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, BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA JANUARY 2003
AUTOMATIC WAVE LOADS
Wave Load Overview
This Technical Note presents a brief overview of the automatic wave loading features in the program. The automatic wave load calculations in the program are based on the requirements presented in the American Petroleum Institute 2000 reference (API 2000).
Define Wave Loads
The automatic wave load is a special type of load case. It generates loads on the structure resulting from waves, current flow, buoyancy and wind. The automatic wave load is defined using the Define menu > Load Cases command to open the Define Loads form. In the form the load type is set to Wave and the Auto Lateral Load is set to something other than None. After this load has been added to the list, the Modify Lateral Load button is used to define the wave loading parameters. A wave load can be specified to act in any direction. For a given wave direction, any number of crest positions can be considered in a single load case. Wave velocity and acceleration fields can be automatically generated using Airy (linear), Stokes or Cnoidal wave theories or, alternatively, they can be directly input by the user. When using wave theories, the user specifies a wave height, wave period (as seen by a stationary observer) and a storm water depth. Current velocity and direction, marine growth, drag coefficients and inertia (mass) coefficients can all be specified as a function of water depth. The current direction can differ from the wave direction. Wind load, acting in any direction, can also be specified as a part of the wave load. The wind load acts on the portion of the structure that is above the wave surface.
Define Wave Loads
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Heaf and Wootton 1978. The Stokes theory is documented in Skjelbreia and Hendrickson 1961. The wave parameters are overwritten by selecting the desired objects and clicking the Assign menu > Frame Loads > Auto Wave Loading Parameters command. Stokes. If the wave load is calculated from theory. Calculate Wave Load Values Page 2 of 6 . Refer to the Technical Note entitled “Defining Wave Loads” for more detailed information.Automatic Wave Loads Wave Load Overview Several wave loading parameters can be overwritten on an object-by-object basis. the specified marine growth and any overwrite of the section dimension or marine growth. The size of a member (area and volume) used to calculate the wave load force is based on the section assignment. They consist of projected vertical upward distributed loads acting along all members that are not vertical and concentrated forces at each end of each frame object that is submerged. The horizontal components of the wave velocity and acceleration fields are multiplied by a wave kinematics factor that is intended to account for direction spreading and irregularity of the wave profile. Buoyant forces are calculated using a rational method. The wave force acting on the member is calculated using Morison’s equation. The wave loads are applied as distributed loads on the portion of the structure that is below the wave surface and above the mud line. Current velocity multiplied times the current blockage factor is vectorially combined with the wave velocity field that has been adjusted by the wave kinematics factor. or Cnoidal wave theory. The Airy and Cnoidal theories are documented in Hallam. wave height and apparent wave period using Airy (linear). Calculate Wave Load Values The wave velocity and acceleration fields are user-defined or they are calculated from the storm water depth. the apparent wave period used in the calculation is determined from the actual wave period and the free-stream current velocity (not reduced by blockage) in the direction of the wave.
This table displays the wave particle velocities. Wave Table While defining the wave load parameters you can display a wave table using the current parameters. The member area used to calculate the wave wind force is based on the section assignment. marine growth or ice thickness. do so from the model definition tables. This plot displays the wave particle velocities. Contour plots and horizontal and vertical section cut plots through the wave can be displayed. accelerations and pressures in many different formats. Select a load case View Wave Load Input Data Page 3 of 6 . the mass density of air. Refer to Technical Note entitled “Wave Display Plots and Tables” for more detailed information. a shape coefficient (which can be overwritten). accelerations and pressures at points throughout the wave. View Wave Load Input Data Numerous tools are provided to review wave load input data. If you want to copy or print the data in this table. the specified marine growth and any overwrite of the section dimension. If both marine growth and ice thickness are specified at a location. Refer to Technical Note entitled “Calculation of Wave Load Values” for more detailed information. Refer to Technical Note entitled “Wave Display Plots and Tables” for more detailed information. and the member area. On Screen Display of Wave Loads After the wave load has been defined using the Define menu > Load Cases command. Click the Display menu > Show Load Assigns > Frame command to bring up the Show Frame Loads form. Wave Plot While defining the wave load parameters you can display a wave plot using the current parameters. accelerations and pressures can be shown at the mouse pointer location. The wave wind loads are applied as distributed loads on the portion of the structure that is above the wave surface. Wave particle velocities. The data shown in this table is also available in the model definition tables discussed later in this Technical Note. only the ice thickness is considered.Automatic Wave Loads Wave Load Overview The wave wind load acting on a member is calculated using a specified onehour mean wind speed. the resulting generated loads applied to the model can be displayed on the screen.
left and right arrow buttons appear on the right side of the status bar.Automatic Wave Loads Wave Load Overview that has an automatic wave load assigned to it and select the Span Wave Loads load type option.mdb File View Wave Load Input Data Page 4 of 6 . Select the Multi-Step Load plot type. exported and imported. you can create a video of the resulting generated loads applied to the model. Wave Load Data in Model Definition Tables Wave load data in the model definition tables can be displayed.xls File File menu > Export > SAP2000 V8 . Any of the following commands give you access to the model definition tables. When the wave loads are displayed on the screen. File menu > Print Tables > Model Definition Display menu > Show Model Definition Tables Display menu > Show All Table Types Edit menu > Interactive Database Editing File menu > Export > SAP2000 MS Access Database . The speed of the animation is controlled by the slide bar to the left of the Start Animation button. Click the File menu > Create Video > Create Multi-Step Animation Video command to bring up the Multi-Step Video File Creation form. Click those arrow buttons to step through the wave crest positions of the wave load. The wave load forces displayed in this plot are only those automatically generated by the program. select a wave load case. Create Videos of Wave Loads After the wave load has been defined using the Define menu > Load Cases command. set the other video parameters as desired and click the OK button to create the video AVI file. printed. interactively edited. A Start Animation button on the right-hand side of the status bar causes the program to automatically step through the different wave crest positions. Typically we do not recommend that you assign other loads to a load case that includes automatically generated loads.mdb File File menu > Export > SAP2000 MS Excel Spreadsheet .s2k Text File File menu > Export > SAP2000 MS Access Database . Any additional loads that the user may have assigned to the same load case are not included in this plot.
You can select check boxes to indicate the tables you want printed.s2k Text File Each of those commands. The duration of each half-pulse load is equal to the apparent wave period (as seen by an observer moving with the current. n and n+1. displayed or exported. The forms have different titles for the various commands but otherwise look essentially the same. the function specified for the analysis case is ignored by the program. if any) divided by the number of wave crest positions specified for the wave load.Automatic Wave Loads Wave Load Overview File menu > Export > SAP2000 MS Excel Spreadsheet . Time History Analysis Case For modal and direct time history cases. Pulse load n starts from zero at the time pulse load n-1 is at a maximum and returns to zero at a time that pulse load n+1 is at a maximum. The figure to the right shows pulses associated with steps n-1. brings up a form where you can select the tables to be displayed. each step (wave crest position) of the wave load corresponds to a step in the multi-step static analysis case. The check boxes that relate to wave loading are the Auto Wave Loads check box in the Loads area of the form (on the Definitions tab) and the Wave Overwrites check box in the Frame/Cable Assigns area of the form (on the Assignments tab). the wave load is applied as a sequential series of overlapping triangular pulse loads. Each pulse load corresponds to a step (wave crest position) of the wave load. Step n-1 Step n Step n+1 For time history analysis cases with wave loads. The maximum value of pulse load n is equal to the full wave load value calculated for step n (wave crest position n). except the import commands. Multi-Step Static Analysis Case For multi-step static analysis cases.xls File File menu > Import > SAP2000 V8 . Analyze using Wave Loads Page 5 of 6 . Analyze using Wave Loads When a load case containing an automatic wave load is specified in an analysis case. the characteristics of the load depend on the type of analysis case.
Recommended Practice for Planning. N. and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms – Working Stress Design. 1978. 1. References Page 6 of 6 .. Hendrickson. ASCE Vol.. multi-step static or time history analysis cases. Skjelbreia. References American Petroleum Institute (API). Dynamics of Marine Structures: Methods of calculating the dynamic response of fixed structures subject to wave and current action. October. 2000. API Recommended Practice 2A-WSD (RP 2A-WSD). Seventh Conference on Coastal Engineering.R. only the first step (wave crest position) of the wave load is considered. and L. Designing.Automatic Wave Loads Wave Load Overview Ritz-Type Modal Analysis Case If a wave load is specified as a load for a ritz-type modal analysis case. Second Edition. Viewing Wave Load Analysis Output Data Wave load analysis output is viewed in the same ways as all other analysis output in the program. Chapter 10.G. and J. December. loads (starting vectors) are created for each step (crest position) of the wave load. 1961. Other Analysis Cases For analysis cases that are not modal (ritz). L. Fifth Order Gravity Wave Theory. Wootton. Hallam M. Heaf. Report UR 8. CIRIA Underwater Engineering Group.J. Twenty-First Edition. even if multiple steps are specified. London.
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