 87C-7. 1384. Soffit of From the Parapet of the Mosque ditto. and seem to have been cut on the stucco while still wet. From the Mosque of Kalaoon.16. The main arches of the building but only a fragment of one of the soffits now remains. PLATE XXXII. Soffits of the Windows in the interior of the Mosque of Tooloon.Chapter V. 17. FROM CAIRO. Architrave. of Saltan Kalaoon. These designs were traced from a splendid copy of the Koran in the Mosque El Barkookeyeh. of Kalaoon. . are decorated in the same way This is given in Plate XXXIII. 23-25. sufficiently large to make out the design. the Mosque En Nasi- Tooloon. No. PLATE XXXIV. Ornaments from various Mosques. in 14. 14. 34. Mosque En Nasireeyeh. Frieze round Tomb. 35. All these ornaments are executed in plaster. Nos. 29. 1-7. 15. Soffit of one of the Main Arches in the Mosque of 9. founded a. This Plate consists of the ornamented Architraves and Cairo. PLATE 1-7. 20-23. are designs from architraves round the windows. 12. Window. 8-10. Wooden Stringcourse Pulpit. Wooden Architrave. to allow of their having been cast or struck from moulds.—Plates 31. Mosque Architraves. 55 . 18. 34-39. 13. 33. and nearly all the windows are of a different pattern. From the Parapet of the Mosque of Sultan Kalaoon. The Mosque of Kalaoon was founded in the year 1284-5. Ornaments round Arches reeyeh. 11-13. 32. Mosque En Nasireeyeh.. in the Mosque 22. 10. It is the oldest Arabian known examples of the pointed arch. 1-14. building in Cairo. 19.d.

Consists of different Mosaics taken from They are executed The materials for these five Plates have been kindly furnished in Cairo studying the interior decoration of the by Mr. Nos. PLATE XXXV. 21 is slightly in relief. The ornament on the white marble on the centre of No. 56 . Salzenbebg. and filled in with red and black cement. with red tile. in black Pavements and walls in Private Houses and Mosques in Cairo. 14-16 are patterns engraved on the white marble slab. to their it own uses. James William Wild. WHEN the religion of Mohammed spread with such astounding rapidity over the East. and white marble. the growing it is wants of a new civilisation naturally led to the formation of a new style of Art. must is equally certain that the new wants to at a very early period have given a peculiar character to their architecture. or buildings constructed on the ruins and with the materials of ancient monuments. who passed a considerable time Arabian houses. be supplied. Sophia. AEABIAN ORNAMENT.— ARABIAN ORNAMENT. and they may be regarded as very faithful transcripts of Cairean ornament. and whilst that the early edifices of the certain Mohammedans were either old Eoman or Byzantine buildings adapted Spandril of an arch from Sta. and the new feelings to be expressed.

We have already. it is a reminiscence of the acanthus the is first attempt at throwing off the principle of leafage is growing out one from the other: the scroll continuous without break. is tint. are either Persian under Byzantine influence. still retain traces of this Greek origin . were crude and imperfect. Q 57 . early in their history. but gradually threw off the shackles which the original model imposed. The as ornaments from the Mosque of Tooloon. and we it mosque already find — retaining. Sofia. whilst in a plastic state. referred to so similar are they in general character of outline. of Arabian art the types of all exhibiting in this early stage those arrangements result of form which less perfection first first reach their culminating point in the Alhambra. There is also another feature connected surface. 12. on Plate XXXI. The differences which exist from the of the distribution of the forms.ARABIAN ORNAMENT. This elegance of ornamentation appears to have been derived from the Persians. Be that as it may. are from the Mosque of Tooloon in Cairo. traces of its origin. style. only 250 years after the establishment of a style of architecture complete in freed from itself. or. It can hardly be said that Christianity produced an architecture peculiarly or thirteenth century. Plate XIV. of Byzantium already displays an The remains at Bi-Sutoun. or was - by them from observation of natm e. this spandril is the foundation of the surface decoration of the Arabs and Moors. 3. to They represent the stage of They are of plaster. But this very imperfection gave birth to a new order of ideas they never returned to the original model. which was ever the aim of the Arabs and Moors. We at once recognis-ed that the principles of the radiation of the lines from a parent stem and the tangential curvafelt ture of those bnes had been either retained by Graeco-Roman tradition. —the mouldings on the edge of the arch are ornamented from the and the soffit of the decorated in the same collection of way as the soffits of Arabian and Moresque arches. the leading principles are the same. 5. The art. such as 2. published by Flandin and Coste. surface decoration. so as to produce one even with arch it. which was erected in in this 876. is true. in the transformation of the The same : result followed had already taken place Eoman style to the Byzantine the imitations . III. Mohammedanism. They are remarkable same time the grandeur and simplicity of their general forms. 4. and which may itself not be impossible are the result of some Asiatic influence. and entirely freed from traces of paganism. that with the Greeks but the flowers or leaves do not form part of the scroll. in the new parts of the structure. if of earlier date.. they endeavoured. 38. No. the patterns were either stamped or traced upon the material. In the buildings which they constructed partly of old materials. and for the refinement and elegance which the decoration of these forms displays. whom the Arabs are supposed to have derived many of their reached them by a double process. there must be much of Byzantine art which was derived from Persian sources. from arts. which appears to be the type of the Arabian Sta. 32. : two flowers. but being entirely is any direct imitation of the previous This result very remarkable when compared with the results of the Christian religion in another direction. until the twelfth The mosques at the of Cairo are for amongst the most beautiful buildings in the world.. 16. its own. with a blunt instrument.. in Chapter an ornament on a Sassanian diapers • capital. are very remarkable. 13. Many of the patterns. The pattern distributed all over the spandril. formed and perfected a style of art peculiarly their The ornaments on Plate XXXI. It is more than probable that this influence Asiatic influence. and on the spandril of the arch which we here introduce from Salzenberg's work on system of decoration totally at variance with it will be seen a much of the Graeco-Roman features of that building.which in making the incisions slightly rounded the edges. is still It will be observed that. or a flower turned upwards and another downwards. The Mohammedans. and the surface of the part to be decorated being still brought an even face. from either end of a stalk there was this difference. although the leafage which surrounds the centre leaf. as to imitate the details borrowed from old buildings. very own..

another planes feature into their The Moors often two also introduced surface ornament. they are very The Arabs never arrived at that state of perfection in the distribution of the of the masses. with the Alhambra. may be considered as the germs of those exquisitely-designed where the repetition of the same patterns side by side produces another or of the patterns on this several others. In Moresque ornament the relation of the areas of the ornament to the there are ground is always perfect never any gaps or holes greater skill. scroll No. Moreeqxie. . The progress which the style had made in this period may be seen at a glance. chiefly lines. and all therefore having all an upright tendency in their patterns of this class. in which the Moors is so excelled. the ornaments on upper plane being boldly distributed over the mass. XXXII. compared with two varieties of lozenge diapers from the Alhambra. The ornament we engrave here from Sta. Many Plate should be double in the lateral direction: our anxiety to exhibit as many varieties as possible preventing the engraving of the repeat. from the soffits of windows. with the division at each turn of the Eoman ornament.. No. so shows the continuous characteristic of derived from the Eomans.ARABIAN ORNAMENT. viz. and XXXIV.e. however. which is of the same period. are century. or in the ornamenting of the surfaces instinct is ornaments. whilst with the Arabs the scroll was transformed into an intermediate leaf. Greek. As compared. omitted. Sophia would seem to be one of the earliest examples of the change. The guiding the same. in the decoration of the surfaces of the ornaments also they exhibited the difference. 37 scroll.. but grow out of it. much — there was less monotony. which is from the same mosque as the ornament on the last of the thirteenth the whole of the ornaments on Plates XXXIII. Arabian. 12. Arabian. To exhibit clearly we repeat the Arabian ornament. inferior. The upright patterns on this Plate. . from Plate XXXIII. whilst those on the second interwove themselves 58 . but the execution very inferior. i. that there were the and sometimes three on which the patterns were drawn. With the exception of the centre ornament on Plate plate. four hundred years later than those of the Mosque of Tooloon.

Plate XXV. Moresque. 32> Plate XXXII. XXXIII. and a very near proportionate approach to the perfection of distribution of the Moorish forms it finely exhibits the Arabian. There scarcely a form to be found in any one which does not is exist the Yet how strangely different different the aspect of these plates! It is an idea expressed in four languages. by which admirable contrivance a piece of ornament oftentimes their retains breadth of effect when viewed at a distance. from it a copy of the the Koran. would be impossible to a better specimen of Arabian ornament. decoration . 18. Plate XXX. close inspection. in metal. of covering the floors of their houses and monuments with mosaic patterns. was intermixed with plain such as pierced . Plate XXXIV. 59 . in all Plate XLIII. Moresque. betray a Persian influence. will of it give a perfect Arabian Were and which not for introduction flowers. or however intricate traced to its branch and root. with the first. which rather destroy the unity of find the style.. Generally there was more variety in surface treatment the feathering which forms so prominent a feature on the ornaments on surfaces. the main differences that exist features of between the Arabian and Moresque styles may be summed up The idea of thus. with the is Roman mosaics. law. and for most ingenious. 13. enriching the its surface on a lower level.. is 17. —the constructive the Arabs possess more grandeur. can always be Generally. others. and that fixed the Moors. The mind receives from each the same modified conception. As it is. arranged on a geometrical system. idea great number of the varieties which this fashion produced with the Arabs. The immense mass led of fragments of marble derived from Roman ruins must have very early the Arabs to seek to imitate the universal practice of the Romans.. by the sounds so widely differing. . like . exquisite ornaments decorative on art.. is Plates XXXII. and we have a on Plate XXXV. the Byzantine. the Moresque.ARABIAN ORNAMENT. and those of the Moors more refinement and elegance. Plate XXXIII. No better can be obtained of what style in ornament consists than by comparing the mosaics on Plate XXXV. it is a very perfect lesson both in form and colour. diminution of the forms towards the centre of the pattern. however. never broken by it the pattern. The ornament No. that however distant an ornament. and affords most exquisite. we see at Nos.

60 . the Moresque dados. and of lower tones. The twisted cord. are decorations on the constructive features of the buildings. are The Arabian and the Koman those are pavements.. whilst of the brighter hues. V . >v_ the interlacing of lines. mainly suggested.ARABIAN ORNAMENT. are the starting-points in each the main differences resulting in the scheme of colouring. the crossing of two squares . which the material employed and the uses to which they were applied. the equilateral triangle arranged within a hexagon. on Plate XXX.

their system of ornamentation. is in all its structural features mainly is based upon the early Byzantine monuments cation of the Arabian. From the Yeni D'jami. From the Mosque of Sultan Achmet. The architecture of the Turks. inclined to believe that the Turks have rarely themselves practised the arts but that they have rather commanded the execution than style. In more recent times. Portion of the Decoration of the Dome of the Tomb of Soliman I. Ornaments in Spandrils under the Dome of Soliman I. 7. From a Fountain at Tophana. 37. we find debased Eoman and of the Renaissance leading to the belief that these buildings have mostly been executed by artists differing in religion from themselves. From Tombs at Constantinople. PLATE XXXVII.— . 38. side by with ornaments. 16. 14. . From a Fountain at Pera. I i JOc i I PLATE XXXVI. From the Tomb of Sultan Soliman . 2. of the Mosque PLATE XXXVIII. 4. I. Constan- 20.. however. Rosace in the Centre of the Dome of the Mosque of Soliman I. 12. Constantinople. tinople.. 5. 9. 8. 22. 11. 15. Constantinople. 3. 3. Constantinople. we should expect find a deficiency in all those qualities in which the borrowing people ate inferior to their predecessors. And thus it is with the art of the Turks as compared with the art of the Arabs . 19. 7. From the Yeni D'jami. a modifito same relation to this style as Elizabethan ornament does When the art of one people is adopted by another having the same religion. 6. there is the same difference in the amount of elegance and refinement in the heart of the two people as exists in their national character. or new mosque. Constantinople.. 1. 2. bearing about the Italian Eenaissance. floral On same building. 1. 10. as seen at Constantinople. however. 8. Constantinople. Plates 36. but differing in to natural character and instincts. 18. TURKISH ORNAMENT. 4. Constantinople. Chapter IX. Constantinople. 17. the Turks have been the first Mohammedan 61 K . 21. 13.. 6. 6. the All side their mosques and public buildings present a mixed ornaments derived from Arabian and Persian details. Constantinople. been themselves executants. We are.

Turkish. Turkish. Elizabethan. The Indian embroidery is as perfect . Turkish. from the simple matter of their embroidery. and to adopt the prevailing fashions of the day in their architecture of the modern buildings and palaces being not only the work European artists. M. will exhibiting nations. It will readily be seen. forefathers.TURKISH ORNAMENT. all The productions of the Turks the Great Exhibition of 1851 were the least perfect of the Mohammedan Century. and in which the may be compared with the many valuable specimens of Indian embroidery represented same work. that the art-instinct to ot the in Turks must be very 62 inferior that of the Indians. but designed in the most approved European at style. races to abandon the traditional style of building of their . In Mr. Digby Wyatt's admirable record of the state of the Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth be found specimens of Turkish embroidery exhibited in 1851.

and in all the principles of ornamentation. The general principles remaining the same in the Persian. that this swell always occurs on the inside of the main stem outside. in black on the gold are here carved on the surface. as the most elaborate and important The only examples we have these are chiefly of perfect ornamentation are to be found in Turkey carpets . XXXVII. Plate tinople . and most probably not by Turks. at Constan- the most perfect specimen of Turkish ornament with which are acquainted. and appears only exceptionally. Green is much more prominent than examples where blue is chiefly used. as we painted in the Arabian MSS. it is is a portion of the decoration of the dome of the tomb we of Soliman I. and the Turkish styles of ornament. lines and such ornaments flowers. but more especially in the Persian styles. article of decoration. but there are a few minor differences that be desirable to point out. thoroughly to explain by words differences in style of . obtained by sinking lines on this surface or where the surface the additional pattern upon pattern was obtained by painting. the effect being not nearly so broad as that produced by the sunk feathering of the Arabian and Moresque. the not less refined but reflective Arabian. the general form of the conventional leafage ever remaining the same. on the find presents a carved surface. Another Arabian. or the unimaginative Turk. The degree of fancy. nay. very prominent in the Arabian. . Plate XXXIV. contrary. 63 . The surface of an ornament both in the Arabian and Moresque is slightly rounded. the Arabian. will at once distinguish them as the works of the refined and spiritual Persian. in fact. almost impossible. with which these are drawn. styles is only . and Turkish readily detects them. yet the eye much in the same way as a Roman statue is distingui^ed from a Greek. it will with Plates XXXII. adopted in the Elizabethan ornament. peculiarity. and a peculiar mode of interrelative weaving forms.TURKISH ORNAMENT. XXXVIII. in imitation of the damascened work which was at that common. there will be found a peculiarity in the proportions of the masses. with Elizabethan ornament the swell often occurs indifferently on the inside It and on the is very difficult. and nearly approaches the Arabian. ornament having such a strong family resemblance as the Persian. and XXXIII. With the Moors France and period so it is no longer a feature. The designs are thoroughly Arabian. and the enrichment of the surface was left plain. It will be seen on reference to Plate spiral curve of the XXXVI. in the modern decoration of Cairo the same thing in ancient observed. much more conventional in the treatment By readily comparing Plate perceived. the differences of style will be The general principles of the distribution of form are the same. or coarseness.. differing from Persian carpets in being of foliage. Arabian.. delicacy. was derived from the East. but executed in Asia Minor. more or less grace in the flowing of the curves. The Turkish ornament. a fondness for particular directions in the leading lines. black . One great feature of Turkish ornament is the predominance of green and is and. distribution of form. See Plate XLVI. through the Renaissance of This peculiarity was Italy. which. This is is and one which at once distinguishes a piece of Turkish ornament from the great abuse which was made of the re-entering curve A A.

.

12. used as upright and horizontal Bands enclosing Panels on the PLATE XL. 42*. 15. C. 15. 1. Doorway of the Divan. XLII*. PLATE XLI*. 10. 0-12. Ornaments „ in Panels. Ornament „ „ „ in Panels from the Hall of the Boat. Court of the Mosque. Tower of the Captive. 18. in Panels. Square Stops in the Bands of the Inscriptions. Hall of 14. Painted Ornament from the Great Arch in the Hall of the Boat. Hall of the Aben- Great Arch. Two 16. 16. in Sides of Sisters. Hall of the Ambassador*. in Panels of the Courts of the Mosque. Hall of the Abencerrages. From From From the centre Arch of the Court of the Lions. PLATE 3. Upper Story. entrance to Court of Lions. „ over Arches. 1-5. Ornaments cerrages. 6. in Spandrils of Arches. 17. in Spandrils of Arches.. from the Hall of the Ambassadors. 42f. Hall Two Sisters. SPANDRILS OF ARCHES 1 2. . S 65 . 13. 41. Ornaments Soffit of in Panels. are Borders on Mosaic Dados. „ in Spandril of Arch. Panelling on the Walls. in 4. 11. INTERLACED ORNAMENTS. Court of the Lions 2. the Hall of the Boat. Ornaments the Windows. 14. SQUARE DIAPERS. Panelling in Windows. 40. 3. entrance to Court of Fish-pond. entrance to the Court of Lions. 3. Chapter X. 4. 41*. From the Entrance to the Court of the Fish-pond from the Entrance to the Divan Hall of the Two Sisters. MORESQUE ORNAMENT. 4. walls. 8. 5.—Plates 39. 2. 42. Hall of the Ambassadors. From the Arches of the Hall of Justice. PLATE ] XLII. 13. 7. Frieze over Columns. of the 5. the Entrance to the Court of the Lions from the Court of the Fish-ponds. Ornament „ „ in Panels of the Hall of the Ambassadors. !). Panelling of the centre Recess of the Hall of the Ambassadors. Hall of the Two Sisters. FROM THE ALHAMBRA. 43. »K8^ PLATE XXXIX. PLATE XLL LOZENGE DIAPERS. Plaster Ornaments.

Pilaster. Hall of the Ambassadors. To gave a the artist and those provided with a life mind To to estimate the value of the beauty to which they they repeated. 7. but the want was more than supplied by the inscriptions. which was the peculiar feature of the Egyptian ornament. Hall of the Ambassadors. MOSAICS. and Arabs. Dado in Divan. ditto. addressing themselves to the eye by their outward beauty. Dado. 11. 6. at once excited the intellect by the difficulties of deciphering their curious and complex involutions. not only because the one of their works with which their the one in which is at marvellous system of decoration reached art. Dado. by the beauty of the sentiments they expressed and the music of their composition. To the king himself they never ceased declaring alone was conqueror. We the find in the Alhambra the speaking art of the Egyptians. majesty. Every principle which we can derive from the study of the ornamental the of any other people is not only ever present here. and that to none He Him alone was for ever due praise and 66 . which. 15. Hall of Justice. powerful but God. Dado in the Baths. 9. 1. The ornament wanted but one charm. Hall of the Sisters.MORESQUE ORNAMENT. 14. and that there was good deeds of the king. Dados. Hall of the Ambassadors. the geometrical combinations of the Romans. Look and learn. 6. 8. 3. symbolism. Hall of the Two Two Sisters. we are best acquainted. Dado. in centre Pilaster. as that in We can find no work so fitted to illustrate a contains a art Grammar of Ornament which every ornament grammar in itself. " There is no conqueror but God. nail of Justice. the people they proclaimed the might. that glory. 4. as is culminating point. 16. but was by Moors more universally and truly obeyed. Hall of Justice. but also because its it illustrations of the it is ornament of the Moors have been taken exclusively from the Alhambra. and delighted the imagination when read. 5. The Alhambra the very summit of perfection of Moorish the Parthenon of Greek art. 13. Dado 12. Pilaster. MORESQUE Our is O EN A MEN T. XLIIt. From a Column. Hall of the Ambassadors. Dados. Window. Dado. PLATE 5. This the religion of the Moors forbade . House of Sanchez. the natural grace and refinement of the Greeks. the Byzantines. Hall of the Two Sisters. 2. Court of the Fish-pond. Panelling on the Walls. Part of the Ceiling of the Portico of the Court of the Fish-pond." Arabic inscription from the Alhambra. Pilaster. 10. PLATE XLIII. Hall of the Ambassadors.

they declare that he who should study them with attention would reap the benefit of a commentary on decoration.— . be tangential to each other as : for were either to depart from in the case at D. never to construct decoration: in Moorish architecture not only does the decoration arise naturally from the construction. itself : it fails and therefore never can pretend to true beauty. there are no excrescences . Where two curves are separated by a break (as in this case). have constantly regarded this rule we never a useless or superfluous ornament every ornament arises quietly and naturally from . like the present. They ever regard the useful as a vehicle for the beautiful all and : in this they is do not stand alone : the same principle was observed in the best periods of art it only when art declines that true principles come to be disregarded . in Thus the transition as at B. 1.^ * This essay on the general principles of the ornamentation of the Alhambra is partially reprinted from the " Guide Book Alhambra Court in the Crystal Palace. or. that the stars grew pale through envy of so much beauty . that at sight of its wonderful domes all other domes vanished and disappeared in their light . the forms only differ. run parallel to an imaginary line (c) ^/ ^/ where the curves would this. so do also the exquisite contours of their vases. and. nothing could be removed and leave the design equally good or better. when the works 2. The principles which are everywhere the same. proportion to 11 / the curves. would run outwards. We the believe that true beauty iu architecture results from that the intellect. The builders of this wonderful structure were fully aware of the greatness of their work. All transitions of curved lines from lines. they did not grow out gradually from the general lines. We have endeavoured to obey the injunctions of the poet. appearing to derive or give support without doing either the one or the to afford this repose. it constructed falsely. instead of following gradually down the curve. what is more to our purpose. All lines grow out of each other in gradual undulations . which does not curved.* The Moors ever regarded what we hold to be the first principle in architecture —to detail decorate construction. which exhibit this refinement in the highest degree. in an age of copying. in a more limited the general lines might follow truly the construction. if might be excrescences. and will attempt here to explain some of the general principles which appear to have guided the principles which are not theirs alone. that this building surpassed all other buildings. if construction be properly attended sense : to. MORESQUE ORNAMENT. In a general sense. bosses. no perfect proportion or arrangement of produce repose. or of curved lines from straight. may be in find the Mohammedan and Moors . but the constructive idea is carried out in every of the ornamentation of the surface. must be gradual. in the playful exaggeration of their poetry. of the past are reproduced without the spirit which animated the originals. especially. from the absence of mind any want^ feels when an When object other. and repose would be lost. would cease to be agreeable if the break at A were too deep / . " repose which the eye." by the Author. It is asserted in the inscriptions on the walls. There can be no beauty of form. they must. to the 67 . t These transitions were managed most perfectly by the Greeks in all their mouldings. the eye. there could be no excrescences . and with the Moors always do. such as knobs or fatal to which would not violate the rule of and yet would be beauty of form. but we use the word here and yet there construction. is and the affections are satisfied. but Moors in the decoration of the Alhambra common to all the best periods of art. however harmonious races. the surface decorated.

their ears would no doubt This. towards circular A. most strenuous efforts to be made by all who would take an interest in the welfare of the rising generation to put a stop to 68 . as at monotonous. either whether structural or decorative. : . Again. 5. on a ornaments themselves. and we at once the tendency to inclined lines . so in form. + It is to the neglect of this obvious rule that we find so many failures in paper-hangings. as at B. by In all cases we find the foliage flowing out of a parent stem. and more especially articles of costume the lines of papers generally run through the ceiling most disagreeably. we have still - more perfect harmony. the angular. They have the happy art of so adapting the ornament to the surface decorated. and you have at once an increased pleasure. o. existence. all were then in with ornament. the inclined. carrying the eye right through the walls of the apartment. without a reason * However irregular the space they There can be no better example of this harmony than the Greek temple. but introduce lines which tend to carry the eye the angles. by the random introduction of an ornament just dotted down. as in modern for its practice. In this case the square the — 7K- e O. is and affords but imperfect pleasure. the angular and curved are subor- We may correct produce the same result in adopting an angular ate_ak— a eye has bc o O (r-ii— o. and it requires the it. that the ornament as often appears as to have been suggested to have suggested the general form it. as of the an(j but unite these by at F. inspection. contrast and the greatest distinctness obtained the detail . repose. : . however distant. The general forms were filled first cared for . of the three primary colours is As in colour there can be no perfect composition in which either wanting. o o e-^^-^e-a o QQ o. composition. the main lines strike the eye closer we approach nearer. consisting only of straight lines. for the now no longer any want that could be supplied. and they would lose their sensibility to the harmonious in sound. or the angular by the curved so of carpets the lines of carpets are constantly running in one direction only. and you have now complete harmony. we see still further detail on the surface of the Harmony of form appears to consist in the proper balancing and contrast of the straight. their and the harmony and beauty of Their main divisions their ornamentation derive balance admirably form. as at D : add the lines as at E. . O O oto leading form or tonic dinate. and gradually lowering the tone of the eye for form of this disfigure the human form generation. If children were born and bred to the sound of hurdy-gurdies grinding out of tune.e. the capping of the buttress is exactly lines to run in one direction is immediately counteracted by the angular or the curved what is required to counteract the upward tendency of the straight lines . and the curved. Gothic architecture also offers many illustrations of this principle ever)' tendency of thus. 4. i. and we are never offended. because the straight is not corrected by the angular. and the varieties and harmony in composition and design depend on the various predominance and subordination of the three.s X j MORESQUE ORNAMENT. follow only the angular direction circles. and the curved most perfect relation to each other. •m as at C. where the straight. are in . to this we owe all those abominable checks and plaids which constantly a custom detrimental to the public taste. can be traced to its branch and root. is what is certainly taking place suffer deterioration. : chief success from is its observance. . never interferes with the general as When seen at a distance. the detail comes into the composition. which was again subdivided and enriched for closer They carried out this principle with the greatest refinement. then. carpets. — with regard to form. Then add lines giving a is tendency. 3. the interstices inspection. these were subdivided by general lines . In the surface decorations of the Moors : all lines flow out of a parent stem every ornament. any arrangement of forms. there can be no perfect composition in which figures is of the three primary wanting.* In surface decoration. so the gable contrasts admirably with the curved windowhead and its perpendicular mullions.

and that segments of circles were very rarely used. how each leaf diminishes towards the extremities. how each area is in pro- leaf. should be tangential to each other. Oriental practice are on the lations always accordance is Many of the Moorish ornaments same principle winch leaf. that in the best periods of art all mouldings and ornaments were founded on curves of the higher order. but invariably return to their parent stem. observable in the lines of a feather and in the articuis of every and to this due that additional charm found in It its all perfect as ornamentation. All junctions of curved lines with curved. evident the areas. curves the Eomans were probably able to describe as to appreciate of a high order. radiation We 8. what we have before described constitutes harmony. each area is again subdivided by intermediate follow the same law of equal distribution. monotonous. 7. even to the most minute 6. and the it. as we may see in nature with the human. have to fill fill. the object being it is distribute the sap from the parent stem to the extremities. will As with proportion. because the means whereby they So we think that compositions distributed in equal lines or divisions will be less beautiful than those which require a higher mental effort to appreciate them. * Ail compositions of squares or of circles will be t 69 .* so we think that those compositions of curves will be most shall agreeable. We would call attention to the nature of the exquisite curves in use by the Arabs and Moors. or this also is of curved with straight. We may see in the example how beautifully all these lines radiate from the parent stem.. it where the mechanical process of describing them be least apparent . which appears to follow the principle of the plants of the cactus tribe. may be called the melody of form. therefore. shown that the mouldings and curved lines in the The are all researches of Mr. The Orientals carry out this principle with marvellous so also did the Greeks in their honeysuckle ornament. and afford but little pleasure. The In exquisite curves of the architecture. This is generally the case with Greek ornament the acanthus-leaf scrolls are a series of leaves growing out one from the other in a continuous line. Greek vases are well known. they always commence by dividing it into equal areas. circles and compass-work were much more dominant. which could be struck with compasses. filling-in of the sap-feeders. when art declined. we think that those proportions most difficult be the most beautiful which it will be for the eye to detect . Penrose have Parthenon portions of curves of a very high order. . we consider to in be a law witli found everywhere in nature. as little Eoman on the contrary. They appear nature. and we shall find to be universally the case. a peculiarity of Greek ornament. are produced are very apparent. their mouldings mostly parts of circles. and round these trunk-lines they in their detail. minor divisions which all . again. or in a chestnut leaf. The Moors also follow another principle that of radiation from the parent stem. where one leaf grows out of another. would divide the leaf as near as may be into equal of the lines. shall find these laws of equal distribution. and tangential curvature. hand. main stem So. from a 'parent stem. and portion to the perfection . as in this to work by a process analogous to to that of we see in the vine-leaf. and here we never this refinement is lost. whilst the Arabian and Moresque ornaments always grow out of a continuous stem. and we find. whilst. find portions of circles. in Chapter IV.. which we call the graceful. continuity of line. ever present in natural leaves. such as the conic sections. We have already remarked. MORESQUE ORNAMENT.

but as art declined. but architectural representations of Majesty. casting their shadows on the page. all practised during periods of local or the same true principles prevail. but a conventional representation perfectly in keeping with the architectural part to . and much delighted in by the it Mohammedan This becomes graceful the more departs from the curve which the union of two parts of circles would give. had their own shades and shadows. The colossal statues of the Egyptians were not little men carved on a large scale. so examine the system of colouring adopted by the Moors. we in much eternal and immutable the same grand ideas embodied different forms. through which light was to be transmitted. In the early works of the Gothic period. flat with little shade and no shadow whilst in those of a later period highly-finished representations of natural flowers were used as ornament. never was the sense of propriety violated by a too faithful representation of nature. all In this. the ornaments were conventional. and a direct less never attempted . as in Egypt. 70 . 9. we shall find. to the Gothic races. traced in stained glass. They ever worked as nature worked. founded on observations of nature's laws. and more The same at first decline may be . they followed certain fixed principles. they became idealised.MORESQUE ORNAMENT. a lotus carved in stone was never such an one as you might have plucked. forbidden as they were by their creed to represent living forms.work. direct transcript. they adopted a conventional treatment both of pose and relief very different to that of their isolated works. the ornaments. yet discern in all and that to although we find in is somewhat of a . they carried to the highest perfection. but always avoided a they took her principles. The ancients always used colour to assist in the development of form. practised the arts with success. floral In the best periods of Gothic art the imitation of nature direct in imitation. attempt to copy her works. In the early illuminated tints. and in their sculpture applied to architecture. in and which they held all common with all those nations who have faith. no longer symbols. ornamentation was ennobled by the ideal . as we do. always employed it as a further means of bringing out the constructive features of a building. MSS. were still further conventionalised. in which were symbolised the power of the monarch. where both figures and ornaments were treated conventionally but as the art declined. temporary character. but did not. In archaic styles of art. and the illuminations were in . Here period. which has most appropriately been termed the Geometrical. so speak. again. from the immoderate use of compass. in a different language. In Greek art. 10. is a curve (a) so common to Greek Art. is ornaments are treated conventionally. which. When we form. that as with with colour. and added poetry what would otherwise have been a rude support. figures and draperies. Thus. ON THE COLOURING OF MORESQUE ORNAMENT. the tracery would appear to have been offspring much less the of compass-work than in the later period. A still further charm is found in the works of the Arabs and Moors from their conventional treatment of ornament. and his abiding love of his people. in Egypt. members of which it formed a it was a symbol of the power of the king over countries where the lotus grew. and expressed. they do not stand alone: in every period of faith in art.

In Oriental art. We know how much the absence or im- pairment of these colours. It . is the boundless variety of her tints that perfects the lily modelling and it defines the outline of each detaching equally the modest all from the grass from which it springs. the Egyptians and the Greeks. which. primary colours were used on the upper portions 71 . in the Egyptian column. and orange. which.— . but rarely used with equal success. whilst at Pompeii every variety of shade and tone was employed. as a general rule. also. we have green constantly appearing side by side with red. The artists have in this but followed the guiding inspiration of Nature. that the colour originally effects employed is was blue. we find the primary colours predominating. green. the grounds of the ornaments were repainted It both green and purple. the several colours were so applied that the appearance of strength in the column was increased. : This proved by the presence of the tions. the primary colours were almost not exclusively. In the slender shafts of their lofty spiral lines its edifices. whilst tint. whilst during the decadence. all The colours employed by the Moors on their stucco-work were. the 'primaries. and yellow {gold). the rosy bloom of all the assist producing distinctness. the With the Moors. among entirely. and the contours of the various lines more fully developed. and in more visibly bringing out the form. the secondary became of more importance- Thus. in the Ptolemaic temples. also. an apparent additional height. equally true of the works of the Middle Ages. The secondary colours. MORESQUE ORNAMENT. the and form these again from the earth in which they is So also in the human the cheek. transition of form is accompanied by a modification of colour. as in sickness. In modern Cairo. the stalk buds and flowers of the lotus or papyrus. has become green from the of time. being near the above. For example. also helped to define form. in Egypt. on a minute examination. the was still further increased by upward-running of colour. and in the East generally. colour. in Pharaonic temples. contributes to deprive the features of their proper meaning and expression. from the firmament in which shines. and this effected to an extent of which it is difficult to form an idea. which occur everywhere in the crevices in the restora- which were made by the Catholic kings. Had nature applied but one colour to It . all objects. thus colour of the hair. so disposed as to assist in distinctness of expression. employed during the colours early periods of art. the grounds many of the ornaments are found be green it will always be found. the primaries were chiefly used. the eyelids in and lashes. however. and the glorious sun. occur only in the eye. we always find the constructive lines of the building well defined its by colour . in whose works every producing stalks. Thus. the secondary : so also on the early Greek temples are found the primary colours. or bulk. though other colours were not excluded. while adding to the apparent height of the column. always results from with the ornaments in relief lost it judicious application and developes constantly new forms which would have been altogether without it. purple. flowers are separated by colour from their leaves and grow. colour was always employed to assist in developing the forms of the is panel-work and tracery. In Gothic architecture. parent of 11. where blue would have been used in This is earlier times. which being a metallic pigment. the sanguine complexion of the lips. they would have been indistinct in form as well as monotonous in aspect. length. formed a point of repose from the more of brilliant colouring to is true that. the Arabs if and the Moors. all change of marked by a change of colour . we have every variety of shade and 12. in cases. In the early manuscripts and in stained in later times glass. blue. figure every eyes. in the present colourless condition of the idea of elevation buildings. breadth. may be remarked that. the — the shaft. red. Mosaic dados. again.- particles of blue colour. the base of which represented the root the capital. at the present day.

We have already shown in Chapter V. the best periods of art. 13. ending with black felt it . but this is by no means so universal as to convince us that they as a law. to counteract the tendency of the red to overpower the other colours. in Chapter IV. This also appears to be in accordance with a we have the primary blue in the sky. with the tertiaries on the earth as also in flowers. rays of light are said to neutralise each other in the proportions thus. So completely were the architectural forms designed with reference to their subsequent indicate the colours colouring. it and 8 blue requires a quantity of blue equal to the red and yellow put together to produce a harmonious the others." yellow still replaced by gold. in using the colours blue. In Pompeii we find sometimes in the interior of the houses a gradual gradation of colour downwards from the roof. however.. ending . and . or by the value be obtained. the probability that the immense variety of Moorish lines. are at the present periods been applied to them. the secondary green in the trees and fields. MORESQUE ORNAMENT. effect. and the secondaries on the leaves and this rule in The ancients always observed occasionally fact. where we generally find the primaries on the stalks. of objects. but the colouring of the Alhambra was carried out on so perfect a system. red. the strongest colour of the three. and add most to the general effect. but in the buildings of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods more especially. In colouring the grounds of the various diapers the blue always occupies the largest area is and this in accordance with the theory of optics. we may be said to have authority whole of the colouring of our reproduction places . and the experiments which have been made with the prismatic spectrum. Thus. The several colours itself separated by white shadow caused by the relief of the ornament — and appears to be an absolute principle required in colouring colours should never be allowed to impinge upon each 14. We have already suggested. blue in the shade. Although the ornaments which are found in the Alhambra. in the depths. that the surface alone will they were destined to receive. which are formed by the intersection of equidistant could be traced through the 72 . for not only may will the colours be seen in the interstices of the ornaments in many by scaling off the whitewash. and prevent the predominance of any one colour over is As in is the "Alhambra. The . that there are many examples of black immediately under the ceiling. this order was inverted. and gold. would necessarily be coloured green but the law true in the main . never : on the surface . but this arises from the that ornaments in it Egypt were symbolical . if a lotus leaf were used is on the upper part of a building. 5 red. In Egypt. which tends towards a reddish- the blue further increased. we do see the secondary green used in the upper portions of the temples. INTERLACED PATTERNS. the secondary natural law .— . on being it shown for the first time a piece of Moorish ornament in white. where might be softened by shadow. buds and flowers. other. they took care to place them in such positions that they should be best seen in themselves. from light to dark. of 3 yellow. define at once the manner in which all was coloured. yellow. ornaments. and gold on all surfaces exposed to light for it is evident that are either this by this arrangement alone could their true bands. with almost absolute certainty. and tertiary on the lower. it On moulded surfaces they placed red. that any one who make this a study can. and in the Court of the Lions day covered with several thin coats of the whitewash which has at various for the especially. and the palm and lotus-leaf capitals give a superabundance of green in the upper portions of the temples. the general aspect of an Egyptian temple of the Pharaonic period gives the primaries above and the secondaries below .

will. «BBBBKB»RiRBBBKBKWi KBBBKBBKSBBKgBBKiin 1.•:©:•:•:». The leading way lines of the ornaments Nos. and XLII*. Plates XLII. 1. The ornament No. the inclined. 2 and 4 it will be seen how 73 the repose . are constructed 1). the division and subdivision of general will readily be perceived in every ornament on the page.MORESQUE ORNAMENT. The general effect of Plate XLI. on Plate XLIL.- gKBBBBBBKBBBBBjBI Kg BBBKBBKaBBKKBBISKBI MMBBBKSBBireBBBB'r' -JBJiaRWiiS!l!SR«M8SBIB[l" eBKBBBKKKBBBBBKBBB ~BWSIBR«»BK!ftaBK»:«r inns BSKNRKaiaiBBBBBKjBBBB^ l2lllRAaBl»iR5ii irrai Diagram. produces a most cheerful and brilliant effect. Diagram No. the perpendicular and horizontal lines are equidistant. and the curved. and only each alternate square.». line The various principles for which we have contended. Greek fret. and diagonally.•:«.».«•?.«. lines. No. the transitions constructive idea whereby each leading curvatures flower to rests upon another. Composed of but three colours. 16-18.*«*•*».». No. being carried over the red ground by the blue feathers. SQUARE DIAPERS. The and it number will of patterns that can be produced by these two systems would appear to be infinite be seen. they are more harmonious all and fail effective than any others in our collection. again contrasted by circles in opposite directions. But by the system on which No. The blue ground of the inscriptions and ornamental panels and centres.. by bringing into prominence different chains or other LOZENGE DIAPERS. the gradual the from curve to curve. at once justify the superiority we have claimed for the ornament of the Moors.'«»'«»-«•-« »'*•>-« »-«»-« ••«» «»-«»-* irfli>«»ti>«i»«i»'«ir4i*<M*«iB«irilk*Jii-«iM _MBKBKK»»HSBBKBa«. are produced in the same as the interlaced ornaments on Plate XXXIX. The ornaments on Plate XXXIX. Nos. branch and root. 2. Any one these which we engraved might be made to change general masses. u In Nos. . and XLI*.••**« ««:<»::«»»::::<•«::»! rj:«»BK£BBK:««BB$BBKC3i bks:«bk*:«b»>::«bks« ». and possess a peculiar charm which the others to approach. 14 on the other (Diagram No. . the its that the variety may be of still further increased patterns by the have mode the ground or surface aspect. on reference to Plate of colouring XXXIX.*- diagonally crossed by horizontal and V . we think. its flowing off of the ornaments from a parent stem. is a good example of the principle we contend for. 2-4. perpendicular lines on each square. and wherever the it is upon the patterns inclined to dwell. Arabian to the principles. So that the most perfect repose is obtained. the tangential of the lines.. In the first series the lines are equidistant. We have lines running horizontally. on two general 1-12.•: >-« •.*»*. are constructed on one principle (Diagram No. the tracing of each lines. perpendicularly. «.. 14 the diagonal lines cross is constructed. 2). that to produce repose the lines of a composition should contain in equilibrium the straight. the tendency of the eye to run in any direction eye strikes is immediately corrected by lines giving an opposite tendency.

The ornament No. by this means an additional pattern besides that produced by form results from the arrangement of the colours. 8 constructed on the principle Diagram No. viz. is remarkable for the ingenious illustrates is constructed. Plate XXXIV. Plate XLII"j\. they are all all very simple when the principle of setting them out lines once understood. —one which. of the pattern is obtained by the arrangement of the coloured grounds . it one of the most important principles in Moorish design.. It is the same principle which exists in the copy from the illuminated Koran.. also. Pattern No. is of extreme delicacy. is a portion of a ceiling. is may They appear. However complicated the patterns on Plate XLIII. greatest variety in fact. system on which it 5. All the pieces being similar. cited on the other and is the principle which produces the said to be infinite. geometrical combinations on this system may be n . and how. more perhaps than any other. of which there are immense varieties in the circle Alhambra. round fixed centres.MORESQUE ORNAMENT. the whole of the ornamentation is of the Moors is constructed Their fondness for geometrical forms evidenced by the great use they made of mosaics. 6. much disguised. in which their imagination had full play. Plate XLIf. contributed to the of a that by the repetition few simple elements the most beautiful and complicated effects were produced. However geometrically. No. side. and and is also very common on the ceilings of Arabian houses. produced by divisions of the crossed by intersecting squares. general happy result. 2. is arise from the intersection of equidistant of .

XLV. PLATE From a Persian XLVIII." does not appear Cairo. South Kensington Museum. From a Persian Manufacturer's Pattern-Book. South Kensington Museum. with styles. unlike the Arabs and the real life Moors. and this The Persians. PERSIAN ORNAMENT. 47*. XLVI. an attempt at the natural. 45. in the British Museum. less have ever reached the perfection of the Although presenting considerable grandeur in the main features. The great attention paid to the illuminating of manuscripts 75 . combining the conventional. to Their system of ornamentation also appears us much less pure than the Arabian life. were free to introduce animal their decoration led to a mixing up of subjects drawn from in much less pure style of ornament.. XL VII*. PLATES XLIV. 46. and therefore structures. ornaments it with their inscriptions had to supply every want.. 47. the all much pure. The Mohammedan Arabian buildings general outlines are of architecture of Persia. PLATES XL VII. and Moresque. became of more importance is in their and reached a higher point of elaboration. With the Arabs and Moors. is Persian ornament a mixed style .. which sometimes has influenced both the Arabian and Turkish is and even felt in portions of the Alhambra. which similar to the Arabian. if we may judge from to the representations published in Flandin and Coste's " Voyages en Perse. 48.Chapter XI. MS. and probably derived from a common origin. Ornaments from Persian MSS. and there would appear to be a great want of elegance in the constructive features as compared with those of Cairo.— Plates 44.

and with the Arabian.).PERSIAN ORNAMENT. style. exhibit are mixed style . as well as the borders throughout. The ornaments on Plate XLVI. 1-10. they exhibit a the arrangement of colour. have 23-25. The geometrical patterns are purely conventional ornament. whilst the inside (Plate LIV. a great and also in in all the leadiDg lines . as was the case with the later MSS. numerous as they similarity will be found Compared with the Arabian MSS. are arranged from a very curious Persian book to at South Kensington elegance. the mosques and fountains of Constantinople more especially. tional rendering.) is quite Persian in character. were widely disseminated in Mohammedan this countries. throughout our Persian subjects. Museum. representing tapestry on the walls they possess the masses are well contrasted with the grounds. and probably were intended for glazed tiles.17. The patterns on Plate XLV. is common ornaments for the heads of chapters in Persian are. on the contrary. present that mixed character of pure ornament. would readily spread the influence of this mixed style. The ornaments on Plate XLIV. the secondary and tertiary colours are much more dominant than in the Arabian (Plate XXXIV. great elegance. which have considered as characteristic of the Persian to style. doubtless. are very little a much greater affinity with the Arabian. 76 . 16. where blue. red. in Persia. arranged in conjunction with the ornamental rendering of natural forms. The ornament top of Plate XLVIIL. so are chiefly representations ot pavements and dados. It will marked inferiority. and subjected arrangement.). to a geometrical showing the extreme limit of this conven- When natural flowers are used as decoration. Nos. The ornament modern India also feels this ever-present influence of the Persian is mixed . (Plate of the construction of the ornaments. the same general principles prevail. . are very valuable. mixed character we have have great affinity in the British Museum. reached. the surface decoration of the ornaments themselves but the masses are much less evenly distributed. renders it so much inferior the Arabian and the Moresque. and which..21. are the prevailing harmonies. and are from backgrounds of pictures. from illuminated MSS. we which forms the title-page to the book. of the Mediaeval School — see Plate LXXIII. present also the referred to. The designs exhibit much great simplicity and ingenuity displayed in the conventional rendering of natural flowers.) an example of this the outside treated in the pure Arabian manner. and LIV. is and XLVII*. as may be seen at a glance. they can have neither shade nor shadow. However. as Both these Plates and Plate XLVIII. we think. or in the Moresque. abundantly used by the Persians. groups of natural flowers constantly found growing from a vase and enclosed in panels of conventional of Arabian ornament. but not exceeded. : indeed there but variety to be found in these. Plates XL VII. Compared with the Arabian and Moresque mosaics. which appears and there be a manufacturer's pattern-book. both in the distribution of form and in be observed that. and gold. 7. In a is book-cover from the India House (Plates LIII. The decorations of the houses of Cairo and Damascus. with much increased effect. modern —without falling under that reproach at the so justly due to the floral papers and floral carpets of times. but are less perfect in distribution. MSS. XXIV. Nos. which. and.

LI. Whilst in the works contributed by the various observed an entire absence of any nations of Europe there was everywhere to be common principle in the application of Art to manufactures. 50. with so much of elegance and refinement in the execution as was observable in of all the works. 51. LII. exhibited in the Indian Collection in 1851. Egypt. and the public. that all design was based struggle upon a system of copying and misapplying 77 x . and now PLATES LIIL. which has not been without its fruits. and Turkey... and paintings on Vases. irrespective of fitness. so much skill and judgment in all application. 54. manufacturers. INDIAN ORNAMENT. LIU*. exhibited South Kensington Museum. 54*. —excited a degree of attention from artists. from the Collection at the India House. fruitless — whilst after from one end to the other of the vast structure there could be found but a novelty. Ornaments from Woven and Embroidered Fabrics and Painted Boxes.. PLATE LV. 52. Ornaments from Embroidered and Woven Fabrics.— Plates 49. The Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations in 1851 was barely opened to the public ere attention was directed to the gorgeous contributions of India. but the other Mohammedan contributing countries. not only of India. LIV*. the presence of so much unity of design. 53. 55. —Tunis. PLATE XLIX. Ornaments" from Works in Metal. Specimens of Painted Lacquer-work.Chapter XII. 53*. LIV. FROM THE EXHIBITIONS OF 1851 AND 1855. PLATES at L. exhibited in the Indian Collection at Paris in 1855. in the Indian Collection in 1851 . Amid the general disorder everywhere apparent in the application its of Art to manufactures.

forming a continuous line •tendency. this expression varying in each according to the influence to which each nation was subject. 13. The ornament is invariably in perfect scale with the position occupies . the comparison shows how much of Persian influence there is in this floral style of In the application of the various ornaments to the different portions of the objects the greatest it judgment is always shown. the received forms of beauty of every bygone style of Art. their art had necessarily a common expression. or most or earthen vessel. It will be seen that there tional : every ornament tended to further develope the general are two kinds of ornament. on the narrow necks of the Hookhas are occupied are the small pendent flowers. 5. they are contrasted by others. is in which a more direct imitation of nature attempted : these latter are to us very valuable lessons. as would be by the European method of making the flower light as near like a natural flower as possible. such as Nos. care for the elaborate From the highest work of work of the loom. is are very suggestive. such as Nos. been more subjected The ornaments on Plate XLIX. 24. appear ornaments having an upward same time. The Tunisian still retaining the art of the Moors who created the Alhambra . On the Persian. In the Indian ornaments are somewhat more flowing and to direct Persian influence. 15. to the constructing and decorating of a child's toy we find everywhere at work the same guiding all principles. at the round the form to prevent the eye running in No. but of less individual expression. Plate XLVIL. without one single attempt to produce an Art in harmony with our in metal. the folding back of the leaf in No. the Turk rule exhibiting the same art. all the truth. tempting you will to pluck it from the surface. at the lower edge. which are treated as diagrams. which forms the charms of Moresque ornament. All the laws of the distribution of form which we have already observed in the Arabian and Moresque Ornament are equally to be found in the productions of India. is out of it. in three positions Nos. be seen a similar treatment of natural flowers India. the worker alternately and the each other. The unity of the of the decorated not destroyed. are variety exhibited in 1851. alised. for which we had looked elsewhere and this because we were amongst a people practising an art which had grown up with their civilisation. United by a common faith. The same is division and subdivision of their general be found here.- —the one strictly architectural and conven14. 4. and for such a judicious that treatment of the surface decoration form. . is equally to the difference which creates the style style not one of principle. —there is always the same . and. of which there was an immense and all remarkable for great elegance of outline. general form. INDIAN ORNAMENT. the same absence of excrescences or superfluous ornament we find nothing that has been added without purpose. the general repose of the decoration never for a moment In the equal distribution of the surface ornament over the grounds. convention- and have. showing how unnecessary a flower. nor that could be removed without disadvantage. borrowing from —the carver in stone. The intention surface of the artist object fully is expressed by means it as simple as elegant. with its own and shade and shadow. and misapplying the the four forms peculiarly appropriate to all each —there all were to be found in isolated collections at corners of the transepts in vain. is The ingenious way in shown in No. and strengthened with their growth. embroidery. 8. the weaver present wants and means of production painter. 6. the swelling forms of the base by the larger patterns. doubtless. as with lines flowing in an opposite direction lost sight of. in it is for any work of decoration to more than indicate the general idea of which the full-blown flower 20. but modified by the character of the mixed population over which they the Indian uniting the severe forms of Arabian art with the graces of Persian refinement.. 1. 14 and 15. again. and the other. are used. 15. Whenever narrow flowing borders . chiefly taken from Hookhas. the principles. the Indians exhibit an instinct 78 . lines. the unity.

See No. In this collection will be found the most brilliant colours perfectly harmonised All the examples show the nicest adjustment of the massing . Plate LIV. A due regard to economy in the production of our Plates has not always. The object always appears to be. in the . place it far . darkest. Plate L. Where the gold is used more thinly. the ornaments are separated to prevent the gold from the gold ground by an edging of a darker colour. and perfection of drawing perfectly marvellous. stalks. Plate LIIL. may be is observed : When gold ornaments are used on a coloured ground. the ornament all separated from the ground by an edging of a lighter colour. that was beyond the power of a European hand to copy it with the same complete balance of form and colour. the inside of the same cover. a black general outline is used for this purpose. and the 79 . excited universal admiration in 1851. and we have South been able to obtain the proper balance of colour. to prevent 4. and. ornaments in a colour are on a gold ground. the ornaments are less conventional in their treatment ! but how charmingly offers is observed the limit of the treatment of flowers on a flat surface This book-cover in itself a specimen of two marked styles: inside after the Persian. in all their woven fabrics. a neutralised bloom. there is the ground delicate. so as to obtain what they always appear to seek. a general outline of gold. which are applicable to all woven fabrics. by ornaments or hatchings worked in the ground-colours on the gold When ornaments in one colour are on a ground of contrasting colour. the means whereby these are produced. is a very brilliant example The general proportions of the leading lines of the pattern. there the ground lighter and more When a gold ornament alone is used on a coloured ground. woven fabrics especially. The spandril of a Moorish arch. all The Indian collection at Kensington of Museum should be visited and studied by in any way connected with the production woven fabrics. overpowering the ornament. separates the ornament from the ground. The following general 1 rules. this they do In but carry out the same principles of surface decoration which we find in the architecture of the Arabs and Moors. on the contrary. or of white or yellow silk. In other cases.. The ornament on of painted decoration. and an Indian shawl. from the palest and most delicate just the and richest shades. on Plate L. where varieties of colour are used on a coloured ground. it is impossible to find there a discord. necessarily limited the number of printings. 2. therefore. the colour of the ground itself. bloom that each step nearer should exhibit fresh beauties effects and a close inspection. of the to ornament to the colour of the ground deepest every colour or tint. The way in which the colours are fused viz. Plate LIIL. from an embroidered saddle-cloth. harshness of contrast. 10. giving a general tone throughout.. I.before any European effort of this class. of silver. The exact balance obtained by the gold embroidery it on the green and red grounds was so perfect. is is carried into it 3.. In carpets and low-toned combinations of colour. are constructed precisely on the same principles. . — — INDIAN ORNAMENT. The ornament No. defined that coloured objects viewed at a distance should present a . that each ornament should be neutralised softly. 5. where gold is used in large masses. notwithstanding the intricacy. When. from a book-cover at the India House. On . receiving the amount of ornament that it is adapted to bear. the outside. the skilful distributhe perfect continuity of the tion of the flowers over the lines of the surface. not harshly. is that coloured objects when viewed at a distance should present very remarkable. being after the Arabian manner.

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— U. P. 13. 58. I.— E. Burmese. P. LVII. Chest.— — —— - Chapter XIII. Crystal Palace. S. sufficient attention has not been directed to the ornamental portions of the buildings to enable us to recognise the true character of Hindoo ornament. Burmese. From Burmese Shrine. P. LVIIT. M. In the works hitherto published on the ancient architecture of India. 2. Burmese Standard. have placed this beyond doubt. Burmese. 2. 4-6. from a Monastery near Prome. 11.— C. — C. 11. P. Burmese. C. P. Burmese Shrine. Hindoo Ornaments. 3. and the more trustworthy representations which have of is been published. S. We have not been able. 21. to procure sufficient illustrations for a fair appreciation of the nature of Hindoo ornament. however. Hindoo. H. that existed so it has taken considerable time for the European public to become persuaded that there refinement in the works of the Egyptians. 57.— C. East India House. Ornaments from the Copies of the Paintings on the walls of the Caves at A junta— Crystal Palace. In early publications on the art of Egypt all the works of scuplture and ornament were so falsely rendered. M. 5. Hindoo.— Plates 56. 0.— C.— U. the casts of others late much grace and The Egyptian remains. Burmese Hindoo. Burmese. > "t® »— PLATE LVI Ornaments from a Statue in Basalt at the House of the Royal Asiatic Society. Hindoo. United Service Museum.— U. M. P. Y 81 . HINDOO ORNAMENT. H. Crystal Palace. with the materials at command in this country. and Egyptian art taking its true place in the estimation of the public. Burmese. to this country. Burmese Shrine. S. 26. 7-10. which have been transported existing in Egypt. 20.— C. of Glass. 22-25. lo. —E. 12. Hindoo. I. 10-19. 4. I. 6-9. 3. P. Gilt Burmese. 10. PLATE 1. 12-17. P. PLATE 1. 14.— E. Burmese. II. C.— British Museum.

are directions to ornament the various archi- members with lotuses and jewels which s^em to be the chief types of the decoration on the mouldings. and evidently betray Greek influence. Had we possessed only picturesque views of the Parthenon and the Temples of Balbeck and Palmyra. When fine art. In this work not only are precise rules laid down for the general also arrangement of structures. All else in any building may be the result of and compass.HINDOO ORNAMENT.D. let all its parts. moulding from the Parthenon would at once reverse the judgment. Ram Raz says. minute directions are given for the divisions and subdivisions of One of the precepts quoted by to Ram Raz deserves to be cited. from the basement to the roof. or less perfection with which these transitions are effected is but. and supposed to belong to a period between the fifth and ninth century A. adorned with grotesque and barbaric sculpture. very soul of an architectural of care and rule in all cases the monument. with the buds in side-elevation In the sacred books quoted tectural : held in the hand of the god. 1834. but by the ornament of a building we can best discover how same time an can artist. always greater according The best specimens of Hindoo ornament we have been able to procure are represented in Plate LVL. and never should be allowed to it is usurp the place of proper structural features. seen as it is were in plan. or to overload or disguise them. several by Ram Raz . in basalt. be duly considered. at the house of the Asiatic Society." London. bases." Among the directions for the various proportions of columns. but each ornament. or the same thing shall have been done for the ancient architecture of India. we have no opportunity By Earn Raz. therefore. 82 . we shall be in a better position than we are at present to form an opinion how far it is entitled to take rank as a really whether the Hindoos are only heapers of stones. * " History of the Architecture of the Hindoos. is Although ornament most properly an accessory to architecture. said we should unhesitatingly have But the contour of a single that the Eomans were far greater architects than the Greeks. as we said before. of judging how far this the case. and that one of these parts was invariably deducted to form the upper diameter. is Definite instructions are quoted that the Ram Raz for the varying proportions and it evident whole value of the style will consist in the more . The ornaments are very beautifully it executed. The ornament No. and that is this was done because the apparent diminution of the diameter in columns of the same proportion to the height. or the Sun. that the general rule adopted by the Hindoo architects was to divide the diameter of the column at the base by as many parts as there were diameters in the whole height of the column. one over the other. is a rule for finding the proper diminution of the upper diameter of a column in proportion to the lower. as showing how much the general perfection was cared for: "Woe them who dwell in a house not built according to the proportions of symmetry! In building an edifice. far the architect was at the No one peruse the Essay on Hindoo Architecture by Ram Raz* without feeling that a higher state of architectural perfection has been reached than the works published up to the present time would lead us to believe. 8 represents the lotus. it is From which apparent that the higher the column the less it will diminish. The architectural features of Hindoo buildings by consist chiefly of mouldings heaped up one over of each. and proclaim loudly that we were viewing the works of a people civilisation who had reached the highest point in and refinement. from a statue of Surga. and by the ornament alone can we judge truly of the amount mind which has been devoted to the work. the other. and capitals.

they might belong to such as the ornaments. are yet by far they is a European hand. ( >n Plate LVTI. is to say how may be relied upon. that in these paintings there should be so ornament . There is a remarkable absence of ornament even on the dresses of the figures. It is very singular. it at the As these difficult all copies.HINDOO ORNAMENT. In the subordinate portions. exhibited by the East India Company Crystal Palace. there so little marked character. 83 . that little any that style. at events. notwithstanding that they are said to be faithful. a peculiarity we have observed in several ancient paintings in the possession of the Asiatic Society. we have gathered together all the examples of decorative ornament that we could find on the copies of the paintings from the Caves of Ajunta.

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are Painted on Porcelain. with which the land or ornament. The Ornaments. 30-39. Conventional Renderings of Flowers and Fruit. Wood. are Painted on Porcelain. 14. and the perfection which their manufacturing processes reached ages before our time. Nos. 9. Painted on Porcelain. from Pictures. Mr. 40. 4-6. 61. 23. are from Paintings. 16. 17." observes all their that " China possesses scarcely anything worthy of the name of Architecture. LIX. from a Picture. 7. Nos. 19-24. " are wholly devoid of either architectural design • z 85 . 8. 41." is covered. are Painted on Porcelain.Chapter XIV. 33-35. PLATE The Ornaments.—Plates 59. Wooden Boxes. Nos. 18-23. 8-17. 29-32. PLATE The Ornaments. are Painted on Nos. 1-3. 62. 24-28. Painted on Woven Fabrics. 13. in his admirable " Handbook of Architecture. Nos. 1. they do not appear to have made much great advance in the Fine Arts. Nos. Nos. 22. 10. PLATE LXII. 60. LXI. 12-15. 15. Notwithstanding the high antiquity of the all civilisation of the Chinese. from Nos. 1-12. 18. 17. No. 11. Fergusson. 10. Nos. 2-7. Woven Fabrics. 42. PLATE LX. CHINESE ORNAMENT. 18." and that engineering works.

The diapers on Plate figures LXIX. Nos. We have already referred in the Greek chapter to the peculiarities of the Chinese fretwork. 4-7. The general forms of many outline. they always observe the natural laws curvature : the parent stem. It is the taste to idealise upon this close observation which is wanting. and the other patterns of this class on the Plate. and tangential is it could not well be otherwise. with which the world articles is so familiar through the numerous manufactured of every kind which have been imported into this country. 17.. assisted only by the instincts of his gentle race is . No. 5. not is so far conventional. landscape and ornament. Their instinct of colour enables them. prevailing. 49. the whole treatment. 8. is however. of the Chinese porcelain vases are remarkable for the beauty of their but not more so than the rude water-bottles of porous clay which the untutored Arabian potter fashions daily on the banks of the Nile. perhaps. mass. of radiation from In their patterns. and is subject neither to progression nor retrogression. to balance form. They most are not only successful in the use of the primaries. In the conception of pure with all form they are even behind the New Zealander . of all in the management of the lighter tones of pure colours. but when deprived of this aid they do not appear to be equally successful. ornament — such LXII. they do not appear to have gone is beyond that point which as it is. are examples in which the instinct of the amount of balancing colour required would determine the . pale pink. 1. is just is what we should expect . is patterns. in common Eastern nations. The Chinese share with the Indian this happy power in their woven fabrics of any fabric is and the tone of the ground it always in harmony with the quantity of ornament which has to support. CHINESE ORNAMENT. it is the happy instinct of harmonising colours. and the pure form of the Chinese vases often destroyed by the addition of grotesque or other unmeaning it : ornaments. Their most successful efforts are those in geometrical combinations form the basis but even in these. The Chinese are certainly colourists. . on the other hand. by shades and shadows. that they can In their decoration. are Patterns 1. As more a faculty than an acquirement. Plate LXI. the place of this of natural flowers interwoven with lineal see ornament: such as Nos. violate consistency. Plate In all cases. where the arrangement depends more upon caprice. built up upon the surface. 41. moreover. the arriving at an appreciation of pure form a more subtle process. 8. 7. as the peculiarity of the Chinese infer that they their fidelity in copying and we hence must be close observers of nature. In their printed paper-hangings. as with us. from which we argue. Of purely ornamental but very few. pale green. and are able to balance with equal success both the fullest tones of colour and the most delicate shades. or conventional forms. they never. the Chinese possess On as Plate LX. both of figures. 19. their instinct them within the true limit. such fixed. is reached by every people in an early stage of civilisation: their art. other than geometric in 1-3. In their ornamentation. 35. being generated by which ensure an equal distribution. the Chinese exhibit only just so belong to much which art as would a primitive people. and the result of either more highly endowed natural instincts. whenever they depart from patterns formed by the a very intersection of equal lines they appear to have imperfect idea of the distribution of spaces. that however we may feel it to be unartistic. but they this is possess. — pale blue. are some examples They have no flowing conventional always supplied by a representation . 33. 18. floral we are shocked by an overstepping of the legitimate bounds of decoration. more perfect than Nos. in some measure. both painted and woven. restrains or of fruit. 18. will furnish us with examples. 13. or of the development of primitive ideas by successive generations of artists improving on each other's efforts. 2. we find in all other styles. . but in a minor degree. but also of the secondaries and tertiaries successful. 86 . and although the arrangement generally unnatural and unartistic. not growing from possess an appreciation of form. 28.

Nos. CHINESE ORNAMENT. a curious instance of a with a curved termination. 18. 2-9. Plate LXL.. On the whole. their works are accordingly wanting in the highest grace of — the ideal. Plate LX. 4. ^ 87 .. is a very faithful expression of the nature of this peculiar people its characteristic is oddness. specimens of irregular frets No. and art. is a continuous meander like the Greek fret . —we cannot call it capricious. Chinese ornament feature . for caprice all is the playful wandering of a lively imagination but the Chinese are totally unimaginative. .

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a production of artists. with Dogs'-heads. in the British 29. of four conjoined Triquetral. Anglo-Saxon Kings. Angusshire. 9th or 10th century. from the copy of the Gospels in the Paris Library. (Magnified. (Magnified. from the Franco-Saxon Silv. Quadrangular Interlaced Ornaments. Anglesea a pattern occurs analogous to the one represented in our Greek Plate VIII. 25. A 89 . 0. Museum. 41 and 45. 28. 27. Silvestre. 4. 39. LAPIDARY ORNAMENTATION. 38 and 40. 34 and 37. from the Psalter of St. End of 7th century. Terminal Ornament of Initial Letter. from the Golden Gospels. from the Tironian Psalter in the Paris Library. from Irish MS. Ornament formed of four Triquetrse conjoined. Its origin and meaning have long puzzled antiquaries the Note. Interlaced Ornament. in the Library of Rheims. 20. 31. Oth or 7th century. the Gospels of Lindisfarne. Museum.— Silvestre. Chalmers. It was probably borrowed from the Roman tessellated of the it is — — pavements. from the Rheims Sacra- mentarium. formed of interlaced and spiral lines. Pattern of Angulated Lines. On some classical Manx and Cumberland crosses as well as on that at Penmon. HUMPHRIES. 8. Angusshire. Penis. Bible of St. Silvestre. Humphries. Chalmers. from the Missal of Leofric in the Bodleian Library. Ornament on the base of Stone Cross in the Churchyard of St. 693. and angulated Lines. Circular Slab. from the Gospels with interlaced Patterns. and Trinity College. 22 and 27. 33.— — — — — — — — — —— Chapter XV. 2. consisting of two circles. End of 7th century. with interlacement. 23. from the FrancoSaxon Sacramentarium of Rheims. 1-6. connected by two curved lines. from Terminal Ornament of tion from the Corona35. 32. Central portion of Stone Cross in the Cemetery in the Island of Inchbrayoe. No. 1. which has been called the Spectacle Pattern.) 9. from the Gospels of Lindisfarne. 5. copied from Anglo-Saxon and Irish MSS.) Angulated Ornament. 9th century. Chalmers. 64.) of Lindisfarne. Oxford. from the Golden Gospels in Part of Gigantic Initial Letter. from the and the Libraries of Dublin. Angularly Interlaced Ornament. —In addition to the various we have : only other instance which ever met with of the occurrence of this ornament is upon a Gnostic Gam engraved in Walsh's Essay on Christian Coins. Initial Letters (Magnified. Animals. 10-22. 9th century. stre. of Eassie. or Metal-work. from the Golden Gospels. Gall Library. St. Silvestre. Interlaced Panel. Silvestre. Denis. 65. formed of red dots. formed of a single Chalmers. a peculiar ornament occurs only in many of the Scotch crosses. Interlaced Ornaments. Pigs. Terminal Ornament. with Foliage and naturally-drawn Animals introduced. PLATE LXIV. Quatrefoil Interlaced Ornament. are Borders of Interlaced Ribbon Patterns. Circular Ornament Sacramentarium of Rheims. CELTIC ORNAMENT. Keilkr. Interlaced Ribbon Patterns. INTERLACED STYLE. from the Coronation Gospels of the 36. Pranco-Saxon 24. 7 ft. The Aberlemno Cross. Ornament of Base of Cross near the old Church ornaments observed on the stones here figured. Gall. which latter are crossed by the oblique stroke of a decorated Z. Terminal Ornament. Ornament on the Cross Angusshire. Vigean's. Franco-Saxon Sacramentarium of St. on which occasionally found : it never occurs in MSS. in the Churchyard of Meigle. -*+. *-«>- PLATE LXIII. Gregory. Humphries. high 3. the Ilarleian Library in the British Museum. Scotland. from the Terminal Interlaced Ornament.— Plates 63. -Stone Monuments of Angus. at Initial Letter. from the Bible of St. 7. 42-44. the Bodleian St. Augustine in the British 30. Book of the Anglo-Saxon Kings. Interlaced Triquetral Pattern.

1. Humphries. a task which has hitherto been to be performed. from the Gregorian Gospels. 7.) 1!). been indicated by productions Peculiar as are of a class or style singularly at variance with those of the rest of the world. Initial Library of Trinity College. Historical Evidence. End Terminal Border of Interlaced Animals. fied. in Wales. in the (Magnified. from the Gospels of Canute. of Frame. scarcely attempted interest equal. 9th cen- One Quarter century. most elaborately carved and ornamented with devices of a style unlike those of other nations. 9th century. at St. of 14. 10. and. Museum. although possessing. to that connected with the history of ornamental art other countries. New Grange. 2. in all ages. 4. British (Magnified. Gall.) Ornament Interlaced of angulated Lines. fied. in Brittany. from Gospels of Lindisfarne. End Diagonal Patterns. (Magnified. 166.) — Humphries. chiefly consisting of incised spiral or circular and angulated lines. from Gospels of Lindisfarne. from its extreme nationality. or Border. (Magnified. from the Benedictional of yEthelgar. Interlaced Animals. 18 End Page 10th Lambeth Palace. of 10th century. not only that it had been long established previous to the arrival of * The Pagan Celtic remains at Gavr' Innis. sometimes thirty feet high. Diagonal Patterns. a degree of in one would have thought. we have the most ample evidence.) of large Initial Letter in the Gospels of Lindisfarne. from the Arundel Museum. Silvesthe. 1.) Diagonal Patterns. have been equally still In the Fine Arts. Trinity College. from from the Book of Kells. in Psalter of Ricemarchus. from the Gospels of Lindisfarne. of Gospels of Mac Duman. from ditto. tury. of 11th century. (Magni- 20 Ditto. 7th century. I believe. 8. Gall. those of our forefathers. Part (Magnified. — Without attempting to reconcile the various statements which have been made by historians as to the precise manner of the introduction of religion into Britain.) Panels of Interlaced Beasts and Birds. Gospels of Mac Durnan. formed of an elongated Angulated Animal. under a modified form inspired by a new The earliest monuments and relics of ornamental art which we possess (and they are so intimately connected to far more numerous than the generality of persons would conceive) are introduction of Christianity into these islands. exhibited the old genius for lapidary erections faith. Interlaced Ornament. Gospels of 9. Mac Durnan. our characteristics at the present time.) G. with Birds.) (Magnified. (Magnified. Diagonal Pattern. and in succeeding ages gigantic stone crosses. of the Benedictional of yEthelgar at Rouen. Dublin.— CELTIC ORNAMENT. PLATE LXV. Q. SPIRAL. 13. Initial Letter. Dublin. our immense Druidical temples are the wonder of the beholder . one Druiilical monument near Harlech. DIAGONAL. The genius of the inhabitants of the British Islands has. Psalter. from Irish Gospels at St. from the Gospels British of Lindisfarne. from Irish MSS. of an Illuminated (Magnified. 8th or 9th century.* that with the early we are compelled to refer the latter in our endeavours to unravel the history and peculiarities of Celtic Art. exhibit a very rude attempt at ornementation. ZOOMOEPHIC. from the remotest ages. 90 . Ditto. (Real size. Ditto. Animals.) 5 and 12. 15 and 17. in British Museum. Terminal Ornament of Spiral Pattern. Spiral Patterns.) 11. so.) the Library 10. AND LATEE ANGLO-SAXON OENAMENTS. No. British 3. (Magni- 21. Museum. CELTIC ORNAMENT. in Ireland.

many and include a number of fragments of elaborately-ornamented volumes long venerated as relics of the founder. A 1. the Book . Columba. dated Reculver. written . Scriptures. and the other in the Library of Corpus Christi College. They are copies of the Holy Gospels. of the execution of the volume. their venerable antiquity. In like manner.d. of Charters of Sebbi King of the East Saxons. each line or two being merely written still Gospel preceded by a portrait of the Evangelist (one only a remains. and they authenticate each other. but that in several important points of doctrine the old British This statement is religionists differed from the missionary sent by St. in the large uncial or initial rounded characters common in that country. the most ancient Italian The case : is totally different with the most ancient manuscripts known to have been written in these islands and as these are the chief supports of our theory of the independent origin of Celtic as. manuscripts are entirely destitute of ornamental elaboration. the Apostle of Franconia. detail in proof of true. Gregory sent into England various copies of the Holy . 596. we are constantly opposed by doubts as to the great age which has been assigned to these precious documents. 769. an Irishman. . is executed in these islands. and of the Gospels of St. other libraries. name has not only been given it to is establishment which he founded. 679 or St. Gregory the Great. thus proved to have been written in these islands at a period prior totally end of the ninth century. seated under round-headed arch." Now it is quite impossible to compare. and two of these are preserved one in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. which the early annals have enabled us to identify. founded by our countrymen in different parts of Europe only cite the case of St. in the unrivalled of contemporary Anglo-Saxon Charters existing in the British latter Museum and . now transferred to the public library. and moreover. the or Gospels of St. Astle "these Charters are generally written in a more and expeditious manner than the books written in the same ages. The is great number of monastic establishments . Cambridge. still St.) .D. the in red ink. the Leabhar Dhimma. Boniface still preserved at Fulda with religious care in his tomb. Kilian is (an Irishman). the Bodleian Gospels. comprise oldest manuscripts in Europe. great antiquity of our very still A third species of evidence of the ancient national manuscripts places is afforded by the fact of many them being preserved in various abroad. and preserved at Wurtzburgh. again. of are coeval with the Charters. at 670 (Casley's or. Augustine ia A. xxiv. Another equally satisfactory evidence collection proof of the early date of the volumes. namely. most completely borne out by still existing artistic evidences. but even to the Canton of Switzerland in which The of the monastic books of this establishment. St. p. and ornamented with foliage arranged in a classical manner. indeed. to the all these manuscripts. that none of them are dated but in some the scribe to fix the period has inserted his name.D. ornament. and destitute of ornament first the letter of each Gospel scarcely differing from the ordinary writing of the text. exhibit peculiarities of ornamentation at variance with those 91 . without being MSS. for example. that of St. was discovered still stained with his blood. MSS. a. yet a similarity of character written in observable between Charters and books the same century.CELTIC ORXAMENT. as from the observes. It is we must enter into a little palaeographical . the Cottonian the MS. Gall. with the Gospels of perfectly convinced that the Mac Eegol Chad . in Italy. the Charter of yEthelbald.D. in not later than the ninth century. Now. Augustine. Dimma Mac Nathi . and that of St. written by to periods Mac Regol : and Book of Armagh. whither they were carried by the Irish and Anglo-Saxon missionaries. Vespasian. of Lotharius King of Kent. supported upon marble All columns. generally known under the name A. and thus In this manner the autograph Gospels of St. dated A. of the Psalter of St. Luke). with Catal. have been satisfactorily assigned exists. where it is annually exhibited on the altar of the cathedral on the anniversary of his martyrdom. whose matter of historical record and we need the monastic situated. half of the seventh century up to the Norman Conquest free is and although.

extremely common MSS. By colouring the ribbons with different tints. with long top-knots. phyllomorphic or vegetable ornament. Contrary to the older plan of commencing a manuscript with a letter in noways or scarcely differing from the remainder of the pages was ornamented size. such for instance as the St. alternately. Fig. idea may easily be obtained by following the ribbon in some of these Sometimes two patterns for instance. often excessively intricate geometrical. indeed.work . one in the most elaborate patterns of these facing the compartments.. the Gospels of Chad. save only in places where the Irish or Anglo-Saxon missionaries styles. LXIV. height. consisting ribbon-work. as in is Plate LXIV. the results are equally applicable to the contemporary ornamental metal or stone. of all other countries. When allowable the ribbon dilated and angulated to up particular spaces in the design. monstrous animals and birds. The simplest modification of this pattern of course the double oval. an as. seen in the angles of Fig. 27. but are interlaced is in Fig. and metal-work 36. since the most scrutinizing examination with a magnifying glass will not detect an error in the truth of the lines. Another simple form . consists of one or more in their narrow ribbons interlaced and knotted. of the various mostly geometrical. as in those of the cruciform designs. or have modified the already existing And here we may ohserve that. Chad. intertwining in almost endless knots. and strange. 12 of Plate LXIV. and LXIV. as fill ribbons run parallel each other. cf the manuscripts. in —The chief peculiarities of the Celtic ornamentation consist. triquetral. the commencement of each Gospel opposite to these grand tessellated in an equally elaborate manner. and yet. effects are produced. in the extreme patterns. first. in Roman as tessellated pavements. upon a coloured or black ground. Peculiarities of Celtic Ornament. Of the curious intricacy of some these designs. and excessive minuteness of interlaced and elaboration. Plate LXIV. in to the upper compartment in Fig.. So completely.. commencement The labour employed such a mass of work* must have been very great. the most harmonious effect of colouring lias been produced. many charming of . an instance in which four of these are introduced occurs in Plate of this pattern. as to lead to the conclusion that the designers of the one class of ornaments supplied also the designs for the other. 5 of Plate LXIII. detail. early This occurs in Greek and Syriac MSS. text. or the regularity of the interlacing. but rarely in •which is our in MSS. or manuscripts. Figures 30 and 35 in the same Plate are modifications * In one of these pages in the Gospels of and twenty of the most fantastic animals. The initial letter was often of gigantic occupying the greater part of the page. with all this minuteness. the designs of which are in many cases so entirely the counterparts of those of the manuscripts.CELTIC ORNAMENT. that- we might almost fancy we were examining one of the pages of an illuminated volume with a magnifying glass. which we have taken the trouble to copy. In these initial pages. 2. although our arguments are chiefly derived from the earl}7 manuscripts. Book of Kells. stone. 11. may have introduced their own. is this the case in some of the great stone crosses. diagonal or spiral lines. we find all the various styles of ornament employed in more or less The most universal and singularly diversified ornament employed by artificers in metal. — the classical acanthus being entirely ignored and secondly. and some of the manuscripts at in Gall. the entire absence of foliage or other . The most sumptuous Lindisfarne and St. which was completed by a few of the following letters each letter generally averaging about an inch in or words. the whole of each of the four forming beautiful Gospels. the care infinite. Fig. tongues. intricacy. exhibit numerous examples of either ornament in varied styles. is that known the triquetra. St. there are not fewer than one hundred 92 . have entire pages covered with cruciform designs. convolutions. and this often symmetrical and Plates LXIII. and tails.

.. 1088. being drawn also up a required . and the most elegant is the marginal ornament (Plate LXV. but in Plate LXIII. also from the irregularity artist design in itself. the neck with a row of pearls. 5. with one top-knot extended in front over nose. but indicates a certain amount either of carelessness or of This pattern has also been called the trumpet pattern. represented by the small pointed oval placed transversely at the broad end. It is capable of 13. and 3. more rarely found in stone-work. are groups of animals thus intertwined. the only instance occurrence in England. but of rare occurrence. 1.CELTIC ORNAMENT. Fig. fantastic of the Monasterboice Cross in the Crystal Palace.. as well as in our MSS. of all the Celtic patterns. intertwining together so as to fill in the most space. Bishop of David's A. extended . of the interlaced ribbons touch each confused. not only from the circumstance. 1. other. evident. the mouth of which Instances in metaluse. we may conclude that this the oldest ornamented font in this country. Bearing mind ornament does not appear in MSS. the body long and angulated.. also.. more or less magnified. being on the font of Deerhurst Church. * Several of the patterns given in the upper pait ef the Chinese Plate LIX. and tails. great modification. and a second forming an extraordinary whorl above the head.D. 11. as in Plate LXIII. lizards.. Figs. Gall MSS. is Another equally characteristic pattern arranged Z. however. Q of the Psalm 'Quid that it Gloriaris. often. but generally equal intervals apart. their opposite extremities going lines.. the heads alone of birds or beasts form the terminal ornament of a pattern.. this work of pattern occur in several . Fig. all kind consists of snakes of various kinds. and In the more MSS. and never It is. and a knotted Very tail. it Z pattern. B B 93 . circular objects of bronze of unknown about a foot in diameter. curved design. In the MSS. 22. seen in may be termed Figs. elaborate may be Plate LXV. are instances of this ornament.. Fig. but in rude work 1 degenerates into an irregular design. manner often symmetrical. Fig. occur with scarcely any modification in our stone and metal-work. and all the finer and more ancient metal and stone-work. and much more The strange design (Plate LXV. that the central ornament was not drawn by an the genuine Celtic patterns. 3. of which various examples occur in Plate LXIV. Figs. therefore. as the letter to Z reversed. birds. terminated by two contorted be difficult. forming a series of Chinese-like patterns. 16) is no other than the St. The most spiral lines characteristic. or at composed of diagonal lines. In the later Irish and Welsh MSS. seems as be the primary element. executed in England is after the ninth century. the edges far less geometrical initial and the designs are Fig. circular. Occasionally.. found of in its in different parts of England.. fantastic and tongues. from the spaces between extraneous influence. 6.. the human figure is thus introduced as on one of the panels intertwined. It is enamelled plates of early Anglo-Saxon work. Plate LXIII. it purely geometrical and regular. the gaping mouth and long tongue forming a not ungraceful finish. The most intricate examples are the groups of eight dogs (Plate LXV. and which is of the real size. generally extravagantly elongated. 17) and eight birds (Plate LXV. LXIII. of coils all formed by other spiral Plate LXV. 9.' is from the Psalter of Ricemarchus. at Lambeth Palace. legs and grim claws. for the animal to unravel. is that produced by two or three off to the centres starting from a fixed point. 4.* and which. Another very distinguishing ornament profusely introduced into early work of monstrous animals. of the skilled spiral lines always take the direction of a C. Fig. but often irregular. Fig. long interlacing ribbons. which it would indeed. where are four figures thus singularly and on one of the bosses of the Duke of Devonshire's Lismore crozier are several such In Plate groups. It will be seen its intended for a monstrous animal. any two of the is lines forming a long. as far as that this we are aware. the 10. and 12. these that of an S. with into top-knots. 15) from one of the St. like an ancient Irish trumpet. 8) from the Gospels of Mac Durnan. shows how ingeniously this pattern may be converted into the diagonal pattern. never interlacing. occasionally found in Ireland also in small.

ornament we shall notice is. as in Plate LXIV. that the Anglo-Saxons. so that it is not at all surprising scholars should have adopted the styles of ornamentation used as by their Irish The Saxons. Romano-British. has referred them to a Roman and has even gone so far as suppose that some of the grand stand crosses of Ireland were executed in Italy. Cuthbert. consists of a placed at equal distances 2. or whether it was in that local the latter were originated. avoid entering into the question.. Figs. also.. Irish in We Ireland of the purposely. 34 37. and in the MSS. one of the chief characteristics distinguishing Anglo-Saxon MSS. above described bear a certain general resemblance to the tessellated pavement of the Romans. peculiarities of disciples of the Irish St. anxious overthrow the independence of the origin. had taken his idea but it is in the Irish MSS. a series of steps. indeed. and of the Roman. indeed. nor a single piece of Italian stone sculpture having the slightest resemblance to those of this country. ancient British to and Irish Churches. Another very simple ornament occasionally used in our MSS. uncovered. The famous Gospels of Lindisfarne. Various have been the conjectures whence early Christians of these islands. whether the the first instance received their letters and styles of ornament from the early British Christians. See Plate LXIV. Irish It is sufficient for informs us. series of angulated lines. Sometimes. however. 3. in which the inscriptions and mural drawings executed by the early Christians are and ornamentation of Rome had tessellated pages of the elaborately represented. and which and eighth centuries must have remained . that we find these pages 94 .. consisting merely of red dots or initial letters. all these peculiarities of ornament were derived to by the One class of writers. lately published by the French all Government. ornamental design of their own least and no such remains exist in the north of Germany as would give the support to the idea that the ornamentation of Anglo-Saxon MSS. and early Christian inscribed and sculptured stones of the western parts of England and Wales. is an unquestionable proof of such employ- ment . by no means characteristic of Celtic ornament occurring elsewhere from the earliest period. will fully prove that the early Christian art no share in developing that of these islands. which are clearly traceable to Irish influence. a Teutonic origin. older than the ninth century.. and it is satisfactorily known that this volume was executed by Anglo-Saxon artists at Lindisfarne at the end of the seventh century. An examination of the magnificent work upon the Catacombs of Rome. Origin of Celtic Ornament. the more ornamental and and Irish and are. had certainly no . would. our argument that Venerable Bede like materially assist in determining this question. apart. and the is occurs in all their monuments. Figs. they were even formed into patterns. preserved in the Cottonian Library in the British Museum. the simplest of all. This however. that the British identity and Churches were identical in their peculiarities. we think. or Book of St. was of . indeed. last The points. who were the that their Anglo-Saxon predecessors. were the originals from which the illuminator of the MSS.CELTIC ORNAMENT. Fig. as well as of These were in great use as marginal ornaments of the great details. &c. pagans they were when they arrived in England. . It is true that the grand MSS. It true. we have not hesitated to give the Celtic as their generic name. not a single Italian MS. can be produced. 28 and 36 and Plate LXV. we at once deny the assertion. as well as the Irish. But it is equally true that Lindisfarne was an establishment founded by the monks of Iona. and thence dispersed over England. forming is. As.. employed these styles of ornamentation.. and had they been found only in Anglo-Saxon in various parts MSS. we might have in the seventh conjectured that such pavements existing still of England. —The various styles of ornament described above were practised fifth to throughout Great Britain and Ireland from the fourth or as they appear in their purest the tenth or eleventh centuries j and and most elaborate forms in those parts where the old Celtic races longest prevailed. indeed. Columba. early A careful examination origin of the Anglo-Saxon MSS.

adopted many of the peculiar Celtic ornaments in their magnificently illuminated MSS. bearing no resemblance to such elaborate. work of our artists. be said that the interlaced ribbon patterns. are Scandinavian.. of these ornaments.. so common MSS. of a much to in is some of the grand Frankish MSS. we find Runic As. as. that the term Franco-Saxon has been applied them. Paris. in the Roman remains the ribbons are simply alternately laid over each other. 31. together with those of Lombardy.. as well as at Lancaster and Bewcastle. 25. 398) in the whole of the 460 representations it given in that work exhibits the patterns of our MSS. In fact. Dahl) and Irish metal-work of the same period. That the Scandinavian artists adopted Celtic is ornamentation. is copied from this MS. but in the latter the interlacing most inartificial character. of which forty pages are preserved in the Library of the British Museum. or the trumpet-like spiral patterns.* is sufficient to disprove such in the Copenhagen Museum. for instance. In the second division of the Iron perio find various examples of fantastical intertwined animals. there can be no grounds for asserting that the ornaments of the MSS. may. Plate LXIV. the It Roman in the tessellated pavements Romans never having visited that island. and we have no hesitation in asserting to be a reliquary of Irish work. occur. of Frankish art of the ninth century. whilst in the Celtic designs they are knotted.. and as our existing in Denmark and Norway . again. certainly true that in the of Man. of the real size. inscriptions upon crosses. be * In the division of this Danish work devoted to the Bronze age we find various examples of spiral ornaments on metal-work.fourth century. the Scandinavian nations were Christianised by missionaries from crosses are quite unlike those turies still these islands. most elaborately ornamented. Our Fig. such as the Cross of Cong in the Irish Museum of the Royal Academy in Dublin. is copied from the Golden Gospels in the British Museum. fig. interspersed with them classical ornaments. however. will of Art from the suggest the possibility that the British or missionaries (who were constantly travelling to the Holy Land and Egypt) might have there obtained the ideas or principles of some of these ornaments. especially such as was practised about the end of the tenth or eleventh centuries. in which we perceive such a combination so closely copied (always. in Plate LXIII. The larger Anglo-Saxon and Irish patterns were. Denis in the Bibliotheque Nationale. taking in connexion with that of Byzantium having been the middle of the. however. in Plate LXIV. size) however. A comparison of our plates with relics those contained in the very excellent series of illustrations of the ancient Scandinavian lately published. interlaced knotwork as to be seen. ornamented with many of the peculiar ornaments above described. however. The fact that this style of ornament was fully developed end of the seventh century. but often absolutely painfully intricate. a magnificent production of ornament. Nowhere. but also the earlier and more polished artists of the school of Charle- magne and his successors. do the interlao patterns. Another perpetually It is class of writers insists upon the Scandinavian origin knots. also represented on metal-work. an assertion. moreover.' and with but very few inartificial combinations. &c. introducing the acanthus and foliage. It remains to inquire. and we need hardly say that there are no in Ireland. were derived was of the simplest and is from the Roman tessellated and mosaic work . which we are still accustomed to hear called Runic Isle and connected with Scandinavian superstitions. they are several cen- more recent than the oldest and finest of our MSS. whether Byzantium and the East may not have afforded the ideas which the early Celtic Christian artists developed in the retirement of their monasteries into the elaborate patterns which before the seat Irish we have been examining.. giving a gracefulness to their pages which we look for in vain in the elaborate. They. however. To prove this assertion will. Not only the Scandinavian. or the diagonal Z-like patterns. Such the case with the Bible of St.CELTIC ORNAMENT. we <1 also ribbon 95 . but 1 always arranged in the CQ manner. evident from the similarity between their carved wooden churches (illustrated in detail by M. indeed. Only one figure (No.

well as with the gold bars or quatrefoils.. we might worked out. and as all these. greater analogy with our Celtic patterns a much resemblance exists. Later Anglo-Saxon Ornament. entirely It consisted of a frame-like design. Figs. probably. exhibits no that the ornamentation of . 13-16. even supposing the early artists of these islands might have obtained the germ of their peculiar styles of ornament from some other source than their own national genius. 18-23. owing to the breaking up of the great Roman empire. J. however. it the most magnificent . which of our Celtic may have suggested the spiral pattern ornaments is . so elaborately illustrated by H.4.. 0. Sophia.. with elegant circles. the grandest examples having been executed at Winchester. between the latter and the early monuments of Mount In Athos. Figs. representations of some of which are given by M. Anglo-Saxon adopted the idea of There can be foliage little doubt that the grand MSS. numerous examples of which are given by Silvestre. true to the and stems were interwoven together. 11. in the latter half of the tenth century. our Egyptian Plate X. in his Iconographie de Dieu. so common in Moresque ornamentation. Ethiopic. —the angles being. it is arranged C-wise. 96 . agree to a certain extent with the ornaments of Sclavonic. Fig. at a period when the whole of Europe. 6. 4. and in our Palaiographia Sacra Pictoria . manner by the Irish and Anglo-Saxon We have thus endeavoured to prove that. however. the leaves These frames were ornamented with foliage and buds as but. the miniatures or being introduced into .. however. the open space in the centre. two others. because so it little is is known of real Byzantine St. 10. Didron. and this. interlaced ideas. perfectly unlike in their developed state to those of any other country . of the Frankish schools of Charlemagne. difficult. but it will be perceived that in the S. between the period of the introduction of Christianity and the beginning of the eighth century. were the originals whence our the introduction of foliage among their ornaments. lozenges. Art previous to the seventh or eighth century. Salzenberg. it moreover. are close rivals of as is also a copy of the Gospels in the library of Trinity College. WESTWOOD.. in of Devonshire. to the Duke the Archaiologia. fully illustrated in Of these the Benedictional belonging is . and 7. was involved in almost complete darkness as regards artistic productions. in the Monastery of St. and equally unlike that of any other country. too. majority of these Egyptian examples the spiral line arranged like an In Plate X. The elaborate interlacements. and Syriac MSS. 1. had their origin in Byzantium or Mount Athos. of ornament was —About the middle of the tenth century another and artists. iEthelwold. will be perceived patterns formed of spiral lines or ropes. and thus to a greater degree agrees with our patterns. in a different lie ed to infer a similar origin in the idea. in which later artists was introduced. titles composed of gold bars surrounding the page.— CELTIC ORNAMENT. equally striking style their finest employed by some of the Anglo-Saxon for the decoration of MSS. although wide for enough in detail them. Certain. decorated squares. now the public library of Rouen. however. however. which has afforded us the Figure 20 in Plate LXV. It would appear that was in the south of England that this style of ornament was most fully elaborated. in the British Cambridge. formed several very distinct systems of ornamentation. they had. The Gospels of King Canute Museum is another example. artists. and Plate XI.

fol. J. 0. Rertim Sculptured Stones of Scotland.CELTIC ORNAMENT. 4to.D. Folio. vols. B. Ornements Francais. Biblioth. 4to. Bastard. Afbildninger fra det Kony. Ledwick. in Parts. 2 vols. Imp. 4to. Sir H. Spalding Club. C C 97 . Bilder und Schriflziiye in den Irischen Manuscripten . 1818. Cambridye Antiq. James. 1843-1845. in Archaioloyia. J. Astlb (on Wriliny). And Langlois. Du Sommerard. vii. 1854. vol. Chalmers. 7. 1856. 13. in the Mitlheilunyen der Anliq. Worsaae. in Archao- loyia. Goodwin. Dissertation on Si. vol. Betham. Stoivensis. Shaw. Le Comte de. Also numerous articles in the Archaoloyia Cambrensis. Antiquities of Ireland 4tO. Irish Antiquarian Researches. in Zurich. Stone Monuments of Anyusshire. 1851. Paris. 4 vols. Man. xxiv. el Keller. Petrie. „ J. Illustrations of the Crosses of the Isle of 8vo. Hibernicarum Scriptores veteres. Also. Essay on the Round Towers of Ireland. Miniatures des Manuscrils Westwood. 1847. Silvestre and Champollion. Account ofCadmoris Paraphrase of Scripture History. xxiv. In Journal of the Archeeoloyical Institute. J. Dr. Bd. Ferdinand. with eleven plates. Illustrations of the Crosses of Ireland. 2 vols. 4to. O'Conor. fol. 8vo. Large 8vo. Ellis. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES. Cumming. 4to. in Trans. Humphreys. Soc. La Croix. A. Gage. nia). Evanyelia Auyustini Gregoriana. No. Strutt. O'Neill. Fol. Qeselhch. Palceoyraphia Sacra Pictoria. Museum i KjSbenhavn. JEthehvold's Benedictional. and x. Imp. and Lysons (Magna Britanthe general works of Willemin.

.

1. near Cologne. 73. Cathedral of Bourges. 25. York Cathedral. Abbey of St.— Plates 66. li. 2. Southwell Church. 71. 69*.. 8. 7. 4. Cathedral of Soissons. Cathedral at Troyes. 28. LXVll*. PLATE LXIX*. Thomas at Strasburg. MEDIEVAL ORNAMENT. 67*. Canterbury Cathedral. 5. PLATES LXVIL. Canterbury Cathedral. PLATE LXVI. 68. from Miniatures in LXVIII. 70. St. Nottinghamshire. from the 9th to the 14th century.. Collection of Borders. from MSS. North Transept.96. from Illuminated MSS. 15. 20.Chapter XVI. Cunibert. Cologne. Cathedral of Angers. Church at Attenberg. 17. 27. . Chapter-house. 12. 99 . 69. Illuminated MSS. St. Stained Glass of different Periods and Styles. York Cathedral. from the 12th to the Kith century. Conventional Leaves and Flowers. Denis. •">. 18-24. 16. 67. 11. 72. PLATE LXIX. Stained Glass of different Periods and Styles. 9. 14. 13. of different periods. 10. PLATE Diapers on Walls.

-itish Museum. are from the Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages. British The remainder from the Museum. 1-12 are of the 12th century . Illuminated MSS. The nearest approach found in the illuminated MSS. The transition from the round arch. from the Illuminated Books of the Middle Ayes. 12 and 13 are from the Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages. 1. the 15th century. of the 13th century. . of 1. 13th and 14th centime PLATE LXXI. 7.. 3-6. No. characteristic is of the Romanesque style to the Pointed style of the thirteenth century. 11-15. PLATE LXXII. MEDIyEVAL ORNAMENT.. 2. from the Beginning to the LXXIII. End of the 15th century.. readily traced in the buildings in which the two styles are intermingled universally in the thirteenth but the passage from Romanesque Ornament to that which prevailed so All traces of the acanthus leaf have disappeared. 15. PLATE MSS. in the possession of the Author. 14. 3. MEDIEVAL OKNAMENT. The remainder from the British Museum. 13. 14th century. Illuminated MSS. which appear to have been derived in some of their features from the Greek MSS. Illuminated MSS. 12.- HUMPHREYS. from a MS. ventional style of ornament universally prevalent in to this style is all the buildings of the time. No. The remainder of the Ornaments on this Plate from the B. 2 3 7 8. 2. and we find a purely concentury is not so clear.. PLATE LXX. 1 13 is of the 13th century. The ornaments are formed of a continuous 100 . and 15. Encaustic Tiles. No. 8-11. 15. of the twelfth century.

and ceased to be an orna- mentation of structural features.— Collins. DD 101 . — W.— Collins.MEDI/EVAL ORNAMENT. its peculiar beauties disappeared. Northamptonshire. and terminating in a is flower. but became ornament applied. Wells. As it this style became less idealised and more direct in imitation. Twopeny. both in principle and in execution. Northamptonshire. stem. and always grows naturally every one of the conditions which style from them. lines in any given space exactly similar to the arrangement of Early English Early period. of the Gothic is There is much elegance and refinement in modulations of form as there in the ornament of the Greeks. The general disposition and arrangement of the sculptured ornament. Early English. Twopeny. It is fulfils always in perfect harmony with the structural features. Wells. remained perfect only so long as the remained conventional. Warmington Church. Decorated. lint it It we desire to find in a perfect style of Art.— W. Wflrmington Church. throwing off leaves on the outer side. English Ornament as is the most perfect.

was no longer possible to treat a natural leaf as part of the shaft and.MEDIAEVAL ORNAMENT. that while sculptured ornament was so universally conventional. after the twelfth century. from which sprang the leaves and flowers . it In the Decorated on the contrary. The ornaments from illuminated MSS. The more and more natural these were made. The same thing occurs ill in the bosses which cover the intersections of the ribs. the style is rarely very and there were is so many schools of illumination. the stem ceased to be the guiding form of the ornament. This is mode of decorating the Egyptian capital. 102 . which flower. In the capitals of the columns in the Early English architecture the ornament arises directly from the shaft. much an application as was the acanthus leaf to the bell In the spandrils of the arches. as. therefore. above the necking analogous to the splits up into a series of steins. The main stem immense as a leading feature gradually and the spandrils are often filled with three leaves springing from a twisted stem in the centre. round which the leaves are twined. which was here as of the Corinthian capital. but when the all natural was attempted. each stem terminating in a style. . one vigorous main stem was distributed over the spandril. Kent — Published by the Topographical Society. are not a architectural. On the vaulting the Early English ribs. bosses the stems of the flowers forming the bosses are continuations of the mouldings of the whilst in subsequent periods the intersections of the ribs were concealed by the overlaying of the boss. so long as the conventional style was retained. we are unable to form a very complete idea of this class of ornament of the thirteenth century. It is unlikely. and they borrowed so much one from the the other. Stone Church. that there often great mixture in the same illumination. that the decorated portion of the same building could have departed from the style. safe guide. and lost in grace the endeavour to represent in stone the softness of nature. disappears. the shaft is terminated by a bell-shape. where a much nearer approach to Nature was attempted. the less artistic became the arrangement. From the few remains which still exist of the decorations of the interior of buildings.

attempt to reproduce in our time a building of the thirteenth century must be vain effect indeed. it. and on Plate LXVIII. In the thirteenth century. general effects combined with the most elaborate decoration. 103 . from the floor to the roof. where tracery and the structural features of buildings were represented. MEDIAEVAL ORNAMENT. an effect which must style reached that it all have been glorious beyond conception. 27. yet a near approach to a representation forms of leaves may be seen in No. earliest. had the was by the effort. its and when. diapers from walls. and the best adapted to their purpose. likeness. On Plates LXVII. all The mosques of Cairo. exhausted So glorious a point. —the light burnt out. Whitewashed arrived at walls. the same appreciation of the in undulations of form. with stained glass and encaustic its tiles. 23. we give a selection of borders found on illuminated MSS. but the decorative arts till which accompanied out. the Alhambra. They exhibit the same care the for the leading masses of the composition. indeed. Although there was much natural decline as to attempt an appearance of relief. same correct observation of natural principles in all the decoration. There are very few of either class that could be worthy accompaniments to the pure conventional ornament of the Early English style. Collins. the same elegance and refinement The. are the never so of the such as Nos. In all these buildings there is a family although the forms widely differ. ranging from the ninth to the fourteenth century. the principles on which they are based are the same. it will be seen that the broadest in effect. all others. and a very marked decline is observed in patterns such as No. Salisbury. Lincoln. beyond architecture was in its zenith. and LXVII*. chiefly taken from the back-grounds of illuminations. not only architecture. Westminster.. 17. —a decline which never stops the style dies In the examples of encaustic tiles on Plate LXX. cannot alone sustain the which was when every moulding had colour best adapted to develope its form. immediately began to decline. not an inch of space but had appropriate ornament. from the twelfth to the sixteenth.— KJ ^r-icAij^. 1 6 . possess the same secret of producing the broadest Wells Catliedral. the ornamentation.

is bounded on the outer edge by produce an even is filled up by intermediate stems and flowers. or with tails on one side of the Plate LXXIL. Plate LXXI. This style. which embraces the upper part of the N. the letter N is not surpassed by any example in the subsequent is styles we have reproduced. generally to be found on small missals. and are all first outlined with a black line and then coloured. 2. as at No. in this is style. 1. In Plates LXXI. we have printed them here it is two colours only. chief From this period we no longer find the initial letters forming the ornament on the page. evidence of decline from the very earliest point. We believe that. gradually lost the peculiar beauty and fitness which derived from as first it had inspiration. There are an immense number character of MSS. such as 9. and surrounding very beautiful miniatures. LXXIL. 8 is a specimen of a style very prevalent in the fourteenth century. sweeping boldly from the base. the arrangement fragmentary. sustained again by the green volute. Up to this period the ornaments are still within the province -of the scribe. are arranged a great variety of conventional leaves and flowers from illuminated Although many of them are in the originals highly illuminated. 11. 15 to that of Nos. 9. and prevents over. and which It is very architectural in character. but the four series of scrolls repeating each other most monotonously. 13 of the same plate. where the border a red line. from constant repetition. but on Plate of the scribe . in Plate LXVI. although each flower or group of leaves in Nos. from its universal same same principle so universally in the ornamentation of the Early English. but the general text becomes enclosed either in borders round the page. a it is pure decorative writing. and by adding to the by conventionalising the form artist's of any natural leaf or flower on the same principle. rendering the relief of natural forms in Nos. it development of the illumination led to the adoption of the of the Byzantines. relief. there need be no limit to an invention. The border gradually comes we gradually more importance. is it and the way in which the rotundity of the stems is expressed. There is also to be remarked a gradual decline in the idea of continuity of the main stems. 2. and the border tint. without attempting positive a fruitful lesson. By adapting these leaves or flowers to a volute stem. and from the vignette form. to the attempt at 10. Nos. readily be traced through Nos. Here the true purpose of illumination letter itself fulfilled . the finest kind of illumination. we have endeavoured On to gather together types of the various styles of ornamental illumination from the twelfth to the end of the fifteenth century. There is here. 10. falling- and is so nicely proportioned that it is able to sustain the red volute which flows from The colours also are most beautifully balanced and contrasted. which follows exactly the laws in the general distribution of form. which was at first general. is may still be traced to their roots. The forms the chief ornament out into : from this springs main stem. LXXIIL. 7 and 2. swelling a grand volute exactly at the point best adapted to contrast with the angular line of the letter this is beautifully it it. On MSS. almost as many styles in appearance could be produced as there are separate ornaments on the page. so as to No. The gradual progress from the flat conventional ornament. also. will 13 and 14. 5. We have no longer the same balance of form. The general of the style certainly and was probably a prevalence. 11. we see in No. where a geometrical arrangement is obtained with conventional 104 . to show how possible to represent in diagram the general character of leaves. 12.. and we consider Eastern. By stock a combination of different varieties they might be still further increased. LXXIIL we shall find that the painter began to usurp the office and the farther we proceed the more does the legitimate object of illumination seem to be departed from. is arrive through the manner of No. and died out by the scroll-work becoming too minute and elaborate. MEDIAEVAL ORNAMENT. 15. 7. and 7. to be of page.. in every way. We have the first stage in No. 15.

10. The 12. to Nos. viz."> . we find conventional ornament intermingled with arrive natural flowers arranged a fragmentary way. when it arrived thus far there could be no further progress. 15. should appear to be alighting on the page. glass it appears to us to be always in advance of structural twelfth ornament. In the stained glass of the twelfth century we shall always find all the principles which we have shown to belong to a true style of art. at the general the ornaments from Nos. of the fourteenth century neglect we commencement of the direct natural style. from and. had their through which life was to be transmitted. In Nos. are specimens of a peculiar style of Italian MSS. we through this to No. 5. whilst the is. than For is it does the sculptured ornament of the monuments same period. effect. on which are painted groups of flowers 6. of course. 12. 11. where the painter has full sway. 1.9. and the curved. —the of the century possesses the same breadth of and constructed in the same way. 12 to 28 are of the twelfth century. to an over-elaboration of out of scale detail. 8. 2. 5. 7. 10. 13 with No. 1. repetition of the effect is The constant same forms has gradually led suffers. Nos. 13. the interlacings. 2. stained glass of the thirteenth century according to our view. 4. character. which ended in the total figures of the true principles of stained glass. 6.. are balanced and contrasted in all the diapers. 1. and represents flowers and this insects it casting their shadow on the page. a continuous ground pattern forms a tint interlacing with a more general In Nos. When the art of illumination had arrived at it stage could go no farther. We need only call attention here to the very ingenious way in which the straight. became imitations of natural branches. the inclined.. that the it ornament seems in such perfect relation in point of scale fact. the ornament of the illuminated stained MSS. 3. and LXIX*. this a very curious On a Plates LXIX. which was a revival in the fifteenth It led to the style century of the system of ornament so prevalent in the twelfth. Nos. being purely geometrical forms. are of the fourteenth. All continuity of design being abandoned. 8. This style also died out in the same way. stained glass appears to follow The character of the ornament on much more of the closely that of the illuminated like MSS. and. if fact it is. when a natural flower and a conventional ornament appear on the same stem. and we think mere glance effect of the plates will establish what we have here advanced. e v. 2 and 4 we have an example of a very common see the principle. ornament enclosing gold panels. it — all ideality had fled — and ends in the desire to copy an insect so faithfully that Nos. the attempt to render own shades and shadows. Plate LXXI. same change has taken place which we have already observed on comparing No. in when both ornaments and them over-true. 11. MEDLEVAL ORNAMENT. 6. as the sculptured ornament of the thirteenth. already in a state of decline. which is thoroughly Eastern in surface pattern. 3 and 7 are of the thirteenth. interlaced pattern No. where the became highly coloured on the gold ground. In in 9.CZku^> l ^ slightly conventionalised. 8. is considerably The ornaments are with the general Now as it one of the most beautiful features of the Early English style. and effect to the members which all decorates. 10. instance. from which the general masses.

Chapter

XVII.— Plates

74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82.

RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT.

PLATE LXXIV.
1, 8, 9.

Bas-reliefs
coli,

from the Church
di

of Sta.

Maria dei Mira-

4, 6.

Bas-reliefs

from the Church of San Michele

in

Murano,

Venice.

Venice.

2. 3.

Bas-relief

from the Scuola

Bas-relief forming the continuation

San Marco, Venice. upwards of Fig.

2.

5, 7.

Bas-reliefs

from the Scala dei Giganti, Venice.

PLATE LXXV.
1,2.

From

tendence

a Collection of Casts taken under the superinof Professor Varny, from the principal
Ghiberti Gate of the Baptistery, Florence.

4, 5, 8, 9, 11.

C. 7.

Cinque-cento Monuments of Genoa.
•;.

From

the

first

10.

From Genoa. From Venice. From the Church of Santi Giovanni e Paolo, From the Hotel Bourgtheroulde, Rouen.

Venice.

PLATE LXXVI.
1.

2.

by Andrea Sausovino, from the Church of Sta. Maria del Popolo, Rome. Bas-relief from the Church of Sta. Maria dei Miracoli,
Bas-relief

cento Ornaments of Genoa, taken under the superintendence of Professor Varny.
5, 7, 8, 10.
0.

Venice.
3.
4.

Bas-relief

Bas-relief
Bas-relief

from the Hotel Bourgtheroulde, Rouen. from a Collection of Casts of the best Cinque-

9.

from Genoa. from the Martinengo Tomb, Brescia. Bas-relief from the Base of the " Trois Graces Germain Pilon in the Louvre.
Bas-reliefs

" of

PLATE LXXVIL
1-3.

Ornaments enamelled on Copper in the early Limoges Champleve' style, from the Hotel Cluny
-Museum, Paris.
Ditto, of a later period.

27, 28.

From

Pottery of Louvre.

the

Sixteenth

Century, in

the

29.

Limoges Champleve Enamel on Copper, from the
Hotel Cluny.
Painted Ornaments, Hotel Cluny.

4-8.
9.

Ornaments from the background of a Picture,
Hotel Cluny.

in the

30. 31.

From

the

Armour

of Henri in., in the Louvre.

10,11.
12.

Enamels on Gold Ground, from the Louvre.
Silver Inlay in Ivory, of the Sixteenth Century, from

32.

A

33-35.
36.

Metal Plate in the same Museum. From Metal Work, in the Louvre.
the

the Hotel Cluny.
18.

From

Armour

of Francois

II.,

in the Louvre.

11.

From a Casket in the Hotel Cluny. From a Powder-hom in Iron of the Sixteenth Century,
in the

37-39.
40, 41.

Repousse Ornaments in Copper, from the Hotel Cluny. Limoges Champleve Enamel, from the same Museum.

Hotel Cluny.

42-44.

From From

Goldsmiths'

Work

of the Sixteenth Century, in

15-17.

Similar objects in Boxwood, from the same

Museum.
in

the Louvre.
45, 40.

18-20.

From
From

Sixteenth-century
ditto, in the

Limoges Enamels,

the

same Museum.
21.

a Picture in Limoges Painted Enamel, Sixteenth Century, in the Hotel Cluny.
in Copper,

Louvre.

47. 48. 49.

Ornament

from the above.

22-24.

Enamels on Gold Ground, Sixteenth Century, Louvre.
Portion of an
tury, in the

Ebony Cabinet of the Sixteenth CenHotel Cluny.
of the Sixteenth

Ivory Inlay in Ebony, from the above. Painted Ornament, from the above.

50-53. 54-50.
57-61.

Inlaid

Ornament mi n Dagger Sheath
in

Century,

the Hotel Cluny.

Limoges Champleve Enamel, from the above. Accessories to Pictures, from the above. Limoges Champleve Enamel.

From

107

RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT.

PLATE LXXVIII.
1-36.

Ornaments taken from Specimens of Hispano-Arabic, French, and Italian Earthenware, preserved in the South Kensington Museum, and principally from the Majolican Wares of Pesaro, Gubbio, Urbino, Castel Durante, and other Italian towns of the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Centuries.

PLATE LXXIX.
1-3.

Ornaments selected from the faience, or Enamelled Earthenware, of Bernard de Palissy, in the Hotel
Cluny.

19, 20.

From From

Porcelain of the Seventeenth Century, in the

Louvre.
22, 23.

the

German

Pottery, en yres, with Painted Glaze

4-10.

11-13.

From Specimens of Majolica, in the Hotel Cluny. From faience of the Fifteenth Century, in the
Hotel Cluny.
24-33.
Sixteenth

of the Sixteenth Century, in the Hotel Cluny.

From Earthenware,
the Hotel Cluny.

French, Spanish, and Italian, in

14-18, 21.

From

faience of the

Century, in the
34.

Louvre.

From

the Louvre.

PLATE LXXX.
1,2.

Ornaments from faience.
Ornaments from faience of the Sixteenth Century.

24-27.

3-6.

28-32.
33.

7-10.
11, 12. 13.

Ornaments from faience of the Seventeenth Century.
From/««erace with Metallic Lustre.

34-38. 39^42.

From

a Vase in Venetian Glass of the Sixteenth Cen-

From Gres Flamand. or Earthenware. From faience of the Sixteenth Century. From a Carved-wood Panel of the Seventeenth Century. From Enamelled Earthenware. From Silk Embroidery on Velvet.

tury.

14-21.
22, 23.

From faience From faience

of the Sixteenth Century.

N.B.

—The whole of the Specimens on this Plate have been

of an Earlier Date.

derived from the Hotel Cluny, Paris.

PLATE LXXXL
1.

From

a Sideboard carved in wood, dated 1554, in the Hotel Cluny.

17.

Shutter Panels of the end of the Fifteenth Century, in the Hotel Cluny.

2.

Wood

Panels of the Sixteenth Century, in the Hotel

18.
19.

Carved Ornament from the Louvre.

Cluny.
3.

From

a

Boxwood Comb,

in the

Hotel Cluny.

4-6.

From an Oak Chair-back, in the Hotel Cluny. From Carved-wood Stalls of the Fifteenth Century,
in the Hotel Cluny.

22. 23.
24.

Stone Balustrading, from the Chateau d'Anet.

Stone Carving from the Louvre.

From

a Chimneypiece, in the Hotel Cluny.

7-10, 25, 26, 35, 36.
11.

End

of a

From Furniture, in the Hotel Cluny. Beam of the end of the Fifteenth Century,

27-30.

in the Hotel Cluny.
12, 13, 20, 21, 39, 40.

Carving in Marble from the celebrated Basin in the Fountain of the Chateau Gaillon, now in the Louvre.
Stone Carving, Seventeenth Century, in the Louvre.

From

Furniture of the Sixteenth Cen-

31, 32. 33.

tury, in the Hotel Cluny.
14, 15.

Wood
From From

Carving, from the Hotel Cluny.
the Fountain of the Chateau Gaillon, Louvre.

From From

Furniture of the Fifteenth Century, in the Hotel Cluny. a Sideboard, in the Hotel Cluny.

34,38.
37.

16.

the Stock of an Arquebus of the Sixteenth Century, in the Hotel Cluny.

PLATE LXXXII.
1-9.

Carved Ornament from Oak Furniture of the Sixteenth Century, in the Hotel Cluny.

15-17.
18.

From a Sideboard of the Fifteenth Century. From an Oak Sideboard, dated 1524, in the Hotel
Cluny.

10, 11, 19, 34.

From

the

Bed

of Francois

I.,

in the Hotel

Cluny.

20-29.

From

Furniture of the Sixteenth Century, in the Hotel Cluuy.

12,13,14,32,33.

From Oak Furniture Century, in the Hotel Cluny.
108

of

the

Sixteenth

30, 31.

Panels of Shutters of the end of the Fifteenth Century, in the Hotel Cluny.

almost exclusively 109 FF . In the fourteenth century. and Cosmo. Under the auspices of the Benedictines of Subiaco. but for a short season." Thus. in his time. a protest was commenced Pisano. in the year 1465. and a profound student in learning. for a time. were so substantial live and majestic. If two intelligent students of Italian Art and Literature diligently set themselves to trace. and thus they were. under their shadow and to forget them. Almost concurrently with the introduction of the pointed arch into Northern Italy by an Englishman. light of Roman greatness waned to its glimmer in the land over had once shed dazzling rays. set up their of Santa to Scholastica. Nicola close of the The thirteenth century was further marked less by a complete revolution in the world of of letters. but in labouring incessantly in the preservation and restoration world of the long-lost texts of the Roman and Grecian was adopted as authors. and destined bloom brilliantly. Braccioliui. the Germans Sweynheim and Pannartz press in the celebrated Monastery edition of Lactantius. It men as these had accumulated. Cino da Pistoia and other learned commentators and jurists brought into fashion the study of the great " Corpus " of ancient law. Dante. not in writing Italian poetry to the Petrarch and Boccaccio. in public and private libraries that could be recovered of classical learning. were to be had for the trouble of turning up the that scarcely covered them. Fragments of exquisite beauty. in favour of the ancients and their arts by that great reviver of antique sculpture. in the construction of which the principles of Art to which those fragments owed their beauty had been once. Liouardo Aretino. truth is. Poggio (ultimately . bringing over Leontius Pilatus. the first-fruits of their labour was Germany and F ranee biblical and ecclesiastical literature. and the other the earliest effort to made to excite a veneration for what most historians declare is have almost utterly died out in the lapse of ages — classical beauty — there little doubt that they would not only meet. at Vercelli. to Hence. spent long and laborious or prose. These efforts at a revival of classical learning were seconded by a numerous band of notables. in Italy. though lingering. and maintained academies in which lucid account of it a text. The that the material monuments of the ancient Romans. in the progress of their researches. to be the first professor. and as accessories in buildings. but cross one another. lives. Andrea. it scattered thickly over the soil of Italy. the Gothic style was at slow to take root in Italy. as is often fancied. in the construction of St. while first Rome in 1467. classical. their Removing in Oratore. entirely lost sigbt of. the father of the was at a moment when the labours of such all Medici. bronze.RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. that was impossible to stone. was scarcely known classical as a Christian poet than as an emulator the great Mantuan. are most popularly and familiarly known. intimate friends. a learned Greek. and who first instituted a chair for the study of the Grecian language at Florence.Eneas Sylvius Pope Pius II. pressed into service for tombs. and to "Cicero de in England popular. the its feeblest one the latest date at which the which it direct. at Assisi. among whom the names of John of Ravenna (Petrarch's pupil).. from Constantinople. 1458-1464). and with the German works of Magister Jacobus. from which issued. early in the thirteenth century. gave employment the printer . that about the middle of the fifteenth century the art of printing was introduced into Italy. soil in and marble. from time to time. Boccaccio it was who first gave to Italy a Heathen Mythology.

much much distinction. in 1511. In this woik which a good cast may be seen in the Crystal Palace) Jacopo exhibited a careful recourse to nature. learn " le nouvel art par lequel on faisait des livres. and fifteenth was scarcely until the middle of the Conscious as we to for century that it came to be in anywise a literal revival. after a life of labour and many vicissitudes. Assisi. both in the surrounding festoons of the upper part of the pedestal and the " puttini. and even in its present this sad state of decay offers unmistakable evidence a" of his rare ability. century that the Renaissance of movement can be said to In it its earliest stage the Art in Italy was unquestionably a revival of principles. set the seal upon the classical tendency of the matters of Art. the aged sixty-four. however.'" His great work. as we have already asserted. and afforded the means of speedily transmitting to other countries the details of ancient design. was the fountain in the Piazza del Mercato Siena. RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. rapidly multiplied the standard classics of revival to and thus the art of printing speedily caused a art movement become cosmopolitan." at Florence. and Florence. with illustrations. supplied free to under a more regular system of education we are yet confess' a preference for the freshness and naivete with which the pioneers worked. The publication of Vitruvius at Rome. who was a no less learned editor than lie was a of printer. when Nature was recurred suggestion. and the actual occasional of classic forms at were a later comparatively period. the Frenchman. the father of painting. until the beginning of the fifteenth have borne really valuable fruit. Long. which. Sienna. about 1486. The first great step in advance was taken by the celebrated Jacopo della Querela. would very probably have been limited. In the ornaments which surround the ceilings of the Church of Cimabue.. in This work brought him city. to the soil of Italy. Lord of the City. however. be. zealous (ireek the It invented the Italic character." carried his acquired lie knowledge from Mayence to Venice. subsequently adopted by This remarkable man. was scarcely. written by the learned ecclesiastic Fra Colonna. ascribed to . in who having been driven from his birth-place. engaged his attention. types of form Through those diametrically illustrations. which display a of the profound study of ancient ornament. and unknown and unimitated. the simplicity of his imitation being revealed by the little bandy legs of one of the " puttini. indications had been given in the world of Art of an almost inherent antagonism on the part of the Italians to Gothic forms. a interesting 1413. while Nicola Pisano and other masters of the or thirteenth It century. to Lucca. Although one of the unsuccessful 110 . to the ateliers of Fust and Scheffer. to a great extent. profusely illustrated with engravings on wood. editions the and Latin Among dream his earliest works is one ever memorable in the history of Art. " Hypnerotomachia. so warmly taken up throughout the Giunti at Italy. the Gioliti in the same city. and was made Warden he died of the in that where. that in some productions of details this earlier stage. over the more complete but more easily obtained graces of an almost direct reproduction of the antique. had that noble remained undiscovered. which was completed at an expense of two thousand two hundred gold ducats. wife of Giunigi di Caretto." or chubby boys supporting them. at Florence in 1496. there may deficiencies. where the learned Aldus Manutius. Nicholas Jenson. may exist . from about the year 1490 gave to the world in rapid succession Classics. as well as of Alberti's great work. executed about the year of that city. the acanthus had been drawn with considerable accuracy trecento. and at Venice. the design of which has been frequently ascribed less to no great an artist than Andrea Mantegna. in 1485. to who was sent by Louis XI. before the aspirations of the first labourers in the mine of antiquity had been thus brought to fruition. After his execution of capo he opera lie was known as Jacopo della Fonte. age in "De Re iEdificatoria. had derived many important elements of design from a study of antique remains. The successors of the first Aldus at Venice. opposed to those middle ages were disseminated over the Continent of Europe. however. Cathedral year 1424. the Cathedral monument (of to llaria di Caretto." or is of Poliphilus.

neither can education be said founded is he received his from his father-in-law. Lorenzo Ghiberti. unrivalled (Tor by any similar specimen in any age for excellence of design and workmanship. which encloses and surrounds the worthy of the he most one . Brunelleschi and Donatello. as we shall presently see. and Amillo Fiore. the various palaces and churches fragments of exquisite decorative sculpture are to be met Bramante. which was ultimately finished about the year 1444. the torch that was lit by Massuccio was nanded on by Andrea Ciccione. dexterity. foliage. as it does. esque ability was. ventured on the and with two others. at that time very young (twenty-two). Baldassare Peruzzi. one of the earliest buildings of the pure revival executed in the our woodcuts give some elegant examples). that in with. indeed. and facility in ornamental combination. had risen to be one of the most flourishing as cities of Europe. It would be impossible to overrate the importance of this work. The Signoria. Monaco. and put up. At Rome. Bamboccio. Agostino. in qualities of both life spite of all their beauty. Lorenzo Ghiberti belonged to no school. In the year 1401. a distinguishing feature of the Figures. which had been previously executed in a very noble. as were his merits. which. the execution of the of San Giovanni Battista and the latter. The ornament panels. and Baccio Pintelli (of whom arabesques on the interior of the Church of Sant' Imperial. candidates for the second bronze door of the Florence Baptistery. either as regards or its its historical influence on art intrinsic merit. and Venice. Florence. his life. Donatello. a goldsmith . and the great works undertaken by the successive pontiffs. were so happily blended idea that the whole sprang to life with mouldings and other forms. Fig. was pronounced appear to have voluntarily retired in his favour . imparted a and masculine vigour . careful study. He died in his native city at a good old age. These two last-named artists and in twenty- three years from that date the gate was finished. guilds. the opulence attracted to the of the princes. were often wanting in the compositions of Ghiberti in and the these artists were happily united the person of Luca della Robbia. Rome. a native of Florence. and in grace. and hence still it is. This combination of architectural and sculpturperiod. and exercised a great and salutary influence on sculpture after Great. he was far surpassed in the correct imitation of nature. but still Gothic style. by his magnificent Cathedral of Sta. the ornamental details of which freest were carried out in a style of the and most graceful analogy with the antique. and a public competition was opened. A development of taste coincident with that noticeable in Tuscany took place at Naples. as a pendant to that of Andrea Pisano. called " Arti. who was one of his immediate contemporaries. trial. life One of his immediate followers. and conventional structural ornaments. and even the great Raffaelle himself did not disdain to design ornaments 111 . and his influence on Art to be seen rather in the homage and study his works received from men such as Buonarotti and Raffaelle than from his formation of any school of pupils. however. he was his much esteemed during death. made known this resolve to the best artists of Italy. under an essentially democratic form of government." represented by deputies The Consuls resolved in the above- mentioned year to raise another gate of bronze to the Baptistery. or executive government. sufficiently evinced The former are for by the excellence of the celebrated gates trial-piece in which he competed with Ghiberti . The beauty of its design and work- manship induced the Signoria to order another of him. Maria della Fiore at Florence. who. as to convey the the work in one perfect form in the mind of the artist by whom was executed. by Lorenzo Ghiberti. Milan. worthy. — standing. during his long (which extended from 1400 to 1480). executed an infinity of works. to the art. it is a portion of which see Plate LXXV. At Naples. in the year 1455. 3). Imperial city the highest procurable ability. In this civic democracy the trades were distinguished (consoli). In the person of Filippo Brunelleschi the talents of the sculptor and the architect were combined..RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT.

h\. for the Church ol Sant' Ag^stino. Coma- or Freemasons. Arabesques designed by Baccio Fiuteili. the important works of the Duomo. fur the Church of Sant' Agostiuo. Pavia. and there can be no in doubt that these artists embodied the highest- forms the lingering traditions of the Maestri achi. Agrati. Rome. Of O Aralesques designed by i^V^a Panels from the Piscina of the High Altar of the Certosa. Amadeo. these The carrying Bergamo does out of carvings by Stefano da full justice to the admirable composi- tions of Raffaelle. for -"'' : ' \:. ters of which may be noticed. created a truly remark- among the most celebrated mas- Panel from the Piscina of the High Altar ef t*'C Certosa. will long remain unquestionable evidence. Pavia. Solari. ' Of of art stalls perfection attained depart- ment by the last-named artist. Pavia. from whose genius many of the most celebrated buildings of the middle ages derived their highest graces of adornment. Rome. the celebrated wooden of the choir of San Pietro dei Casinensi. and Sacchi./"-^' carvers. and the Certosa able school of art at . of Como .RENAISSANCE ORXAM DXT. of the the purest taste and most exquisite in this fancy. at Perugia. The sculptor's talent had long been traditional in that locality. At Milan. Lac io Piutelli. Fusina. 112 .

and Antonio). better known as Bambaja. whose exquisite works in arabesque at the Certosa selected from the Piscina of the must ever remain marvels of execution. Ornaments from the Piscina of tin. and their works have been surpassed in style of art only by those of their predecessors we have already named. They were followed by and Domenico Mantua. however. and his pupil Brambilla. this artists excelled alike in wood. and by some few others. their contemporaries. the Griulio. the greatest of the celebrated school of the Fiesolani The names of Mino da —Benedetto da Majano. » His pupil. at Eome. however. the highest admiration must be reserved for Agostino Busti. as the elder Sansovino. Eeturning to Tuscany. Favia. and in marble. who subsequently took his master's name. rival. in stone. ments. towards the close of the fifteenth century. the leading characteristic of which. through whose talents that Eiccio. we find. died 1501) fully maintained the reputation of the period. Andrea Contucci. but rather a conventional rendering of the antique. Portions of Pilasters from the Church of Sta. however. Venice. Matteo Civitale (born 143. imitation of nature. High Altar of tbc Certosa. Maria dei Miracoli. Of these. At Venice. Jacopo Tatti. Maria del Popolo. better known was pre-eminent in his art . all the Lombard Cinque-centists. Sante. we now no longer find to be the sedulous and simple Fiesole Kossellini. and Bernardo bring to our recollection many exquisite monuments which abound These in the churches of Florence.— RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. was adorned with di most famous monu. Bernardo. GG H3 . and the other principal towns of the Grand Duchy. more hereafter. and many other sculptors but their lesser glories are altogether eclipsed by those of the great Jacopo Sansovino. Tullio. first great names which call for notice are those of the city Lombardi its (Pietro. and it would appear impossible to carry ornamental modelling to greater perfection than he has exhibited in the wonderful monuments which form the pride of the Church of Sta. may be regarded as his only Of him. Our woodcuts. furnish some idea of the general style of the Pavian arabesques. the greatest perfection of ornamental sculpture.5. High Altar. At Lucca.

eye. 3.RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. jection and of rounded modelling obtained within apparently impracticable limits of but he was the first to combine that style of work with mezzo and alto relievo . tated with the greatest avidity by the ornamentists of the period and hence we may trace some of the most peculiar and striking technical excellence of the best Eenaissance carving and modelling. all of also.). is very and it is to their undeviating preference for the former over the latter. Plate LXXIV. must constantly be borne in mind. but brought to a tangent with at ever-varying angles of impact. viewed from a distance. This refined appreciation of delicate shades of relief in sculpture was carried to fection its greatest per- by Donatello. and whose example was followed with respect and devotion by of artists. Ultimately. Venice. 1485. in the Church . no inspection could be too close to test the artist's perfect appreciation of the refinements of suror " chasing. The " cisellatura.). of his craft to ever overstep the special conventions Donatello enriched the Florentine practice of the Cinque-centisti with many tions elements derived from the for sister art of Painting. These invenarrived at — they are almost worthy of the name. and one in which the relief is uniform throughout.). The difference in effect between a scroll of the volute form. Church of Sta. of the Baptistery. Tullio Lombardo. Maria 114 .). such as may be seen in the Church of the Miracoli. and at its acme of perfection. whose authority in matters of taste was held in the highest possible esteem by the all contemporary Florentines." of the best Italian Cinque- face texture. Plate LXXIV. though only through a sedulous study of the antique — were adopted and imi. Ghiberti Plate Small Pilasters of Murble Staircase in the in the carvings of San the Michele di Murano LXXIV. Too good a master of sculpture. about. be derived from a study of their works by the and art- workman. by Sansovino the gates . not only in surfaces parallel to the grounds from it which the ornament was raised." cento ornament. ad. 6. classes Not only was he the first is to practise the bassissimo relievo. An approach of a few paces served bring to the sense of vision the lines salience. 1. this system of regular in rela- arrangement of ornament in planes was so ingeniously managed tion to light and shade. certain that. Maria del Popolo (Fig. thus maintaining an almost pictorial division of his subject into several planes. and figures connecting the points of greatest A yet nearer approach revealed the leafage to and delicate tendrils necessary of nature selected for convey a tangible idea of the type while convention. One of the most peculiar and most fascinating qualities of the best Cinque-cento ornament in relief is the skill with which those by whom it was wrought availed themselves of the play of light and shade produced by infinite variations of plane.). in which the effect of prorelief. 2. Having thus succinctly traced the it historical succession of the great sculptors of Italy. Scuola di San Marco (Fig. in Plate LXXVI. were ornamentists we proceed to point out some few of those artist lessons which may. that the Cinque-cento artists are indebted for the infallibly pleasing results they attained alike in their simplest and most complicated combinations of spiral forms. whom. Plate LXXV. 8. of Sta. dei Miracoli. Rome. by (Figs. as we conceive. by the Lombardi 1. . 4. 9. in which the relief gradually diminishes its from the starting of the volute to great . Venice (Figs. Florence (Fig. the relievo prewith reference to sented only points symmetrically disposed some dominant geometrical to figures.

be upon the shoulders of the artists of the Renaissance. which the world of literature has designated as the Divine Epic. rarely. greatest The minds of even the most religious men were imbued . 115 . if ever. pilasters. and hybrid marine monsters and chimeras.. as too often the case in the present day. a horizontal position placed in a vertical one. Ducal Palace. This fault of the confusion of things sacred altogether justly laid and profane may not. Pilaster of arranged to contrast more agreeably with the direction it is of the adVenice. Plate LXXIV. never thrown away. and other enriched features. In the hands of artists less profoundly impressed than was Donatello with a sense of the just limit of convention in sculpture. 5. however. if ever. the importation of pictorial elements into bas-relief soon degenerated into confusion. musical instruments.) . whose works served but to reflect the dominant spirit of an age in which the revival of mytho- logic symbolism was but a protest against the hampering trammels of ascetic tradition erected into dogmatism under the rulers of the East. dination. nor Nature's tendency to grace in growth per- verted or misapprehended. and those their suggested by the ornaments displayed in their friezes. dancing amorini. better since Small a ifi in no style has ornament ever been spaced out. har- monise but ill with monuments reared in consecrated edifices or dedi- cated to religious rites. and fancifully overgrown with foliage. decked with garlands. The fibres of a leaf or tendril are never misdirected. and LXXVI. and other buildings is at Venice. Even the great Ghiberti marred the effect of many of his most graceful compositions by In the introduction of perspective. LXXV. spandrils. Maria dei racoii. or vice versa. 7. perform and while labour it is is so prodigally is bestowed as to show that every additional touch was a labour of love. are the proportions of the orna- ments and the mouldings. the Scala dei Giganti (Figs. is an ornament suitable and by Domenico da Mantua. and vessels of libation. panels. to re- all cognise the tangled skeins of Gothic and classical inspiration with which the whole texture of contemporary literature was interwoven. by Benedett-> fend the chulSTof jacent architectural lines by which Mi- bounded and kept in suborfor Sta. is beyond all praise.. or the styles and rails. with such incongruous associations in the fourteenth century is and it not necessary to go further than the " Commedia " of Dante. tripods. in converting those portions of a design which should be secondaries or tertiaries in point of interest into primaries. specific function to Smoothness and detail are never added excepting where they have some . and endorsed by the Church during those centuries when its its as- cendancy over an ignorant and turbulent population was at height. rather than serious works of Art commemorating the dead. or SxDatt Pilaster of the Giant's Staircase. Another reproach which may with justice be addressed such monuments nected with is to many the incongruity of the association of ideas conpurport. Tragic and comic masques.RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. which should impress the dignity. and accessories copied too directly from nature. semi-Priapic terminals. Venice. To the relief is architect. which regularity and symmetry are given to the are collected a series whole. hung with tablets. antique altars.. the study of Italian Cinque-cento ornament in it of no less utility than can possibly be to the sculptor. at variance with one another. or dedicated to sacred uses. Parely. In Plates LXXIV. spectator with grave admiration at their beauty and dolls' serve only to amuse — resembling houses peopled by fairies. many him of the orna- mental sculptures of the Certosa the fault is exaggerated until monuments.

of specimens.: RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. Fig. and and in Plate LXXVL. close of the fifteenth century. and 10. and a highly artificial. Plate 11 . attained the highest perfection in these respects. 9. Spinello Aretino. and relative colour.. Fig. the others. the pupil of Cimabue. also clearly exhibits filling Tomb. more and its whole aspect made sculptor's : more bustling and less refined. and the stems and tendrils were thickened. he has invariably shown a graceful appre- hension of the balance essential to be maintained between mural pictures and mural ornaments. The work as- A serted itself in competition with the architect's in self-defence. thus. 6 in the last-mentioned plate. Florence. 1. was who moved painting as Donatello had moved sculpture. 2. interlacing Portion f a Maria dei Miracoli. and bellishment. the shackles of Greek trato and gave his whole heart His ornament. Uen<>a. The Lombardi. 2). at Venice (Plate LXXIV. to plethora in Of this tendency ornament we already in perceive indications much in of the Genoese work represented 1. from the celebrated Martmengo at Brescia. even to their minutest decorative details. and Padua. 116 Towards the . 8. in the majority of which gracefulness of line. In the art of painting. were admitted masters of Orcagnas. Pietro di Lorenzo.. 9. that briefly noticed in sculp- Giotto. and Domenico and Bernardino Mantua. Figs. and not so uniformly tapered. soon beto gan make his mouldings heavy style altogether and a more ponderous crept into fashion. Venice (Plate LXXIV. and free rendering of the acan- Doorway in one of tlie Palaces of the Dorias near the Church of tan Matteo. Plate LXXVL. in their works at the Church of Sta. bends. distribution of the ornament upon its field. Benozzo Gozzoli. Figs 5 and 7). 4. distribution. 1). off threw dition. are the prevailing characteristics. The magnificent cartoons we are so fortunate as to possess of his at Hampton Court. di Fig. the accidental growth and play of nature were less sedulously imitated. In his work at Assisi. Maria dei Miracoli. \t a subsequent period to that in which they flourished the ornaments were generally wrought in more uniformly high relief. 5.. the latter and to keep the sculpture down. and that not figures alone. might have been drawn by an ancient Roman. as may be recognised in the architectural backgrounds to his pictures in the Campo Santo. Venice. that of his master. 5. 7. though apparently natural. 8. of painted mosaic work. LXXV. Naples. the style. a move- ment took place concurrent with we have thus ture. Andrea Sansovino at Eome (Plate LXXVI. 4. it Andrea in Mantegna. 8. the field of the panel was fully covered with enrichments. like nature. consisted of a combination Vertical Running Ornament from the Church of 6ta. and in the noble arabesques which divide his pictures at San Gimignano. but in every variety of ornament borrowed from the antique. was a no diligent student of antiquity. Figs. These right principles of balance were very generally century . this tendency to up. Taddeo Bartolo. both in quantity. Figs. understood and adopted during the fourteenth and Simone Memmi. however. many mural emless That rare student of nature in the succeeding century.

which was the of the European nations to light its torch at of Renaissance Art. as all who been especially figures in the of art-workmen "tailleur a. and fellow-student of the elder Aldus. (Plate LXXXL. The internal evidence is entirely in favour of a French origin. and Louis XII. and one of the richest the sixteenth century. to royal master visit France. around which bronze. Moreover. much French that is very fairly classical. but. however. addresses ceste la the Cardinal Duprat :— " II deu a Jehan Juste. it is so much Burgundian work.. to was Bertrand de Meynal. are the HH 117 . The principal Italian by whom. Twelve semicircular arches is the four bodies of the corners royal four pair. so well as the carry from in Genoa the beautiful Venetian Vasque du Chateau de Gaillon. The bas-reliefs represent the triumphal entry of Louis into Genoa. represented under every arch placed an apostle . by a artist. and the are large statues of Justice. now the Louvre. and against (Hocondo. de somme de 400 de la ville escus. 34. her first great The whole of the . and Milan. but it was finished came to France. for the most part French. now at near Paris. has been frequently ascribed to him. by Jean Juste of Tours. restans des lieu de. that it would be almost as unjust to Griocondo to ascribe to him. just possible that Giocondo may have been consulted by the Cardinal upon the general plan.. This beautiful work of art was executed between 1518 and 1530. Francis porteur I. we reserve for a subsequent notice. has been often ascribed to Trebatti (Paul Ponee). Tantique. the portions of Renaissance all work not Burgundian in style are very pure. naked . infected the nobility of France with an admiration for the splendours of Art met with by them at Florence. who was more of an engineer and student than an ornamental intermingled with artist. 38) list we have engraved some elegant ornaments. &C. Strength. and designed for his two bridges over the Seine. under the orders of Francis inclose at I. as the following est extract from the royal records proves." may very possibly have a Spaniard who had studied in Rome. however. 30. 1200 que je mon sculteur ordinaire. of the Virtues. where he his personal signalised himself by valour. Denis. and probably many minor works which Gaillon. In essential particulars. The first clear indication of the coming change might have been seen in was unfortunately destroyed in 1793) in the monument erected female figures. of polychromy took a fresh and marked turn. (for it Rome. in gilt 1499 to the memory of the first-named monarch. if may have carried out the details. and that Senault and his companions. that symmetry of architectural disposition was for the first time united to masterly execution of detail in France. who had been commissioned fountain. St. Prudence. monument.. have now perished. we may judge from known the style. He remained there from 1499 to 1506. some of the most classical of the arabesques were wrought. 27. first Turning from Italy the fire to France. and from which Colin Castille. and executed at the same period.RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT." worthy of study than the tomb of Louis XII. The magnificent Chateau de begun by Cardinal d'Amboise in the year archaeo- 1502. the peculiarities of which. Not less Novembre 1531. and good editor of Vitruvius. and differ scarcely at It from good Italian examples. Figs. in the of monument of Louis XII. and the battle of Aguadel. set the question almost entirely at rest It is. The monument before he of Louis XII. which had been kindled in Italy. for from them we learn that Guillaume Senault was architect and master-mason. we find that the warlike expeditions of Charles VIII. Deville in 1850. the latter sovereign friend the celebrated first Fra Giocondo. were grouped completely in the Italian manner. upon insufficient grounds. in connexion with arabesque and grotesque ornament. architect. de la sculpture de marbre de feuz Roy Loys et Royne Anne. invited In the same year. as to France to deprive her of the credit of having Renaissance produced. of Verona. lui avoie pardevant or donnez pour la menage et conduite de Tours au St Denis en Franco. according to Emeric David and other French logists. and Wisdom : the whole being surmounted by statues of the King and Queen on their knees. accounts which were published by M. was.

a. Duke of Brittany. and from of which are groups. fourteen part the work of Jean Texier. the subjects are taken from the lives of our Saviour and the Virgin. perhaps. they are very diminutive . Marguerite do Foix. which almost entirely cover the projecting parts of the are. friezes. the pilasters. the figures animated and natural. and his wife. beautiful carvings in alto and basso relievo. 1507. by Michel Colombe. and the heads full of but the arabesque ornaments.. erected by Anne of Brittany in the Carmelite Church at Nantes. the drapery life. which ornament the whole exterior of the choir of the Cathedral of Chartres forty-one . who commenced erected in 1514.d. These compositions are of truth Portions of the Tomb i [I. and beauty. and mouldings of the base.RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. free and graceful. 118 most beautiful portions . full after completing that of the new clock-tower by him.

are traced upon the The tomb which Anne of Brittany caused to be erected to the at memory of her father and mother 1st of was finished and placed in the choir of the Carmelite Church It is Nantes on the January. or bronze. at Rouen. The of the glass. and altogether national. was in 1530 and 1531 that Francis I. was begun in the year 1515. under Roulant appears to have assisted in its Roux. as those designed by Jean Cousin for the Sainte Chapelle at Vincennes is one of those representing the angel sounding the fourth trumpet admirable. how- as he goes over them. is by the prevailing of drawing. the largest of the groups. both in fine composition and drawing. draperies. — is conspicuous in these arabesques. invited Rosso and Primaticcio into France. Ouen. and Notre Dame Many improvements were masters were employed to losing the richness. although and inscriptions. in size. Though so minute. by a fulness of projection and slight tendency to heaviness . artist of great ability to and naivete —Michel fairly Colombe. in the Cathedral at Eouen. Nos. LXXXI. 1507. master-mason of the Cathedral. military ensigns. and 1529. the art at the epoch of the Renaissance. bundles of arms. of the fifteenth century. style and crisply made out. Trebatti. especially a very window. No Italian execution. has some upon a white quarry > ground in the clerestory windows St. and Fontainebleau. and then. Our Plates. was rapidly transferred to wood -work. and the foundation of the school at new elements were introduced into the French Renaissance. Girolamo della Robbia. The Cathedral of Auch also contains some exceedingly examples of the work of Arneaud Demole fine Jesse Beauvais also possesses a great deal of the glass of this period. and we may. birds. 1 and 17). are marvellous. and the dates of the years 1525.— RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. will be unable avoid perceiving a gradual withdrawing from the artists. Luca. the foliage. remarks on to this head. . that thirteenth An immense number less of in windows were executed during this epoch. 119 . and tools belonging to various arts. therefore. 1527. The student. marble. the masterpiece are of an elegant. original foliated ornament which formed the stock-in-trade of the early Renaissance capricci.. Figs. accompanied finally. With tbeir advent. which are those which cover the spirit of the carving. and good examples of the at Chalons-sur-Marne. are generally flamboyant and angular influenced character. introduced cartoons into . . and the medallion heads (Plate LXXXI. regard it as an expression of the vigour with which the Renaissance virus had indoctrinated the native It artists. and the figures are although producing a pleasing century. 17 and 20). effect. distinguished artists were speedily followed by Nicolo del' Abbate. he will recognise the general adoption of a particular set of forms differing from the Italian. freely foliage. The dawning glass rays of the coming revival of Art in France can scarcely be traced in the painted canopies. glass of the century will be found in Gervais at Paris. Figs. It would exceed the limits of our present sketch to enter It fully into the historical details con- nected with the art of wood-carving. The F crowned the monogram of Francis I. satyrs. and those Penni. The ornamental details peculiarly The monument le Cardinal d'Arnboise. in The ornaments. to which we shall subsequently advert. and variety of devices in these orna- ments. Masses of branches of trees. available for may suffice to point out that also every ornamental feature at stone. and specimens are to be found more or fine figures perfect almost every large church in France. attentive furnish brilliant evidence of the justice of our ever. fountains. The first make enamel was used to give depth to the colours without and much more white was employed.. and that no period of the history of Industrial Art has the talent to of the sculptor been more gracefully brought bear upon the enrichment of sumptuous furniture. pilasters." derived He will next notice a heaping up of various objects and " from the antique. Many of the windows are very little . more than grisailles. such as the conventional volute incised with small square or oblong indentations (Plate LXXXI. and LXXXIL. being only eight or nine inches in breadth. . much thinner — especially the blue — than St. Cellini. are arranged with much taste.

were executed with an leave little to be desired. difficulties Even of the at the Renaissance of Germany impure — her industrious affection . and in drawing and grouping Toward the end of the sixteenth century the art began to decline. and complicated monsters. and Albert Diirer. in Germany. although small. and died in 1464. graceful. best brought Italian plastic is art into fashion in for Germany. however. To him. but was absorbed into the quickened leaving its of the people but until the spread of books and engravings artists general acceptation. the heads are grand. the work of Enguerand le Prince .RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. who spent much of his life in Italy. but introducing strap-work. into Germany at an early period. we are indebted for the charming grisailles representing the story of Cupid and Psyche. the numerous glass-painters found themselves without employment. more especially influenced their countrymen. no historical evidence of style can be more complete and 120 . of the refined animated than arabesques. and to trace the manifestation of the revival in the designs of contemporary manufactures. Renaissance ornament hearts penetrated slowly. and the celebrated Bernard de Palissy. however. rather soon led her into crinkum-crankums and strap-work. took the place elegance of the early Italian and French Arabesque by Theodor de Bry. From an early period there had been a steady current of Germany and Flanders to study in the great Italian ateliers. which ornamented the windows in the houses of the nobility. and the poses of the figures call to mind the works of Albert Diirer. but which eventually secured him the highest reputation. and jewelled forms. men like Roger of Bruges. like Peter Vischer. . left it to engage in another presenting greater difficulties. and now to the Raffaellesque simplicity of Marc' Antonio. rather than of the head. hand. The latter. who in many to of his engravings showed a perfect apprehension of the conditions of Italian design. caricature. which formerly decorated the Chateau of Ecouen. —Hemskerk. The grisailles. jewelled forms. one of the " Petits Maitres " of Germany (159S) in imitation of Italian work. From the unchanging and unchangeable nature of vitreous and ceramic products. The spread of the engravings of the latter. and even of the bourgeoisie. It may be well now to turn from the Fine to the Industrial Arts. admirable delicacy. the residence of his great patron the Constable Montmorency. unquestionably conduced to the formation of the taste of first men its who. who had been brought up to the trade. leaning now the Gothic manner of his master Wohlgemuth. from the designs of Raffaelle. Among them.

Perugia. and the white by the deep blue ground. and looked upon by himself and little We feel doubt that it consisted rather in the tempering and firing of the clay to enable to burn large masses truly and thoroughly than in the protecting glaze. first called " mezzo. early but though the art of combining with colour may have been known di at that time. Citta de comes fayence). Forli. and was usually made and often form of thick clumsy many of large size. It said that a he used for this purpose a mixture of antimony. by some of whilst the flesh parts were allowed to remain unglazed. but with small success. in the towns of Nocera. in the was at plates. believed by Passeri and others to have been the made in the fifteenth century and it. and LXXX. have a dull yellow varnish at the back. of carrying on the manufacture of earthenware already existing there their attention was attracted . Faenza (whence Fermignano. Gubbio. Bologna. who had been employed by Sigismond . Florence. owing to the great it. in the inventor's family about 1550. on which interesting ware and ornamentation we proceed The art of glazing pottery appears to have been introduced into Spain and the Balearic tiles for Isles by the Moors. Ferrara. trefoil It -shaped first "foliations" of Saracenic character LXXIX. This "half" majolica . the metallic lustre was given by preparations of lead. 1450 and 1700. whom the costumes were coloured. Wreaths of flowers and fruits in their natural tints were introduced by the followers of Delia Robbia. supposed to have found earliest Italian way into Central and this belief is strengthened by the fact of the ware being ornamented with (Plates tiles geometrical patterns and 13). lustre is is The texture coarse and gritty... is They are of a dingy grey colour. and LXXX. but Pesaro later in the form of encaustic flooring. the eyes are blackened to heighten the expression. satisfactory than that which they afford. whence the manufacture of glazed pottery Italy . Spello.. it was not till after that time that manufacture of " fine majolica almost entirely superseded A mode in of glazing pottery was also discovered is by Lucca della Robbia. about which there appears to have been very little novelty or necessity for concealment. and between Figs. it The secret of this varnish remained of it." or "half" majolica. process invented secret. applied as the surface of the beautiful terra-cotta statues till and bas-reliefs modelled by him. 31 and was used by introducing coloured concave among brickwork. for the purpose and it is not improbable that by the works of Della Robbia. The majority of the specimens thereon represented have its been selected from the "majolica" of Italy. Castel Durante. varnish to and other mineral substances. Prismatic lustre and a brilliant and transparent white glaze were the qualities chiefly sought for in the " fine " majolica and Grubbian ware . where the manufacture of earthenware was carried on in the it fourteenth century. when Matteo Raniere of Cagli and Ventura di Maestro Simone dei Piccolomini of Siena established themselves at Pesaro. it had not attained much celebrity until 1462. though they are more frequently of a pearly hue. The manufacture of this ware was extensively carried on Castillo. and also at is many places in the Abruzzi. Pesaro. by whom it had long been known and used in the form of coloured called the decoration the Island of their buildings. to which the pure glistening white of the figures figures well relieved well adapted . Deruta. II 121 . at Florence 1399. to their illustration. Rimini. it Some confusion appears to have arisen with respect to the precise his family as the really valuable by Della Robbia. who was born tin. Arezzo. Pandolfo Malatesta at Rimini. Urbino. The earthenware "majolica" is is believed to derive its name from its of Majorca. It admitted to be the first town in which it attained any celebrity. but the golden and prismatic now and then seen. LXXVIII. LXXIX. and hence we have devoted three entire Plates (Nos." RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. and Ravenna.) to offer a few remarks. Passeri claims the discovery of this coloured glaze at a still earlier date for Pesaro. difficulties The subjects of the bas-reliefs of Della is Robbia are chiefly religious. when Florence to revive attending was lost at the death of the last member Attempts have been made at the manufacture of the Robbian ware.

but ordering of the state foreign vases should be sent out I. which. to was granted by Guidobaldo Giacomo Lanfranco size of Pesaro. when they were displaced by scenes still from Ovid and Virgil. that a protection was granted by the lord of Pesaro of that date. From its variety and novelty. though historical subjects of were laid aside. it all others. as These instances are the artists of these plates seldom signed their works.. and the same artists being often employed in both potteries. and greatly patronised it is From that time. he returns thanks for a present of a similar kind. into when half-baked. and are labelled with the name of a drug or mixture. trophies. has " G. are painted tame manner. fell From it all these causes the manufacture rapidly to decay.. his court in that city. majolica was generally chosen by the In 1478. the letters of which appear to be " a mark.RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. with little attempt at shading. and. their place was taken by engravings from Sadeler and other Flemings. but these became gradually more and more feeble in colouring and execution till. for his inventions in application the construction of vases wrought in relief. copper. H. but the former were preferred. was presented by Guidobaldo to Philip II. The set of jars presented to the Treasury of Loreto by Francesco Maria were made by the order of a portrait. A service painted by Orazio Fontana from designs by Taddeo Zuccaro. was of rather later date in a flat. of Spain. were so much in fashion. in the latter years of Guidobaldo's reign. The subject was generally fashion briefly described with a reference to the text in blue letters at the back of the plate. saints till The subjects generally chosen were and historical events from Scripture . the importation of any kind of foreign pottery. all some of them are ornamented with or subject of some other description. was obtained by a varnish made from tin. though designs from Scripture were in use. sea monsters. a patent for twenty-five years." interlaced. in a letter Sixtus IV. A. under penalty of that all fine and confiscation. N. 0. its potteries. of great and antique forms. and in this the Gubbian ware surpassed which. silver. the majolica of Pesaro so closely resembled that of Urbino. This protection was confirmed." Another. not to be wondered at that we so frequently find inaccuracies in the drawings. and his all of gold to them. and are surrounded by a kind of rude Saracenic ornament. in 1532. with the names All these subjects attached to each. than the sacred themes. the texture of the ware being alike. presents to foreign princes. In 1569. The plates full of coloured fruits in relief were probably taken from the Eobbian ware. In addition to this. The dazzling white glaze . The in the decline of this manufacture caused by the Duke's impaired income and the want of was hastened by the introduction of Oriental interest manufacture felt by his successor. Museum at the Hague bears a cipher. A plate of the early Pesaro ware in the C. at last. still. and continued in favour the sixteenth century. The "fine" majolica who held of Pesaro attained its greatest perfection during the reign of Guidobaldo II. for the use of [his own laboratory. china and the increased use of plate in the higher and more wealthy classes. the pottery was plunged it is the designs were painted before this was dry. not only forbidding. within eight days. As early as 1486 the Pesaro ware to it was considered so superior to all other Italian ware. A double service was also given by him to Charles V. differing completely from the Jlaffaellesque arabesques. as immediately absorbed the colours. the majolica was ornamented with well-executed designs birds. The of ornamenting the ware with the portraits of historical. Costanza Sforza sent to to lords of the Duchy for their . musical instruments. certain " vasa fictilia " and from Lorenzo the Magnificent Kobert Malatesta. T. and living persons. &c. The 122 . Guidobaldo II. flowers. with a penalty II. in spite of the endeavours made to revive by Cardinal Legate Stoppani. that not possible to distinguish the manufacture of the two places from each other. mentioned by Pungileoni. classical. his father and himself were freed from taxes and imposts. by Francesco Maria of 500 scudi for infringing it. and gold. forming rare. II.

Cerquate was a name given to the interlacing of oak-branches. 123 . musical and maand open books . to Venice and florin the Work thus ornamented was sent Genoa. they are generally painted in yellow cameo on a blue ground. it was called the " Urbino painting. loosely tied. to understand which it is necessary to remember that the bolognino was equivalent to the ninth part. Pedestal forming part of a Doorway of the Palace. story painted upon it. —This five ornament consisted of a few branches of livres. leaves. Their price was three Flowers and Fruits. Pavia. These plates were chiefly sold in the province (Castel Durante) in which they were manufactured. a "majolicaro" of the middle of the sixteenth century. and the artists style received them livres the hundred. or branches. painted in one colour florin upon a different-coloured ground.RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. Passeri gives an interesting classification of ornamental pottery. the artist received Grotesques were the interlacing of winged male and female monsters. thematical instruments. and when. and sprinkled over the ground. about 380 of them still remain in the Treasury of Loreto. one ducal crown a hundred being the style sum paid to the painters of them. unless they were painted on commission livres. He gives a curious extract manuscript in the handwriting of Piccolpasso. or ecu ducal. green. by having some one petit ecu. and yellow. was half a the hundred. of a Eoman crown (now value four shillings and threepence one farthing). and interlacing knots and bouquets. presented by the Genoese to Andrea Doria. from Venice. and portions grave. florin two thirds of a petit two thirds and the petit ecu. in the Certosa. Another variety same merely consisted in three or Their price four large leaves. and the sums paid to the artists by whom they were painted. These fanciful decorations were generally painted in white cameo upon a blue ground the payment for them being two ecus the hundred. of a paul (5g pence) the livre was a third. in addition. when the price was eight ducal Leaves. small in size. who wrote upon his art. colours of these jars are blue. Trophies. and obtained one ducal hundred. This kind of decoration received fifteen gros little hundred." from the oak being one of the bearings of the the ducal arms. for —These very pleasing groups were sent of the to Venice. — This style of ornament consisted of ancient and modern arms. of the Genoese doorway we en- Arabesques were ornaments consisting of a sort of cipher. the bottom of the plate was ornamented. This was much affected by the Cinque-centisti : in marble and stone witness the monument to Gian Galeazzo Visconti. and the ecu . and the gros to . with the terms to distinguish the various kinds of paintings made use of from a by the workmen also used in ornamenting the plates. painted in a deep yellow upon a blue ground . with their bodies terminated by foliations . the third part.

and Francesco Xanto of Rovigo. Robinson. in his Catalogue of the Soulages Collection. the " —These were broad bands interwoven with small flowers. but without only two jules. The painters received for this kind of ornament two Gruppi. we have engraved several specimens of the decorations of his elegant ware. in all probability. presented by the Genoese to Andrea Doria. Porcelain was the name of a style of work which consisted of the most delicate blue flowers. livres the This kind of work obtained two or more hundred. little This pattern was larger than : tratti. with green or blue borders round These obtained a demi-ecu the hundred." and was sometimes embellished by a it picture in the centre of the plate in that case the price of a demi-ecu. of artists. upon which livres were painted bouquets of different the hundred. knotted in different ways. pattern the artist — In this divided the . Figs 1 and 3. bottom of the plate into six or eight rays. an imitation of Portuguese importations. has so recently thrown out some subject. Although that style began to make its appearance in 124 . upon a white-lead ground. how artists and how favourite a subject this was with the best of the Cinque-cento. which occupy as to design. such as To dwell in detail upon the merits and particular works Maestro Giorgio Andreoli. candelabri was two florins the hundred. fl Portions of the Pilaster of a Doorway in the Palace at Genoa. with small branches issuing from them. in reference to other monuments of the French Renaissance. It was. the space on each side being up with scattered leaves and flowers. tints. QiLartieri. new and highly interesting speculations upon it various difficult questions connected with the Neither will be desirable here to do more than point out the interesting modifications of ceramic design and practice carried out in France through the indomitable perseverance of Bernard de Palissy. would be beyond the scope of this notice. master-potter to Francis I. much the same position that the design of the early majolica does to the monuments of the Italian revival. diverging from the centre to the circumference each space was of a particular colour.RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. is Orazio Fontana. The adjoining woodcut shows how common. with small leaves and buds painted upon a white ground. Tratti were wide bands. Candelabri. in white Soprabianco was a painting the margin of the plate. The price of the early. In Plate LXXIX. and less necessary the as Mr. —This ornament was an upright bouquet extending from one filled side of the plate to the other. price Their was also two livres the hundred.

who invited Court the great master of the Renaissance its —Cellini —that To rightly the jeweller's art reached appreciate. 1.much influence in Aquitaine. which were. sented the greatest difficulty. and enabled him to dispense entirely with the burin of the goldsmith. and very few of them now remain. and much more the sixteenth. the precise condition it and nature of the precious metal-work. 53. we have given. served to disseminate far and wide some of the most elegant ornaments which have ever been applied to metalwork. is necessary to pass in rapid review the school leading characteristics of the admirable of enamellers. 3. in whose productions in the fifteenth century. the processes of which belonged solely to the enameller. numerous examples. and were. that not until the middle of the fifteenth century that specimens are to be found in any quantity. for office the most part. but that the it is art. which had formerly exercised so . the works of the French jewellers in the reign of Louis XII. small Pilaster. had entirely gone out of fashion. and a great kk 125 . for the sake of contrast. Maria dei Miracoli. but that almost every goldsmith either imported the translucid enamels from Italy. 8.. 40.— RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. 57. tion was to The last operaof Lower portion showing the springing of scroll. filled a thin coat of transparent enamel. and to affix the imitations preious stones.. progressed slowly is evident from the fact. the moges artists of Li- found not only that the old champleve enamels. the black lines performing the of the gold strips of the cloisonne work. 29. or executed them himself with talents. 4. 61. in the Church of Sta. according to his In this state of things. covered over with the black colour. it was under Francis I. The line. any degree of with The process was this:— The design was traced a sharp point upon an unpolished plate of copper. when the extensive patronage of the powerful Cardinal d'Amboise gave considerable impetus to the to his art. Accordingly. The first attempts were exceedingly rude. first The carnations preof all. highest perfection. instead of attempting competi- tion. in Plate LXXVIL. Venice. — of which. more or less skill. and the high lights and half-tints were then modelled upon that with opaque white. we find nearly all the early painted enamels are either in the form of triptychs or diptychs. more especially as specimens of the were never made of any considerable construction size. however. latter of the finished works was very similar to that of a large and coarse translucid —a resemblance not unlikely to have been intentional. which was then covered with artist. About the end of the fourteenth century. —almost the last trace of the Byzantine school. Figs.work of a apply the gilding. which occasionally received a few touches of light transparent red. or possessing merit. by the Lombardi. The appearance enamel. after going over his tracing with a thick black in the intervals with the various colours. and were therefore fit to supply the place of ivory in the of those small triptychs which were so necessary an appendage to the chambers and oratories of the rich in the middle ages. transparent. 50. 41. or have originally formed parts of them . they invented a new manufacture.

Catherine de difficult Medicis. such as those of the Duke of Guise. In conclusion. more famous Leonardo da Vinci. the in Constable the of Montmorency.. of art. they followed. gave way about the middle of the sixteenth century to the Solis. and others of the petits-maitres. Among them we may mention Pierre Raymond and the families of the Penicauds. and the Courteys. their names are buried in oblivion. Pierre. indeed. and then modelling the lights and half-tints with opaque white requiring to be coloured. its who not only established a manufactory in director. as the inscriptions have been more correctly read. and are supposed by antiquaries to have been produced the atelier of Monvearni. Leonard. his own. Limoges. owed no small debt the town. All these processes be seen in the and Henry II. are in England) for decorating the facade of the Chateau de Madrid. executed by Leonard Limousin. receiving glazes of their those parts tints appropriate — touches two of gold are almost always used to complete the picture. copies of the early his And. as the name or initials of that master are generally found upon them. such as the faces and the foliage. or silver leaf. if artist-enamellers. it remains for us only to invite the student to cultivate the beauties. Etienne de l'Aulne. E. Penicaud. the Limousin was no mean Italian masters. Labarte informs us. firstly. and what may be called the second series of painted enamels was the result. unfortunately. covering the whole plate of copper . ewers. or the original whether we regard his German and portraits of the more celebrated of contemporaries. The production whole of the finally of the painted enamels was carried on with great activity at Limoges." giving him. cups. the but too common practice workmen of the middle ages. Pape. over with a black enamel. &c. The last artists were the families of the Nouaillers and Laudins. At the commencement of the new manufacture. The process was very nearly the same and consisted in. eldest The of of the family of the Courteys. and. and a somewhat undecided style of drawing. indeed. "peintre. in opaque white. upon which building large sums were lavished by Francis and Henry II. and seventeenth centuries. caskets. as that employed with regard to the carnations of the earlier specimens. was not only a good artist. but made at the of gratitude to the former monarch. to sacred subjects. like its predecessor. emailleur. and the glaze afterwards superposed. and M. and a variety of other articles of every-day life. of the Hotel de Cluny— the other three. basins." to distinguish him from the other and artist. pictures of Francis I. and then decorated the with medallions. many of whose works they did not surpass. a thin gold called a "pallion. M. during the sixteenth. number in preserve their original brass frames. and occasionally." are was to upon the black ground. These were afterwards supplanted by those of Marc' Antonio Raimondi and other Italians. whose best works are remarkable for the absence of the paillons. works of Virgilius Theodore de Bry. and far into the eighteenth. subjects of most of the enamels were furnished from the prints of the German such as Martin Schoen. we must remember. still same time. a great taste for paintings in " camaieu. D.RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. most material which has been employed for the purposes The works Leonardo extend from 1532 to 1574. Nicholat. of most of the or. but has the reputation having made the largest-sized enamels which have ever been executed (nine of these are preserved in the Museum I. when it expired."' or " grisaille. As to the other artists. Jean and Susanna Court. the appellation of "le Limousin. with the exceptions of Monvearni and P. salvers. among At the commencement of the sixteenth century the Renaissance had made great progress. as sedulously 126 . the most did not disdain to design vases. in their turn. Israel van Mecken. valet-de-chambre du Roi. &c. and contemporaneously with him flourished a large school of quite equalled. when more than applied ordinary brilliancy was wanted. but which have now been removed Museum of the Louvre. fifteenth. on the contrary. and other changes. for the decoration of the to the Sainte Chapelle. which were afterwards entirely covered with the black enamel. and •ever yet many others — executed." had sprung up. but. We should observe that this last phase of Limoges enamelling was not distinguished artists confined. the artists. which. The of ateliers Limoges at once adopted the new fashion.

jusqu'a son Renouvellement unna aliquot ab Autore Emblemata suisquoque eiconibus insignita. graves a I'eau-forte. Small 8vo. 2 vols. Ouvrage enrichi de 525 planchts. Frankfurt. Francesco Durelli. ei grave's. la Ferronnerie. incise dai fratelli Gaetano plates. le Deville avec Bai. as he should eschew the extravagancies. descritta ed illustraia e Bergamo (Stefano Da). et historique. great responsibility incurred. 8vo. 5 vols.) Dennistoun (J. di Firenze. let him be content with forms call and conventional elements his enrichments. Keep them as a well-ordered family.) Unedited Documents on the History of France. avec douze planclies. Oblong 4to. B.<]u<e desiderabantur. 1850. Chateau d'Ecouen. (L. 1551. with French and Italian.) La Certosa di Pavia. publies d'apres les Regislres Manuscrits des Tre'soriers du Car- Louvre. et 3eq. BOOKS REFERRED TO FOR ILLUSTRATIONS. n.) Histoire de I'Art par ses Monumens. fnimmenli diGotica Giovane Alunno di questa Arms. 4to. recueillis et choisis cnivrc d'apres les origin avx par Ch. but never permit one to assume the prerogatives of its another. <tc. Said to be from designs by Kaffaelle. des Paris ct ses Monumens. So ordered and maintained. in If he has no story to tell.) Milan. par Citoyen Amanry Duval <tc. 1838-40. 4to. Collection portative d'Omements de la Renais- sance. *vo. on the closest and most harmonious its relations. is In those styles in which the imagination of the designer can be checked only from within. &c. let representation of material objects. Paris. G. like the the artist Renaissance. Ernest Clerget. 1851. LITERARY AND PICTORIAL. Accademia. imaginibus locupletata. allows of. Dussieux Dessine's et Essai sur I'Hisloire de la Peinturc sur Email. Camples de De'penses de la Construction du Chdleau de Gaillon. St. decorous. publics d'apres X e Travaux 4to. . Ijc Ire Morel. S. Armes. depuis sa Decadence au IVe Siecle. in which. d. Folio. 1837.tard. 1831. Where great liberty is afforded in Art no less than in Polity. Destine d'apres Nature par Chapuy. des Mittelalters von Hefner. dessine's. 1823. 6 vols. avoiding floriated Ornament let him have in abundance . as in that of the Renaissance. Ghiberti (Lorenzo). its Painting. 1853. richest. tiila. Lyons. dinal d'Amboise. inedits des principaux Architectes Francais t-l Strangers. Durelli & F. Sculpture.: RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. Gailhabaud J. and IAterature of Italy from 1440 8vo. which please the eye without making any serious arrest upon the intellect: then. Meubles. Collezione del migliori Ornamenti anlichi. to illustrating the Hella citta di Venezia. (G. Armures. 1535. 1861. Paris. Descriptions Historiques. la Mosdique. Cloud. sparsi Paris. J. London. la Peinture Murale. Paris. Paris. description in engraved in outline by Lasinio. Clerget el Mme.) Tombeaux de la Cathedrale de Rouen gravies. (A. R. Arts. to invade Sister's province. C. Architecture. Pietro at Perugia. Fonlainblean. must unite before of effect can be efficiently realised. Venezia. la Peinturc les a" Architecture. 3 vols. Avec an Texte archiologique. Folio. Paris. which. With an Alias of Plates. 62 San Folio. Rouen. and best adapted to the complicated requirements of a highly artificial social system. ^^— Beckek and 1852. but in its composition him be modest and over-finery as he would nakedness. E. 1030. Monumens et Fragmens qui en dependent. descriptif. of the Renaissance is style. Paris. ac. et Objets de Curiosity au XVIP Steele. or even to issue from own. those styles are noblest. 8vo. Kuntswerke und Gerdthschaften und der Renaissance. Firenze. Antonelli (G. and indeed demands.) L' Architecture du le Vc au XVI" Siecle et les Arts Le Moyen -Age Pittoresque. 4to. ) Memoirs of the Dukes of Urbino.) Recueil d'Orncments de la Renaissance.colV agg'uinta di alanii nrchitelliira e di varie invenzioni di tin 1. Alciati (A. par M. denuo ab ipso Autore recogAccesserunt DAgincourt au (J. plates. 2 vols. he especially let bound to set a rein upon his fancy. Collection of Ornaments in the Grotesque Style. essential and indispensable conditions M. 4(i Porte del Battisterio di San Giovanni Clerget et George. measure's. (A. Hopeer. 1851. Bernard Chatty. may be the more sure of attaining his purpose. Gravis sur par C. small Folio. Paris. sur Verre. XVI e . and the highest technical excellence in Industry. 1821. Alciati. the association of the Sister never lose sight of the unities and specialties of each. Sculpture. astery of con tavole. Wood-Carvings from the Choir of the Mon{Cinque-cento. E. 1803-5.) Emblemata D. Large Folio. George. A. 1839. L. where he he really wishes to observation by the comparatively direct In a style Arts. by Bovfir. . half morocco. DIGBY WYATT. 127 .

et accompagnes cCun te cte historique et descriptif. Paris. small Folio. Bas-reliefs et et Monnmens Francois . Direction Littiraire dc M. a Glossary. (H. Paris. Appendice par Rechcrches sur I'Usage et I'Origine des Tapisseries a Henri Delange. 30 plates. and J. 1800-6. Metal Work and Artistic Design. et des Beaux Arts en Direction Europe. prece'de'c Labarte tion (J. Anciens Combles de la Piguons.) et XVIII. Marry at and Porcelain and Eighteenth Centuries. Orne'e de gravures et augmentee d'une Dissertation sur les Costumes de chaque siecle. dessine's et graves au trait. Numerous plates of Ancient Vanes Paris.ex. du Costume et de I'Ameublement en Europe. Le Moyen Age Renaissance. au Moyen Age et a la Renaissance. 1817. Dessins fac-similes par M. on. 1823. XVII. de I'Etitde des Arts. F. d'Armes. 1854. and a Translation of Illustrative Selections from his Works. MoBUl Salutes. Notice des Emaux exposes dans les Gaieties du Musee Premiere partie. B. des Arts liberunx.d (A. de la).. his Labours The Life of Bernard Palissy of and Discoveries in Art and Science. du Commerce de I'Industrie. Paris. with a Description of the Manufacture . Atlas des Sere. Illustrated with Coloured Plates and Woodcuts. 2 vols. Tombeaux.rsunnages.) toire Monuments le Fruiifuis inedits. depuis VIe Siecle jusqu'au pour servir a I'Hiscommencement du Paris. Sixteenth. et suivie d'un {de Pe'saro). Paris. Classes chronologiquemcnt. 1850. Spain. London. el colories d'apres les originaux. Paris.-ioriqtics et 2 vols. de'erite Histoire des Pciiitures snr Majoliques faites a Pesari par Giambattista Passeri Traduite de I'ltalien 8vo. Sydenham. M. London. its Wyatt. A. ph. 4to. Ferdinand 5 vols. chronologique des Statues en Marbre et Musee des Examples of Architectural Art in Italy and Folio. 1848-51. 6 vols. Cum Privilegio Regis. Siecles. Imbard. 128 . Court in the Crystal Palace. 1850. Architecture Civile et Domestique. Wili.. Paris. Paul Lacroix. Instruments de Musique.. 1853. Histoire et et Description des Ma?urs et Usages. des Homines et des Feinmes celebres. Francois I. 1852. Meubles dc touts espece. 1852. Histoire et Descriptions. Hand-book to the Renaissance London.) les dans licux circonvoisins.) des Arts. Plates. 1838-40. mecaniques. Brodcrie. 1853. La Fleur de la Science dc Pourlraictiire et et Patrons de Facou Arabicque Ylalique. Silverwork. Historique. Wyatt. qwur servir a I'Histoire de France et a cclle de I'Art. 5 vols. Gaulois jusqu'au reane de Verdier et Cattois. Alphabets. 1800-3!). el Essai sur Epis. Folio. par E. l'.Rivavd. et des Arts que en dependent. et considered sous le hi. 1640.) Passeri et (J. Collections towards a Historg of Pottery Choix de Costumes civiles et militaires.RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. chronologiquemcnt. X. 4to. 1852. Rapport des Faits Folio. Les Arts an Moyen Age.) Paris. London. Paris. comprising copies of some of the most ancient and rare Prints of Ornaments.) in the Fifteenth. Sere et la Lacuoix et Sere. des 8vo. (Collection of the Text. Waring. Waring and MacQuoid. Les Monumens France. Digbv. Description historique en Bronze. Sommerai'. Paris. depuis I'Antiquite jusqii'au Siecle inclusivement. 8vo. Tombeaux de Louis XII. 1816-30. Imbard. XVI e Queriere (E. Folio. 8vo. et de Decorations interieures et exterieures des Maisons. London. depuis Folio. Paris. chiefly of the 13th and Kith Centuries.emin (N.. 1844. with an Outline of his Philosophical Doctrines. M. •Fubinai.) Description des Objets d'Art qui composent la Collecd'une Introduction Ornemens des Anciens Mailres des XV. Paris. Histoire Les Arts Somptuaires de V« au XVIIe Siecle. des Arts. Lenoir (Ai. 1828. du Louvre. De Laborde.Renaissance. dc. Small 4to. 8vo. et de Francois I. Petit* Augustins. graves. d'apres des Marbres du Muse'e des Small Folio. 1851. XVII'.) Paris. les Monumens et industriels de la France. (A. (0. 4to. B. and a List of Monograms. par Andre Pottier. 6 vols. Digby. 8vo. Artistiqut de M. vols. and Terminations of Roofs. Paris. De Lauorde classes (Le Comte Alexandre). dites Historie'es. Reynard Paris. Cretes. Hotel de Cluny. 1846. Seventeenth. . XVI. dessines. 8vo. des Sciences. (F.) Palissy the Potter. Debruge-D umenil. 8vo. Du). Armures. des Litte'ratures. (J. les Girouettes.

Cambridge.10. James 0. 4. Aston Church. 26. 129 . Ornaments a Church Pew. Elizabeth. Cheshire. Wood Wood Carving. James a Cabinet. 14. in 13. Ornaments. Yorkshire. 21. Time of Henry VHL or Elizabeth. 12. Flemish Workmanship. ELIZABETHAN ORNAMENT. 8. Westminster. Agnes. 9. Enfield. formerly in the Ornament in a Stone ChimRoyal Palace. Tombs at Westminster. Bedfordshire. Pavenham 28. 84. from the Pewing. The last of late date pub. I. James I. 14. I.— Plates 83. 6. 9. Bromley. of the Judges' Court of 8. 7. Stone Carving from an old House. Plaster Enrichment to a Panel Ceiling at Hall. Church. Bishopsgate. 5. in the Robing Room Carving. Holland House. 19. Kensington. James now 2. From Burton Charles II. I. Holland House. James I. from Montacute. Highgate. Stone Diapers. Wood Carving. from a Chimneypiece. Queen's Bench. Little Charlton House. James 23. From From a Tomb. 27. 12. from the Staircase. in Somersetshire. a Tomb. 16. Wood James Carving. 22. Diaper. 17. James 6. 13. Yorkshire. Ditto. I. Ornaments from Burton Agnes. Burton Agnes. from Goodrich Court. near Bow. an Old Chair. 20. Cromwell H Charles II. 1. Late James I. Warwickshire. Wood Wood From Carving. James I. The centre portion of the neypiece. James Ornament on a Bethesdan Marble Chimneypiece. 10. I. Wood Ornaments. Wood Carving. from Crewe Hall. Painted Ornament. Bristol. Carving. Warwickshire. Old Palace. French Workmanship. 24.s I. 10. Wiltshire. Late 18. 4. 1. Westminster Abbey. Herefordshire. Carving over a Doorway to a House near NorElizabeth. James I. James Diaper. Kent. James I. from a Pew. Aston Hall. from Crewe Hall. I. 11. from Burton Agnes Yorkshire. Wood Wood Wood 25. James I. PLATE LXXXIV. Wood Wood Carving I. ditto. Elizabeth. Stone Carving. 85. Bedfordshire. 2. James I. wich. »fr« r PLATE LXXXIII. 11. 7. Wood From Ornament. Frieze. James I. 3. Aston Hall. Pavenhani Church. 15. Elizabeth. 15. Old Palace. in Peter Paul Pindar's House. Elizabeth. Stone Ornament from one of the Elizabeth. Aslou Hall. James I. I. in Abbey. from the Hall of Trinity College. from Burton Agnes.6<yv CAJ Chapter XVIII. Staircase. Janu-. Stone Ornament. Carving in Stone from the Tomb at Westminster 3. Yorkshire.

said to have been designed by himself. 12. yellow ELIZABETHAN ORNAMENT. The ground. Cambridge. a Damask Cover James I. James I. House near Tottenham Mr. C. was not a purely Italian influence which aided in the development of the new or style in this country and already we find the names of Gerard Hornebande. from an old House at Enfield. modified is mainly due the naturalization of the new by the individual genius and German education of the one. or Charles I. Serjeant -painters to the king. From Ditto. and to him and John of Padua style in this country.. . in this country. ditto. in dark red the ornament in yellow cord. and Andrew Wright. Horebout. 10. (j size. when the Elizabethan 130 style may be justly said to have . and Nicholas Modena. The ground . from an old Elizabeth.) From the collection of Mr. by whom many features of the earlier Venetian school of the Eevival were reproduced. Torrigiano designed this also. 18. Somewhat later. Pattern from Drapery in a Tomb at Westminster. and. John Brown. Plaster Diaper. carver. and which style. however. vol. Elizabeth. blue. from the Hall of Trinity College. Late James I. or green silk cord. Federigo Zucchero (whose house at Florence. Holbein died in 1554. 2. 17. by whom a taste for the same style could not be otherwise than propagated. we find in the rule for the procession (Archceol. the other names of master-masons. and Pietro Ubaldini. would rather serve to show that the English style of architecture had influenced him. who appears more extensively employed than any of the amongst other important works. painters. 11. &c. Lucas Cornells. A. of Ghent. designed old Somerset House in 1549. at this period. Eliza- beth or James 13. Elizabeth. than vice versa). in Kent. ELIZABETHAN OKNAMENT. Applique' Needlework. 15.D. Yorkshire. yellow Church. to these may be added. leaving. painters. but John of Padua survived him many years. Wood Diaper. silk outline. however. PLATE LXXXV. and the local models and reminiscences of the other. 3. 14. 5. during the reign of Elizabeth. Mackinlay. On the occasion of the funeral of xii. painter of illuminated books. I. | the subject in light yellow.. and Antony Toto Benedetto da Rovezzano to have been : Nunziata). and designed the noble mansion of Longleat about the year 1570. being English. In thP silk Wood Diaper. Patterns from Dresses. Needlework Tapestry. Edward VI. 9. almost a is pure example of the Italian school at that period. monument of the Countess of Richmond at Westminster. went to Spain. which exists in Westminster Abbey. Elizabeth. collection of James I. It is from Holland that. it will be well to trace triumph over the the rise and progress of the revival of the Antique England to its final late Gothic style in the sixteenth century. 10. the In the same and of about the same date. The first introduction of the Eevival to design a is into England dates from the year 1518. 1796) the names of Antony Toto all (before mentioned). Old Portraits. very to shortly afterwards. Diapers from Burton Agnes. John of Padua. Prior to describing the characteristics of briefly what is commonly termed the Elizabethan in style. and. 4. (del' Bartolomeo Penni. From Drapery in a Tomb at Westminster. But it . Italian Artist. behind him several Italians attached the service of Henry. 1553. 1. to a Chair at Knowle. 8. or Charles I. In the year 1524 the celebrated Holbein came to England. light green . Nicholas Lyzarde. with great modifications. still monument in memory of Henry VII. when Torrigiano was employed by Henry VIII. 7. James I. Amongst the names preserved to us at this time are Girolamo da Trevigi. though at a later period. and the well-known Florentine sculptor. employed as an architect and engineer. others. Mackinlay. we find only two Italian names. By an the outline. Applique' Needlework.

but less picturesque fashion of the best Italian schools. the Smithsons. — Robert also and Bernard Adams. appear it to have continued the old style. Harrison. introduced The Palladian by Sir of the century had been. e. Thus. yet we must remember how to closely all the Arts were connected in those days. probably executed for the king arabesques painted by —exhibit him in a purity and gracefulness picture of of style worthy of Cellini himself. and even for architecture. the portrait-painter. his family at The Court. painted filled by Lucas de Heere. is almost identical in design with that of Englebert never met with eopies of them. in of artists : Lucas de Heere of Ghent.f It was during this period. Cambridgeshire and although Nicholas in Stone and sepulchral his son. et Sapiential. James of Nassau. Jansen and Gerard Chrismas. in 1619 style. and Isaac Oliver."* Bernard I. and to them is due the facade of Northumberland House. Cambridge. f The remarkable monument of Sir Francis Vere (lime. having panelled compartments of geometrical interlaced forms. was displaced speedily for the more pure. we may include most of the works of art during that century as within the so-called Elizabethan period. and. and for accessories of their own pictures was found frequent scope for ornamental design. Dutch. the most remarkable being the architects. During the reign of Elizabeth we meet with a great preponderance of Dutch names. In the foregoing names. both painted and carved. Holte. up with During the early part of Queen Elizabeth's reign we are. In the first list of artists we perceive a fluctuating mixture of Italian. since his ornamental works in metal.) 131 . James's Palace. — for example. Besides these we approach now a goodly array of English names.D. been formed. Cornelius Richard Stevens. and the ceiling of the Royal Chapel at St. were much in vogue during the reign of James and Charles I. at which time the knowledge of still new style was more extended by Sir Henry Wotton's " Elements of Architecture. painters. A. Most of the above-named architects were employed the during the early part of the seventeenth century. then. Humilitatis. Thorpe. may be seen in the portrait of Queen Mary. architect of the four gates.'s Before the close of James reign i. a Marc Garrard of Bruges. 1563). I. justified in concluding that a very important influence must have been exercised on English Art through the medium of the Protestant States of the * Low Countries. H. for the greater number C. moreover. or during the reign of justified in placing Henry VIII. author of the work on Architecture in English. — the name of Inigo JoDes brings us very nearly to the complete downfall of the Elizabethan on the occasion of the rebuilding of Whitehall Palace style . architects and sculptors. moreover. Hollander. I. 1519. at even before . — as. this Horatio Pallavicini. the large still Henry VIII. and Hampton though more grotesque and heavy. Caius about the year 1573. is models . and a dagger and sword.. jewelled foliage. are close imitations of cinque-cento in 1540. Bradshaw. and amongst them we are &c. designed by him quite in the style of many for rich examples at Venice and Mantua. Suffolk: and Theodore Haveus Caius of Cleves. that The works of Lomazzo and De Lorme are said to liave been translated into English during the reign of Elizabeth. both natives of Holland. but I have at Westminster.— ELIZABETHAN ORNAMENT. Honoris. this country was bound both by political and religious sympathy with Holland. and first scientific Shute (the latter. Hilliard the goldsmith and jeweller. an example which could hardly sixteenth his house fail of producing a complete revolution in Art. the Vroom of Haarlem. Strand. the goblet designed by him for Jane Seymour. painters being frequently employed in the design models for ornament. Holbein himself. in (now destroyed) Little Shelford. the Italian names are clearly dominant. we must look Ketel of Gouda.. and although the greater number are described as painters only. and of Germany also. at College. Vertutis. and English period. and that of the commencement of Whitehall by Inigo Jones in 1619. taking the date of Torrigiano's work at Westminster. who executed who was Sussex monument Boreham church. in the cathedral of Breda (sixteenth centurv). especially monuments. also. designed and executed the monument of Dr. example.

that can be justly termed in the character of the ornament of this period. Nos. 5 and 11. but generally in a larger manner. in Even at the close of the fifteenth century may be seen the germs of the open scroll-work many many decorative works in Italy. interspersed with roughly-executed with of human beings. grotesque monsters and animals. Holland House... &c. and we may here remark. and during that of James I. Daniel Hopfer of Augsburg. the employed in England during the period of which we carried the pictorial style of ornament into every branch of Art. and still more noticeable is it in the frontispieces of Serlio's great work on Architecture. These were the principal sources from which the so-called Elizabethan of ornament was mainly founded. nail-head. Florence. and a complete adoption of by the decorative style continued artists Germany and the Netherlands. for example. daughter of James held court here as Queen of Bohemia. according to the different this and materials did in most on which it is applied. engravings. and artists reproduced even on their buildings the unfettered fancies of the decorative as they received them through the medium of the engraver.. Damascene artists metal-work. and appear. Wollaton. the very fanciful and thoroughly asserts Elizabethan compositions. and drapery. by Giovanni da Udine (1487-1561). at the close of this century. as seen.. of The beautifully executed ornamental borders. And. vary in character. band. on the other hand. and it simply a modification models. built at the original latter part of his reign. viz. is then. to have the it is field to themselves consequently at this period that we expect to find a more decidedly native school. of Italian models. As regards another main we must seek feature its in Elizabethan ornament. that whilst its it is evident that decoration ought. of Giulio Clovio (1498-1578). There is little. to meet with the purest Italian ornament in the works of the artists of Henry and this will be found to be the case. 12. known as the " petits-maitres " of Germany and the NetherSolis and more particularly those of Aldegrever. Plate LXXXIV. of W. indeed in some cases must. and whilst the Italian masters. in fact. with the exception of Jansen and Chrismas. treat — so. grotesque and complicated variety of pierced scroll-work. present parts all the character of Elizabethan scroll. have had an effect on English Art when we remember that the Princess Elizabeth. recognising style assthetical instances carefully abstain from carrying the pictorial into sculptured and architectural works. Heidelberg Castle was principally built (1556-1559) . 1 and 3. which Vertue were used by Chrismas in his designs for the facade of Northumberland style House. Dieterlin. Knowle. 26 and 27. but generally flowing and capricious. sometimes on a geometrical pattern. and it would [not appear unlikely % that it may I. strap and nail-head bands. Virgilius of Nuremberg. as at Nos. As regards the of a characteristics of Elizabethan ornament. here and there large and flowing designs of natural 132 . and subjects fact. Thus we may expect VIII. pupil in Giulio Komano.ELIZABETHAN ORNAMENT. fruit. Plate LXXXIIL. and Theodore de Bry. with curled edges interlaced bands. At the latter part of Elizabeth's reign.'s reign. Plate LXXXIV. published in Paris in 1515. such as illuminated books. at the beginning of the seventeenth century. in the complicated and fanciful interlaced bands. Nos. Nor should we forget to mention. English artists are numerous. curved figures and broken outlines festoons. . confining it to its just limits. origin the numerous and excellent designs of the class of engravers lands. on No. of foreign from Aston Hall. architectural and ornamental. who sent forth to the world a great number of engraved ornamental designs during the sixteenth century. not only on the subjects we have already mentioned. and other purely ornamental subjects. and . and Burleigh. In the reign of James we find the same by English artists. it is now that we meet with the names of English designers connected with such buildings (and with their con- comitant decoration) as Audley End. and festoon-work: the same may be remarked of the stained-glass windows of the Laurentian Library. but in the examples given in Plate but a slight imitation LXXXIIL. such as stained glass and illuminated books. During Elizabeth's reign we perceive of the style of ornament practised I. they may be described as consisting chiefly .

variety. marked by much originality. is preserved a rich pulpit hanging of gold ground with a blue pattern is • Hardwicke Hall. of colour freely used gilding. the most beautiful specimen of kind of work is in the possession of the Saddlers' Company.* part of the sixteenth century. panelled compartments often are freely used . 5. external walls with balustrade. WARING. in Yorkshire filled rustications of ball . of that richness. with flat or covered ceilings style. though in the Italian style. being Nos. with a crimson this and gold thread pattern. taste. indeed. could not imgress the beholder with a certain impression of nobility and grandeur. where the discovery of gold in the New World II... in earliest examples of the Revival on the Continent. 15. with pattern. however. Oxford. a gold pattern on a crimson velvet pall. also 7.. 10. see Shaw's very beautiful work on the " Arts of the Middle Ages. being generally predominant over colour— a taste probably derived from as Spain. a fine piece of tapestry of a yellow silk ground. no doubt of Flanders. whilst Nos. moreover. 6 1. and the carving. with their convex and concave outlines. At and at St. and picturesquefall which. being rich A great quantity of this kind of work.ELIZABETHAN ORNAMENT. branch and leaf ornament. . 9. Plate LXXXIII. and 13. and also taken from portraits of the time of Elizabeth and James artists. to be the design of an Italian of a good Italian character. on the dresses of the monumental statues. rough application of the orders of architecture one over another. not without some regret. and : —show in most cases more justness and purity of design than the carved work and strongly marked. although deficient in good guiding principles. No. whether Unlike the stone or wood. are the most Italian in their character artist. Plate LXXXV. a noble example of which . Derbyshire. and liable to fail to into straggling confusion. and probably of Italian manufacture. a rich and flowing purple altars is gold. first came from the looms native factory of the kind was established Nos. yet in other subjects every variety .. still and 8 are in the ordinary Elizabethan Fine examples of coloured ornament are date 1515." MM 133 . 14. the ground of which preserved in the pall belonging to the Ironmongers' Company. with which walls and furniture were constantly decorated. 11. and Philip in An example of this style may be now seen the magnificent chimneypiece. France and Spain. so common in the were founded on models of the early Renaissance school at Venice. B. and we lose sight. of diaper work —on wood. preserved in the Governor's room at the Charterhouse. perhaps. the gable ends. Mary's Church. Florence (fifteenth century). October 1856. these ornaments are not applied to Gothic forms is but the groundwork or architectural mass essentially Italian in its nature (except in the case of windows): consisting of a cornice . But. and diamond work. with elaborate gilt carving combined with black marble. J. led to an extravagant use of it a means of decoration in the reigns of Charles V. 13 being stated. still exists on the great gallery ceiling at Burton Agnes. are probably the work of Dutch or Italian are Nos. similar in every respect to the painted antependiums of several at Santo Spirito. and in the examples given LXXXV. * For these. given.stones and brackets effect. of the examples lb'. I. the colours. and in some cases from Italy. and even and internal walls bounded with frieze and cornice. and 18. The coloured patterns on tapestries. as shown in No. 12. especially the arras. By ness the middle of the seventeenth century the more marked characteristics of the style had com- pletely died out. two is colours only are principally relied on for effect. is marked by great boldness and though roughly executed. especially . Plate made in the early in Although in those we have referred to. 4. since the at Mortlake in the year 1619. with foliage or coats-of-arms in grotesque arch.

The Decorative Arts of the Middle Ages. J. „ „ C. Details of Elizabethan Architecture. S. The Ancient Timber Edifices of England. The Mansions of England Olden Time. The Baronial Balls of England. Encyclopedia of Architecture. Britton. „ Studies of Ornamental Design. Kioharbson. vol. Shaw. J. Architectural Antiquities of Oreat Britain. Horace Waltole. Anecdotes of Painting in England. Clayton. and James „ Dallawav. (17D6). TO. xii.ELIZABETHAN ORNAMENT. Hall. Joseph Gwxlt. in the Anecdotes of the Arts in England. Dresset and Decorations of the Middle Ages. Richardson). Josbph Nash. 134 . Architectural Remains of the Reigns of Elizabeth I. BOOKS REFERRED H. Archaologia. Studies from Old English Mansions. The Builder (several Articles by C. C. 1H4I1.

from Designs by Giulio Romano. in the Palazzo Ducale at Mantua. mainly through the means of popularisation afforded by the arts of printing and engraving. Shortly after the commencement of the sixteenth century. while. and other celebrated Printers. and limits also . from designs by Raffaelle. that in Italy as fragmentary movement towards the restoration fifteenth. in the Palazzo del Te. painted in Fresco on partially-coloured grounds. ITALIAN ORNAMENT. Francesco Penni. 88. A series of Arabesques. the treatises of 135 . at Mantua. painted in Fresco on fully-coloured grounds. 90. of the antique whicli we have recognised and imperfect during the became systematised. copiously and ably commented upon. Vincenzio of Arabesques. A series of Arabesques.— Plates 86. PLATE LXXXVIII. Perino del Vaga.Chapter XIX. the Stephans. 87. Giulio Romano. for the most part in the Palazzo Ducale at Mantua. Bartolomeo da Bagnacavallo. painted in Fresco on a white ground. 86*. A series of Arabesques. LXXXVI*. illustrated Through them translations of Vitruvius and Alberti. Rome. PLATES LXXXVI. San Gimignauo. the Giuntas. A series by Giovanni da (Jdine. and consequently invigorated. Polidoro da Carravaggio. were speedily in the possession of every designer of eminence without its in the country. selected from works published by the Aldines. painted in Fresco da PLATE LXXXVII. 89. PLATE A series of XC. or central open Arcade of the Vatican. PLATE LXXXIX. before the close of the century. Pellegrino da Modena. selected from the decorations of the Loggie. and possibly other artists. Specimens of Typographic Embellishments of the Sixteenth Century in Italy and France.

mental carving and gave their attention. sections. to second-rate artists in its execution. and elevations. fifteenth century arts which during the had been so frequently united in the persons of the maestri. and we 136 not therefore further allude to him here. it in his connexion with the subject of arabesque that his celebrity as shall an ornamentist dwell consists. in which the setting out of columns. Vignola. all in all (( . masterly composition. was painters worked their more in their studios. in the sixteenth. Neither shall we upon the . pilasters. pure ornament having been to a great extent negits details. &c. men such as Bernini and Pietro da attempted similar combinations. academies arose in which the division-of-labour system was introduced. The consequences. it was principally the restoration of ancient proportions. late Stoppani. and the Caffarelli. arches. and sculptors. in the sixteenth became individualised. both of the five orders and designer's of architectural symmetry generally. or monuments in which general 5 X J effects of beauty were made subservient to the development of the plastic features alone. to us in the Pandolfini from one of the Genoese Palaces. architects. almost exclusively. presented permanent records of the zeal with which the monuments of antiquity had been studied. decorative effect. however. The genius of such intellectual giants as Raffaelle and Michael Angelo could alone maintain the triple attributes of painters. at Rome. so of a necessity the nature of the monuments created to supply those wants materially differed. and less in the . and Eusconi. little else As the rules of Art became more complex. and looking only to anatomical pre- powerful chiar'oscuro. when. in Cortona than after times. But inasmuch as the requirements of the Italian Social system of the sixteenth century differed from those of the Imperial ages of Rome. entablatures. the result was general confusion and failure. left Although the architecture which Raffaelle has Soffite Panel. that engaged the attention lected in . Serlio. Ornament was and left in a great degree to accident or caprice in its design. form so remarkable an exception to the above. in due relative subordination . buildings.ITALIAN ORNAMENT. is Palace at Florence. styles In the Renaissance of the fifteenth century the artist's attention had been mainly directed to the imitation of ancient ornament . Favourable specimens of such ornaments may be seen in our woodcuts. to isolated statues and groups. and considered only Those in its mass as a decor- ative adjunct to architecture. works were to adorn forgetting altogether general cision. were obvious %jA3> architects thought of little else but plans. style. under whom great monuments had been carried into execution. and breadth Sculptors of a high class deserted orna- of tone and handling. that will be well to reserve them for special notice. with : certain rare and notable exceptions. Palladio. is excellent . The painted arabesques of the Italian and the stucchi with which they were occasionally accomit panied.

137 NN . We allude. but far more refined. and the amount of plain face he uniformly preserved in his architectural compositions. to the greatest of the two Sansovinos — G-iacopo." painted for Pope Paul III. and scarcely universal. or the influence which on contemporary art. His ^t^MK^jl^ Ornament from Genoa. too. Michael . approached so since. resisted its influence longer than other part of Italy. which were greedily snapped up by men of less inventive power than he himself possessed. works of Baldassare Peruzzi. The painting one of his of the Chapel was the next work undertaken by him. it whether we regard the sublimity of the performance. last not least. exercised as well as on that of after-times. In 154] lie completed his vast fresco of the " Last Judgment. — or. broke for that It is to the great Florentine. Bartolomeo Ammanati. On the banishment of the Medici family from Florence in to 1494. he was invited study in the school founded for its culture by Lorenzo de Medici. resulted in a departure from and refinement in every branch of art. is closely to the antique as to offer no striking individuality. so far as ornament was concerned. Grhirlandaio . so far as ornament was concerned. and. of course. he invited had to executed the celebrated " Cupid. escaped the contagion a great degree. and greatest. for the purpose of erecting his mausoleum at for this " building the " Moses San Pietro it in Vincoli.ITALIAN ORNAMENT. born in 1474 of the noble : Florentine family of the descendants of the Counts of Canossa he was a pupil of Domenico his talent for N \( and having early distinguished himself by to sculpture." which was also cause of his being Rome. were originally destined. This immunity was due. before he was twenty-three years the of age. adopted. impatient of restraint. Domenico Fontana. they Bramante. Florence. and is his "Bacchus. the greatest being exaggeration of manner. and." . taste and in feebler hands than his. him. brought new elements into the field. fervid genius. that we must look germ of self-willed originality that infected all his contemporaries in every art. Angelo little retired Bologna. with a few of his defects. and refused all for which he remuneration. in 1564. first but was completed on a smaller scale than was at Sistine intended. where he worked at the tomb of St. and now at Peter's. Carlo Maderno. Peter's. was his next great per- formance and at twenty-nine years of age he returned to Rome. Baccio Happily Venice almost any Benvenuto in were among his ardent admirers and imitators. daring innovations in ornament are no design. sweeping and Vertical direct imitation (saving an alloy of exaggeration) of Nature in some of his enrichments. interesting though they be. Vignola himself. department of and engendered a license which. whose away from tradition. through Michael Angelo . it is vain to deny. Julius II. to be regarded rather as a Kenaissance artist than in any other light. life In everything executed during the long of Michael Angelo the desire for novelty seems to have divided his attention from the study of excellence alone. and the " Slaves " in the Louvre. in a great degree. at least. the "Pieta" sculptured by order of Cardinal d'Amboise. ultimately. remainder of his long life The on was chiefly devoted to the construction of St. The style of the Roman school of design was altogether changed and Giacomo della Porta. The gigantic statue of " David. scrolls. amongst many other works in by St." At Rome. Michael Angelo was Buonarrotti. summoned by . Cellini of his beauties. Dominic after some time he returned to Florence. to the counteracting influence of less a genius less hardy than that of Michael Angelo. Bandinelli and many At Florence. less striking than his in other departments of consoles His large broken pediments his and mouldings. which work he was employed at the time of his death.

" now in the Gallery degli Uffizii at Florence. to who was compete with him for the control of its construction. was obliged to leave Pietro Perugino. in the year early 1477. the celebrated Spanish architect." and as he was then named so is he and ever will be. he was taken to notice Rome by San Gallo. the Loggia round the Campanile of St. on the 6th of May. persuaded him to remain. then working at to "soon perceived that the young man promised assumed such a character that. says Vasari. that he was appointed Proto- Maestro to the Republic. and lie competed with Bandinelli and others this a large marble was in continual employment at time. famous (Julius).ITALIAN ORNAMENT. Jacopo Salviati took his friend Sansovino to kiss the feet of the Pope. way of advancement. Mark's. be the Cardinal best. From that period he was engaged every work of importance at Rome. so Whilst left superintending the commencement of the works he city. was taken by him into France in the year 1534. pontificate of Clement. Andrea Gritti. . and made wax of the " Laocoon " (under Brauiante's direction). finest Among to his finest works here —and. the Church of San Georgio dei Greci. that by various improvements and alterations of the city he materially added to the income of the State. great preparations being made at Florence for the entry of Leo X. however. which would seem to have given so much satisfaction." Not disheartened. which finally coming into the possession of the San Gallo falling ill de Lorraine. and among other works he executed for Giovanni Bartolini the beautifid "Bacchus. Jacopo was employed so in making various designs that for triumphal arches and statues. and provided with a stipend. At Eome he attracted the of Bramante. he was placed by his mother with Andrea Contucci of Monte Sansovino (of Florence. the monument of Francesco Veniero. Commentaries on Vitruvius in a fair and was finally presented to and employed by the He was figure. assigned a house. however. John of the Florentines. found a dwelling for Jacopo in ceiling for the same house with who was then painting a Pope Julius in the Torre Borgia. would appear Angelo have outwitted Sansovino. and being conGiuliano da sidered a young man of great genius and to excellent character. and gained the great honour of being the successful competitor for the Church of St. and Balthazar Peruzzi. " Michael in was determined to keep all for himself. Having at an age displayed a remarkable predisposition for Art. where the King had offered him employ- ment. among whom was Alonzo Berruguete. His Holiness immediately gave him an order to make a design the facade of San Lorenzo at Florence. the Statues of the Giant's Staircase. says Vasari. Here he recovered. Eome. Bramantino di Milano. Sangallo. " di Sansovino. and the bronze 138 . therefore. Having distinguished himself by his abilities at Florence. to that Michael Angelo. the Zecca or Mint. and was employed both in sculpture and architecture." but called now. the Libreria Vecchia. This work he performed so satisfactorily. This noble artist was born at Florence.). when a successfully serious illness caused him to return to his for native city.. become very eminent. Jacopo sought refuge in Venice. and who was so pleased with Jacopo's ability that also he caused him to prepare many models in wax for his use. intending to visit France. and effectually prevented his success for. he continued Rome. who. among the examples of Italian Art anywhere - —are be noted. The Doge. in competition with other artists. of an ancient family. 1527. Antonio da fell. He Pope became acquainted with Luca for his Signorelli. indeed. Jacopo was no longer called "de'Tatti. that city was taken and sacked by the French. and to undertake the restoration of the cupolas of St. it Sansovino's was adjudged to and a cast was taken of in bronze. The duties of this office he performed with such sagacity and diligence. and was severely hurt that he the Various causes led to the suspension of the works until the it. and Bramante. in when Jacopo returned and recommenced until. the Palaces Cornaro and Moro. by whom for he was received very kindly. whom we have briefly spoken in Chapter XVII. In the year 1514. against Raffaelle. architect a large copy in Pope Julius II. Pinturicchio. Mark. with which the Pontiff was much pleased. Cesare Cesariano." Their attachment speedily being regarded almost as father and son. .

and Alessandro Vittoria of Trent. of the Louvre. sagacious. Among the most remarkable of these. it is an urn containing the hearts of Henry II. " and (as Vasari tells us) notwithstanding that the years of his life all had come to an end in the pure course of nature. somewhat attenuated in limb. Cat- taneo Girolamo of Ferrara. Bartolomeo Ammanati. His character as depicted by Vasari active. is He band principally known as the scnlptor of the noble statue of his designs for stained glass. Jacopo Colonna of Venice. from a design by Philibert de Lorme. his wooden doors to the Church of St. p. An artist who had imbibed even more of the School of Fontainebleau than did Jean Goujon.D. In order to give an idea of the ornamental style we have engraved the base of this monument. The statues and bas-reliefs on the monument 139 . and moulded into a somewhat more serpentine line of grace. and. and The manner of arranging and defining drapery peculiar artists. v. who was born his earliest works." at Paris (1550): the gallery of the "Salle des Caryatides. same time he executed the monument of Henry II." cut out of one was intended to support solid block of marble. 426) is eminently agreeable. and led to that peculiarly fluttering style which may be recognised in the works of all those artists who reflected and reproduced the prevalent mode of the day. a man of singular originality of intellect. He was unfortunately shot during the massacre of St. of Pilon. who was born in France early in the sixteenth century. Luco Lancia of Naples. (edit. His principal works are (for. and He appears to have been generally honoured. in the Church of Denis. and in 1557 his monument to Guillaume Langei du Bellay was placed in the Cathedral of Mans. to the Fontainebleau masters exerted a singular influence upon the native and that not only in the corresponding department of art.ITALIAN ORNAMENT." now "des his best works. gates of the Sacristy. his carvings of the Court of the Louvre." supported by four colossal female figures. near Paris. disposed fill not as they would obviously to themselves. Contemporary with Goujon and Prieur was Jean Cousin. now in the Louvre. but in ornament generally. of the Italian spirit fate. courageous. and had a large school of pupils. Turning from Italy to France." its It is mainly to the happy influence exerted by Sansovino that the School of Venice indebted for celebrity in ornamental bronze-work. a master whose style of drawing was founded upon the Michael-Angelesque artificial system of proportion. whilst working on a scaffold at the Louvre. progress. whose monumental he was ultimately destined to place upon its pedestal. we resume the thread of national I. 1570. Bar- tholomew. induced a general levity in the treatment of similar elements. aged ninety-three . as we have already artistic stated (Chapter XVIL)." a small and very beautiful bas-relief of the same. About the St. among the of the period was Germain Pilon. yet Venice lamented his is loss. 1530) of those Italian artists who formed what is familiarly known as the "School of Fontainebleau. Jacopo de Medici of Brescia. in 1572. subject. and Catherine de Medici. him to Paris. 9. stands conspicuous the renowned Jean Goujon. among The celebrated Diana of Poitiers. by Prominent." in the Museum Goujon partook warmly of the enthusiasm the recovery of the writings of Vitruvius excited universally. and. amongst whom may be mentioned Tribolo and Solosmeo Danese. called " Diane Chasseresse. vol. however. The beautiful and well-known group of the " Three Graces. happily. narrowly escaped sharing his Barthelemy Prieur was only saved from immolation by the protection of the Constable Monteffigy morency. He died on the 2d of November. interrupted by the intro- duction into the service of Francis (circa A. The statues at the Convent of Soulesmes are among About the year 1550 his father sent. See Plate LXXVL. Maclou at Kouen. the most ardent disciple of the Michael-Angelesque form. they have for the most part survived to our days) the "Fontaine des Innocents. amiable. Fig. and his " Christ at the Tomb. Bohn. moreover." fraternity The leading and most popular member of that was Primaticcio. Admiral Chabot. but as they would best up voids in composition. at Loue. One of his best works was the monument to the Chancellor de Birague. and Catherine de Medici. which are considered Cent Suisses. fall if left The peculiar crinkled folds of the garments. near Mans. and contributed an essay in respect to them in Martin's translation.

about 1620. Leaving for awhile the subject of sculptured . as Pintelli for the were almost entirely former were may be seen from the interesting pilaster panels. This manner was succeeded by that of Le Pautre. The length of limb and artificial grace peculiar to the school of Fontainebleau was pushed to the farthest point of extravagance by Francavilla. for instance. whose pupil he had been during first many years. a very high It is ever and remarkable degree of perfection and beauty was attained. of the antique decorations in marble and stone. as perfect remains or shattered . who introduced into France the even greater wiriness of the style of John of Bologna. neglected. executed for her in the Palace of the Luxembourg. from a Design by Le Pautre. an artist of great cleverness and fertility. cannot be better studied than in the apartments of Marie de Medici. Panel for a Ceiling. during which a great degree of zeal preservation of old Eoman vestiges of polychromatic decoration was exercised. which throughout Italy abounded to and which every day's fragments of excavation brought 140 — such. work. or Pierre Francheville. The general characteristics of the style of as ornament prevalent during the is half of the seventeenth century. designed by Baccio at Church of Sant' Agostino Rome. it may be well to advert to that of painted for the the more especially as for a short time. The study of ancient Roman and Greek light. of Francis gives it I. and which form the subject of our woodcuts on the next page. After 1590 no works of his are known. sculptures was naturally followed by that so profusely. whilst the The latter during the period of the Early Renaissance imitated with great success. and which served an induction into what generally known as Louis XIV. very wide difference existed between the painted and to be borne in mind that a carved arabesques of the ancients. Italian and French Ornament. Our woodcut gives an idea of his style. of Cambray (born 1548). and Kuglor as the date of his death. are by Pilon and Pierre Bontemps. Paris.ITALIAN ORNAMENT.

pilasters. and Pinturicchio. it was scarcely possible that the early artists should avoid also transferring to their paintings some- what of the formal character inseparable from the sculptured and material character of the objects from which their original drawings had been made. in medallions or on fruit." with frescoes. were Raffaelle. And it is curious to their first trace the influence of the success of this attempt upon the after career of each of the three. This beautiful work of art. better known as Bacchiacca Arabesque designed by Baccio Pintelli for the Church of Sant' Agostino. whose labours doubt materially aided in the elaboration of these graceful fancies. ornamented or single vases. during his residence in at the latter part of the fifteenth century. and manifests how deeply he must It is. for such proved to be. many whose efforts subsequently carried to the highest perfection. far to explain the differ- Such circumstances may go ence we cannot fail to recognise between the imitation first and the object imitated. in which the ancient style and certain antique subjects should be vividly it reproduced. . and animals. Rome. bear- ing allegorical inscriptions. none was more conspicuous than was Pietro Perugino. without doubt. busts or . How and to what good purpose he ac- cumulated studies of ancient ornament was shown by the immediate commission he received from his fellow- townsmen to decorate the vaults of their Exchange. It Arabesque designed by Baccio Piutelli for thu Church of Saut' A^ostino. then aged six- teen or seventeen . o o 141 . express purpose of making drawings of such remains transferring the subject so sketched to the and in modern ara- besques. Leads. foliage. groups figures. architectural backgrounds flowers. not only as singularly inter- establishing the claim of Pietro to first be regarded as the great and accurate reviver of this graceful style of decoration. Among Rome fully such diligent students. intermixed with tablets of various forms. have drunk at the classic fountain of antique Art. Rome. friezes. &c. Francesco Ubertini. in many of the attempts of to reproduce the painted decorations of the Romans Imperial times. altars. the first complete reproduction of the is " grotesques " of the ancients. An visited infinite variety of such gems of beauty offered themselves to the notice of the artists of that period who Rome for the . The there is principal little scholars of Perugino. or " Sala di Cambio.ITALIAN ORNAMENT. was executed Perugia from soon after his return to Rome . and esting. but as having been the " 'prentice hands " were it " trial-piece " on which so exercised.

Lastly. Julius It II. that his whole life was devoted to painting animals. with reference to the adjoining and first-described arabesques. style was determined. of the inimitable arabesques of the Loggie of the Vatican. amoured of the decoration of design. close to the richest arabesques. when compared with the prevailing intermixture 142 . Maria del Popolo. which had been constructed during the reign of his predecessor. ITALIAN ORNAMENT. controlled by the exquisite which have ever since their execution been selection. in almost every instance. the component parts of which are sometimes as they sometimes are unreasonably small. fruit. and the details to have been carried out by a chosen band of assistants. The general designs appear have been made by Raffaelle himself. and on that of the latter artist to the execution of the ceilings of the choir of Sta. whilst the were the productions of a less distinguished period of Art. it can scarcely be expected to equal the subsequent productions of Giovanni da Udine and Morto da Feltro. we find that the works of the ancients.." a theme of admiration for all artists. in the decoration of the celebrated Library at Sienna. landscapes. The greater is often placed beside and above the lessj thereby emphaticising the dissonances. taste of the great Urbinese. in conjunction.. by Bramante. It was by their hands. that while the theme of the necessary decorations should be sacred. and subsequently. under the pontificate of Leo X. . flowers. as well as in the very choice of the motives for decoration. animals. an edifice of the highest magnificence These arabesques cannot greatest masters of the age. fairly be compared with the ancient. appear to great advantage. ." and in close imitation of the paintings of the ancient Romans. but also destroying the grandeur of the whole architectural design. as the former were executed by the to the decoration of and are applied latter and importance. Thus. in nice balance of the " pieni " and " vuoti. During the stay of Raffaelle in Rome. although. in brilliancy of touch. and blossoms — all which. all their parts . were created. their rival the finest and manner of execution should at remains of ancient painting which had been discovered to Rome up to that period. are of colossal proportion only injuring the thereby not accompanying decorations. who reverted to no other source than their mythology. in point of unity of idea. and being the more offensive by a deficiency in symmetry. in order to favour the apparent extent of the locality they decorate in addition to which they present- generally manifest a predominating general proportion between their several parts. in harmony of colour.. temples. and views of &c. " of Nero. this speci- men is one of the most successful that has ever been executed. whose daughter Raffaelle married. in and he ultimately became famous throughout Italy as a perfect master of that variety In freedom and cleverness of drawing. to the cultivation of such studies on the part of the former as induced his composition &c. &c. They never in such striking differences in scale between the principal subjects as we find as unreasonably large the arabesques of Raffaelle. led immediately to the employment of Raffaelle and Pinturiccliio. and those of the Apartamenti Borgia. we find calices of flowers putting forth twisted stalks. presenting. human figures. on a very small scale. Bacchiacca became so completely en" grotesque " &c. at Rome. elegant and minute combinations of flowers. The comparison might be we could but recall the faded glories of the Palace of the Caesars. and the decorations the symbols and allegories employed to convey them. who unquestionably entered with wonderful zeal into the realisation of the great work. &c. leaves. We have given a careful showing the principal ornamental motives comprised in them in Plate LXXXVI. and those now in existence ornament buildings of a class relatively far less fairer important to Imperial magnificence if than the Vatican was to Papal. he was commissioned by that pontiff to decorate an arcade. style. that those celebrated "loggie. or the " Golden House " The ancient arabesques have. in delicacy of finish and refined study. kept upon a reduced scale. on examining the choice of subjects with respect to the association in of ideas indicated thereby.

worked out to have been part. is a better regulated proportion. Giulio de Medici. the designs having been given by Raffaelle.'' was received by the popular voice. but of are executed. The work was still when it was partially destroyed by Cardinal Pompeo Colonna. by a letter to Francesco well as Duke of Urbino. in the Loggie of that imaginary world with the symbols of Christianity. we and must not lose sight of the exquisite graces of detail wrought out in Villa their execution find. for upon variously coloured grounds —a habit to which Romano appears when Cardinal incomplete more partial than either Raffaelle or Giovanni da Udine. The Villa Madama was purchased after the confiscation of the Medicis property. however. impossible not to concur in their propriety . but the grandeur of the three arches ." Such are among the general and it is conclusions to which that profound student of ancient polychromy. while condemning.. that divisions create a less confusing general effect. a more gratifying and exerted upon us. Hittorff. and executed entirely by Giulio Romano and Giovanni da Udine. the principal decorations there roofs. spirit of the we find a pervading unity conceived more in the look ancients. not only of courtiers. still is remaining is sufficient to ' show that the design was worthy of Raffaelle Maria.ITALIAN ORNAMENT. and that it was his proved beyond a doubt. by Caklo Maderno. written still by Castiglione. and in the magnificent calming influence notwithstanding the multiplicity of their ornaments. for The villa itself was built by Romano and his fellow-labourer first Pope Clement VII. has arrived. its is "Proceeding from the Vatican to the Madama. those of suburban retreat Giulio are. to revenge himself upon Clement VI L. we In all immediately on entering halls. fourteen of his castles in the who had burnt Campagna of Rome. The villa is now rapidly going Detail of a Portion of a Stucco Ceiling in the Palazzo Mattei di Giove. which this delicious upon white ground. Unlike the arabesques of the Vatican. where all the principal subjects represent scenes from the mythology of the ancients. and greater symmetry . If we adopt the general opinion and upon this beautiful work as a second undertaking conceived by Raffaelle in the spirit of the Loggie. Rome. by Raffaelle his scholars. favourably as artists. such faults of ensemble. which he and his it contemporaries cannot fail to have recognised in Ids former work. to decay . for the most the most part. are in existence. together with the letter. which. we see how the favourite pupils of the incomparable master succeeded in avoiding faults against good taste. by 143 . M. in 1537. Here. as by some drawings.

and at a later period in those of Borromini. at Thus such Eome the school of arabesque ornament most nearly approached the antique. The building was restored. the Stuccatore triumphed in every species of flourish. In the days of Bernini. is 4. by foliage of parasitic growth. of painted arabesque decoration. . So large a number of arabesque decorations were executed by the pupils and followers of Eaffaelle. as in Figs. frequently wind round a central reed.. yet leading points monotonous. but certain it is. so should the mode be varied in which that ornament should be portrayed. In proportion. in rarely which the hand of the series sweeps out as . the bond that had united brotherhood which had gathered around his person was snapped. and from her title of Madama the villa takes its name. and flat style of treatment. though never completed. and those who had so ably with worked him spread themselves in various directions throughout. with the rest of the Farnese property. Thus sown broadcast over the land were the elements however. The crown became possessed of it. and a of the Paganism of Eome. removed from the classic influences pictorial. Leaves. by whom subsequent works were undertaken. while in cities as Mantua. may not be obtained in ornament entirely conventional that to be agreeable such ornament should be expressed in a simple as regards light. daughter of Charles V. decoration of the same building is inaugurated in the specimens (Figs. and the dominant lines of which are adorned. and in such cases Nature 2. and from time to time interrupted. in the more refined arabesques of Plate LXXXVII. its it may be well to trace a few anomalies in varied local aspects. of scrolls and curves the of which are generally accentuated by calices. appears as the directly inspiring deity. Plate LXXXVII. other and distinct types and influences may be traced. which the forms of growing plants 144 . for instance. flowers. In direct proportion as the elements of which an ornament composed have been taken with more or less divergence from the ordinary aspect of nature. 5. 3. a simple style of convention followed. of Naples afterwards and Margaret resided there on her marriage with Ottavio Farnese. The Mantuan system of ornamentation. through a marriage with that family. In the deserted chambers of the Palazzo Ducale are fast fading into nothingness the graceful frescoes. . and so great was the skill acquired by them in this still art. As may reasonably be inferred. A marked difference 1. imported by Giulio favourite Eomano. may be distinctly subdivided into the school of nature and reflex that of conventional vigour approaching caricature. that it is now difficult to ascertain to whom in we owe the beautiful arabesques which After decorate many of the palaces and country-houses the the neighbourhood of Eome. Far be it from us to assert that beauty of the highest and most architectonic character in conception. Eome. the premature death of Eaffaelle. as the of artists. In them the pictorial artist has of withdrawn himself farther from nature. and widow of Duke Alexander de partially Medici.. and Genoa.ITALIAN ORNAMENT. retaining at the same time an even more representation mode than in the earlier and purer examples. wayward fancy prompts an ever-recurring. In other instances. executed for the most part upon a white ground. and LXXXVIII. as at Figs. and in the seventeenth century the arabesque manner became almost entirely merged in such florid decorations as suited the extravagant ideas of architectural magnificence nourished by the Jesuits. the presence of ancient remains has almost invariably affected the local style of ornament in those spots where they have most abounded. and 5) we have collected in Plate LXXXVIII. 2. 1. carrying with them the experience his and knowledge they had acquired in the conduct of the great undertakings placed under charge. and colour. Italy. Margaret. both is shade. of style in the 4. of which we have presented numerous specimens in Plates LXXXVII. the decorative painter was allowed to place of the Padre Pozzo and his school. and tendrils. 7 and 9. than the perspective tricks Before leaving the subject of arabesque altogether. Pavia. while in the scanty openings left between the fluttering wings and draperies of angels and saints suspended in vaults and little else cupolas in mid-air. their styles became more and less purely decorative . in Thus. of the same plate. artist and 6.

Many 145 of the Aldine initial letters in the last-named plate appear as though they might have been engraved by P P . (Stephaus' Greek Testament. in the accessory elements of which composed. . have been freely sketched from the garden and of accidental effect is field. the fluttering ribbons." printed at Venice in the year 1499. an amount of delicate modelling and indication admissible. it Plate LXXXIX. fails. nature and the Servile. Unable to divest himself of his recollections of and at the same time too it egotistic to be content with to its careful reproduction. There are however. Plate XC. ridiculous masques seem sneering at the graceful forms which surround them antique are alike maltreated. yet never wanted wit. the forms of the ornament. where deference to it is some received type of form ceases to be servile. of taste that he is Like " Van who wanted grace. at is a scroll ornament freely dashed out entirely spoilt by the ludicrous object from which springs. the motives he borrowed from classic assume an aspect of unquiet rarely are be recognised in the remains of maltreated. as at the Madama. and vague jewelled forms of No. Thus. once Giulio's feebleness of imagination. 6 in the same plate "points a" severe "moral. ITALIAN ORNAMENT. which is adapted from one of the commonest patterns of antiquity. 5.. but unfortunately other of his with too great fecundity.. illustrate at once his ability and his weakness as an ornamentist. which disfigured so (Plate LXXX. in No. 3. which we have collected in Plate LXXXVIII. which must secure for him an honourable it is niche in the Temple of Art." was one of its on the score fallibility who in his time chief arbiters most frequently in 2. Figs. taken from the celebrated " Etymologion Magnum." its where an ornament should be most free in the disposition of main lines . his him. antiquity. This stamped upon several of the ornaments we have engraved Mantua. betrays at taste. there with which vanity to reproach him . and his want of The peculiar influence of local association upon styles of ornament. in the ornaments. and free. his running scroll. 4. Typographic Ornament from one of the productions of the early Parisian Press. The motives he derived from Nature bosom only to crush equally since he gathered flowers from her his fancy. and with fairly intoxicated much that was beautiful he blended not a little that was ridiculous. and in the 1 monotonous masques and foolscaps of No. but when he subsequently emerged into the " Gran Signore " at Mantua. Thus. a daring in and a rare sweep and certainty in his handling.) . in No. Again. strikes us as somewhat and feeble. yet. may be traced that tendency to caricature much that the genius of Romano threw Villa artists off with masterly power. 4-7. which we have already noticed in the case of arabesques. style and the almost even distribution of the " pieni " and " vuoti.. So long. The specimens of his arabesques. which the are taken principally from the Palazzo del Te. them in his rude grasp. No. his little exuberance was controlled by association with of purer taste than himself. and in No. illustrations may be traced with equal facility in the best typographic and xylographic of the early printers. the antique. and in Roman is works.)." have been evidently based on the of those Oriental or Byzantine fragments in which Venice was so pre-eminently rich. which in the representation of the more absolutely officious conventional elements of the specimens given in Plate LXXXVIII. 9-16. Already in the bustle of line.

in the stylo of Louis Seize. Theodore Rihel of Frankfort. Panels designed by Kay. Murano received great privileges. 3). the Venetians appear to have invented the art of introducing threads of coloured (latticinio) glass and opaque white beautiful into the substance of the articles they manufactured. it. On the other hand. sixteenth century. commodity which helped to spread the fame of Venice far and wide over the habitable globe. Nor are the specimens of the Parisian press worthy of the veneration of the virtuoso. from the celebrated Greek Testament). the very same hands that ploughed out the damascene patterns in the metal-work of the period. The Tuscan Rihle of 1538 presents us with endless conventional renderings of the ordinary Cinque-cento sculpture. 1554. 29. in 1574. In the productions of the Stephans (Fig. gilding. of Colinaeus. his pupil (Fig. it we propose glancing first would be unfair to altogether pass over. The taking of Constantinople by the Turks. drove the skilled Greek workmen thence and at that period the glass-manufacturers of Venice learned from the exiled Greeks their their productions modes of enriching by colouring. with of handing down to posterity who 146 . in the style of Louis Seize. Jean Palier and Regnault Chauldiere of Paris. and enamelling. and to its purer style. a and enduring enrichment. The and most interesting of them that of Venetian Glass —a . before briefly proceeding to trace the "first causes" at one or two branches of industry is of the general decline of revived Classical Art. in 1558.ITALIAN ORNAMENT. to Italy in 1453. forming suitable. to the delicate forms of the objects to which it was applied. of Mace Bonhomme in of Lyons. Returning to Italy. which less abounded in the churches of Florence. In the early part of the Ornaments designed tor Marquetry by Fay. and the severest penalties were enacted against any workmen who should divulge craft in or exercise their any other country. of local may be of found many agreeable and interesting illustrations differences in ornamental detail a semi-antique character. and even the workmen were not classed with ordinary the avowed object In 1602 a gold coin was the names of those struck at Murano. the masters of the glass-houses at artisans. from the lightness of secret of this art its character. Jacques de Liesveldt of Antwerp. The was most jealously guarded by the State.

re-fashioned in after- times but the Cabinet of the Grand still Duke of Tuscany at Florence. and monopolised the glass trade of Europe at the but commencement of the eighteenth century. established the first glass-houses on the island . and from it we learn that they were the following and Ballarin. one of the " PetUs-M. and in the vicinity of the courts. and England. the Venetians contrived to retain their valuable secret. . and which continued to be used for a considerable time. the taste for heavy cut glass began to prevail. in which the days of Louis XVI. about the date of the sack of Rome in France to . Julian Desfontaines.:. were not without their influence upon general design 147 . was the " enseigne. of the richest jewels which the fashion of the period introduced. Amousque by Tlwudorfl du Dry.. were above all praise. the hats of the nobles and in the The custom The of giving presents on all important occasions furnished constant employment to the jewellers of both countries. Muro. Claude and others.' The details of the art. France. together with Labarre. which sufficiently attest the skill and taste of the goldsmiths and jewellers of the sixteenth century.^'ics. Briati Gazzabin. for whom numerous fine works of art were executed by the Parisian goldsmith. .. Bigaglia. contain fine collections of jewelled and enamelled cups and other objects. and much more was. From this time the style of the French jewellery rapidly declined." which was generally worn by the nobility. Motta. For about two centuries . of the objects which greatly employed the ingenuity of the worked in the Louvre. for France at the accession of Henry IV." a species of medal generally worn in head-dress of the ladies. perfection of workmanship in metal-work having been transferred to bronze and brass. Vistosi. ITALIAN ORNAMENT. in for Of designs and such work we engrave two pleasing of ornament were redeemed specimens of the Parisian burin. for and subsequently the magnificence of the Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin paved the way of the age " Louis le Grand " in France. even during the periods. Miotti. no doubt. Leguso. most troubled and in restoration of peace in Italy. caused an increased demand the goldsmiths' pro- ductions. and the trade was dispersed to Bohemia. One jeweller at this period was the " aigrette. Many amount and very splendid works in the precious metals were executed at this period. who. and the Museum One of the Louvre at Paris. in Italy. by the conventions of Chateau Cambresis. pay the ransom of Francis I. The wiriness frivolity of this class by its faultless execution. A very large of these is supposed to have been melted down. and its popularity. Ballin. Vincent Petit. last alloy the chasings of the celebrated Gouthier.

artists. and sometimes brought the more elaborate articles Europe. being well received as substitutes . numerous fine specimens . in providing models for the damascene work. and russeting. from the East. the same features are presented. when we find It is it in use in Italy for decorating the plate-armour. now in the Cabinet de Medailles. which was long popular in both these countries. or captured in our foreign wars. indeed. so now becomes our less agreeable duty to note how was exercised in the seventeenth from the same procedure. the Cabinet de Medailles. It is remarkable. is Probably the finest existing specimen of damascening this the armour of Francis I. the Piccinini. generally. solecisms are to be found . as no unnatural consequence. was executed for the The engraving we present of a decoration composed by Theodore de Bry affords no bad illustration of the way in which motives expressly adapted for enamelling in the style of Cellini were thrown together."' it is At the beginning of the sixteenth century the art began to be exercised out of Italy that taste. of the kings of those countries attached to their courts. title employed upon weapons. to ordinary grotesque of the day. at Paris. that many of the forms peculiar to jewellers' work were introduced into decorations designed for altogether different purposes. that although we find that the Crusaders bought to Oriental arms at Damascus. the great Milan. where a great mixed style of Renaissance and bastard Italian. to the art. deal of a intricate This was especially the case in Germany. both in Germany and France. blacking. . Negroli. Grilles l'Egare." effected an immense amount of mischief French Art. it and by no means improbable artists was taught to the workmen of France and Spain by those travelling whom the good or possibly the vanity. for and Genoa. Pisa. as well as in the art of the armourer In our own country the process does not appear to have been engraving. and more particularly in Saxony. very the Italian writers designate under the of " lavoro azzimina. complications of architectural members. the drawing of the figures Augsburg artist than the broad style which Cellini had acquired from his study of the works of Michael Angelo. followed. From contain Cursinet. indicates rather an but on comparing them with any of his known works. and others. as well as in Italy. for since the delicate draughtsmen and engravers of the day were much employed by the goldsmiths it in working out their designs and patterns. viz. that time down to the middle of the seventeenth century a great number of -arms were decorated with damascening. great trading as such as Venice. and may be mentioned as excelling in damascene work. as in the case of the splendid suits of armour brought to England by the Earl of Pembroke after the battle of St. much exercised. but overrated. Both and the shield in Her Majesty's possession at Windsor have been attributed to the famous Cellini.. possess and the few specimens we were probably imported. Italian during their lives upon pinnacles which to made them the "observed 148 of all observers. with strap and ribbon-work. Quentin. set There can be no doubt that two highly-gifted. and Electors. that all' . parcel -gilding. of which the Louvre. cartouches. and the Musee d'Artillerie. As it has been our pleasant task to record how French Ornamental Art was it regenerated by imitation of Italian models in the deleterious an influence sixteenth century. and was afterwards taken up artists of a more permanent decoration armour than parcel-gilding by the to the East. it in the first instance. most probable that the art was introduced by the. make up the It is by no means in the works of Theodore de Bry alone that such for in the French etchings of Etienne de Laulne." no attempts should have been fifteenth made to imitate the manufacture until the middle century. Engravers and designers of this class were also much employed. as in the case of the " Vase de of the Vincennes. was the last emporium arms and armour. which city was then to for the best Europe what Damascus had been So exclusively.ITALIAN ORNAMENT. cities. and the names of Michael Angelo. which was then first adopted in that country.

Peter's . and bronze. Besides his works in architecture. The former was precocious the son of a Florentine for These artists were Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini. Peter's (afterwards taken down). not only as a sculptor. He evinced an unusually talent sculpture. moreover. have had a decided mechanical turn and. with an annual pension of two thousand crowns.. On Maderno's 149 death he QQ . He Como. when he was less sixty-eight years of age. and to Bernini. who accompanied him. little. he became both a brilliant carver and architect. and letters to the much to be forced to beg. the great hall and facade of the Barberini Palace. sculptor.ITALIAN" ORNAMENT. fifty thousand crowns. though he did but he is said to have received five golden Louis a-day. and was bom in 1589. and one of five hundred for his sons. from a design by Ll Pactrk. Spagna. During his residence there. and at his departure Ornamental Composition. in many as five hundred pictures in the Case Barberini and Chigi. of Europe. and whilst yet a youth was fully employed. the the College . requesting the sculptor's presence at Paris. the Ludovico Palace. to have painted as died in the year 1680. and the large fountains of the Piazza Navona de Propaganda Fide . Peter's the Vatican. is On his return to Rome he made an equestrian statue in honour of Louis. celebrated Triton in the Piazza Barberini. Francesco Borromini was born speedily near the year 1599. staircase on the Monte Citorio: to the Piazza of St. which to now at Versailles. he appears . entirely at He resided almost Rome. besides numerous other works. and the great from St. Louis XIV. facing the Strada Felice a campanile to celebrated St. so Busts by Bernini were eagerly that sought after by the sovereigns and nobles to much so. where he designed the fountain of the Barcaccia in the Piazza di . Apprenticed at an early age to Carlo Maderno. who was unused be refused anything. but as an architect. was actually obliged to write supplicatory Pope. sculpture.

however. 1726-7. the twisted and and shells of the former grew into 150 . draughtsmen. broken. does De Neufforge sufficiently is. succeeded to the charge of the works at St. both of Louis XIV. engravers. not only to his own enrichment. Jean Berain. Louis Seize.). as a taste for beautiful furniture exists. 1727— and Mariette. and To dwell to upon individuals among mass of clever ornamental designers. the disproportionate mouldings. as well as in many of the interior decorations given in Blondel's works published during the reign of Louis XV. every Until extravagance that Bernini's style possessed Borromini contrived to caricature. grew far more "rococo" and " barocque " than had been during the part of his predecessor's reign. in Du Cerceau. contrasted. and XV. in 1715. and others. by Fay. He contributed materially to the decoration is of the (ialerie in a. in the midst of their extravagance. and re-entering curves. elaboration versus simplicity and beauty. and in the 900 plates comprised in his great graceful fooling tlie body of Ornament. and that to him we are indebted for the best designs whieh will render the name of Buhl famous so long Frieze Ornament. he soon obtained ample tendency to employment and in his capricious vagaries.). in 1667. who cannot be passed over. which much purer. the master of the ceremonies in this latter court of revels. in in devising similar enormities. the manner of designing greatest architect With the advent of Louis XV. with whom he very shortly quarrelled. Peter's under Bernini. lines and crooked and surfaces. 1576— substituted the more elaborate. he continued sedulously occupied in subverting all known principles of order and symmetry. many of the French arti>ts of the time. made many beautiful ornamental designs. however. and tended to confirm the public taste in facility and Despite this debasing influence. Another large collection of his admirably sportive designs was engraved by Daigremont. whom the Grand (nit Monarque and the There brilliant court of his successor is gave good pay and plenty of work. Scotin. showing in them a sense of capricious beauty of line rarely surpassed. Borromini's works. one. as in elegantly testified work published the year 1710. and of the State apartments in the Tuileries. in In spite of the fine talents and good example set by the foliated scrolls Soufflot his works. became the mode of the day. of In some Le Pautre's designs (reign of Louis XIV.ITALIAN ORNAMENT. seeing that he held the special appointment of "Dessinateur des Menus Plaisirs du Roi" (Louis XIV. near his death. it to the throne. and all Europe was speed ilv busy style. and which were published to the year 1725 —and Bibiena's. In France the fever raged speedily. this quality may be recognised. The anomalies ho introduced interrupted into design. would be of place here.. but to the admiration of the leaders of fashion of the day. and the popular to place of the quaint but picturesque forms be seen in the engravings of but less agreeable ones to be found in Marot. From his fervid imagination : and rare facility as a draughtsman and designer. which were not were given the world in 1740— had a large circulation. d'Apollon of the Louvre.

the cabinet-maker. celebrated for his exquisite marquetry. happily. and Demontreuil. Louis Seize. The best artists were employed by Napoleon and the talent of Percier. principally in his buildings in the Adelphi. for. as they should be. France execution is. but approaching originality. it must be confessed. reigned. and Cavelier. M. of fashion. " style ensued. be enabled to place the Allies. l'Empire. style of approaching inanition. DIGBY WYATT. however. master of the field in the distribution class . designed by Fay. 151 . Goutliier. developed <le in its' highest perfection the graceful and learned. carver in wood to the royal family. upon a footing of equality.. hands.— ITALIAN ORNAMENT. by Fay. and confusion again The ability however. and an enthusiasm middle ages for rivals of a somewhat archaeological nature supervened. to an into this though liney corresponding in some degree to that introduced country able by Robert Adams. Fragonard. Prudhon. but stiff and cold. exercised a beneficial influence over industrial design The genius of three very men Marie at a period shortly preceding the Revolution Reisner. are rapidly forming themselves throughout the country. the liberally "mode" from stern Republican grew magnificent Imperialist. and of ornament of almost every it is but so rapid and hopeful is the progress now taking place in this country. the "rocaille" and grotto-work of the latter. that by no means impossible that an historian writing some few years hence may. at the present time. soon revived the public interest. As the Republic. Fontaine. styles of eclectic character." native With the Restoration the antique went out of the country. brass-chaser to Antoinette. and out of the manifold studies so made. degenerating at last into all the eccentricities of " Chinoiaerie. Panel suitable for Reisner Marquetry. Frieze style. sought restored." elegant From this style. I. it During the Revolution Chaos and out of in came order in the shape of an utter abjuration of the " colifichets " of the Monarchy favour of the Republican severity of a David. ripened into the Empire. ornament revived under Louis XVI. Normand. aided by judicious and liberally conducted educational institutions. The monuments and imitated on of the all and of the Renaissance were cared for.

Ac. Ac. folio. Tabernacles. folio. &c. Spry Bartlett. 1838. plain and coloured. Architettura di. d'apres plates. Second Edition. the Arabesques of the Ancients With an Essay by compared with 4to. Livre d' Architecture. corrections by the author. e R. K. 1570. Albeeti (L. D'Androuet du Cerceau. Milan. Milano. ou. Ponce (N. and Sepulchral Monuments Fresco Decorations and Stuccoes and aug- of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. d Architecture. Boucher. plain and coloured. existing at Home. selon let Anciens. DlEDO E ZanotTO. London. Rusooni (G. Svo. Dedaux. New edition. *Zahn(W. (Euvrts d' Architecture de. Illustrated by 80 plates. Ac. by MM. 1584. 1 Oblong piu scelti Ornati sparsi per la Citta di Bologna. Lon- VoLPATO ed Ottavtano. Nonnand. 1830. Berlin. Emil Braun. 4to. Nouvelle Edition. Peintures. Mathematicis und Kunstlern. in folio. 1756. Augusta?. in folio. in folio. 1551. Adams (E. folio. New edition. largely augmented by numerous plates. Pain's British Palladio. Loggie del Raffacle nel Valicano. par. 152 . Venet.) Monumens Sepulcraux tt Toscane. Tosi and Becchio. Rome. Folio. in folio. imperial folio. dessine's par Scamozzi. Regola dei cinque Ordini d' Architettura. enatlas folio. D'Avilee. Paris. 1559. 1850. d. by Quatremere de Quincy. in Vincent Gozzini. English. graves par Jerome Scotto.A. 1835. In folio.) De Re JEdificatoria Opus. Piranesi (Fr. Ant. Specimens of Ornamental Art selected from the best Models of the Classical Epochs. in Clochae (P. da. Serijo (Seb. 1 vol. 1839. Ornamenti diversi inventati. Passavant Santi. Recueil de Decorations interieures. with additions and Stabilimento di Firenze. Bibiena. 1615. Florent.) The Polychromatic Ornomcnt of Italy. in folio. folio. Lagny. folio. in oblong. arabesque decorations. Bomae. Paris. de la Gozzini (V. in Stuccoes of Churches and Palaces in Italy during the Fifteenth Tito. Gruner (L. Paris. by Viqnola.) Diffirentes Manieres tl'»rner folio. par. Borne. Francesco Zanotlo. I Monue Recueil et d' Arabesques. J. par. d. 1821. Paris 8 vols. 1*53. Sepulchral Monuments of Venice. A series of 61 engravings of the paintings. St. Folio.. (By Authority. illustrati dal Cav. aller Klassischen Kunst-Epoclien nach den The most select Ornaments of Bologna. in this interesting * From work the materials for Plates LXXVIL. Luke. 40 Plans and Views of the most remarkable Monuments Paris. De Neuffoege. Raccolta originalen in ihren eigenthiimlichen farben dargestellt. LITERARY AND PICTORIAL. Boma. Recueil e'lementaire Oblong 4to. (1757). Leipzig. 1740. London. by Mrs. Venez. 1797. Idea dell' Architettura da. X. in Borbomini (F. Paris. n. 1782.) de' ) Ornamenle 849. Ac. Style antique. le menti cospicui di Venezia. 40 plates. augmentee de vingt-neuf planches. 1593. G. LXXVIIL. lib. of the Baths of Titus. and French. London. 2 vols. Ac. Uhambre de Marie de Medicis au Palais 4" Luxembourg Ornements qui la dicorent. 1802. par. of Churches Tosi and Becchio. Architettura di. London. folio. 1854. da.) par. Recueil a" Arabesques.. Monuments et Tombeaux mesures et destines en talie. desegnali ed incisi da Giovanni Magazzari. 1626. folio. Palladio. Florence. In zwei Theilen mit vierzehn Abbildungen. 8vo. 1853. Venez. folio.) Raphael. par. Bologna.) Folio. 1730. 'ours d'Architecture. n. Zobi (Ant. Dell' Architettura. in Philibert de Lorme.. mented by numerous 1854. B. (J. Peerault. 1815. Folio. J. avec leur Descriptions. Ordonnance des cinq Especes de Colonnes. LXXIX. have been derived. 1485. Florence. 4to. Paris. 1. Palaces in Italy during the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. ITALIAN ORNAMENT. with descriptive text. las Cheminees. Published under the patronage of the celebrated Academy of Descriptions in Italian.) Historisclie Nachricht von den Nunibcrgischen Mathematicians and Artists of Nuremberg. Magazzari (G. with descriptions by Lewis Gruner. 114 Doppelmayr (J. 1683. in folio. Romberg. graved by Carloni. Paris. Hiltorff on those of Ilaffaelle ings. in And other works. in 4to. Paris. Antonio Diedo da grand nombre Compositions du nieme genre dans Ac. 1735. Description des Bains de Tite. in4to. Albebtolli. 1812. 1837.) Rafael von Urbino und sein Vater Giovanni 3 vols. da. in Italy. D. ceil- and Sixteenth Centuries. and his School. in Percier et Fontaine. Queverdo. Altars. don.) Description of the Plates of Fresco Decorations and Terme de d' Archil cttura di. 4to. folio. Folio.) in folio. folio. et Life of Raphael. 1768.) Tuttele Opere Libri cinque d' Architettura di. Folio. Venet. contenanl d'aulres les Loges du Vatican d'apres Raphael. Venet.) Opus Architectonicum.) Notizie Storiche sull' Origine e l'rogressi dei Lavori di Commesso in Pietre Dure cite si esequiscono nell' I. 2 vols. plates. Paris. BOOKS REFERRED TO FOR ILLUSTRATIONS.

and traced from Natural Leaves. Ivy. PLATE XCVII. . and Strawberry-tree. PLATE XCV. Fig-tree. Yew. Turkey Oak. Blackberry. and traced from Natural Leaves. size. Plates 91-100. traced from Natural Leaves. Laurel. XCIII. 1.'?. Vine. All full 4. " 2. Holly. Ivy Palmata. RR 153 . All full size. PLATE XCVI. PLATE Vine Leave. Scarlet Oak. LEAVES AND FLOWERS FEOM NATURE. Full size. and traced from Nature. Full size. PLATE Horse-chestnut Leaves. traced from Natural Leaves. 2. 4. Maple. Wild Rose. and 5. 5. All full size. PLATE XCIV. and traced from Natural Leaves. Oak. White Oak. PLATE 1. All full size. 1. Common Ivy. 3. White Bryony.— Chapter XX.-". Bay-tree. 2. Ivy. 1. Full XCI. 5. 6. 3. XCII. 2. 4. Laburnum. 7. size. traced from Natural Leaves. Hawthorn. 3.

11. 2. Full size. L>. 8. 2. of the works of ornament. the farther we are re- moved from producing Although ornament a work of art.' than the arrangement of form on an attempt to imitate the absolute forms of those works. Convolvulus. <j. Mouse-ear. and centuries. We have endeavoured to show in the preceding chapters. Glossocomia clematidea. Harebell.LEAVES AND FLOWERS FROM NATURE. 17. in the floral carpets. or to overload or to disguise in all cases the very soul of an architectural monument. sufficient evidence to show that no art can be produced by such means and that the more closely nature copied. how far if we may we go succeed. and theresay. Levcesteria formosa. as faithfully as natural form as may be possible. 10. but it depend much on what we go the Greeks went. Isis. White Lily. If we go to nature as the Egyptians and may hope. Daffodil. Onion. 1. Narcissus. 10. or even as the Gothic artists little. 13. floral papers. Periwinkle. Full size. and should never be allowed them. ~. . 12. Primrose. carvings of the present day. 154 . is most properly only an accessory to architecture. Honeysuckle. The world has become weary of the styles eternal repetition same conventional forms which have been borrowed from fore can excite in us but little sympathy. we of the fourteenth to seek. 18. the forms of nature. Speedwell. PLATE J'assion Flowers. PLATE XCVIIL Plans and Elevations of Flowers. as. as the ancients did. we to " Go back will to nature. Dog-Rose. there seems a general disposition arising to reproduce. 1. which have passed away. Ladies' Smock. it is to usurp the place of structural features. that in the best periods of art principles which regulate all ornament in this was rather based upon an observation of the nature. in the present uncertain state in which we are. a 4. it We think desirable to insist rather strongly on this point. Honeysuckle. we should gain but We is have already. and not copying. fifteenth but there like the Chinese. a universal cry of There has risen. LEAVES AND FLOWERS FEOM NATUEE. C. Mallow. and that whenever in limit was exceeded any art." we should be amongst the first echo that cry. 14. 9. PLATE XCIX.5. and floral . it was one of the strongest symptoms of decline : true art consisting in idealising. Clarkia. Convolvulus.

that one cause of the adoption its universally of this style during the thirteenth century arose from the great familiarity with existed. induced an attempt to rival them in stone in the buildings of the time. very familiar with this system so of ornamentation and we cannot doubt. more especially. and the engraver. and even the general form of the existed leaves.LEAVES AND FLOWERS FROM NATURE. moreover. which predominate in the the thirteenth century. leading forms which already The in floral style. hangings. therefore. but imperfect knowledge of the peculiarities architecture. artists' minds. is this universal desire for progress to be satisfied ? —how style is any new style of ornament first be invented or developed Some will probably say. more difficult. works of ornament is co-existent with the earliest attempts of civilisation of every people does not create it. which succeeded. loom. Unfortunately. and we should be beginning so. that is less accurately from the most is approved models at the but the very artist. this would be necessarily The the Elizabethan period were much more and familiar with the paintings. the mouldings may be more or instant. the painter. We means therefore think a. they have that other to do . artists in In any borrowed style. have given an almost Eastern character architects . which England received from the Continent. most probably. to then. to early English ornament. good. the principle of its growth was observed in the conventional ornaments. and that architecture adopts ornament. How. and more especially decoration?. is The architectural ornament of the Elizabethan period mostly a reproduction of the works of the. What could so readily be done by another. By the ornament of a building we can judge more truly of the creative power which the artist of the has brought to bear upon the work. was also preceded by the same style works of ornament. metal-work. in direct imitation of nature. than . has tended very much to this result. from the East. The general proportions copied building may be . events. and. It was the peculiar application of this leaf to the formation of the capital of a column which was the sudden invention that created the Corinthian order. we see how far the architect same time the It the best measure of the care and refinement bestowed upon the work. at all growing round an earthen pot but the acanthus leaf existed as an ornament long before. is said to have been suggested by an acanthus leaf found or. if we could only arrive at the invention of a new termi- nation to a means of support. The principle of the architecture of foliation. 155 . furniture. The facility of painting flowers in direct imitation of nature in the pages of a missal. ornament is attempted. The Corinthian order of architecture . at the wrong end to commence with ornament. so. one of the most difficult points would be accomplished. long before in the illuminated MSS. . The of the thirteenth century were. is To put ornament in the right place not easy . to render that ornament at the same time a superadded beauty and an is still expression of the intention of the whole work. and so far have abdicated their high position of the architect. we are justified in the belief. that would be one of the readiest of arriving at a new style : for instance. The fatal facility of manufacturing ornament which the revived use of the acanthus leaf has and deadened the creative instinct in left given. A new of architecture must be found. for the task the it has been too much the practice in our time to abandon to hands most unfitted their interior adornment of the structural features of buildings. and other articles of luxury. and derived as they were. that a new style of it ornament may be produced independently of new style of architecture. the head and chief. which led to the development of those which distinguish Elizabethan architecture from the purer architecture of the Revival. for We do not think We have already shown that the desire . they would be with the architectural monuments it is this familiarity with the ornamentation of the period.

types which we have gathered together many of those natural prevail in we thought best calculated to awaken a recognition of the natural laws which 156 . compare them with the works of nature. whatever type he the desire to imitate it. If the world has not seen. to subside into decline and stage. the pointed arch and vault of the Middle Ages. the tangential curvatures if of lines. It is for their use that we have gathered together this collection of the works of the past. we have hope that is we are destined to see more than the commencement of a change the architectural profession at the present influenced time too ill- much under and the influence of past education on the one hand. secondly. be led to the creation of new forms equally beautiful. From the present chaos there will undoubtedly. however. But could not this have been said in Could the Egyptian have ever imagined that any other mode of spanning Could the Mediaeval architect have ever gulfs could be crossed last space would ever be found than his huge blocks of stone? dreamed that iron? systems. and that by hollow tubes of of the architectural Let us not despair. will examine for himself the works of the past. and architecture with us exhibits a want of vitality. the decoration of these structural features which gives the characteristics of style. structural features would appear.LEAVES AND FLOWERS FROM NATURE. doubt not that new forms of beauty will more readily arise under his hand. in the prevailing fashion of resting only on the works of the past the for present out. It is means of spanning space between the supports. disorder. and that we have nothing but to use either the one or the other of the systems which have already run their coune. he cannot fail to be himself a creator. and they all follow so naturally one from the other. that the left means of varying these had been ex- hausted. The chief the features of a building which form a style are. and too : much by an informed public on the other it but the rising generation in both classes are born under happier auspices. and in the ten plates of leaves and flowers which accompany this chapter. his airy vaults could be surpassed. but that all should. an architecture which shall be worthy of the high in every other direction towards the possession of the tree of knowledge. not that they should artists be slavishly copied. We all believe that if a student in the arts. first. that the invention of one will It command the rest. the we are now passing through an age of copying. may borrow from Nature. For the present. most assuredly. thirdly. bend his mind to a thorough appreciation of the principles which reign in each. be asked —What time? is left ? We it shall perhaps be told that look for all the means of covering space have already been exhausted. will only lay aside temptation to indolence. advance which man has made To return to our subject. (it may not be in our time). by an attentive examination of the principles which pervade the works of the past. We think it impossible that a student fully impressed with the law of the universal ness of things in nature. than can ever follow from a continuation inspiration. and the domes of the it will Mohammedans. or even attempted to be formed In the place. readily improving. till another culminating point of Art shall be again are far reached. with the wonderful variety of form. and that all were vain to other forms. refining upon each other's efforts. some few the fixed the proportionate distribution of areas. the round arch of the Romans. yet all arranged around laws. the world has passed through similar periods before. at first sight. —How ? is any new first . If we reject the use of the column and horizontal beam of the Greeks and Egyptians. arise. It will require but a few minds to give the first impulse: way once pointed others will follow. and radiation from a parent stem. the formation of the roof. the means of support. style of art or new little style of ornament to be formed. and which have excited universal admiration. earnest in his search after knowledge. instead of reproducing the forms fit- of the past. he will it dismiss from his mind we but will only seek to follow still the path which so plainly shows him. and to individualise new forms. we enough removed from either We have been desirous to aid this movement to the extent of our power. and. for is to them we must look hope in the future.

— not removed. the distribution of form. The Creator has not made all things beautiful. the area of each lobe diminishes in equal proportion as it approaches the stem. XCIX. there is nothing left for us but to copy the five or seven-lobed flowers of the thirteenth century the Honeysuckle of the Greeks or the Acanthus of the Romans. XCIX. and . and leave the form more perfect . which the Creator has sown broadcast over the earth. They are there to awaken a natural instinct implanted in —a desire to emulate in the works of our hands the order. as our study. how unvarying to arouse the principles.. the thicker will be substance. in the chestnut leaf.— LEAVES AND FLOWERS FROM NATURE. Plate XCI. in plan and elevation. Leicester Sq. But. force. This universal law of equilibrium everywhere apparent in Plates XCVIIL. a single leaf. or the weight it has to support. and this. will dare say that . on the contrary. so are they offered us. We feel persuaded that there all yet a future open to us we have but set from our slumbers. then. contains the whole of the laws which are to be found in Nature no art can rival the perfect grace of its form. the greater the distance has to travel. however varied that surface it may its be . indeed. takes the way of reaching the confines of the surface. Castle St. from the centre with equal regularity. ss 157 . XCVIIL. these laws will be found to be so universal. from which all will be seen that the basis of form is geometry. we may see in an assemblage of leaves of the vine or the ivy. a line which could be arises not a line upon the surfaces but tends more surely to develop the form. We may gather this from But if we further study the law of their growth. The same laws prevail in the distribution of lines on the surface of flowers. C. that the also in the same law which prevails As in the formation of the single leaf prevails assemblage of leaves. the radiation from the parent stem. — the stem.) On it Plate XCVIIL we have shown several varieties of flowers. starting stops at equal distances. necessarily the result is symmetry and Who. or the even distribution of the surface decoration. Is that this alone can produce art? Nature so tied? is See how various the forms. as it leaves the naturally from the law of the growth of each plant. the symmetry. The single example of the chestnut : leaf. Plate XCI. the impulse which forms the surface. readiest The life-blood. so in in any combination of leaves each leaf is everywhere harmony with the group is : as in one leaf the areas are so perfectly distributed that the repose of : the eye maintained.. (See Convolvulus. the tangential curvatures of the lines. why ? Because the beauty sap.. the grace. LONDON: Primed by John Stkangeways. it is equally so in the group we never find a disproportionate leaf interfering is to destroy the repose of the group. that we should thus a limit to our for admiration. the perfect proportional distribution of the areas.. His works are offered for our enjoyment. the fitness. that they are as well seen in one leaf as in a thousand.

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