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Summary: Pilot Projects Division (PPD), Centre on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP) organized a workshop on ‘Reduction of Post-Harvest Agricultural Crops Losses', on 23 November 2009 at CIRDAP Auditorium. This workshop is organized with a hope to continue further national and regional collaboration on post harvest involving relevant institutions, policy makers and other stakeholders, when there are frequent natural calamities, rising population as well as the declining trend in agricultural investment has put food security in the Asia-Pacific countries under threat. The situation eventually gave rise to prices of commodities going beyond the purchasing power of the millions of poor consumers, leaving them underfed and malnourished, as the workshop said. Besides, 30 – 50% of Agricultural crops do not reach the final consumers and getting lost which make less profit to the farmers and food stakeholders and enhancing food security risk based on FAO documents. Natural calamities are beyond control, managing and controlling the crops loss are easily accessible, if some investments are made on the processing of agricultural crops, mainly in the postharvest chain," as experts mentioned in this very relevant workshop of this time around. Additional Secretary of the Ministry of Food and Disaster Management Ahmed Hossain Khan, Government of Bangladesh was the Chief Guest and inaugurated the half-day workshop. Dr. Durga P.Paudyal, Director General, CIRDAP delivered the welcome address as the inaugural session was initiated by the recitation of the holy Quaran by Mr. Hossein Shahbaz, Director Pilot Projects Division. Mr. K.A.S. Dayananda, Director ICD, and Dr. S.K. Singh, Director Training were in the front Dias during inauguration session along with Dr. S. M. Mahfuzur Rahman, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BIRRI) and Dr. Md. Shahjahan, National Consultant, Horticulture and Agroprocessed Foods Sector, Bangladesh Quality Support Programme (BQSP), EPB.
he strongly recommended for generation of technology on post-harvest lost reduction and agricultural. the livelihoods of 70% of the rural population in Bangladesh are dependent on agriculture. Dr Durga P. resulting in less profit for the farmers thus 2 . Mr. food science. The discussions and sharing as Mr. Post harvest management in Bangladesh. CIRDAP informed the participants. He thanked the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI). Ahmed opined that would bring some suggestion and recommendations which CIRDAP should communicate with the relevant policy makers of the country through its contact ministry under Government of Bangladesh (GoB). preservation. Mr. was in the Chair of the Inauguration Session and mentioned that : • • • • • • Post harvest loss is a common problem in the counties of Asia-pacific though it differs to the context of the countries improvement in the chain of post harvest Globalization process has been changed the context. The Chief Guest emphasized on improving the processing. is far from satisfactory. Agricultural research and development in Bangladesh has contributed tremendously to meeting the food requirements of Bangladesh’s population of approximately 150 million. while a number of processing technologies are still under development. which would help to mitigate food security problem of the country to some extend. He also emphasize on stronger regional cooperation among countries in the region to address the food security issues through integration of resources and sharing of knowledge and experiences. relatively little priority has been given to the post-production sector. He informed that in Bangladesh post harvest management is pivotal as because nearly 15% of the cereal crops are lost in the post harvest period while for fruits and vegetable the ranges are 20-25%. storage. as a major source of foreign exchange earnings.The Chief Guest. Moreover. and the National Consultant of Bangladesh Quality Support Programme (BQSP) who supported this workshop by expert’s paper presentations. In this regard. Mr. Citing Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Regarding Bangladesh he mentioned that Agriculture plays a key role in the overall economic performance of Bangladesh. Processing technologies have been developed for a few fruits. technology and industry engineers should come forward to utilize their knowledge properly. experts in the workshop said that some 30 to 50 per cent of agricultural crops lost in the process. Ahmed noted that poverty can be alleviated from the society through increasing the income and value addition by reduction of the food losses by the rural farmers. Ahmed Hossain Khan mentioned that rise in almost all food prices to such a height that these went far beyond the purchasing power of the millions of poor consumers around the world. like in most developing countries of the region. The absence of a well-developed marketing network and rapid transportation in the country also contributes significantly to high post harvest losses in fruits and vegetables which resulting in diminished returns to farmers and other stakeholders. Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI). Ahmed said that though considerable priority has been given to the production sector. Paudyal. leaving them underfed and malnourished as the Chief Guest mentioned. Director general CIRDAP. do not reach the final consumers. in terms of its contribution to GDP. Mr. preservation and storage systems. Ahmed mentioned that the problem of post harvest losses is compounded by the lack of proper processing. and in providing employment to about 65% of the country’s population. transportation and a developed marketing network. in the midst of price raising of food commodities in the light of food security Agriculture productivities has came up as curial factor of food security Climate change has came up with the impact of natural calamities on agriculture Sustainable livelihood issues should be brought to the policy makers Reduction of post harvest chain is crucial for food security where land is scared CIRDAP is going to organize the 2nd Ministerial meeting in Dhaka to bring the common concern of the Asia-Pacific region to the policy makers for taking relevant projects as DG. Post harvest management is pivotal in an agricultural country such as Bangladesh.
(WR. Iran ranks 4th on Diversity of Agricultural products in the world Definition of Post Harvest: FAO: "the postharvest system should be thought of as encompassing: 1. the time and place of consumption. Lastly. academics. Iran’s position in world ranking: 1. Presentations of business sessions were followed by open discussions by the workshop participants. he thanked the Chief Guest to be present in the workshop despite his busy schedule and encouraged the all the researchers. maximum return for all involved 3 . maximum efficiency and 5. which came up with some suggestions and recommendations. horticulture and technology. the principal structure of the world agriculture products is composed of 66 different products and Iran is among the top 10 countries producing 15 types of these products in the world 2.R.1%) • Agricultural crops(2007): 102 million tones • 4 Season Products • Rain: Average 240 mm (Bangladesh 1500-2500 mm) Data on Agriculture Sector: • Crops: 102 MT • Food supply: 96% • Employment: 20% • Non oil export: 25 % • GDP share: 10.R. rural development practitioners and development professionals. Academics. the delivery of a crop from the time and place of harvest to 2. At the end there were two working groups namely. Iran: • Area: 1.2 % • Raw material for Agro Industries: 90 % • Share in GDP growth rate: 1% out of 7% • • Increase the quality of food Increase of agriculture productivity is difficult rather than to reduce the post harvest losses. Salient Features of Paper Presentations as follow as: 1.17&1.18 &1%) • Population: 72 m. CIRDAP is planning to incorporate the same in the workshop report for further disseminations. 3.195 sq km = Half of India (WR.enhancing risks in food security. 4. Iran By Hossein Shahbaz.05%) • Purchase P. GDP: 840 B$ (WR. √ Business Session: Five papers were presented in the two-sessions of the workshop that also provided a forum for professional sharing and learning among the academicians.648. researchers and development officials spontaneously participated in the discussions. PPD. implementers and participants from GO and private sectors to participate in the workshop and come up with recommendations. Director. Reduction of Agricultural Crops Post Harvest Losses: Agriculture and some practices of I. According to FAO. with minimum loss. 19 & 1. CIRDAP Why is Post Harvest important? • Increase Food Security • More Value Added • To reduce the pressure on environment • Reduce impact of unfair trade • Decrease unemployment rate Basic Data on I. Pilot Project Division.
It may cause to reformulate the marketing and distribution methods to reduce losses and enhance hygiene situations. But the relative humidity (RH) is high due to many wetlands. 5.Post-harvest system: • technical activities: harvesting. It can supply enriched food. extension. So. Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) 2. MOJA and Ministry of Commercial: Storage. Quality+ Standard Some suggestions to Bangladesh: 1. Bangladesh is producing large amount of grains which have to be kept dried. it is a must to review the marketing and distribution systems and channels. 3. 2. to mitigate the span of fluctuation of prices and availability. recycling or disposal. administration and management. birds and soon which are spread out all over the country. This will supply fresh fruit and vegetables during whole year too. infants and etc. Standard communication. storage. information and • Responsible on Post harvest in Iran: • • • Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture (MOJA): Production MOJA and Ministry of Industries and Mines: Processing. threshing. It is therefore. Mahfuzur Rahman. S. 4 . processing. marketing. special food for sick peoples. Storage (except grains). processing. Processing of fruits and vegetables is one of the efficient ways to diversify food items and enhance the shelf time of perishable crops. Financial support. then Bangladesh needs to keep the grains in adequate places such as silos. cleaning. kids. transport. Rice Post harvest Situation and Strategy for the Reduction of Losses in Bangladesh Presentation by Dr. Mostly in Bangladesh. the development of the grain storage system is pivotal and tower silos are more useful. the pressure on lands still is high and some areas are used for plantation four times annually. biological losses are considerable because of the rats. nutrition. 6. accordingly. import and export. field drying. ripening • economic activities: transporting. additional drying. One of the serious problem of Bangladesh to produce food for the huge population where there is the scarcity of land which is growing everyday due to sea-level rise (climate change) and construction increasing. development of storage system is very important. Research. the best and easiest approach which results in affirmative reaction is management control of crops losses. It was mentioned before that the price and availability of fruits and vegetables fluctuate highly due to seasonal product. Packing. So. quality control. Farm Machinery and Post Harvest Technology Division. it may not possible to utilize more than it is. so to reduce losses. rivers. 4. Principal Scientific Officer. Waste Management is the collection. and monitoring of waste materials. Getting more crops. Fertilizer Ministry of Health. fresh fruits and vegetables are consumed. M. long coastal areas and raining and also based on the reports.
investors Custom-hire service of post harvest machinery needs to be strengthened. Md. 8. rice bread. 1. 5. M. as Dr. Shahjahan.Recommendations: In Bangladesh. Feasibility of Agro-processing Industries in Bangladesh and Export Potential of Agroprocessed Products By: Dr. b) Technological Recommendation Dissemination of developed technologies on post harvest processing and packaging to the end users Extensive training on post harvest machinery operation. rice noodles. 3. where CIRDAP should intervene and recommend to the policy makers to fill up this gap with regards to the reduction of post harvest loss. Mahfuzur Rahman opined that there is a gap as technologies usually do not reach to the farmers. EPB Recommendations: 2. farmers. bio fuel etc 3. manufactures. 7. bank loan facility on post harvest machinery Government can reduce the tariff charge on raw material of post harvest machinery Mass media (TV. S. Provide necessary support to the entrepreneurs for establishing agro-based industry Develop contract farming system for production fruits and vegetables Conduct training for development of human resources Increase Equity Entrepreneurship Fund to encourage the entrepreneurs for establishing agroprocessing industry Introducing cool chain supply system for horticultural crops Develop of a data base and information dissemination website in Bangla and English Establish quality control laboratory in each of the agro-processing industry Develop system for providing accredited testing services to the enterprises through strengthening BSTI Improve reliability of power supplies to agro-processing industries 5 . 6. radio. National Consultant. Updated information on post harvest losses of rice needs to be done Use of Optimum energy Value addition of rice and rice bye product for producing rice bran oil.Bangladesh Quality Support Programme (BQSP). 2. newspaper etc.) coverage at nominal tariff is needed Appropriate apex body for post harvest technology needs to be set up Agricultural Engineering wing of DAE should have enough manpower Stop setting up Engleberg huller and to encourage setting up rubber roll huller mill. He also mentioned about the following gaps: a) Policy Recommendations • • • • • • • • BBS can include the post harvest and pre harvest machinery and devices during their agricultural census Formulation of policy on appropriate national post harvest processing technology Government need to provide subsidy. Horticulture and agro-processed Foods Sector. 4. R&M Committed manufacturer and a post harvest technology village Manufacturers should have ready made stock Close linked with researcher.
000. Dependable reaper and combine harvester are to be available on custom hire 6 . The agro-processed product has a vast export demand particularly in the ethnic markets. Bangladesh Rice Research Institute Loss reduction suggestions: • • Harvesting of paddy should be at optimum maturity to reduce losses. 2006 Losses (%) 40 20-50 >35 20-50 27-42 16-41 17-35 20-25 ›Production & Post harvest Losses of Fruits & Vegetables are in 38. Create income generation to the rural poor which will ultimately play a vital role in poverty reduction strategy of the Government. it has the prospects to enter into the supper markets. create income generation for the rural people and increase export earnings for the nation. Farm Machinery and Post-harvest Technology Division.9. 12. 10. 11. Miaruddin. Establishment of agro-processing industry in the major Establishment of agro-processing industries in the country has become a weapon in reducing post harvest losses of our agricultural produce.00 taka in Bangladesh Preservation of Fruits & Vegetables by Steeping 5. Traceability system should be developed from market to field for each of the product Conclusion: • • • • • Growing areas of fruits and vegetables will significantly reduce the losses. Reduction of Post-harvest losses in Rice Presented by : M. reaper and combine harvester can be utilized. If the qualities are maintained. Increase funding for research to develop processing and preservation technologies Establish modern packaging institution Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) should be introduced to ensure fresh and quality raw materials. Post harvest Losses of Fruits & Vegetables in the Asia-Pacific Region: Country India: Indonesia Iran Korea Philippines Sri Lanka Thailand Vietnam Source: FAO & APO. Post harvest Technology Division Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI).Abul Quasem. Senior Scientific Officer (LPR). Principal Scientific Officer. Optimum maturity of the crop is achieved when 80% grains of the panicle become straw colour To meet up the labor shortage during harvesting. POSTHARVEST MANAGEMENT OF FRUITS & VEGETABLES FOR REDUCING THE LOSSES By Mr. 4.
a) tourism and b) agro-processing though it has huge economic opportunities. He also suggested for more action research project related with post harvest issues. as it produces the same fruits a lot. Singh.Market Coordinator. A study may be conducted and information disseminated on the appropriate time of ‘Aman’ season harvesting to minimize shattering loss Conclusion: • Paddy harvesting at optimum maturity. India where they have processed these popular fruits and introduced in the market which may be useful to Bangladesh also. Syedul Isam. Iran opined that during his long stay in Bangladesh since 80’s he has observed that two sectors are being neglected in Bangladesh i. sellers and buyers. thanked the paper presenters. Winrock International mentioned on change of food habit and emphasized on working together between government and private sectors. for their nice and informative presentations. Mr. Asif Mahfuz. Prof. Dr. More cold storages should be encouraged from the private sector in Bangladesh. BRRI. Wrap the Session by the Chairperson Professor Bala. He cited the example of jackfruit and litchis in Kerala. Dr. K. CIRDAP. It is noted that combine harvesting will reduce labor requirement but increase grain loss (about 3%). opined for the requirement of balance food. • Properly dried paddy stored in metal drum/ hard container with closed lid placed inside the room will help reduce losses.e. So. Awareness building is important component for taking this ventures. a) Horticulture and b) technology who came with following recommendations: 7 . • About 25-30% of the losses could be salvaged through these interventions. Dr. threshing by threshers. Minaruddin would discuss this matter in his paper. parboiling and drying with optimum supervision and paddy milling at modern rice mills will help in reducing post harvest losses in rice. entrepreneurs. Shahjahan replied that Dr. Bangladesh Agriculture University first all. S. Iran and Bangladesh on the post harvest issue.R. The Chairperson proposed of consisting of two groups namely. He also cited the example of e-chopal to convert it as useful information centre for the different stakeholders like producers. Dr. there should more improvement and reform on the various chains of post harvest as he opined. Save the Children (USA) emphasized on the use of ‘best practice’ from each other such as I. Tirdad Parviz. In reply. Foiz Ahmed. posed the question regarding why in Bangladesh 30 percent or more losses are occurred on fruits.• basis. Kamrul Hassan of Bangladesh Agriculture University. He also emphasized on the growth of the agro processing industries which is the ‘need of time’ as we grow lot of jackfruits and pineapples which has good market of these popular fruits in countries of South East Asia. Prof. Open Discussions of the Participants : There were lively discussions among the participants who were given floor by the Chairperson. Bala mentioned about the losses amounting 5 percent to 9 percent during storage due to rats and other things in Bangladesh.
3. Research organization and universities should work together to improve the present postharvest management situation 10. 8 . 11. Large scale extension of pedal and power threshers. Develop contract farming system for production of raw materials especially fruits and vegetables 3.Group Recommendations: Recommendation (Horticulture) 1.(a) providing rodent proof cover for traditional storage structures . 5. Establish modern packaging institution capable of counseling exporters and food processors in improving food packaging to international food standards 8. Use conventional and cool storage facilities for fruits and vegetables (Research and Extension). and HACCP should be followed. processing and preservation technologies for shelf stable quality product 7. B) Technology Recommendation 1. Introduction of dryer for wet season crops on rental service basis Modification of existing traditional storage structures in the form of: . National post harvest technology centre should be established to coordinate research and extension on post harvest loss reduction and better management of post harvest systems. national standard should be developed and international standard such as ISO. Provide necessary support to the entrepreneurs for establishing agro-based industry in major growing areas of agricultural produce. To access the quality fresh of and processed food and to meet the requirement of international market. 2. Traceability system should be developed from field to market for each of the product 9. 4. 2. equipment handling and operating 4.(b) can be further improved the traditional storage systems providing polyethylene lining inside these structures. Gradual transition to rubber roll huller from engle berg huller for milling of rice Training on awareness building on the importance of post harvest loss reduction and on improved post harvest technologies for loss reduction. Gradual transition to mechanical harvesting from manual harvesting with the improvement of the reaper for loss reduction. Conduct training for development of human resources on various aspects of agroprocessing. Develop system for providing accredited testing services to the enterprises through strengthening of BSTI 6. Introducing cool chain supply system for horticultural crops in order to reduce both quantitative and qualitative losses 5. 6. 7. Increase funding for research to develop postharvest management of fresh and processed products. (c) low cost air tight cocoon such as constructing low cost airtight storage systems using locally available rexin developed at BAU.