AP US History Summer Assignment 2011 2012 | Native Americans In The United States | Slavery

AP US History Summer Assignment – 2011-2012

Complete the following study guides – New World Beginnings and Planting of English America. a. Answers can be found in history books at the library or book store. There is no need to go out and buy the textbook. Answers can also be obtained from the internet, do some research with the Digital Library on the PHS Website. b. “Short Answer Questions” should be short answers (not essays). Complete the maps – world and English colonies in North America Study Guides and maps are due on August 15, 2011. New World Beginnings, 33,000 B.C. – A.D. 1769 Before beginning your research, read over these “Themes”: Theme: The first discoverers of America, the ancestors of the American Indians, were small bands of hunters who crossed a temporary land bridge from Siberia and spread across both North and South America. They evolved a great variety of cultures, which ranged from the sophisticated urban civilizations in Mexico and Central and South America to the largely semi nomadic societies of North America. Theme: Europe's growing demand for Eastern luxuries prompted exploration in the hopes of reducing the expense of those goods with new trade routes. Exploration occurred incrementally, beginning with the Portuguese moving around the coast of Africa and establishing trading posts. Awareness of the New World and its wealth pushed exploration across the Atlantic. Spanish exploration continued in the same fashion, first in the Caribbean islands then expanding into South and North America. Theme: Portuguese and Spanish explorers encountered and then conquered much of the Americas and their Indian inhabitants. This collision of worlds deeply affected all the Atlantic societies ‐ Europe, the Americas, and Africa ‐ as the effects of disease, conquest, slavery, and intermarriage began to create a truly new world in Latin America, including the borderlands of Florida, New Mexico, and California, all of which later became part of the United States. After studying about New World Beginnings, you should be able to: 1. Describe the origin and development of the major native Indian cultures of the Americas. 2. Explain the developments in Europe and Africa that led to Columbus’s voyage to America. 3. Explain what two countries led the way in early exploration and why they were able to do so. 4. Explain the changes and conflicts that occurred when the diverse worlds of Europe, Africa, and the Americas collided after 1492. 5. Describe the Spanish conquest of Mexico and South America and identify the major features of Spanish colonization and expansion in North America. Identify and state the historical significance of the following people and terms. Note the dates of the event if that is pertinent. A. People Marco Polo Francisco Pizarro Juan Ponce de León

Hernando De Soto Montezuma Christopher Columbus Hernán Cortés Francisco Coronado Father Junipero Serra B. Terms: capitalism Renaissance mestizos Treaty of Tordesillas “three sister” farming

Great Ice Age Canadian Shield Mound Builders “the black legend” conquistadores Aztecs Popés Rebellion Pueblo Indians Spanish Armada spice islands encomienda Iroquois Confederacy

C. Short Answer Questions: 1. What fundamental factors drew the Europeans to the exploration, conquest, and settlement of the New World? Explain. 2. In what ways might the European encounter with the Americas be seen as a disaster or tragedy, and in what ways might it be seen as an inevitable development in the history of humanity with long‐run positive results? 3. What was the impact on the Indians, Europeans, and Africans when each of their previously separate worlds “collided” with one another? 4. What were the common characteristics of all Indian cultures in the New World, and what were the important differences among them? 5. How did the geographic setting of North America – including its relation to Asia, Europe, and Africa – affect its subsequent history? The Planting of English America: 1500 1733 Before beginning your research, read over these “Themes”: Theme: After a late start, a proud, nationalistic England joined the race for colonies and successfully established five colonies along the southeastern seacoast of North America. Although varying somewhat in origins and character, all these colonies exhibited plantation agriculture, indentured and slave labor, a tendency toward strong economic and social hierarchies, and a pattern of widely scattered, institutionally weak settlements. Theme: The English hoped to follow Spain's example of finding great wealth in the New World, and that influenced the financing and founding of the early southern colonies. The focus on making the southern colonies profitable shaped colonial decisions, including choice of crops and the use of indentured and slave labor. This same focus also helped create economic and cultural ties between the early southern colonies and English settlements in the West Indies.

Theme: The early southern colonies encounters with Indians and African slaves established the patterns of race relations that would shape the North American experience; in particular, warfare and reservations for the Indians and lifelong slave codes for African Americans. After studying about English American colonies, you should be able to: 1. State the factors that led England to begin colonization. 2. Describe the development of Jamestown, from its disastrous beginnings to its later apparent prosperity. 3. Describe the cultural and social changes that Native American communities underwent in response to European colonization. 4. Describe the different ways the Spanish, British and French interacted with Native Americans. 5. Describe changes in the economy and labor system in Virginia and other southern colonies. 6. Indicate the similarities and differences among the southern colonies of Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. Identify and state the historical significance of the following people and terms. Note the dates of the event if that is pertinent A. People Lord De La Ware Pocahontas John Smith Powhatan Handsome Lake John Rolfe Lord Baltimore Walter Raleigh James Oglethorpe Humphrey Gilbert Oliver Cromwell enclosure starving time squatter 1st Anglo‐Powhatan War 2nd Anglo‐Powhatan War Act of Toleration Barbados slave code Virginia Company Restoration Act of Toleration Savannah Indians Iroquois Confederacy Ireland

B. Terms: nationalism nation‐state joint‐stock company slavery slave codes
House of Burgesses Royal colony Proprietary colony yeoman longhouse Spanish Armada primogeniture indentured servitude

C. Short Answer Questions: 1. Compare and contrast the early colonial empires of Portugal, Spain, and England in terms of motives, economic foundations, and relations with Africans and Indians. 2. Discuss the relations between the English settlers and the Indians of the southern Atlantic coast. 3. How did the search for a viable labor force affect the development of the southern colonies? What was the role of African‐American slavery in the early colonial settlements? Why were two southern colonies initially resistant to slavery?

4. What features were common to all of England’s southern colonies, and what features were peculiar to each one? 5. What factors contributed to England’s establishment of colonies in North America?

On the next two pages, correctly label the map of the world and of the English colonies in North America. World Map a. Locate, label, and color Britian, France, and Spain. b. Locate, label, and color the British, French, and Spanish colonial empires in the Americas. c. Create a KEY. English colonies map a. Label the 13 colonies B. Label the 7 major cities Boston New York Jamestown Willaimsburg Charles Town (Charleston) Philadelphia Savannah

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