• Shale-gas reservoirs in the United States. the Haynesville Shale. The Barnett Shale in the Fort Worth Basin (North Central Texas) is the most famous one. The most thermally mature shales will contain only dry gas. perforating. Recent advances in drilling and completions (coiled tubing. or (iii) captured within pores (absorbed) of the shale. The generated gas is (i) expelled through leaks in the shale. and hydraulic fracturing). along with higher gas prices made shale-gas production economical. A major example of biogenic shale-gas are the Antrim Shales in Michigan. when organic matter getting mature due to temperature.SHALE-GAS • Shale can hold enormous amounts of natural gas. (ii) adsorbed onto the organic material. Michigan. • Most shale-gas is fairly clean and dry. when bacteria break down organic matter in the shale. • Major shale-gas plays in the US include the Barnett Shale. thick and continuous and the formations are so large that their wells will continue producing gas at a steady rate for decades. having an estimated 500-780 TCF of natural gas in place. Less mature shales will have wet gas. b) biogenic gas. but gas shales are also present in the Illinois. but it has extemely low permeability for the gas to flow naturally. The best shales are relatively flat. •The gas in organic shales can be created as: a) thermogenic gas.
. and Appalachian basins. the Marcellus Shale and the Antrim & New Albany shales.
.cleanskies. A lot of water is needed!
http://www. additives and sand are injected at a 9000 psi pressure.Water.
08-0.Barnett Shale multilateral completion: example • 8% porosity
Multilateral completion: red arrows=initial fracking. Instead of re-opening the old fractures. blue arrows=re-fracking
.006 mD permeability • 13 metres pay • 1500 m horizontal well •Eight fracs The wells can be re-fracked and restimulated once their production starts to fall. new fractures are developed in the shale rock.
931 ×10-4 kWh (kilowatthours) • 252 – 253 cal • 1 MMBTU (1 million BTU) of natural gas = 1. such as furnaces. stoves. In North America.SHALE-GAS EVALUATION UNITS
Shale-Gas yield is measured in SCF/ton of rock. In scientific contexts the BTU has largely been replaced by the SI unit of energy. One BTU is approximately: • 1054 – 1060 J (joules) • 2. barbecue grills.054615 GJ • 1 SCF (standard cubic foot) of natural gas yields approximately 1030 BTU
. heating and air conditioning industries. Calorific value of gas in BTU -The British thermal unit (BTU or Btu) is a unit of energy used in the power. and air conditioners. the term "BTU" is used to describe the heat value (energy content) of fuels. the joule (J). steam generation. and also to describe the power of heating and cooling systems. One BTU is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of liquid water by one degree from 60° to 61°Fahrenheit at a constant pressure of one atmosphere.
History and forecast of relative volumes of gas in the US market History
10 9 8 7
Trillion cubic feet
6 5 4 3 2
Non-associated onshore conventional
Non-associated offshore Associated offshore Alasca gas
1 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025
Source: Energy Information Agency. “Annual Energy Outlook 2005”
The Barnett Shale alone accounts for 7% of American gas supplies.Cross-section of the Fort Worth Basin. Unconventional gas (coal-bed methane and “tight gas”) supplies half of US demand. Barnett Shale
Pollastro et al.
Antrim Shales. Michigan Basin
.Biogenic and thermogenic shalegas.
Biogenic shale-gas. Illinois Basin
Cross-section in Southern Illinois-Kentucky
. New Albany Shales.
Marcellus black shale. Pennsylvania. Lake Erie
• The volume of mature rock should be calculated using structure and thickness maps of the shale. • The big unknowns are: (a) how much oil remained in the shale before expulsion started. they drill the first well. and. hence the volumes of shale-gas accumulations are given only in approximation. The main principle is as follows:
Volume of shale-gas = Generated gas in the black shale-expelled gas after maturation • The volume of produced gas. in the case of types I and II kerogens must be calculated using all the geochemical parameters of the shale. In general. they analyse the rock.VOLUMETRIC CALCULATION FOR SHALE-GAS RESERVOIRS
Most US companies use historical data for calculating reserves. then.
. free and adsorbed gas phases are calculated There are various formulae in the market that do material-balance volumetrics. they core it and. together with maturity modelling results. (b) how much oil or gas were expelled at maturation. In order to estimate original gas-in-place. together with maturity data to define the gas kitchen. • The above factors are not easy to define.
Total Risk assessment for shale-gas plays: not based on theory!
FACTOR Low chance of success High chance of success
Total organic carbon (TOC) Kerogen type Vitrinite reflectance Tmax Thickness Current depth Silica content Bottom seal/lateral seal Tectonism
<2% Type IV or III <1.0% but <2. II.1% >453% >20 m deep <25% Present Moderate
.0% <453% <20 m shallow >25% Absent Intense
>2% Type I. II/III >1.
In other words. but then production declines significantly and often becomes uneconomical after a relatively short time. Hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) is commonly performed in stages. do not come on as strong as tight-gas.
. As long as oil prices remain high. made shale-gas an important new energy resource. and repeat the process. or more (including fracking). perforate. on the contrary.000 ft3 of gas. If a barrel of oil sells for $90. Ideally. In Europe the cost can reach $10 million. • In the US a completed shale-gas well may cost $2 million. • The large in-place gas volumes. operators pump fluid and proppant through the perforation clusters into a portion of the formation. they will produce consistently for 30 years or more. Shale-gas wells. In each stage. Many of the new deeper shale gas wells are horizontal and the cost of fracturing them can be as much as 50 % of the total cost of the well. Many tight gas sandstones yield large amounts of gas for the first few months. The ratio is about 6 to 1. there is no reason for natural gas prices to go down. The price of gas is linked to oil and based on each fuel’s heating value. Then. then 1. but the cost would be prohibitive. but once the production stabilizes. 3D seismic imaging and advanced reservoir modelling software. 1 bbl of oil contains about 6 times more heat energy than 1.Economics of shale gas • There are fundamental differences in the production of gas from shale and gas produced from other unconventional sources.000 ft3 of gas is worth about $15 . move up the wellbore. the well should be fractured in as many stages as possible. unless the global economy goes into a long recession. together with effective horizontal drilling methods. • Fracturing is the key to a successful shale gas well. they set a plug.
Too much shale-gas. plus the global recession affected the gas price in the US
In US$ per thousand ft3
but in Europe the gas price is much higher!