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Fundamental Principles
of Mechanical Engineering
Technical Handbook
Technical Drawings
Standardization
Physics
Mathematics / Geometry
Mechanics / Strength of Materials
Hydraulics
Electrical Engineering
Materials
Lubricating Oils
Cylindrical Gear Units
Shaft Couplings
Vibrations
Bibliography
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
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12
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1
Siemens MD · 2009
Contents
Section 1 Page
Technical Drawings
Surface Texture 5 + 6
Geometrical Tolerancing 7 ï 21
Sheet Sizes, Title Block, Nonstandard Formats 22
Type Sizes, Lines, Lettering Example 23
Section 2
Standardization
ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse Pitch Threads) 25
ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse and Fine Pitch Threads) 26
Cylindrical Shaft Ends 27
ISO Tolerance Zones, Allowances, Fit Tolerances 28 + 29
Parallel Keys and Taper Keys, Centre Holes 30
Section 3
Physics
Internationally Determined Prefixes 32
Basic SI Units 32
Derived SI Units 33
Legal Units Outside the SI 33
Physical Quantities and Units of Lengths and Their Powers 34
Physical Quantities and Units of Time 35
Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics 35 ï 37
Physical Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer 37 + 38
Physical Quantities and Units of Electrical Engineering 38
Physical Quantities and Units of Lighting Engineering 39
Different Measuring Units of Temperature 39
Measures of Length and Square Measures 40
Cubic Measures and Weights 41
Energy, Work, Quantity of Heat 41
Power, Energy Flow, Heat Flow 42
Pressure and Tension 42
Velocity 42
Equations for Linear Motion and Rotary Motion 43
Section 4
Mathematics / Geometry
Calculation of Areas 45
Calculation of Volumes 46
Section 5
Mechanics / Strength of Materials
Axial Section Moduli and Axial Second Moments of Area
(Moments of Inertia) of Different Profiles 48
Deflections in Beams 49
Values for Circular Sections 50
Stresses on Structural Members and Fatigue Strength of Structures 51
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Siemens MD · 2009
Contents
Section 6 Page
Hydraulics
Hydrostatics 53
Hydrodynamics 54
Section 7
Electrical Engineering
Basic Formulae 56
Speed, Power Rating and Efficiency of Electric Motors 57
Types of Construction and Mounting Arrangements of Rotating Electrical Machinery 58
Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Contact and Foreign Bodies) 59
Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Water) 60
Section 8
Materials
Conversion of Fatigue Strength Values of Miscellaneous Materials 62
Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels 63
Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Quenched and Tempered Steels 64
GeneralPurpose Structural Steels 65
Fatigue Strength Diagrams of GeneralPurpose Structural Steels 66
Case Hardening Steels 67
Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Case Hardening Steels 68
Cold Rolled Steel Strips 69
Cast Steels for General Engineering Purposes 69
Round Steel Wire for Springs 70
Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron 71
Nodular Graphite Cast Iron 71
CopperTin and CopperZincTin Casting Alloys 72
CopperAluminium Casting Alloys 72
Aluminium Casting Alloys 73
Lead and Tin Casting Alloys for Babbit Sleeve Bearings 74
Conversion of Hardness Values 75
Values of Solids and Liquids 76
Coefficient of Linear Expansion 77
IronCarbon Diagram 77
Pitting and Tooth Root Fatigue Strength Values of Steels 77
Heat Treatment During Case Hardening of Case Hardening Steels 78
Section 9
Lubricating Oils
ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for Mineral Oils 80
ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for Synthetic Oils of PolyDOlefine Base 81
ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for Synthetic Oils of Polyglycole Base 82
Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity 83
Viscosity Table for Mineral Oils 84
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Siemens MD · 2009
Contents
Section 10 Page
Cylindrical Gear Units
Symbols and Units 86 + 87
General Introduction 88
Geometry of Involute Gears 88 ï 89
Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears 99 ï 107
Gear Unit Types 107 ï 110
Noise Emitted by Gear Units 111 ï 114
Section 11
Shaft Couplings
General Fundamental Principles 116
Torsionally Rigid Couplings, Flexible Pin Couplings 117
Flexible Claw Couplings
Highly Flexible Ring Couplings, Highly Flexible Rubber Tyre Couplings 118
Highly Flexible Rubber Disk Couplings, Flexible Pin and Bush Couplings
Allsteel Couplings, Torque Limiters 119
Highspeed Couplings, Composite Couplings
Miniature Couplings, Gear Couplings 120
Universal Gear Couplings, Multiple Disk Clutches
Fluid Couplings, Overrunning Clutches, Torque Limiters 121
Couplings for Pump Drives 122
Coupling Systems for Railway Vehicles 123
Coupling Systems for Wind Power Stations 124
Section 12
Vibrations
Symbols and Units 126
General Fundamental Principles 127 ï 129
Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators 129 + 130
Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion 130 + 131
Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations 131
Terms, Symbols and Units 132
Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations 133 ï 135
Evaluation of Vibrations 135 + 136
Section 13
Bibliography of Sections 10, 11, and 12 138 + 139
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Siemens MD · 2009
Table of Contents Section 1
Technical Drawings Page
Surface Texture
Method of Indicating Surface Texture on Drawings acc. to DIN EN ISO 1302 5
Surface Roughness Parameters 5 + 6
Geometrical Tolerancing
General 7
Application; General Explanations 7
Tolerance Frame 7
Kinds of Tolerances; Symbols; Included Tolerances 8
Additional Symbols 8
Toleranced Features 9
Tolerance Zones 9
Datums and Datum Systems 9 ï 11
Theoretically Exact Dimensions 11
Detailed Definitions of Tolerances 11 ï 21
Sheet Sizes, Title Block, Nonstandard Formats
Sheet Sizes for Technical Drawings 22
Title Block for Technical Drawings 22
Nonstandard Formats for Technical Drawings 22
Sizes of Type 23
Lines acc. to DIN ISO 128, Part 20 and Part 24 23
Lettering Example 23
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Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Surface Texture
1. Method of indicating surface texture on drawings acc. to DIN EN ISO 1302
1.1 Symbols for the surface texture
Graphic symbols Meaning
Material removal by machining is required (without require
ments).
preserved
Material removal by machining is required (with additional indi
cation).
Material removal is prohibited (without requirements).
nonporous
Material removal is prohibited (with additional indication).
Material removal; surface roughness value Ra = 6.3 mm.
Material removal applies to the external contour of the view.
Machining allowance specified by a numerical value in mm
(e.g. 3 mm).
leadfree
0.4  0.8
Material removal (by machining),
surface roughness value Ra = 0.4  0.8 mm.
Requirement for the surface: “leadfree”.
1.2 Definition of the surface parameter Ra
The centre line average height Ra of the assess
ed profile is defined in DIN EN ISO 4287 and
the evaluation length for assessing the rough
ness in DIN EN ISO 4288.
1.3 Indications added to the graphic symbols
a = Requirements on the surface appearance
b = Two or more requirements on the surface
appearance
c = Production method, treatment, coating, or other
requirements concerning the manufacturing
method, etc.
d = Surface grooves and their direction
e = Machining allowance
(x) = No longer applicable (formerly: indication of Ra)
2. Surface roughness parameters
2.1 Peaktovalley height Rt
The peaktovalley height Rt in mm acc. to DIN
4762 Part 1 is the distance of the base profile
to the reference profile (see figure 1). The base
profile is the reference profile displaced to
such an extent perpendicular to the geometrical
ideal profile within the roughness reference
length, that contacts the point of the actual
profile most distant from the reference profile
(point T in figure 1).
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Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Surface Texture
Figure 1
Actual profile
Reference profile Mean profile
Geometrical ideal profile
Base profile
Roughness reference length l
2.2 Mean peaktovalley height Rz
The mean peaktovalley height Rz in mm acc.
to DIN 4768 is the arithmetic average of the
single irregularities of five consecutive sam
pling lengths (see figure 2).
Note: The definition given for Rz in DIN differs
from its definition in ISO.
l
e
= Sampling length
l
m
= Evaluation length
l
t
= Traversed length
z
1
z
5
= Single irregularities
Runout length
Figure 2
Startup length
An exact conversion of the peaktovalley height
Rz into the centre line average height Ra and
vice versa can neither be theoretically justified
nor empirically proved. For surfaces which are
generated by manufacturing methods of the
group “metal cutting”, a diagram for the conver
sion from Ra into Rz and vice versa is shown
in supplement 1 to DIN 4768, based on compar
ison measurements. The Ra values assigned
to the Rz values are subject to scattering (see
table).
2.3 Maximum roughness height Rmax
The maximum roughness height Rmax in mm
acc. to DIN 4768 is the largest of the single irre
gularities Z
1
occurring over the evaluation length
l
m
(see figure 2). Rmax is applied only in cases
where the largest single irregularity (“runaway”) is
to be recorded for reasons important for function.
2.4 Roughness grade numbers N
In Germany, it is not allowed to use roughness
grade numbers (N grades), since they are given
in inches.
3. Centre line average height Ra and roughness grade numbers in relation to the mean
peaktovalley height Rz
Surface rough
ness value
Ra
Pm 50 25 12.5 6.3 3.2 1.6 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.025
Pin 2000 1000 500 250 125 63 32 16 8 4 2 1
Roughness grade no. N12 N11 N10 N9 N8 N7 N6 N5 N4 N3 N2 N1
Surface rough
ness value
Rz in Pm
from 160 80 40 25 12.5 6.3 3.15 1.6 0.8 0.4 0.25 0.1
to 250 160 100 63 31.5 20 12.5 6.3 4 2.5 1.6 0.8
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Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Geometrical Tolerancing
4. General
4.1 The particulars given are in accordance with
the international standard DIN ISO 1101, March
1985 edition.
This standard gives the principles of symboli
zation and indication on technical drawings of
tolerances of form, orientation, location and
runout, and establishes the appropriate geo
metrical definition. The term “geometrical tole
rances” is used in this standard as generic term
for these tolerances.
4.2 Relationship between tolerances of size,
form and position
According to current standards there are two
possibilities of making indications on technical
drawings in accordance with:
a) the principle of independence according to
DIN ISO 8015 where tolerances of size, form and
position must be adhered to independent of each
other, i.e. there is no direct relation between
them. In this case reference must be made on the
drawing to DIN ISO 8015.
b) the envelope requirements according to DIN
7167, according to which the tolerances of size
and form are in direct relation with each other, i.e.
that the size tolerances limit the form tolerances.
5. Application; general explanations
5.1 Geometrical tolerances shall be specified
on drawings only if they are imperative for the
functioning and/or economical manufacture of
the respective workpiece. Otherwise, the gene
ral tolerances according to DIN ISO 2768 apply.
5.2 Indicating geometrical tolerances does not
necessarily imply the use of any particular meth
od of production, measurement or gauging.
5.3 A geometrical tolerance applied to a feature
defines the tolerance zone within which the
feature (surface, axis, or median plane) is to
be contained. According to the characteristic
to be toleranced and the manner in which it is
dimensioned, the tolerance zone is one of the
following:
ï the area within a circle;
ï the area between two concentric circles;
ï the area between two equidistant lines or two
parallel straight lines;
ï the space within a cylinder;
ï the space between two coaxial cylinders;
ï the space between two parallel planes;
ï the space within a parallelepiped or a sphere.
The toleranced feature may be of any form or
orientation within this tolerance zone, unless a
more restrictive indication is given.
5.4 Unless otherwise specified, the tolerance
applies to the whole length or surface of the
considered feature.
5.5 The datum feature is a real feature of a part,
which is used to establish the location of a datum.
5.6 Geometrical tolerances which are assigned
to features referred to a datum do not limit the
form deviations of the datum feature itself. The
form of a datum feature shall be sufficiently accu
rate for its purpose and it may therefore be
necessary to specify tolerances of form for the
datum features (see table on page 8).
5.7 Tolerance frame
The tolerance requirements are shown in a
rectangular frame which is divided into two or
more compartments. These compartments con
tain, from top to bottom, in the following order
(see figures 3, 4 and 5):
ï the symbol for the characteristic to be toler
anced;
ï the tolerance value in the unit used for linear
dimensions. This value is preceded by the
symbol if the tolerance zone is circular
or cylindrical; or by the symbol “S” if the
tolerance zone is spherical;
ï if appropriate, the capital letter or letters iden
tifying the datum feature or features (see fig
ures 4, 5 and 6).
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Remarks referred to the tolerance, for example
“6 holes”, “4 surfaces”, or “6 x” shall be written
above the frame (see figures 7 and 8).
If it is necessary to specify more than one tol
erance characteristic for a feature, the tolerance
specifications are given in tolerance frames
one under the other (see figure 9).
Figure 7 Figure 8
6 holes 6 x
Figure 9
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Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Geometrical Tolerancing
Table 1: Kinds of tolerances; symbols; included tolerances
Tolerances Toleranced characteristics Symbols Included tolerances
Form tolerances
Straightness ï
Flatness Straightness
Circularity (Roundness) ï
Cylindricity
Straightness, Parallelism,
Circularity
Profile
tolerances
Profile any line ï
Profile any surface ï
T
o
l
e
r
a
n
c
e
s
o
f
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
Orientation
tolerances
Parallelism Flatness
Perpendicularity Flatness
Angularity Flatness
Location
tolerances
Position ï
Concentricity (for centre
points), Coaxiality
(for axes)
ï
Symmetry
Straightness, Flatness,
Parallelism
Runout
tolerances
Circular runout
Circularity, Coaxiality,
Concentricity
Total runout
Concentricity, Coaxiality,
Flatness, Parallelism,
Perpendicularity
Table 2: Additional symbols
Description Symbols
Toleranced feature indications
direct
by letter
Datum feature indication (by letter only)
Datum target indication
2 = Dimension of the target area
A1 = Datum feature and datum target number
Theoretically exact dimension
Projected tolerance zone
Maximum material requirement
Dependent on dimensional, form, and position tolerances
Least material requirement
Dimension describing the least material state of a form feature
Free state condition (nonrigid parts)
Envelope requirement: The maximum material dimension must not breach a
geometrically ideal envelope.
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Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Geometrical Tolerancing
5.8 Toleranced features
The tolerance frame is connected to the toler
anced feature by a leader line terminating with an
arrow in the following way:
ï on the outline of the feature or an extension
of the outline (but clearly separated from
the dimension line) when the tolerance re
fers to the line or surface itself (see figures
10 and 11).
Figure 10 Figure 11
ï as an extension of a dimension line when
the tolerance refers to the axis or median
plane defined by the feature so dimensioned
(see figures 12 to 14).
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
ï on the axis or the median plane when the toler
ance refers to the common axis or median
plane of two or more features (see figure 15).
Figure 15
Note:
Whether a tolerance should be applied to the
contour of a cylindrical or symmetrical feature or
to its axis or median plane, depends on the func
tional requirements.
5.9 Tolerance zones
The tolerance zone is the zone within which
all the points of a geometric feature (point, line,
surface, median plane) must lie. The width of
the tolerance zone is in the direction of the
arrow of the leader line joining the tolerance
frame to the feature which is toleranced, unless
the tolerance value is preceded by the symbol
(see figures 16 and 17).
Figure 16 Figure 17
Where a common tolerance zone is applied
to several separate features, the requirement
is indicated by the words “common zone” above
the tolerance frame (see figure 18).
Figure 18
Common zone
5.10 Datums and datum systems
Datum features are features according to which
a workpiece is aligned for recording the toler
anced deviations.
5.10.1 When a toleranced feature is referred to a
datum, this is generally shown by datum letters.
The same letter which defines the datum is re
peated in the tolerance frame.
To identify the datum, a capital letter enclosed
in a frame is connected to a datum triangle (see
figures 19 a and 19 b).
Figure 19 a Figure 19 b
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Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Geometrical Tolerancing
The datum triangle with the datum letter is
placed:
ï on the outline of the feature or an extension of
the outline (but clearly separated from the di
mension line), when the datum feature is the
line or surface itself (see figure 20).
Figure 20
ï as an extension of the dimension line when
the datum feature is the axis or median plane
(see figures 21 and 22).
Note:
If there is not enough space for two arrows, one
of them may be replaced by the datum triangle
(see figure 22).
Figure 21 Figure 22
ï on the axis or median plane when the datum
is:
a) the axis or median plane of a single feature
(for example a cylinder);
b) the common axis or median plane formed by
two features (see figure 23).
Figure 23
If the tolerance frame can be directly connect
ed with the datum feature by a leader line, the
datum letter may be omitted (see figures 24 and
25).
Figure 24 Figure 25
A single datum is identified by a capital letter (see
figure 26).
A common datum formed by two datum features
is identified by two datum letters separated by a
hyphen (see figures 27 and 29).
In a datum system (see also 5.10.2) the se
quence of two or more datum features is impor
tant. The datum letters are to be placed in differ
ent compartments, where the sequence from left
to right shows the order of priority, and the datum
letter placed first should refer to the directional
datum feature (see figures 28, 30 and 31).
Figure 28
Figure 27 Figure 26
Secondary datum
Tertiary datum Primary datum
5.10.2 Datum system
A datum system is a group of two or more datums
to which one toleranced feature refers in com
mon. A datum system is frequently required be
cause the direction of a short axis cannot be
determined alone.
Datum formed by two form features (common
datum):
Figure 29
Datum system formed by two datums (directional
datum “A” and short axis “B”).
Figure 30
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30
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Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Geometrical Tolerancing
Datum system formed by one plane and one per
pendicular axis of a cylinder:
Datum “A” is the plane formed by the plane con
tact surface. Datum “B” is the axis of the largest
inscribed cylinder, the axis being at right angles
with datum “A” (see figure 31).
Figure 31
5.11 Theoretically exact dimensions
If tolerances of position or angularity are pre
scribed for a feature, the dimensions determining
the theoretically exact position or angle shall not
be toleranced.
These dimensions are enclosed, for example .
The corresponding actual dimensions of the part
are subject only to the position tolerance or angu
larity tolerance specified within the tolerance
frame (see figures 32 and 33).
Figure 32
Figure 33
5.12 Definitions of tolerances
Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation
5.12.1 Straightness tolerance
The tolerance zone when projected in a
plane is limited by two parallel straight
lines a distance t apart.
Figure 34
Any line on the upper surface parallel to the
plane of projection in which the indication
is shown shall be contained between two
parallel straight lines 0.1 apart.
Figure 35
Any portion of length 200 of any generator of
the cylindrical surface indicated by the arrow
shall be contained between two parallel
straight lines 0.1 apart in a plane containing
the axis.
Figure 36
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Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Geometrical Tolerancing
Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation
The tolerance zone is limited by a parallel
epiped of section t
1
· t
2
if the tolerance is
specified in two directions perpendicular
to each other.
Figure 37
The axis of the bar shall be contained within
a parallelepipedic zone of width 0.1 in the
vertical and 0.2 in the horizontal direction.
Figure 38
The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder
of diameter t if the tolerance value is
preceded by the symbol .
Figure 39
The axis of the cylinder to which the toler
ance frame is connected shall be contained
in a cylindrical zone of diameter 0.08.
Figure 40
5.12.2 Flatness tolerance
The tolerance zone is limited by two paral
lel planes a distance t apart.
Figure 41
The surface shall be contained between two
parallel planes 0.08 apart.
Figure 42
5.12.3 Circularity tolerance
The tolerance zone in the considered
plane is limited by two concentric circles
a distance t apart.
Figure 43
The circumference of each crosssection of
the outside diameter shall be contained
between two coplanar concentric circles
0.03 apart.
Figure 44
The circumference of each crosssection
shall be contained between two coplanar
concentric circles 0.1 apart.
Figure 45
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Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Geometrical Tolerancing
Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation
5.12.4 Cylindricity tolerance
The tolerance zone is limited by two
coaxial cylinders a distance t apart.
Figure 46
The considered surface area shall be
contained between two coaxial cylinders
0.1 apart.
Figure 47
5.12.5 Parallelism tolerance
Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line
The tolerance zone when projected in a
plane is limited by two parallel straight
lines a distance t apart and parallel to the
datum line, if the tolerance zone is only
specified in one direction.
Figure 48
Figure 51
The toleranced axis shall be contained
between two straight lines 0.1 apart, which
are parallel to the datum axis A and lie in the
vertical direction (see figures 49 and 50).
Figure 49 Figure 50
The toleranced axis shall be contained
between two straight lines 0.1 apart, which
are parallel to the datum axis A and lie in the
horizontal direction.
Figure 52
The tolerance zone is limited by a parallel
epiped of section t
1
· t
2
and parallel to the
datum line if the tolerance is specified in
two planes perpendicular to each other.
Figure 53
The toleranced axis shall be contained in a
parallelepipedic tolerance zone having a
width of 0.2 in the horizontal and 0.1 in the
vertical direction and which is parallel to the
datum axis A (see figures 54 and 55).
Figure 54 Figure 55
1
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Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Geometrical Tolerancing
Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation
Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line
The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder
of diameter t parallel to the datum line if
the tolerance value is preceded by the
symbol .
Figure 56
The toleranced axis shall be contained in a
cylindrical zone of diameter 0.03 parallel to
the datum axis A (datum line).
Figure 57
Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum surface
The tolerance zone is limited by two paral
lel planes a distance t apart and parallel to
the datum surface.
Figure 58
The toleranced axis of the hole shall be con
tained between two planes 0.01 apart and
parallel to the datum surface B.
Figure 59
Parallelism tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum line
The tolerance zone is limited by two paral
lel planes a distance t apart and parallel
to the datum line.
Figure 60
The toleranced surface shall be contained
between two planes 0.1 apart and parallel to
the datum axis C of the hole.
Figure 61
Parallelism tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface
The tolerance zone is limited by two paral
lel planes a distance t apart and parallel
to the datum surface.
Figure 62
The toleranced surface shall be contained
between two parallel planes 0.01 apart and
parallel to the datum surface D (figure 63).
Figure 63 Figure 64
All the points of the toleranced surface in a
length of 100, placed anywhere on this
surface, shall be contained between two
parallel planes 0.01 apart and parallel to the
datum surface A (figure 64).
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Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Geometrical Tolerancing
Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation
5.12.6 Perpendicularity tolerance
Perpendicularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line
The tolerance zone when projected in a
plane is limited by two parallel straight
lines a distance t apart and perpendicular
to the datum line.
Figure 65
The toleranced axis of the inclined hole shall
be contained between two parallel planes
0.06 apart and perpendicular to the axis of
the horizontal hole A (datum line).
Figure 66
Perpendicularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum surface
The tolerance zone when projected in a
plane is limited by two parallel straight
lines a distance t apart and perpendicular
to the datum plane if the tolerance is spec
ified only in one direction.
Figure 67
The toleranced axis of the cylinder, to which
the tolerance frame is connected, shall be
contained between two parallel planes 0.1
apart, perpendicular to the datum surface.
Figure 68
The tolerance zone is limited by a parallel
epiped of section t
1
· t
2
and perpendicular
to the datum surface if the tolerance is
specified in two directions perpendicular
to each other.
Figure 69
The toleranced axis of the cylinder shall be
contained in a parallelepipedic tolerance
zone of 0.1 · 0.2 which is perpendicular to the
datum surface.
Figure 70
The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder
of diameter t perpendicular to the datum
surface if the tolerance value is preceded
by the symbol .
Figure 71
The toleranced axis of the cylinder to which
the tolerance frame is connected shall be
contained in a cylindrical zone of diameter
0.01 perpendicular to the datum surface A.
Figure 72
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Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Geometrical Tolerancing
Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation
Perpendicularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum line
The tolerance zone is limited by two
parallel planes a distance t apart and
perpendicular to the datum line.
Figure 73
The toleranced face of the workpiece shall
be contained between two parallel planes
0.08 apart and perpendicular to the axis A
(datum line).
Figure 74
Perpendicularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface
The tolerance zone is limited by two
parallel planes a distance t apart and
perpendicular to the datum surface.
Figure 75
The toleranced surface shall be contained
between two parallel planes 0.08 apart and
perpendicular to the horizontal datum sur
face A.
Figure 76
5.12.7 Angularity tolerance
Angularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line
Line and datum line in the same plane.
The tolerance zone when projected in a
plane is limited by two parallel straight
lines a distance t apart and inclined at the
specified angle to the datum line.
Figure 77
The toleranced axis of the hole shall be con
tained between two parallel straight lines
0.08 apart which are inclined at 60q to the
horizontal axis A  B (datum line).
Figure 78
Angularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface
The tolerance zone is limited by two paral
lel planes a distance t apart and inclined
at the specified angle to the datum
surface.
Figure 79
The toleranced surface shall be contained
between two parallel planes 0.08 apart which
are inclined at 40q to the datum surface A.
Figure 80
1
17
Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Geometrical Tolerancing
Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation
5.12.8 Positional tolerance
Positional tolerance of a line
The tolerance zone when projected in a
plane is limited by two parallel straight
lines a distance t apart and disposed sym
metrically with respect to the theoretically
exact position of the considered line if the
tolerance is specified only in one direc
tion.
The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder
of diameter t the axis of which is in the
theoretically exact position of the
considered line if the tolerance value is
preceded by the symbol .
Figure 81
Figure 83
Each of the toleranced lines shall be con
tained between two parallel straight lines
0.05 apart which are symmetrically disposed
about the theoretically exact position of the
considered line, with reference to the surface
A (datum surface).
Figure 82
The axis of the hole shall be contained within
a cylindrical zone of diameter 0.08 the axis of
which is in the theoretically exact position of
the considered line, with reference to the sur
faces A and B (datum surfaces).
Figure 84
Each of the axes of the eight holes shall be
contained within a cylindrical zone of diame
ter 0.1 the axis of which is in the theoretically
exact position of the considered hole, with
reference to the surfaces A and B (datum
surfaces).
Figure 85
Positional tolerance of a flat surface or a median plane
The tolerance zone is limited by two paral
lel planes a distance t apart and disposed
symmetrically with respect to the theoreti
cally exact position of the considered sur
face.
Figure 86
The inclined surface shall be contained
between two parallel planes which are 0.05
apart and which are symmetrically disposed
with respect to the theoretically exact posi
tion of the considered surface with reference
to the datum surface A and the axis of the
datum cylinder B (datum line).
Figure 87
1
18
Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Geometrical Tolerancing
Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation
5.12.9 Concentricity and coaxiality tolerance
Concentricity tolerance of a point
The tolerance zone is limited by a circle of
diameter t the centre of which coincides
with the datum point.
Figure 88
The centre of the circle, to which the toler
ance frame is connected, shall be contained
in a circle of diameter 0.01 concentric with
the centre of the datum circle A.
Figure 89
Coaxiality tolerance of an axis
The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder
of diameter t, the axis of which coincides
with the datum axis if the tolerance value
is preceded by the symbol .
Figure 90
The axis of the cylinder, to which the toler
ance frame is connected, shall be contained
in a cylindrical zone of diameter 0.08 coaxial
with the datum axis A  B.
Figure 91
5.12.10 Symmetry
Symmetry tolerance of a median plane
The tolerance zone is limited by two paral
lel planes a distance t apart and disposed
symmetrically to the median plane with
respect to the datum axis or datum plane.
Figure 92
The median plane of the slot shall be contain
ed between two parallel planes, which are
0.08 apart and symmetrically disposed about
the median plane with respect to the datum
feature A.
Figure 93
Symmetry tolerance of a line or an axis
The tolerance zone when projected in a
plane is limited by two parallel straight
lines a distance t apart and disposed sym
metrically with respect to the datum axis
(or datum plane) if the tolerance is speci
fied only in one direction.
Figure 94
The axis of the hole shall be contained be
tween two parallel planes which are 0.08
apart and symmetrically disposed with
respect to the actual common median plane
of the datum slots A and B.
Figure 95
1
19
Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Geometrical Tolerancing
Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation
Symmetry tolerance of a line or an axis
The tolerance zone is limited by a parallel
epiped of section t
1
· t
2
, the axis of which
coincides with the datum axis if the toler
ance is specified in two directions perpen
dicular to each other.
Figure 96
The axis of the hole shall be contained in a
parallelepipedic zone of width 0.1 in the hori
zontal and 0.05 in the vertical direction and
the axis of which coincides with the datum
axis formed by the intersection of the two me
dian planes of the datum slots A  B and C  D.
Figure 97
5.12.11 Circular runout tolerance
Circular runout tolerance  radial
The tolerance zone is limited within any
plane of measurement perpendicular to
the axis by two concentric circles a
distance t apart, the centre of which coin
cides with the datum axis.
Figure 98
Toleranced surface
Plane of
measurement
Runout normally applies to complete rev
olutions about the axis but could be limit
ed to apply to a part of a revolution.
The radial runout shall not be greater than
0.1 in any plane of measurement during one
revolution about the datum axis A  B.
Figure 99
Figure 101 Figure 100
The radial runout shall not be greater than
0.2 in any plane of measurement when
measuring the toleranced part of a revolution
about the centre line of hole A (datum axis).
Circular runout tolerance  axial
The tolerance zone is limited at any radial
position by two circles a distance t apart
lying in a cylinder of measurement, the
axis of which coincides with the datum
axis.
Figure 102
Cylinder of measurement
The axial runout shall not be greater than 0.1
at any position of measurement during one
revolution about the datum axis D.
Figure 103
1
20
Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Geometrical Tolerancing
Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation
Circular runout tolerance in any direction
The tolerance zone is limited within any
cone of measurement, the axis of which
coincides with the datum axis by two cir
cles a distance t apart. Unless otherwise
specified the measuring direction is nor
mal to the surface.
Figure 104
Cone of measurement
The runout in the direction perpendicular
to the tangent of a curved surface shall not
be greater than 0.1 in any cone of measure
ment during one revolution about the datum
axis C.
Figure 106
Figure 105
The runout in the direction indicated by the
arrow shall not be greater than 0.1 in any
cone of measurement during one revolution
about the datum axis C.
Circular runout tolerance in a specified direction
The tolerance zone is limited within any
cone of measurement of the specified
angle, the axis of which coincides with the
datum axis by two circles a distance t
apart.
The runout in the specified direction shall not
be greater than 0.1 in any cone of measure
ment during one revolution about the datum
axis C.
Figure 107
5.12.12 Total runout tolerance
Total radial runout tolerance
The tolerance zone is limited by two
coaxial cylinders a distance t apart,
the axes of which coincide with the
datum axis.
Figure 108
The total radial runout shall not be greater
than 0.1 at any point on the specified surface
during several revolutions about the datum
axis AB, and with relative axial movement
between part and measuring instrument.
With relative movement the measuring in
strument or the workpiece shall be guided
along a line having the theoretically perfect
form of the contour and being in correct
position to the datum axis.
Figure 109
1
21
Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Geometrical Tolerancing
Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation
Total axial runout tolerance
The tolerance zone is limited by two par
allel planes a distance t apart and per
pendicular to the datum axis.
Figure 110
The total axial runout shall not be greater
than 0.1 at any point on the specified surface
during several revolutions about the datum
axis D and with relative radial movement
between the measuring instrument and the
part. With relative movement the measuring
instrument or the workpiece shall be guided
along a line having the theoretically perfect
form of the contour and being in correct
position to the datum axis.
Figure 111
1
22
Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Sheet Sizes, Title Block,
Nonstandard Formats
Technical drawings, extract from DIN EN ISO
5457.
6. Sheet sizes
The DIN EN ISO 5457 standard applies to the
presentation of drawing forms even if they are
created by CAD. This standard may also be
used for other technical documents. The sheet
sizes listed below have been taken from DIN
EN ISO 5457.
Table 3 Formats of trimmed and untrimmed sheets and of the drawing area
Sheet sizes
acc. to DIN EN
ISO 5457,
A series
Trimmed sheet
a
1
x b
1
Drawing area
1)
a
2
x b
2
Untrimmed sheet
a
3
x b
3
mm mm mm
A0 841 x 1189 821 x 1159 880 x 1230
A1 594 x 841 574 x 811 625 x 880
A2 420 x 594 400 x 564 450 x 625
A3 297 x 420 277 x 390 330 x 450
A4 210 x 297 180 x 277 240 x 330
1) The actually available drawing area is reduc
ed by the title block, the filing margin, the
possible sectioning margin, etc.
6.1 Title block
Formats w A3 are produced in broadside. The
title block area is in the bottom right corner of the
trimmed sheet. For the A4 format the title block
area is at the bottom of the short side (upright
format).
Drawing area Trimmed drawing sheet
Title block
6.2 Nonstandard formats
Nonstandard formats should be avoided. When
necessary they should be created using the
dimensions of the short side of an Aformat with
the long side of a greater Aformat.
1
23
Siemens MD · 2009
Technical Drawings
Type Sizes, Lines
Lettering Example
7. Type sizes
Table 4: Type sizes for drawing formats (h = type height, b = line width)
Application range for lettering
Paper sizes
A0 and A1 A2, A3 and A4
h b h b
Type, drawing no. 10 1 7 0.7
Texts and nominal dimensions 5 0.5 3.5 0.35
Tolerances, roughness values, symbols 3.5 0.35 2.5 0.25
7.1 The type sizes as assigned to the paper
sizes in table 4 MUST be adhered to with regard
to their application range. Larger type heights are
also permissible. Type heights smaller by ap
prox. 20% will be accepted if this is required in
a drawing because of restricted circumstances.
8. Lines acc. to DIN ISO 128, Part 20 and Part 24
Table 5: Line groups, line types and line widths
Line group 0.5 0.7
Drawing format A4, A3, A2 A1, A0
Line type Line width
Solid line (thick) 0.5 0.7
Solid line (thin) 0.25 0.35
Short dashes (thin) 0.25 0.35
Dotdash line (thick) 0.5 0.7
Dotdash line (thin) 0.25 0.35
Dash/doubledot line (thin) 0.25 0.35
Freehand (thin) 0.25 0.35
8.1 Line groups 0.5 and 0.7 with the pertaining
line width according to table 5 may only be
used. Assignment to the drawing formats A1 and
A0 is prescribed. For the A4, A3 and A2 formats,
line group 0.7 may be used as well.
9. Lettering example
9.1 Example for formats
A4 to A 2
DIN 332 DS M24
DIN 509
F2.5 x 0.4
DIN 509
E2.5 x0.4
1
24
Siemens MD · 2009
Table of Contents Section 2
Standardization Page
ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse Pitch Threads) 25
ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse and Fine Pitch Threads) 26
Cylindrical Shaft Ends 27
ISO Tolerance Zones, Allowances, Fit Tolerances; Inside Dimensions (Holes) 28
ISO Tolerance Zones, Allowances, Fit Tolerances; Outside Dimensions (Shafts) 29
Parallel Keys, Taper Keys, and Centre Holes 30
2
25
Siemens MD · 2009
Standardization
ISO Metric Screw Threads
(Coarse Pitch Threads)
ISO metric screw threads (coarse pitch threads) following DIN 13, Part 1
Bolt
Nut
Nut thread diameter Bolt thread diameter
D
1
+ d * 2 H
1
d
2
+ D
2
+ d * 0.64952 P
d
3
+ d * 1.22687 P
H + 0.86603 P
H
1
+ 0.54127 P
h
3
+ 0.61343 P
R +
H
6
+ 0.14434 P
Diameters of series 1 should be preferred to those of series 2, and these again to those of series 3.
Nominal thread
diameter
Pitch
Pitch
diameter
Core diameter Depth of thread Round
Tensile
stress
cross
section
d = D P d
2
= D
2
d
3
D
1
h
3
H
1
R A
s
1)
Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
2
3 0.5 2.675 2.387 2.459 0.307 0.271 0.072 5.03
3.5 0.6 3.110 2.764 2.850 0.368 0.325 0.087 6.78
4 0.7 3.545 3.141 3.242 0.429 0.379 0.101 8.78
4.5 0.75 4.013 3.580 3.688 0.460 0.406 0.108 11.3
5 0.8 4.480 4.019 4.134 0.491 0.433 0.115 14.2
6 1 5.350 4.773 4.917 0.613 0.541 0.144 20.1
7 1 6.350 5.773 5.917 0.613 0.541 0.144 28.9
8 1.25 7.188 6.466 6.647 0.767 0.677 0.180 36.6
9 1.25 8.188 7.466 7.647 0.767 0.677 0.180 48.1
10 1.5 9.026 8.160 8.376 0.920 0.812 0.217 58.0
11 1.5 10.026 9.160 9.376 0.920 0.812 0.217 72.3
12 1.75 10.863 9.853 10.106 1.074 0.947 0.253 84.3
14 2 12.701 11.546 11.835 1.227 1.083 0.289 115
16 2 14.701 13.546 13.835 1.227 1.083 0.289 157
18 2.5 16.376 14.933 15.294 1.534 1.353 0.361 193
20 2.5 18.376 16.933 17.294 1.534 1.353 0.361 245
22 2.5 20.376 18.933 19.294 1.534 1.353 0.361 303
24 3 22.051 20.319 20.752 1.840 1.624 0.433 353
27 3 25.051 23.319 23.752 1.840 1.624 0.433 459
30 3.5 27.727 25.706 26.211 2.147 1.894 0.505 561
33 3.5 30.727 28.706 29.211 2.147 1.894 0.505 694
36 4 33.402 31.093 31.670 2.454 2.165 0.577 817
39 4 36.402 34.093 34.670 2.454 2.165 0.577 976
42 4.5 39.077 36.479 37.129 2.760 2.436 0.650 1121
45 4.5 42.077 39.479 40.129 2.760 2.436 0.650 1306
48 5 44.752 41.866 42.587 3.067 2.706 0.722 1473
52 5 48.752 45.866 46.587 3.067 2.706 0.722 1758
56 5.5 52.428 49.252 50.046 3.374 2.977 0.794 2030
60 5.5 56.428 53.252 54.046 3.374 2.977 0.794 2362
64 6 60.103 56.639 57.505 3.681 3.248 0.866 2676
68 6 64.103 60.639 61.505 3.681 3.248 0.866 3055
1) The tensile stress crosssection is calculated
acc. to DIN 13 Part 28 with formula
A
s
=
S
4
S
d
2
+ d
3
2
2
ǒ Ǔ
2
26
Siemens MD · 2009
Standardization
ISO Metric Screw Threads
(Coarse and Fine Pitch Threads)
Selection of nominal thread diameters and pitches for coarse and fine pitch threads
from 1 mm to 68 mm diameter, following DIN ISO 261
Nominal thread
diameter
d = D
Coarse
pitch
thread
Pitches P for fine pitch threads
Series
1
Series
2
Series
3
4 3 2 1.5 1.25 1 0.75 0.5
1
1.2
1.4
0.25
0.25
0.3
1.6
2
1.8
0.35
0.35
0.4
2.5
3
2.2 0.45
0.45
0.5
4
5
3.5 0.6
0.7
0.8
0.5
0.5
6
8
10
1
1.25
1.5 1.25
1
1
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.5
0.5
12
14
15
1.75
2
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.25
1.25
1
1
1
16
18
17
2
2.5 2
1.5
1.5
1
1
1
20
24
22
2.5
2.5
3
2
2
2
1.5
1.5
1.5
1
1
1
27
25
26
3 2
1.5
1.5
1.5
30
28
32
3.5 2
1.5
1.5
1.5
36
33
35
3.5
4 3
2
2
1.5
1.5
1.5
39
38
40
4 3 2
1.5
1.5
42
48
45
4.5
4.5
5
3
3
3
2
2
2
1.5
1.5
1.5
52
50
55
5 3 2
2
1.5
1.5
1.5
56
60
58
5.5
5.5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1.5
1.5
1.5
64
68
65
6
6
4
4
3
3
2
2
2
2
27
Siemens MD · 2009
Standardization
Cylindrical Shaft Ends
Cylindrical shaft ends
Acc. to DIN 748/1
FLENDER
works standard
W 0470
Dia
meter
Series
ISO
toler
ance
zone
Length
Dia
meter
Length
ISO
toler
ance
zone
Long Short
1 2
mm mm mm mm mm mm
6
k6
16
7 16
8 20
9 20
10 23 15
11 23 15
12 30 18
14
16
30
40
18
28
14
16
30
k6
19
20
22
40
50
50
28
36
36
19
20
22
35
24
25
50
60
36
42
24
25
40
28
30
60
80
42
58
28
30
50
m6
32
35
38
80
80
80
58
58
58
32
35
38
60
40
42
110
110
82
82
40
42
70
45
48
50
110
110
110
82
82
82
45
48
50
80
55
m6
110 82 55 90
60
65
140
140
105
105
60
65
105
70
75
140
140
105
105
70
75
120
80
85
170
170
130
130
80
85
140
90
95
170
170
130
130
90
95
160
Cylindrical shaft ends
Acc. to DIN 748/1
FLENDER
works standard
W 0470
Dia
meter
Series
ISO
toler
ance
zone
Length
Dia
meter
Length
ISO
toler
ance
zone
Long Short
1 2
mm mm mm mm mm mm
100
m6
210 165 100
180
m6
110 210 165 110
n6
120
130
210
250
165
200
120
130
210
140
150
250
250
200
200
140
150
240
160
170
300
300
240
240
160
170
270
180
200
190
300
350
350
240
280
280
180
190
200
310
220 350 280 220 350
250
240
260
410
410
410
330
330
330
240
250
260
400
280 470 380 280 450
320
300 470
470
380
380
300
320
500
340 550 450 340 550
360
380
550
550
450
450
360
380
590
400
420
650
650
540
540
400
420
650
440 650 540 440 690
450
460
650
650
540
540
450
460
750
500
480 650
650
540
540
480
500
790
560
630
530
600
800
800
800
800
680
680
680
680
2
N
o
m
i
n
a
l
d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
s
i
n
m
m
+ 300
+ 100
+ 200
+ 500
+ 400
ï 500
ï 400
ï 300
ï 200
ï 100
0
Pm
28
Siemens MD · 2009
Standardization
ISO Tolerance Zones, Allowances, Fit Tolerances
Inside Dimensions (Holes)
ISO tolerance zones, allowances, fit tolerances; Inside dimensions (holes)
acc. to DIN 7157, DIN ISO 286 Part 2
Tolerance zones shown for
nominal dimension 60 mm
ISO
abbrev.
Series 1
Series 2 P7 N7 N9 M7 K7 J6 J7
H7 H8
H11 G7
F8 E9
D9
D10 C11
A11
from
to
1
3
ï 6
ï16
ï 4
ï14
ï 4
ï29
ï 2
ï12
0
ï10
+ 2
ï 4
+ 4
ï 6
+10
0
+14
0
+ 60
0
+12
+ 2
+ 20
+ 6
+ 39
+ 14
+ 45
+ 20
+ 60
+ 20
+120
+ 60
+330
+270
above
to
3
6
ï 8
ï20
ï 4
ï16
0
ï30
0
ï12
+ 3
ï 9
+ 5
ï 3
+ 6
ï 6
+12
0
+18
0
+ 75
0
+16
4
+ 28
+ 10
+ 50
+ 20
+ 60
+ 30
+ 78
+ 30
+145
+ 70
+345
+270
above
to
6
10
ï 9
ï24
ï 4
ï19
0
ï36
0
ï15
+ 5
ï10
+ 5
ï 4
+ 8
ï 7
+15
0
+22
0
+ 90
0
+20
+ 5
+ 35
+ 13
+ 61
+ 25
+ 76
+ 40
+ 98
+ 40
+170
+ 80
+370
+280
above
to
10
14
ï11
ï29
ï 5
ï23
0
ï43
0
ï18
+ 6
ï12
+ 6
ï 5
+10
ï 8
+18
0
+27
0
+110
0
+24
+ 6
+ 43
+ 16
+ 75
+ 32
+ 93
+ 50
+120
+ 50
+205
+ 95
+400
+290 above
to
14
18
above
to
18
24
ï14
ï35
ï 7
ï28
0
ï52
0
ï21
+ 6
ï15
+ 8
ï 5
+12
ï 9
+21
0
+33
0
+130
0
+28
+ 7
+ 53
+ 20
+ 92
+ 40
+117
+ 65
+149
+ 65
+240
+110
+430
+300 above
to
24
30
above
to
30
40
ï17
ï42
ï 8
ï33
0
ï62
0
ï25
+ 7
ï18
+10
ï 6
+14
ï11
+25
0
+39
0
+160
0
+34
+ 9
+ 64
+ 25
+112
+ 50
+142
+ 80
+180
+ 80
+280
+120
+470
+310
above
to
40
50
+290
+130
+480
+320
above
to
50
65
ï21
ï51
ï 9
ï39
0
ï74
0
ï30
+ 9
ï21
+13
ï 6
+18
ï12
+30
0
+46
0
+190
0
+40
+10
+ 76
+ 30
+134
+ 60
+174
+100
+220
+100
+330
+140
+530
+340
above
to
65
80
+340
+150
+550
+360
above
to
80
100
ï24
ï59
ï10
ï45
0
ï87
0
ï35
+10
ï25
+16
ï 6
+22
ï13
+35
0
+54
0
+220
0
+47
+12
+ 90
+ 36
+159
+ 72
+207
+120
+260
+120
+390
+170
+600
+380
above
to
100
120
+400
+180
+630
+410
above
to
120
140
ï28
ï68
ï12
ï52
0
ï100
0
ï40
+12
ï28
+18
ï 7
+26
ï14
+40
0
+63
0
+250
0
+54
+14
+106
+ 43
+185
+ 85
+245
+145
+305
+145
+450
+200
+710
+460
above
to
140
160
+460
+210
+770
+520
above
to
160
180
+480
+230
+830
+580
above
to
180
200
ï33
ï79
ï14
ï60
0
ï115
0
ï46
+13
ï33
+22
ï 7
+30
ï16
+46
0
+72
0
+290
0
+61
+15
+122
+ 50
+215
+100
+285
+170
+355
+170
+530
+240
+950
+660
above
to
200
225
+550
+260
+1030
+ 740
above
to
225
250
+570
+280
+1110
+ 820
above
to
250
280
ï36
ï88
ï14
ï66
0
ï130
0
ï52
+16
ï36
+25
ï 7
+36
ï16
+52
0
+81
0
+320
0
+69
+17
+137
+ 56
+240
+110
+320
+190
+400
+190
+620
+300
+1240
+ 920
above
to
280
315
+650
+330
+1370
+1050
above
to
315
355
ï41
ï98
ï16
ï73
0
ï140
0
ï57
+17
ï40
+29
ï 7
+39
ï18
+57
0
+89
0
+360
0
+75
+18
+151
+ 62
+265
+125
+350
+210
+440
+210
+720
+360
+1560
+1200
above
to
355
400
+760
+400
+1710
+1350
above
to
400
450
ï 45
ï108
ï17
ï80
0
ï155
0
ï63
+18
ï45
+33
ï 7
+43
ï20
+63
0
+97
0
+400
0
+83
+20
+165
+ 68
+290
+135
+385
+230
+480
+230
+840
+440
+1900
+1500
above
to
450
500
+880
+480
+2050
+1650
ISO
abbrev.
Series 1
Series 2 P7 N7 N9 M7 K7 J6 J7
H7 H8
H11 G7
F8 E9
D9
D10 C11
A11
2
N
o
m
i
n
a
l
d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
s
i
n
m
m
+ 300
+ 100
+ 200
+ 500
+ 400
ï 500
ï 400
ï 300
ï 200
ï 100
0
Pm
29
Siemens MD · 2009
Standardization
ISO Tolerance Zones, Allowances, Fit Tolerances
Outside Dimensions (Shafts)
ISO tolerance zones, allowances, fit tolerances; Outside dimensions (shafts)
acc. to DIN 7157, DIN ISO 286 Part 2
Tolerance zones shown for
nominal dimension 60 mm
ISO
abbrev.
Series 1
Series 2
x8/u8
1)
s6 r5
r6 n6
m5 m6 k5 k6 j6 js6
h6
h7 h8
h9
h11 g6
f7
e8 d9 c11 a11
from
to
1
3
+ 34
+ 20
+ 20
+ 14
+ 14
+ 10
+ 16
+ 10
+10
+ 4
+ 6
+ 2
+ 8
+ 2
+ 4
0
+ 6
0
+ 4
ï 2
+ 3
ï 3
0
ï 6
0
ï10
0
ï14
0
ï 25
0
ï 60
ï 2
ï 8
ï 6
ï 16
ï 14
ï 28
ï 20
ï 45
ï 60
ï120
ï270
ï330
above
to
3
6
+ 46
+ 28
+ 27
+ 19
+ 20
+ 15
+ 23
+ 15
+16
+ 8
+ 9
+ 4
+12
+ 4
+ 6
+ 1
+ 9
+ 1
+ 6
ï 2
+ 4
ï 4
0
ï 8
0
ï12
0
ï18
0
ï 30
0
ï 75
ï 4
ï12
ï 10
ï 22
ï 20
ï 38
ï 30
ï 60
ï 70
ï145
ï270
ï345
above
to
6
10
+ 56
+ 34
+ 32
+ 23
+ 25
+ 19
+ 28
+ 19
+19
+10
+12
+ 6
+15
+ 6
+ 7
+ 1
+10
+ 1
+ 7
ï 2
+4.5
ï4.5
0
ï 9
0
ï15
0
ï22
0
ï 36
0
ï 90
ï 5
ï14
ï 13
ï 28
ï 25
ï 47
ï 40
ï 76
ï 80
ï170
ï280
ï370
above
to
10
14
+ 67
+ 40
+ 39
+ 28
+ 31
+ 23
+ 34
+ 23
+23
+12
+15
+ 7
+18
+ 7
+ 9
+ 1
+12
+ 1
+ 8
ï 3
+5.5
ï5.5
0
ï11
0
ï18
0
ï27
0
ï 43
0
ï110
ï 6
ï17
ï 16
ï 34
ï 32
ï 59
ï 50
ï 93
ï 95
ï205
ï290
ï400 above
to
14
18
+ 72
+ 45
above
to
18
24
+ 87
+ 54 + 48
+ 35
+ 37
+ 28
+ 41
+ 28
+28
+15
+17
+ 8
+21
+ 8
+11
+ 2
+15
+ 2
+ 9
ï 4
+6.5
ï6.5
0
ï13
0
ï21
0
ï33
0
ï 52
0
ï130
ï 7
ï20
ï 20
ï 41
ï 40
ï 73
ï 65
ï117
ï110
ï240
ï300
ï430 above
to
24
30
+ 81
+ 48
above
to
30
40
+ 99
+ 60 + 59
+ 43
+ 45
+ 34
+ 50
+ 34
+33
+17
+20
+ 9
+25
+ 9
+13
+ 2
+18
+ 2
+11
ï 5
+8
ï8
0
ï16
0
ï25
0
ï39
0
ï 62
0
ï160
ï 9
ï25
ï 25
ï 50
ï 50
ï 89
ï 80
ï142
ï120
ï280
ï310
ï470
above
to
40
50
+109
+ 70
ï130
ï290
ï320
ï480
above
to
50
65
+133
+ 87
+ 72
+ 53
+ 54
+ 41
+ 60
+ 41
+39
+20
+24
+11
+30
+11
+15
+ 2
+21
+ 2
+12
ï 7
+9.5
ï9.5
0
ï19
0
ï30
0
ï46
0
ï 74
0
ï190
ï10
ï29
ï 30
ï 60
ï 60
ï106
ï100
ï174
ï140
ï330
ï340
ï530
above
to
65
80
+148
+102
+ 78
+ 59
+ 56
+ 43
+ 62
+ 43
ï150
ï340
ï360
ï550
above
to
80
100
+178
+124
+ 93
+ 71
+ 66
+ 51
+ 73
+ 51
+45
+23
+28
+13
+35
+13
+18
+ 3
+25
+ 3
+13
ï 9
+11
ï11
0
ï22
0
ï35
0
ï54
0
ï 87
0
ï220
ï12
ï34
ï 36
ï 71
ï 72
ï126
ï120
ï207
ï170
ï390
ï380
ï600
above
to
100
120
+198
+144
+101
+ 79
+ 69
+ 54
+ 76
+ 54
ï180
ï400
ï410
ï630
above
to
120
140
+233
+170
+117
+ 92
+ 81
+ 63
+ 88
+ 63
+52
+27
+33
+15
+40
+15
+21
+ 3
+28
+ 3
+14
ï11
+12.5
ï12.5
0
ï25
0
ï40
0
ï63
0
ï100
0
ï250
ï14
ï39
ï 43
ï 83
ï 85
ï148
ï145
ï245
ï200
ï450
ï460
ï710
above
to
140
160
+253
+190
+125
+100
+ 83
+ 65
+ 90
+ 65
ï210
ï460
ï520
ï770
above
to
160
180
+273
+210
+133
+108
+ 86
+ 68
+ 93
+ 68
ï230
ï480
ï580
ï830
above
to
180
200
+308
+236
+151
+122
+ 97
+ 77
+106
+ 77
+60
+31
+37
+17
+46
+17
+24
+ 4
+33
+ 4
+16
ï13
+14.5
ï14.5
0
ï29
0
ï46
0
ï72
0
ï115
0
ï290
ï15
ï44
ï 50
ï 96
ï100
ï172
ï170
ï285
ï240
ï530
ï660
ï950
above
to
200
225
+330
+258
+159
+130
+100
+ 80
+109
+ 80
ï260
ï550
ï 740
ï1030
above
to
225
250
+356
+284
+169
+140
+104
+ 84
+113
+ 84
ï280
ï570
ï 820
ï1100
above
to
250
280
+396
+315
+190
+158
+117
+ 94
+126
+ 94
+66
+34
+43
+20
+52
+20
+27
+ 4
+36
+ 4
+16
ï16
+16
ï16
0
ï32
0
ï52
0
ï81
0
ï130
0
ï320
ï17
ï49
ï 56
ï108
ï110
ï191
ï190
ï320
ï300
ï620
ï 920
ï1240
above
to
280
315
+431
+350
+202
+170
+121
+ 98
+130
+ 98
ï330
ï650
ï1050
ï1370
above
to
315
355
+479
+390
+226
+190
+133
+108
+144
+108
+73
+37
+46
+21
+57
+21
+29
+ 4
+40
+ 4
+18
ï18
+18
ï18
0
ï36
0
ï57
0
ï89
0
ï140
0
ï360
ï18
ï54
ï 62
ï119
ï125
ï214
ï210
ï350
ï360
ï720
ï1200
ï1560
above
to
355
400
+524
+435
+244
+208
+139
+114
+150
+114
ï400
ï760
ï1350
ï1710
above
to
400
450
+587
+490
+272
+232
+153
+126
+166
+126
+80
+40
+50
+23
+63
+23
+32
+ 5
+45
+ 5
+20
ï20
+20
ï20
0
ï40
0
ï63
0
ï97
0
ï155
0
ï400
ï20
ï60
ï 68
ï131
ï135
ï232
ï230
ï385
ï440
ï840
ï1500
ï1900
above
to
450
500
+637
+540
+292
+252
+159
+132
+172
+132
ï480
ï880
ï1650
ï2050
ISO
abbrev.
Series 1
Series 2
x8/u8
1)
s6 r5
r6 n6
m5 m6 k5 k6 j6 js6
h6
h7 h8
h9
h11 g6
f7
e8 d9 c11 a11
1) Up to nominal dimension 24 mm: x8; above nominal dimension 24 mm: u8
2
30
Siemens MD · 2009
Standardization
Parallel Keys, Taper Keys,
and Centre Holes
Dimensions of parallel keys and taper keys
Parallel keys and taper keys
acc. to DIN 6885 Part 1, 6886 and 6887
Side fitting square and rectangular keys
Parallel key and keyway acc. to DIN 6885 Part 1
Square and rectangular taper keys
Taper and roundended sunk key and
keyway acc. to DIN 6886
1) The tolerance zone for hub keyway width b for
parallel keys with normal fit is ISO JS9 and
with close fit ISO P9. The tolerance zone for
shaft keyway width b with normal fit is ISO N9
and with close fit ISO P9.
2) Dimension h of the taper key names the
largest height of the key, and dimension t
z
the
largest depth of the hub keyway. The shaft
keyway and hub keyway dimensions
according to DIN 6887  taper keys with gib
head  are equal to those of DIN 6886.
Diameter Width Height
Depth
of key
way in
shaft
Depth of
keyway in
hub
Lengths, see
below
d b h t
1
t
2
l
1
l
DIN DIN
above to
1) 2)
6885/
1
6886/
6887
6885/1 6886
2)
from to from to
mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
6
8
10
8
10
12
2
3
4
2
3
4
1.2
1.8
2.5
1.0
1.4
1.8
0.5
0.9
1.2
6
6
8
20
36
45
6
8
10
20
36
45
12
17
22
17
22
30
5
6
8
5
6
7
3
3.5
4
2.3
2.8
3.3
1.7
2.2
2.4
10
14
18
56
70
90
12
16
20
56
70
90
30
38
44
38
44
50
10
12
14
8
8
9
5
5
5.5
3.3
3.3
3.8
2.4
2.4
2.9
22
28
36
110
140
160
25
32
40
110
140
160
50
58
65
58
65
75
16
18
20
10
11
12
6
7
7.5
4.3
4.4
4.9
3.4
3.4
3.9
45
50
56
180
200
220
45
50
56
180
200
220
75
85
95
85
95
110
22
25
28
14
14
16
9
9
10
5.4
5.4
6.4
4.4
4.4
5.4
63
70
80
250
280
320
63
70
80
250
280
320
110
130
150
130
150
170
32
36
40
18
20
22
11
12
13
7.4
8.4
9.4
6.4
7.1
8.1
90
100
110
360
400
400
90
100
110
360
400
400
170
200
230
200
230
260
45
50
56
25
28
32
15
17
20
10.4
11.4
12.4
9.1
10.1
11.1
125
140
160
400
400
400
125
140
400
400
260
290
330
290
330
380
63
70
80
32
36
40
20
22
25
12.4
14.4
15.4
11.1
13.1
14.1
180
200
220
400
400
400
Lengths
not
deter
mined
380
440
440
500
90
100
45
50
28
31
17.4
19.5
16.1
18.1
250
280
400
400
Lengths mm
I
1
or I
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 28 32 36 40 45 50 56 63 70 80
90 100 110 125 140 160 180 200 220 250 280 320 360 400
Dimensions of 60q centre holes in mm Centre holes
Recommended
diameters
Bore
diameter
Form B
Minimum
dimensions
Centre holes
in shaft ends (centerings) acc. to DIN 332
Part 1
Form B
DIN 332/1
d
2)
d
1
a
1)
b d
2
d
3
t
above to
6
10
25
63
10
25
63
100
1.6
2
2.5
3.15
4
5
6.3
5.5
6.6
8.3
10
12.7
15.6
20
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.2
1.6
1.4
3.35
4.25
5.3
6.7
8.5
10.6
13.2
5
6.3
8
10
12.5
16
18
3.4
4.3
5.4
6.8
8.6
10.8
12.9
Recommended
diameters
Form DS
Keyway
Form DS (with thread)
DIN 332/2
1) Cuttingoff dimension in case of no centering
2) Diameter applies to finished workpiece
* Dimensions not acc. to DIN 332 Part 2
3) Drill diameter for tappingsize holes acc. to
DIN 336 Part 1
d
6
2)
d
1
d
2
d
3
d
4
d
5
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
above to
3)
+2 min. +1  
7
10
13
10
13
16
M3
M4
M5
2.5
3.3
4.2
3.2
4.3
5.3
5.3
6.7
8.1
5.8
7.4
8.8
9
10
12.5
12
14
17
2.6
3.2
4
1.8
2.1
2.4
0.2
0.3
0.3
16
21
24
21
24
30
M6
M8
M10
5
6.8
8.5
6.4
8.4
10.5
9.6
12.2
14.9
10.5
13.2
16.3
16
19
22
21
25
30
5
6
7.5
2.8
3.3
3.8
0.4
0.4
0.6
30
38
50
85
38
50
85
130
M12
M16
M20
M24
10.2
14
17.5
21
13
17
21
25
18.1
23
28.4
34.2
19.8
25.3
31.3
38
28
36
42
50
37
45
53
63
9.5
12
15
18
4.4
5.2
6.4
8
0.7
1.0
1.3
1.6
130
225
320
225
320
500
M30*
M36*
M42*
26.5
32
37.5
31
37
43
40.2
49.7
60.3
44.6
55
66.6
60
74
84
77
93
105
22
22
26
8
11
15
1.9
2.3
2.7
2
31
Siemens MD · 2009
Table of Contents Section 3
Physics Page
Internationally Determined Prefixes 32
Basic SI Units 32
Derived SI Units Having Special Names and Special Unit Symbols 33
Legal Units Outside the SI 33
Physical Quantities and Units of Lengths and Their Powers 34
Physical Quantities and Units of Time 35
Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics 35 ï 37
Physical Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer 37 + 38
Physical Quantities and Units of Electrical Engineering 38
Physical Quantities and Units of Lighting Engineering 39
Different Measuring Units of Temperature 39
Measures of Length 40
Square Measures 40
Cubic Measures 41
Weights 41
Energy, Work, Quantity of Heat 41
Power, Energy Flow, Heat Flow 42
Pressure and Tension 42
Velocity 42
Equations for Linear Motion and Rotary Motion 43
3
32
Siemens MD · 2009
Physics
Internationally Determined Prefixes
Basic SI Units
Internationally determined prefixes
Decimal multiples and submultiples of units are represented with
prefixes and symbols. Prefixes and symbols are used only in
combination with unit names and unit symbols.
Factor by which
the unit is
multiplied
Prefix Symbol
Factor by which
the unit is
multiplied
Prefix Symbol
10
18
Atto a 10
1
Deka da
10
15
Femto f 10
2
Hecto h
10
12
Pico p 10
3
Kilo k
10
9
Nano n 10
6
Mega M
10
6
Micro P 10
9
Giga G
10
3
Milli m 10
12
Tera T
10
2
Centi c 10
15
Peta P
10
1
Deci d 10
18
Exa E
ï Prefix symbols and unit symbols are written
without blanks and together they form the
symbol for a new unit. An exponent on the unit
symbol also applies to the prefix symbol.
Example:
1 cm
3
= 1
.
(10
2
m)
3
= 1
.
10
6
m
3
1 Ps = 1
.
10
6
s
10
6
s
1
= 10
6
Hz = 1 MHz
ï Prefixes are not used with the basic SI unit kilo
gram (kg) but with the unit gram (g).
Example:
Milligram (mg), NOT microkilogram (Pkg).
ï When giving sizes by using prefix symbols and
unit symbols, the prefixes should be chosen in
such a way that the numerical values are
between 0.1 and 1000.
Example:
12 kN instead of 1.2
.
10
4
N
3.94 mm instead of 0.00394 m
1.401 kPa instead of 1401 Pa
31 ns instead of 3.1
.
10
8
s
ï Combinations of prefixes and the following
units are not allowed:
Units of angularity: degree, minute, second
Units of time: minute, hour, year, day
Unit of temperature: degree Celsius
Basic SI units
Physical quantity
Basic SI unit
Physical quantity
Basic SI unit
Name Symbol Name Symbol
Length Metre m
Thermodynamic
temperature
Kelvin K
Mass Kilogram kg
Time Second s Amount of substance Mol mol
Electric current Ampere A Luminous intensity Candela cd
3
33
Siemens MD · 2009
Physics
Derived SI Units
Legal Units Outside the SI
Derived SI units having special names and special unit symbols
Physical quantity
SI unit
Relation
Name
Plane angle Radian rad 1 rad = 1 m/ m
Solid angle Steradian sr 1 sr = 1 m
2
/ m
2
Frequency, cycles per
second
Hertz Hz 1 Hz = 1 s
1
Force Newton N 1 N = 1 kg
.
m/ s
2
Pressure, mechanical
stress
Pascal Pa 1 Pa = 1 N/m
2
= 1 kg / (m
.
s
2
)
Energy; work; quantity
of heat
Joule J 1 J = 1 N
.
m = 1 W
.
s = 1 kg
.
m
2
/ s
2
Power, heat flow Watt W 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 kg
.
m
2
/ s
3
Electric charge Coulomb C 1 C = 1 A
.
s
Electric potential Volt V 1 V = 1 J/C = 1 (kg
.
m
2
) / (A
.
s
3
)
Electric capacitance Farad F 1 F = 1 C/V = 1 (A
2 .
s
4
) / (kg
.
m
2
)
Electric resistance Ohm : 1 : = 1 V/A = 1 (kg
.
m
2
) / A
2 .
s
3
)
Electric conductance Siemens S 1 S = 1 :
1
= 1 (A
2 .
s
3
) / (kg
.
m
2
)
Celsius temperature
degrees
Celsius
qC
0 qC = 273.15 K
'1 qC = '1 K
Inductance Henry H 1 H = 1 V
.
s/ A
Legal units outside the SI
Physical quantity Unit name Unit symbol Definition
Plane angle
Round angle
Gon
Degree
Minute
Second
1)
gon
q
2)
’
2)
’’
2)
1 perigon = 2 S rad
1 gon = (S/ 200)rad
1q = (S/180)rad
1’ = (1/60)q
1’’ = (1/60)’
Volume Litre l 1 l = 1 dm
3
= (1/1000) m
3
Time
Minute
Hour
Day
Year
min
2)
h
2)
d
2)
a
2)
1 min = 60 s
1 h = 60 min = 3600 s
1 d = 24 h = 86 400 s
1 a = 365 d = 8760 h
Mass Ton t 1 t = 10
3
kg = 1 Mg
Pressure Bar bar 1 bar = 10
5
Pa
1) A symbol for the round angle has not been internationally determined
2) Do not use with prefixes
3
34
Siemens MD · 2009
Physics
Physical Quantities and Units of
Lengths and Their Powers
Physical quantities and units of lengths and their powers
Symbol
Physical
quantity
SI unit
Symbol
Name
N.: Note
L.U.: Further legal units
N.A.: Units no longer allowed
l Length
m
(metre)
N.: Basic unit
L.U.: Pm; mm; cm; dm; km; etc.
N.A.: micron (P): 1 P = 1 Pm
Ångström (Å): 1 Å = 10
10
m
A Area
m
2
(square metre)
L.U.: mm
2
; cm
2
; dm
2
; km
2
are (a): 1 a = 10
2
m
2
hectare (ha): 1 ha = 10
4
m
2
V Volume
m
3
(cubic metre)
L.U.: mm
3
; cm
3
; dm
3
litre (l): 1 l = 1 dm
3
H
Moment
of area
m
3
N.: moment of a force; moment of resistance
L.U.: mm
3
; cm
3
,
Second
moment
of area
m
4
N.: formerly: geometrical moment of inertia
L.U.: mm
4
; cm
4
D
E
J
Plane
angle
rad
(radian)
1 rad
90
o
+
p
2
rad
1 degree +1
o
+
p
180
rad
Degree (
o
) : 1
o
+
p
180
rad
Minute (Ȁ) : 1Ȁ +
1
o
60
Second (ȀȀ) : 1ȀȀ +
1Ȁ
60
Gon (gon) : 1 gon +
p
200
rad
N.A. : Right angle (L) : 1L +
p
2
rad
Centesimal degree (g) : 1g +1 gon
Centesimal minute (
c
) : 1
c
+
1
100
gon
Centesimal second (
cc
) : 1
cc
+
1
c
100
L.U. : mrad, mrad
N.: 1 rad = = = 1m/m
1 m (arc)
1 m (radius)
1 m
1 m
:
Z
Solid angle
sr
(steradian)
N.: 1 sr =
1 m
2
(spherical surface)
1 m
2
(square of spherical radius)
= 1
m
2
m
2
3
35
Siemens MD · 2009
Physics
Physical Quantities and Units
of Time and of Mechanics
Physical quantities and units of time
Symbol
Physical
quantity
SI unit
Symbol
Name
N.: Note
L.U.: Further legal units
N.A.: Units no longer allowed
t
Time,
Period,
Duration
s
(second)
N.: Basic unit
L.U.: ns; Ps; ms; ks
Minute (min): 1 min = 60 s
Hour (h): 1 h = 60 min
Day (d): 1 d = 24 h
Year (a): 1 a = 365 d
(Do not use prefixes for decimal multiples
and submultiples of min; h; d; a)
f
Frequency,
Periodic
frequency
Hz
(Hertz)
L.U.: kHz; MHz; GHz; THz
Hertz (Hz): 1 Hz = 1/s
n
Rotational
frequency
(speed)
s
1
N.: Reciprocal value of the duration of one
revolution
L.U.: min
1
= 1/min
v Velocity m/s
1 kmńh +
1
3.6
mńs
L.U.: cm/s; m/h; km/s; km/h
a
Acceleration,
linear
m/s
2
N.: Timerelated velocity
L.U.: cm/s
2
g Gravity m/s
2
N.: Gravity varies locally.
Normal gravity (g
n
):
g
n
= 9.80665 m/s
2
 9.81 m/s
2
Z
Angular
velocity
rad/s L.U.: rad/min
D
Angular
acceleration
rad/s
2
L.U.: q/s
2
V
.
Volume
flow rate
m
3
/s L.U.: l/s; l/min; dm
3
/s; l/h; m
3
/h; etc.
Physical quantities and units of mechanics
Symbol
Physical
quantity
SI unit
Symbol
Name
N.: Note
L.U.: Further legal units
N.A.: Units no longer allowed
m Mass
kg
(kilogram)
N.: Basic unit
L.U.: Pg; mg; g; Mg
ton (t): 1 t = 1000 kg
m’
Mass per
unit length
kg/m
N.: m’ = m/l
L.U.: mg/m; g/km
In the textile industry:
Tex (tex): 1 tex = 10
6
kg/m = 1 g/km
m’’
Mass in
relation to the
surface
kg/m
2
N.: m’’ = m/A
L.U.: g/mm
2
; g/m
2
; t/m
2
3
36
Siemens MD · 2009
Physics
Physical Quantities and
Units of Mechanics
Physical quantities and units of mechanics (continued)
Symbol
Physical
quantity
SI unit
Symbol
Name
N.: Note
L.U.: Further legal units
N.A.: Units no longer allowed
r Density kg/m
3
N.: r = m/V
L.U.: g/cm
3
; kg/dm
3
; Mg/m
3
; t/m
3
; kg/l
1g/cm
3
= 1 kg/dm
3
= 1 Mg/m
3
=
1 t/m
3
= 1 kg/l
J
Mass moment
of inertia;
second mass
moment
kg
.
m
2
N.: Instead of the former flywheel effect GD
2
L.U.: g
.
m
2
; t
.
m
2
GD
2
in kpm
2
now : J +
GD
2
4
m
.
Rate of
mass flow
kg/s L.U.: kg/h; t/h
F Force
N
(Newton)
L.U.: PN; mN; kN; MN; etc.; 1 N = 1 kg m/s
2
N.A.: kp (1 kp = 9.80665 N)
G Weight
N
(Newton)
N.: Weight = mass acceleration due to gravity
L.U.: kN; MN; GN; etc.
M, T Torque Nm
L.U.: PNm; mNm; kNm; MNm; etc.
N.A.: kpm; pcm; pmm; etc.
M
b
Bending
moment
Nm
L.U.: Nmm; Ncm; kNm; etc.
N.A.: kpm; kpcm; kpmm; etc.
p Pressure
Pa
(Pascal)
N.: 1 Pa = 1 N/m
2
L.U.: Bar (bar): 1 bar = 100 000 Pa = 10
5
Pa
Pbar; mbar
N.A.: kp/cm
2
; at; ata; atü; mmWS; mmHg; Torr
1kp/cm
2
= 1 at = 0.980665 bar
1 atm = 101 325 Pa = 1.01325 bar
1 mWS = 9806.65 Pa = 9806.65 N/m
2
1 mmHg = 133.322 Pa = 133.322 N/m
2
1 Torr +
101325
760
Pa +133.322 Pa
p
abs
Absolute
pressure
Pa
(Pascal)
p
amb
Ambient
atmospheric
pressure
Pa
(Pascal)
p
e
Pressure
above
atmospheric
Pa
(Pascal)
p
e
= p
abs
ï p
amb
V
Direct stress
(tensile and
compressive
stress)
N/m
2
L.U.: N/mm
2
1 N/mm
2
= 10
6
N/m
2
= 1 MPa
W
Shearing
stress
N/m
2
L.U.: N/mm
2
H Extension m/m
N.: 'l / l
L.U.: Pm/m; cm/m; mm/m
3
37
Siemens MD · 2009
Physics
Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics,
Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer
Physical quantities and units of mechanics (continued)
Symbol
Physical
quantity
SI unit
Symbol
Name
N.: Note
L.U.: Further legal units
N.A.: Units no longer allowed
W, A Work
J
(Joule)
N.: 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws
L.U.: mJ; kJ; MJ; GJ; TJ; kWh
1 kWh = 3.6 MJ
N.A.: kpm; cal; kcal
1 cal = 4.1868 J; 860 kcal = 1 kWh
E, W Energy
P Power
W
(Watt)
N.: 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 Nm/s
L.U.: PW; mW; kW; MW; etc.
kJ/s; kJ/h; MJ/h; etc.
N.A.: PS; kpm/s; kcal/h
1 PS = 735.49875 W
1 kpm/s = 9.81 W
1 kcal/h = 1.16 W
1 hp = 745.70 W
Q
.
Heat flow
K
Dynamic
viscosity
Pa
.
s
N.: 1 Pa
.
s = 1 Ns/m
2
L.U.: dPa
.
s; mPa
.
s
N.A.: Poise (P): 1 P = 0.1 Pa
.
s
Q
Kinematic
viscosity m
2
/s
L.U.: mm
2
/s; cm
2
/s
N.A.: Stokes (St):
1 St = 1/10 000 m
2
/s
1cSt = 1 mm
2
/s
Physical quantities and units of thermodynamics and heat transfer
Symbol
Physical
quantity
SI unit
Symbol
Name
N.: Note
L.U.: Further legal units
N.A.: Units no longer allowed
T
Thermo
dynamic
temperature
K
(Kelvin)
N.: Basic unit
273.15 K = 0 qC
373.15 K = 100 qC
L.U.: mK
t
Celsius
temperature
qC
N.: The degrees Celsius (qC) is a special name
for the degrees Kelvin (K) when stating
Celsius temperatures. The temperature inter
val of 1 K equals that of 1 qC.
Q
Heat,
Quantity of
heat
J
1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws
L.U.: mJ; kJ; MJ; GJ; TJ
N.A.: cal; kcal
a
Temperature
conductivity
m
2
/s
O > W/ (m
.
K) @ = thermal conductivity
r > kg/ m
3
@ = density of the body
c
p
> J/ (kg
.
K) @ = specific heat capacity
at constant pressure
a =
O
r
.
c
p
3
38
Siemens MD · 2009
Physics
Physical Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics,
Heat Transfer and Electrical Engineering
Physical quantities and units of thermodynamics and heat transfer (continued)
Symbol
Physical
quantity
SI unit
Symbol
Name
N.: Note
L.U.: Further legal units
N.A.: Units no longer allowed
H
Enthalpy
(Heat content)
J
N.: Quantity of heat absorbed under certain
conditions
L.U.: kJ; MJ; etc.
N.A.: cal; Mcal; etc.
s Entropy J/K
1 J/K = 1 Ws/K = 1 Nm/K
L.U.: kJ/K
N.A.: kcal/deg; kcal/qK
D
h
Heat transfer
coefficient
W/ (m
2 .
K)
L.U.: W / (cm
2 .
K); kJ / (m
2 .
h
.
K)
N.A.: cal / (cm
2 .
s
.
grd)
kcal / (m
2 .
h
.
grd)  4.2 kJ / (m
2 .
h
.
K)
c
Specific
heat capacity
J / (K
.
kg)
1 J / (K
.
kg) = W
.
s / (kg
.
K)
N.: Heat capacity referred to mass
N.A.: cal / (g
.
grd); kcal / (kg
.
grd); etc.
D
l
Coefficient of
linear thermal
expansion
K
1
m/ (m
.
K) = K
1
N.: Temperature unit/length unit ratio
L.U.: Pm/ (m
.
K); cm/ (m
.
K); mm/ (m
.
K)
D
v
J
Coefficient of
volumetric
expansion
K
1
m
3
/ (m
3 .
K) = K
1
N.: Temperature unit/volume ratio
N.A.: m
3
/ (m
3 .
deg)
Physical quantities and units of electrical engineering
Symbol
Physical
quantity
SI unit
Symbol
Name
N.: Note
L.U.: Further legal units
N.A.: Units no longer allowed
I
Current
strength
A
(Ampere)
N.: Basic unit
L.U.: pA; nA; PA; mA; kA; etc.
Q
Electric charge;
Quantity of
electricity
C
(Coulomb)
1 C = 1 A
.
s
1 Ah = 3600 As
L.U.: pC; nC; PC; kC
U
Electric
voltage
V
(Volt)
1 V = 1 W/ A = 1 J / (s
.
A)
= 1 A
.
: = 1 N
.
m/ (s
.
A)
L.U.: PV; mV; kV; MV; etc.
R
Electric
resistance
:
(Ohm)
1 : = 1 V/ A = 1 W/ A
2
1 J / (s
.
A
2
) = 1 N
.
m/ (s
.
A
2
)
L.U.: P:; m:; k:; etc.
G
Electric
conductance
S
(Siemens)
N.: Reciprocal of electric resistance
1 S = 1 :
1
= 1/ :; G = 1/ R
L.U.: PS; mS; kS
C
Electric
capacitance
F
(Farad)
1 F = 1 C/ V = 1 A
.
s / V
= 1 A
2 .
s / W = 1 A
2 .
s
2
/ J
= 1 A
2 .
s
2
/ (N
.
m)
L.U.: pF; PF; etc.
3
39
Siemens MD · 2009
Physics
Physical Quantities and Units of Lighting Engineering,
Different Measuring Units of Temperature
Physical quantities and units of lighting engineering
Symbol
Physical
quantity
SI unit
Symbol
Name
N.: Note
L.U.: Further legal units
N.A.: Units no longer allowed
,
Luminous
intensity
cd
(Candela)
N.: Basic unit
1 cd = 1 lm (lumen) / sr (Steradian)
L.U.: mcd; kcd
L
Luminous
density;
Luminance
cd / m
2
L.U.: cd / cm
2
; mcd/m
2
; etc.
N.A.: Apostilb (asb): 1 asb +
1
p
cdńm
2
Nit (nt): 1 nt = 1 cd / m
2
Stilb (sb): 1 sb = 10
4
cd/ m
2
)
Luminous
flux
lm
(Lumen)
1 Im = 1 cd
.
sr
L.U.: klm
E Illuminance
lx
(Lux)
1 lx = 1 lm / m
2
Different measuring units of temperature
Kelvin K
T
K
Degrees Celsius qC
t
C
Degrees Fahrenheit qF
t
F
Degrees Rankine qR
T
R
T
K
+273.15 )t
C
t
C
+T
K
*273.15 t
F
+
9
5
@ T
K
*459.67 T
R
+
9
5
@ T
K
T
K
+255.38 )
5
9
@ t
F
t
C
+
5
9
ǒ
t
F
*32
Ǔ
t
F
+32 )
9
5
@ t
C
T
R
+
9
5
ǒ
t
c
)273.15
Ǔ
T
K
+
5
9
@ T
R
t
C
+
5
9
T
R
*273.15 t
F
+T
R
*459.67 T
R
+459.67 )t
F
Comparison of some temperatures
0.00
+ 255.37
+ 273.15
+ 273.16
1)
+ 373.15
ï 273.15
ï 17.78
0.00
+ 0.01
1)
+ 100.00
ï 459.67
0.00
+ 32.00
+ 32.02
+ 212.00
0.00
+ 459.67
+ 491.67
+ 491.69
+ 671.67
1) The triple point of water is +0.01 qC. The triple point of pure water is the equilibrium point between
pure ice, airfree water and water vapour (at 1013.25 hPa).
Temperature
comparison
of qF with qC
3
40
Siemens MD · 2009
Physics
Measures of Length
and Square Measures
Measures of length
Unit
Inch
in
Foot
ft
Yard
yd
Stat mile
Naut
mile
mm m km
1 in
1 ft
1 yd
1 stat mile
1 naut mile
=
=
=
=
=
1
12
36
63 360
72 960
0.08333
1
3
5280
6080
0.02778
0.3333
1
1760
2027
ï
ï
ï
1
1.152
ï
ï
ï
0.8684
1
25.4
304.8
914.4
ï
ï
0.0254
0.3048
0.9144
1609.3
1853.2
ï
ï
ï
1.609
1.853
1 mm
1 m
1 km
=
=
=
0.03937
39.37
39 370
3.281
.
10
3
3.281
3281
1.094
.
10
3
1.094
1094
ï
ï
0.6214
ï
ï
0.5396
1
1000
10
6
0.001
1
1000
10
ï6
0.001
1
1 German statute mile = 7500 m
1 geograph. mile = 7420.4 m = 4 arc minutes at the
equator (1q at the equator = 111.307 km)
Astronomical units of measure
1 lightsecond = 300 000 km
1 l.y. (lightyear) = 9.46
.
10
12
km
1 parsec (parallax second, distances to the stars) =
3.26 l.y.
1 astronomical unit (mean distance of the earth from
the sun) = 1.496
.
10
8
km
Typographical unit of measure: 1 point (p) = 0.376 mm
1 internat. nautical mile
1 German nautical mile (sm)
1 mille marin (French)
= 1852 m = 1 arc
minute at the degree of
longitude (1q at the
meridian = 111.121 km)
`
Other measures of length of the Imperial system
1 microin = 10
6
in = 0.0254 Pm
1 mil = 1 thou = 0.001 in = 0.0254 mm
1 line = 0.1 in = 2.54 mm
1 fathom = 2 yd = 1.829 m
1 engineer’s chain = 100 eng link = 100 ft = 30.48 m
1 rod = 1 perch = 1 pole = 25 surv link = 5.029 m
1 surveyor’s chain = 100 surv link = 20.12 m
1 furlong = 1000 surv link = 201.2 m
1 stat league = 3 stat miles = 4.828 km
Other measures of length of the metric system
France:
1 toise = 1.949 m 1 myriametre = 10 000 m
Russia:
1 werschok = 44.45 mm 1 saschen = 2.1336 m
1 arschin = 0.7112 m 1 werst = 1.0668 km
Japan:
1 shaku = 0.3030 m
1 ken = 1.818 m
1 ri = 3.927 km
Square measures
Unit
sq
in
sq
ft
sq
yd
sq
mile
cm
2
dm
2
m
2
a ha km
2
1 square inch
1 square foot
1 square yard
1 square mile
=
=
=
=
1
144
1296
ï
ï
1
9
ï
ï
0.1111
1
ï
ï
ï
ï
1
6.452
929
8361
ï
0.06452
9.29
83.61
ï
ï
0.0929
0.8361
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
259
ï
ï
ï
2.59
1 cm
2
1 dm
2
1 m
2
1 a
1 ha
1 km
2
=
=
=
=
=
=
0.155
15.5
1550
ï
ï
ï
ï
0.1076
10.76
1076
ï
ï
ï
0.01196
1.196
119.6
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
0.3861
1
100
10000
ï
ï
ï
0.01
1
100
10000
ï
ï
ï
0.01
1
100
10000
ï
ï
ï
0.01
1
100
10000
ï
ï
ï
0.01
1
100
ï
ï
ï
ï
0.01
1
Other square measures of the Imperial system
1 sq mil = 1
.
10
6
sq in = 0.0006452 mm
2
1 sq line = 0.01 sq in = 6.452 mm
2
1 sq surveyor’s link = 0.04047 m
2
1 sq rod = 1 sq perch = 1 sq pole = 625 sq surv link = 25.29 m
2
1 sq chain = 16 sq rod = 4.047 a
1 acre = 4 rood = 40.47 a
1 township (US) = 36 sq miles = 3.24 km
2
1 circular in +
p
4
sq in +5.067cm
2
(circular area with 1 in dia.)
1 circular mil +
p
4
sq mil +0.0005067mm
2
(circular area with 1 mil dia.)
Other square measures of the metric
system
Russia:
1 kwadr. archin = 0.5058 m
2
1 kwadr. saschen = 4.5522 m
2
1 dessjatine = 1.0925 ha
1 kwadr. werst = 1.138 km
2
Japan:
1 tsubo = 3.306 m
2
1 se = 0.9917a
1 hori = 15.42 km
2
3
41
Siemens MD · 2009
Physics
Cubic Measures and Weights;
Energy, Work, Quantity of Heat
Cubic measures
Unit
cu
in
cu
ft
US liquid
quart
US
gallon
Imp quart
Imp
gallon
cm
3
dm
3
(l)
m
3
1 cu in
1 cu ft
1 cu yd
=
=
=
1
1728
46656
ï
1
27
0.01732
29.92
807.9
ï
7.481
202
0.01442
24.92
672.8
ï
6.229
168.2
16.39
ï
ï
0.01639
28.32
764.6
ï
0.02832
0.7646
1 US liquid quart
1 US gallon
=
=
57.75
231
0.03342
0.1337
1
4
0.25
1
0.8326
3.331
0.2082
0.8326
946.4
3785
0.9464
3.785
ï
ï
1 Imp quart
1 Imp gallon
=
=
69.36
277.4
0.04014
0.1605
1.201
4.804
0.3002
1.201
1
4
0.25
1
1136
4546
1.136
4.546
ï
ï
1 cm
3
1 dm
3
(l)
1 m
3
=
=
0.06102
61.02
61023
ï
0.03531
35.31
ï
1.057
1057
ï
0.2642
264.2
ï
0.88
880
ï
0.22
220
1
1000
10
6
0.001
1
1000
10
6
0.001
1
1 US minim = 0.0616 cm
3
(USA)
1 US fl dram = 60 minims = 3.696 cm
3
1 US fl oz = 8 fl drams = 0.02957 l
1 US gill = 4 fl oz = 0.1183 l
1 US liquid pint = 4 gills = 0.4732 l
1 US liquid quart = 2 liquid pints = 0.9464 l
1 US gallon = 4 liquid quarts = 3.785 l
1 US dry pint = 0.5506 l
1 US dry quart = 2 dry pints = 1.101 l
1 US peck = 8 dry quarts = 8.811 l
1 US bushel = 4 pecks = 35.24 l
1 US liquid barrel = 31.5 gallons = 119.2 l
1 US barrel = 42 gallons = 158.8 l (for crude oil)
1 US cord = 128 cu ft = 3.625 m
3
1 Imp minim = 0.0592 cm
3
(GB)
1 Imp fl drachm = 60 minims = 3.552 cm
3
1 Imp fl oz = 8 fl drachm = 0.02841 l
1 Imp gill = 5 fl oz = 0.142 l
1 Imp pint = 4 gills = 0.5682 l
1 Imp quart = 2 pints = 1.1365 l
1 lmp gallon = 4 quarts = 4.5461 l
1 lmp pottle = 2 quarts = 2.273 l
1 Imp peck = 4 pottles = 9.092 l
1 Imp bushel = 4 pecks = 36.37 l
1 Imp quarter = 8 bushels = 64 gallons = 290.94 l
Weights
Unit dram oz lb
short
cwt
long cwt
short
ton
long
ton
g kg t
1 dram
1 oz (ounce)
1 lb (pound)
=
=
=
1
16
256
0.0625
1
16
0.003906
0.0625
1
ï
ï
0.01
ï
ï
0.008929
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
1.772
28.35
453.6
0.00177
0.02835
0.4536
ï
ï
ï
1 short cwt (US)
1 long cwt (GB/US)
=
=
25600
28672
1600
1792
100
112
1
1.12
0.8929
1
0.05
0.056
0.04464
0.05
45359
50802
45.36
50.8
0.04536
0.0508
1 short ton (US)
1 long ton (GB/US)
=
=
ï
ï
32000
35840
2000
2240
20
22.4
17.87
20
1
1.12
0.8929
1
ï
ï
907.2
1016
0.9072
1.016
1g
1kg
1t
=
=
=
0.5643
564.3
ï
0.03527
35.27
35270
0.002205
2.205
2205
ï
0.02205
22.05
ï
0.01968
19.68
ï
ï
1.102
ï
ï
0.9842
1
1000
10
6
0.001
1
1000
10
6
0.001
1
1 grain = 1 / 7000 lb = 0.0648 g (GB)
1 stone = 14 lb = 6.35 kg (GB)
1 short quarter = 1/4 short cwt = 11.34 kg (USA)
1 long quarter = 1/4 long cwt = 12.7 kg (GB / USA)
1 quintal or 1 cental = 100 lb = 45.36 kg (USA)
1 quintal = 100 livres = 48.95 kg (F)
1 kilopound = 1kp = 1000 lb = 453.6 kg (USA)
1 solotnik = 96 dol = 4.2659 g (CIS)
1 lot = 3 solotnik = 12.7978 g (CIS)
1 funt = 32 lot = 0.409 kg (CIS)
1 pud = 40 funt = 16.38 kg (CIS)
1 berkowetz = 163.8 kg (CIS)
1 kwan = 100 tael = 1000 momme = 10000 fun =
3.75 kg (J) (J)
1 hyaku kin = 1 picul = 16 kwan = 60 kg (J)
tdw = tons dead weight = lading capacity of a cargo vessel (cargo + ballast + fuel + stores), mostly given in
long tons, i.e. 1 tdw = 1016 kg
Energy, work, quantity of heat
Work ft lb erg
J = Nm
= Ws
kpm PSh hph kWh kcal Btu
1 ft lb
1 erg
1 Joule (WS)
1 kpm
1 PSh
1 hph
1 kWh
1 kcal
1 Btu
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
1
73.76
.
10
9
0.7376
7.233
1.953
.
10
6
1.98
.
10
6
2.655
.
10
6
3.087
.
10
3
778.6
13.56
.
10
6
1
10
.
10
6
98.07
.
10
6
26.48
.
10
12
26.85
.
10
12
36
.
10
12
41.87
.
10
9
10.55
.
10
9
1.356
100
.
10
9
1
9.807
2.648
.
10
6
2.685
.
10
6
3.6
.
10
6
4186.8
1055
0.1383
10.2
.
10
9
0.102
1
270
.
10
3
273.8
.
10
3
367.1
.
10
3
426.9
107.6
0.5121
.
10
6
37.77
.
10
15
377.7
.
10
9
3.704
.
10
6
1
1.014
1.36
1.581
.
10
3
398.4
.
10
6
0.505
.
10
6
37.25
.
10
15
372.5
.
10
9
3.653
.
10
6
0.9863
1
1.341
1.559
.
10
3
392.9
.
10
6
0.3768
.
10
6
27.78
.
10
15
277.8
.
10
9
2.725
.
10
6
0.7355
0.7457
1
1.163
.
10
3
293
.
10
6
0.324
.
10
3
23.9
.
10
12
238
.
10
6
2.344
.
10
3
632.5
641.3
860
1
0.252
1.286
.
10
3
94.84
.
10
12
948.4
.
10
6
9.301
.
10
3
2510
2545
3413
3.968
1
1 in oz = 0.072 kpcm; 1 in lb = 0.0833ft lb = 0.113 Nm; 1 thermi (French) = 4.1855
.
10
6
J; 1 therm (English) = 105.51
.
10
6
J
Common in case of piston engines: 1 litreatmosphere (litre
.
atmosphere) = 98.067 J
3
42
Siemens MD · 2009
Physics
Power, Energy Flow, Heat Flow,
Pressure and Tension, Velocity
Power, energy flow, heat flow
Power erg/s W kpm/s PS hp kW kcal/s Btu/s
1 erg/s
1W
1 kpm/s
1 PS (ch)
2)
1hp
1 kW
1 kcal/s
1 Btu/s
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
1
10
7
9.807
.
10
7
7.355
.
10
9
7.457
.
10
9
10
10
41.87
.
10
8
10.55
.
10
9
10
7
1
9.807
735.5
745.7
1000
4187
1055
0.102
.
10
7
0.102
1
75
76.04
102
426.9
107.6
0.136
.
10
9
1.36
.
10
3
13.33
.
10
3
1
1.014
1.36
5.692
1.434
0.1341
.
10
9
1.341
.
10
3
13.15
.
10
3
0.9863
1
1.341
5.614
1.415
10
10
10
3
9.804
.
10
3
0.7355
0.7457
1
4.187
1.055
23.9
.
10
12
239
.
10
6
2.344
.
10
3
0.1758
0.1782
0.239
1
0.252
94.84
.
10
12
948.4
.
10
6
9.296
.
10
3
0.6972
0.7068
0.9484
3.968
1
1 poncelet (French) = 980.665 W; flyweel effect: 1 kgm
2
= 3418 lb in
2
Pressure and tension
Unit
Pbar
=
dN/m
2
mbar
= cN/
cm
2
bar =
daN/
cm
2
kp/m
2
mm
WS
p/cm
2
kp/cm
2
= at
kp/
mm
2
Torr =
mm
QS
atm
lb
sq ft
lb
sq in
long ton
sq in
sh ton
sq in
1 Pb = daN
1 mbar
= cN/cm
2
1 bar
= daN/cm
2
=
=
=
1
1000
10
6
0.001
1
1000
ï
0.001
1
0.0102
10.2
10197
ï
1.02
1020
ï
ï
1.02
ï
ï
0.0102
ï
0.7501
750.1
ï
ï
0.9869
ï
2.089
2089
ï
0.0145
14.5
ï
ï
0.0064
ï
ï
0.0072
1 kp/m
2
= 1mm
WS at 4 qC
= 98.07 ï ï 1 0.1 0.0001 ï ï ï 0.2048 ï ï ï
1 p/cm
2
= 980.7 0.9807 ï 10 1 0.001 ï 0.7356 ï 2.048 0.0142 ï ï
1 kp/cm
2
= 1 at
(technical
atmosphere)
= ï 980.7 0.9807 10000 1000 1 0.01 735.6 0.9678 2048 14.22 ï ï
1 kp/mm
2
= ï 98067 98.07 10
6
10
5
100 1 73556 96.78 ï 1422 0.635 0.7112
1 Torr = 1 mm
QS at 0 qC
= 1333 1.333 0.00133 13.6 1.36 0.00136 ï 1 ï 2.785 0.01934 ï ï
1 atm
(pressure of the
atmosphere)
= ï 1013 1.013 10332 1033 1.033 ï 760 1 2116 14,7 ï ï
1 lb/sq ft = 478.8 0.4788 ï 4.882 0.4882 ï ï 0.3591 ï 1 ï ï ï
1 lb/sq in
= 1 psi
= 68 948 68.95 0.0689 703.1 70.31 0.0703 ï 51.71 0.068 144 1 ï 0.0005
1 long ton/sq
in (GB)
= ï ï 154.4 ï ï 157.5 1.575 ï 152.4 ï 2240 1 1,12
1 short ton/sq
in (US)
= ï ï 137.9 ï ï 140.6 1.406 ï 136.1 ï 2000 0.8929 1
1 psi = 0.00689 N / mm
2
1 N/m
2
(Newton/m
2
) = 10 Pb; 1 barye (French) = 1 Pb; 1 pièce (pz) (French) = 1 sn/m
2
 102 kp/m
2
; 1 hpz =
100 pz = 1.02 kp/m
2
; 1 micron (USA) = 0.001 mm QS = 0.001 Torr.
In the USA, “inches Hg” are calculated from the top, i.e. 0 inches Hg = 760 mm QS and 29.92 inches Hg =
0 mm QS = absolute vacuum.
The specific gravity of mercury is assumed to be 13.595 kg/dm
3
.
Velocity
Unit m/s m/min km/h ft/min mile/h
m/s
m/min
km/h
ft/min
mile/h
=
=
=
=
=
1
0.0167
0.278
0.0051
0.447
60
1
16.67
0.305
26.82
3.6
0.06
1
0.0183
1.609
196.72
3.279
54.645
1
87.92
2.237
0.0373
0.622
0.0114
1
3
43
Siemens MD · 2009
Physics
Equations for Linear Motion
and Rotary Motion
Definition
SI
unit
Sym
bol
Basic formulae
Linear motion Rotary motion
Uniform
motion
distance moved divided by time
angular velocity = angle of
rotation in radian measure/time
Velocity
m/s v v =
s
2
ï s
1
t
2
ï t
1
=
's
't
= const. Z =
M
2
ï M
1
t
2
ï t
1
=
'M
't
= const.
Angular velocity rad/s Z motion accelerated from rest:
Angle of rotation
rad
ö
v +
s
t
w +
ö
t
Distance moved m s s = v
.
t angle of rotation M = Z
.
t
Uniformly
accelerated
motion
acceleration equals change of
velocity divided by time
angular acceleration equals
change of angular velocity
divided by time
Acceleration m/s
2
a a =
v
2
ï v
1
t
2
ï t
1
=
'v
't
= const. D =
Z
2
ï Z
1
t
2
ï t
1
=
'Z
't
= const.
Angular
acceleration
rad/s
2
D motion accelerated from rest:
a =
v
2
2s
=
v
t
=
2s
t
2
D =
Z
2
2M
=
Z
t
=
2M
t
2
Velocity m/s v
v +a @ t + 2
Ǹ
a @ s
w + a @ t
Circumferential
speed
m/s v v +r @ w +r @ a @ t
Distance moved m s s =
.
t =
v
2
a
2
.
t
2
=
v
2
2a
angle of rotation
M =
.
t =
Z
2
D
2
.
t
2
=
Z
2
2D
Uniform motion and
constant force or
constant torque
force
.
distance moved
torque
.
angle of rotation in
radian measure
Work J W W = F
.
s W = M
.
M
work in unit of time =
force
.
velocity
work in unit of time =
torque
.
angular velocity
Power W P
P +
W
t
+F @ v P +
W
t
+M@ w
Nonuniform
(accelerated)
motion
accelerating force =
mass
.
acceleration
accel. torque = second mass
moment
.
angular acceleration
Force N F F = m
.
a M = J
.
D
In case of any
motion
Momentum (kinetic energy)
equals half the mass
.
second
power of velocity
Kinetic energy due to rotation
equals half the mass moment
of inertia
.
second power of the
angular velocity
Energie J E
k
E
k
+
m
2
@ v
2
E
k
+
J
2
@ w
2
Potential energy
(due to force of
gravity)
J E
p
weight
.
height
E
p
= G
.
h = m
.
g
.
h
Centrifugal force N F
F
F
F
= m
.
r
s
.
Z
2
(r
s
= centreofgravity radius)
3
44
Siemens MD · 2009
Table of Contents Section 4
Mathematics / Geometry Page
Calculation of Areas 45
Calculation of Volumes 46
4
45
Siemens MD · 2009
Mathematics / Geometry
Calculation of Areas
A = area U = circumference
Square
Rectangle
Parallelogram
Trapezium
Triangle
Equilateral triangle
Hexagon
Octagon
Polygon
Formed area
Circle
Circular ring
Circular sector
Ellipse
Circular segment
A = a
2
a + A
Ǹ
A + a @ b
d + a
2 Ǹ
)b
2
A + a @ h
A + m@ h
d + 2 @ a
s + 3
Ǹ
@ a
A + A
1
)A
2
) A
3
[ 0.785 @ d
2
U + 2 @ r @ p + d @ p
A +
p
4
@ (D
2
*d
2
)
[ 0.16 @ r
2
b + r @ a
^
m =
a + b
2
A =
2
a
.
h
a =
h
2
.
A
A =
2
3
.
a
2 .
3
=
a
.
h
1
+ b
.
h
2
+ b
.
h
3
2
A =
d
2 .
S
4
= r
2 .
S
b =
D ï d
2
A =
r
2 .
S
.
D_
360_
=
b
.
r
2
b =
r
.
S
.
D_
180_
=
D_
.
S
180_
D
^
A =
D
.
d
.
S
4
= a
.
b
.
S
U 
D + d
2
.
S
a =
A
h
U + p (a )b)
ƪ
1 )
h = r (1 ï cos ) = tan
D
2
D
4
s
2
s + 2 r sin
a
2
+
1
2
ƪ
r (b * s) ) sh
ƫ
+ (d )b) b @ p
A + 2a
2
( 2
Ǹ
)1)
s + a ( 2
Ǹ
)1)
d + a 4 )2
Ǹ
2
Ǹ
A +
a
2
4
3
Ǹ
d +
a
2
3
Ǹ
d + a 2
Ǹ
A +
r
2
2
(2 3
Ǹ
*p)
A =
r
2
2
D_
.
S
180_
ï sin D ǐ Ǒ
1
4
a ï b
a + b
2
+
1
64
a ï b
a + b
4
ǐ Ǒ ǐ Ǒ
] +
1
256
a ï b
a + b
6
.....
ǐ Ǒ
4
46
Siemens MD · 2009
Mathematics / Geometry
Calculation of Volumes
V + a
3
V + a @ b @ c
V + A @ h
M + 2 @ r @ p @ h
M + r @ p @ m
m + h
2
)
ǒ
d
2
Ǔ
2
V +
4
3
r
3
p +
1
6
@ d
3
p
M + 2 @ r @ p @ h
V +
2
3
@ h @ r
2
@ p
[ 4.189 @ r
3
M + 2 @ r @ p @ h
V = volume O = surface M = generated surface
Cube Frustum of cone
Prismatoid Cone
Barrel Hollow cylinder
Cylinder Cylindrical ring
Frustum of pyramid Spherical sector
Spherical segment Pyramid
Spherical zone Parallelepiped
Square prism Sphere
(Cavalier principle)
O + 6 @ a
2
d + a
2 Ǹ
)b
2
) c
2
O + 2 @ r @ p @ (r ) h)
+ 2 @ p @ p @ h
O + 4 p @ r
2
+ p @ d
2
O + D @ d @ p
2
V +
h
6
(A
1
) A
2
) 4A)
O + r @ p @ (r )m)
V =
A
.
h
3
V =
r
2 .
S
.
h
3
V =
D
.
S
2 .
d
2
4
(2D
2
+ d
2
) V =
h
.
S
12
(D
2
ï d
2
) V =
h
.
S
4
h V =
d
2 .
S
4
V =
S
.
h
6
(3a
2
+ 3b
2
+ h
2
)
M =
S
.
m
2
(D + d)
A
1
Ǹ
@ A
2
) (A
1
+ A
2
+ V =
h
3
d + a 3
Ǹ
O + 2 (ab )ac )bc)
(4h + s) O =
S
.
r
2
+
p
4
(s
2
) 4h
2
)
+ p h
2
ǒr *
h
3
Ǔ
ǒ
3
4
s
2
) h
2
Ǔ
V =
S
.
h
6
V =
S
.
h
12
(D
2
+ Dd + d
2
)
D ï d
2
2
+ h
2
m = ǐ Ǒ
4
47
Siemens MD · 2009
Table of Contents Section 5
Mechanics / Strength of Materials Page
Axial Section Moduli and Axial Second Moments of Area
(Moments of Inertia) of Different Profiles 48
Deflections in Beams 49
Values for Circular Sections 50
Stresses on Structural Members and Fatigue Strength of Structures 51
5
48
Siemens MD · 2009
Mechanics / Strength of Materials
Axial Section Moduli and Axial
Second Moments of Area
(Moments of Inertia) of Different Profiles
Crosssectional area Second moment of area Section modulus
W
2
+ pb
2
ań4
W
1
+W
2
+ p D
3
ń 32 [ D
3
ń 10
W
1
+
5
8
R
3
+0.625 R
3
I
1
+ I
2
+
p
64
(D
4
*d
4
)
I
1
+ I
2
+ p D
4
ń 64 [D
4
ń 20
W
2
+0.5413 R
3
W
1
+W
2
+ Iń (r )sń2) [ psr
2
W
1
+ pa
2
bń4
W
1
+ I
1
ńa
1
W
1
+ I
1
ń e +0.1908 r
3
I
1
+ I
2
+
5
16
3
Ǹ
R
4
+0.5413 R
4
I
1
+ pa
3
bń4
I
2
+ pb
3
ań4
s +a
1
*a
2
+b
1
*b
2
+2 (a *a
2
) +2 (b *b
2
)
I
1
[
p
4
a
2
(a )3b) s
or in case of thin wall thickness s:
axis 11 = axis of centre of gravity
W
1
[
p
4
a (a )3b) s
or in case of thin wall thickness s:
W
1
+bh
2
ń 6
W
2
+hb
2
ń 6
I
1
+bh
3
ń 12
W
1
+bh
2
ń 24 for e +
2
3
h
W
1
+W
2
+a
3
ń 6
W
2
+hb
2
ń 24
I
2
+hb
3
ń 12
I
1
+ I
2
+a
4
ń 12
I
1
+bh
3
ń 36
I
2
+hb
3
ń 48
for e =
3b + 2b
1
2b + b
1
h
3
1
W
1
=
BH
3
ï bh
3
6H
,
1
=
BH
3
ï bh
3
12
I
1
+ I
2
+ psr
3
ƪ
1 )(sń2r)
2
ƫ
[ psr
3
W
1
= W
2
=
D
4
ï d
4
D
S
32
,
1
= S/8 ï 8 / (9 S) ƨ Ʃ r
4
= 0.1098 r
4
with e = r
4
3S
ǐ Ǒ 1 ï = 0.5756 r
I
1
+
p
4
(a
3
b
1
*a
3
b
2
)
1 2
W
1
=
6b
2
+ 6bb
1
+ b
2
12 (3b + 2b
1
)
h
2
,
1
=
6b
2
+ 6bb
1
+ b
2
36 (2b + b
1
)
h
3
1
1
5
49
Siemens MD · 2009
Mechanics / Strength of Materials
Deflections in Beams
f, f
max
, f
m
, w, w
1
, w
2
a, b, l, x
1
, x
1max
, x
2
E
q, q
0
Deflection (mm)
Lengths (mm)
Modulus of elasticity (N/mm
2
)
Line load (N/mm)
, Second moment of area (mm
4
)
(moment of inertia)
Angles (q)
Forces (N)
D, D
1,
D
2
, D
A
, D
B
F, F
A
, F
B
for a > b
change a and b for a < b
+a (l )b)ń3a
Ǹ
x
1max
w(x) =
3E,
Fl
3
1 ï
2
3
l
x
+
2
1
l
x
3
F
B
= F
f =
3E,
Fl
3
tan D =
2E,
Fl
2
.
ǐ Ǒ
ƫ ƪ
w(x) =
8E,
ql
4
F
B
= q
.
l
f =
8E,
ql
4
tan D =
6E,
ql
3
1 ï
3
4
l
x
+
3
1
l
x
4
.
ƫ ƪ
ǐ Ǒ
w(x) =
120E,
q
0
l
4
F
B
=
f =
30E,
q
0
l
4
tan D =
24E,
q
0
l
3
4 ï 5
l
x
+
l
x
5
.
2
q
0
.
l
ǐ Ǒ
ƫ ƪ
w(x) =
16E,
Fl
3
F
A
= F
B
=
f =
48E,
Fl
3
tan D =
16E,
Fl
2
l
x
2
2
F
l
x
.
1 ï
3
4
x d
2
l
ǐ Ǒ ƫ ƪ
w
1
(x
1
) =
6E,
Fl
3
tan D
1
=
l
a
.
l
b
2
l
x
1
ǐ Ǒ 1+
b
l
ï
ab
x
2
1
ǒ Ǔ x
1
d a
3E,
Fl
3
f =
l
a
2
ǐ Ǒ
l
b
2
ǐ Ǒ
2a
f
ǐ Ǒ 1+
b
l
w
2
(x
2
) =
6E,
Fl
3
tan D
2
=
l
b
.
l
a
2
l
x
2
ǐ Ǒ 1+
a
l
ï
ab
x
2
2
ǒ Ǔ x
2
d b
3b
l + b
f
max
=
2b
f
ǐ Ǒ 1+
a
l
f
3a
l + b
F
A
= F
l
b
F
B
= F
l
a
w(x) =
2E,
Fl
3
tan D
1
=
l
x
.
l
x
2
ǐ Ǒ 1ï
l
a
2E,
Fl
3
f =
l
a
2
ǐ Ǒ ǐ Ǒ 1ï
l
a
ƫ ƪ
l
a
ï
3
1
ǐ Ǒ
2E,
Fl
2
l
a
.
ǐ Ǒ 1ï
3
4
l
a
.
x = d a l/2
w(x) =
2E,
Fl
3
tan D
2
=
l
a
.
l
a
2
ǐ Ǒ 1ï
l
x
8E,
Fl
3
f
m
=
l
a
2
ǐ Ǒ ǐ Ǒ 1ï2
l
a
ƫ ƪ
l
x
ï
3
1
ǐ Ǒ
2E,
Fl
2
l
a
.
1ï
3
4
l
a
.
ƫ ƪ
a d x d l/2
F
A
= F
B
= F
w(x) =
24E,
ql
4
f
m
=
384E,
5ql
4
tan D =
24E,
ql
3
1 ï 2
l
x
3
l
x
2
+ 0 d x d l
F
A
=
2
q
.
l
l
x
.
F
B
=
2
q
.
l
ƫ ƪ ǐ Ǒ ǐ Ǒ
x
2
d a
x
1
d l w
1
(x
1
) =
6E,
Fl
3
1ï ƫ ƪ ǐ Ǒ
l
x
1
l
a
.
l
x
1
.
2
w
2
(x
2
) =
6E,
Fl
3
ǐ Ǒ
l
x
2
.
l
x
2
ƫ ƪ
l
2a
l
3a
+
l
x
2
.
ï
2
F
B
= F F
A
= F
l
a
1+
l
a
ǐ Ǒ
tan D
A
=
3E,
Fl
3
f =
l
a
2
ǐ Ǒ
6E,
Fl
2
l
a
.
ǐ Ǒ 1+
l
a
tan D
B
= 2tan D
A
93E,
Fl
3
f
max
=
l
a
.
tan D =
6E,
Fl
2
l
a
.
ǐ Ǒ 2 + 3
l
a
x
1
d a
w
1
(x
1
) =
2E,
Fl
3
l
a
.
1+
l
a
ƫ ƪ
3
1
ǐ Ǒ
l
x
1
3
ǐ Ǒ ï
l
a
l
x
1
+
l
a
2
ǐ Ǒ 1+
3
2
ǐ Ǒ
tan D
1
= ǐ Ǒ 1+
l
a
2E,
Fl
2
l
a
.
2E,
Fl
3
f =
l
a
2
ǐ Ǒ ǐ Ǒ 1+
3
2
l
a
.
F
A
= F
B
= F
x
2
d l tan D
2
=
2E,
Fl
2
l
a
.
8E,
Fl
3
f
m
=
l
a
.
w
2
(x
2
) =
2E,
Fl
3
1ï ǐ Ǒ
l
a
.
l
x
2
.
l
x
2
5
50
Siemens MD · 2009
Mechanics / Strength of Materials
Values for Circular Sections
Axial section modulus:
Polar section modulus:
Axial second moment of area
(axial moment of inertia):
Polar second moment of area
(polar moment of area):
W
a
=
S
.
d
3
32
W
p
=
S
.
d
3
16
,
a
=
S
.
d
4
64
,
p
=
S
.
d
4
32
Area:
Mass:
Density of steel:
Second mass moment of
inertia (mass moment of inertia):
A =
S
.
d
2
4
m =
S
.
d
2
4
.
l
.
r
r = 7.85
kg
dm
3
J =
S
.
d
4 .
l
.
r
32
d A W
a
,
a
Mass/ I J/ I d A W
a
,
a
Mass/ I J/ I
mm cm
2
cm
3
cm
4
kg/m kgm
2
/m mm cm
2
cm
3
cm
4
kg/m kgm
2
/m
6
7
8
9
10
11
0.293
0.385
0.503
0.636
0.785
0.950
0.0212
0.0337
0.0503
0.0716
0.0982
0.1307
0.0064
0.0118
0.0201
0.0322
0.0491
0.0719
0.222
0.302
0.395
0.499
0.617
0.746
0.000001
0.000002
0.000003
0.000005
0.000008
0.000011
115
120
125
130
135
140
103.869
113.097
122.718
132.732
143 139
153.938
149.3116
169.6460
191.7476
215.6900
241.5468
269.3916
858.5414
1017.8760
1198.4225
1401.9848
1630.4406
1895.7410
81.537
88.781
96.334
104.195
112.364
120.841
0.134791
0.159807
0.188152
0.220112
0.255979
0.296061
12
13
14
15
16
17
1.131
1.327
1.539
1.767
2.011
2.270
0.1696
0.2157
0.2694
0.3313
0.4021
0.4823
0.1018
0.1402
0.1986
0.2485
0.3217
0.4100
0.888
1.042
1.208
1.387
1.578
1.782
0.000016
0.000022
0.000030
0.000039
0.000051
0.000064
145
150
155
160
165
170
165.130
176.715
188.692
201.062
213.825
226.980
299.2981
331.3398
365.5906
402.1239
441.0133
482.3326
2169.9109
2485.0489
2833.3269
3216.9909
3638.3601
4099.8275
129.627
138.721
148.123
157.834
167.852
178.179
0.340676
0.390153
0.444832
0.505068
0.571223
0.643673
18
19
20
21
22
23
2.545
2.835
3.142
3.464
3.801
4.155
0.5726
0.6734
0.7854
0.9092
1.0454
1.1945
0.5153
0.6397
0.7854
0.9547
1.1499
1.3737
1.998
2.226
2.466
2.719
2.984
3.261
0.000081
0.000100
0.000123
0.000150
0.000181
0.000216
175
180
185
190
195
200
240.528
254.469
268.803
283.529
298.648
314.159
526.1554
572.5553
621.6058
673.3807
727.9537
785.3982
4603.8598
5152.9973
5749.8539
6397.1171
7097.5481
7853.9816
188.815
199.758
211.010
222.570
234.438
246.615
0.722806
0.809021
0.902727
1.004347
1.114315
1.233075
24
25
26
27
28
29
4.524
4.909
5.309
5.726
6.158
6.605
1.3572
1.5340
1.7255
1.9324
2.1551
2.3944
1.6286
1.9175
2.2432
2.6087
3.0172
3.4719
3.551
3.853
4.168
4.495
4.834
5.185
0.000256
0.000301
0.000352
0.000410
0.000474
0.000545
210
220
230
240
250
260
346.361
380.133
415.476
452.389
490.874
530.929
909.1965
1045.3650
1194.4924
1357.1680
1533.9808
1725.5198
9546.5638
11499.0145
13736.6629
16286.0163
19174.7598
22431.7569
271.893
298.404
326.148
355.126
385.336
416.779
1.498811
1.805345
2.156656
2.556905
3.010437
3.521786
30
32
34
36
38
40
7.069
8.042
9.079
10.179
11.341
12.566
2.6507
3.2170
3.8587
4.5804
5.3870
6.2832
3.9761
5.1472
6.5597
8.2448
10.2354
12.5664
5.549
6.313
7.127
7.990
8.903
9.865
0.000624
0.000808
0.001030
0.001294
0.001607
0.001973
270
280
300
320
340
360
572.555
615.752
706.858
804.248
907.920
1017.876
1932.3740
2155.1326
2650.7188
3216.9909
3858.6612
4580.4421
26087.0491
30171.8558
39760.7820
51471.8540
65597.2399
82447.9575
449.456
483.365
554.884
631.334
712.717
799.033
4.095667
4.736981
6.242443
8.081081
10.298767
12.944329
42
44
46
48
50
52
13.854
15.205
16.619
18.096
19.635
21.237
7.2736
8.3629
9.5559
10.8573
12.2718
13.9042
15.2745
18.3984
21.9787
26.0576
30.6796
35.8908
10.876
11.936
13.046
14.205
15.413
16.671
0.002398
0.002889
0.003451
0.004091
0.004817
0.005635
380
400
420
440
460
480
1134.115
1256.637
1385.442
1520.531
1661.903
1809.557
5387.0460
6283.1853
7273.5724
8362.9196
9555.9364
10857.3442
102353.8739
125663.7060
152745.0200
183984.2320
219786.6072
260576.2608
890.280
986.460
1087.572
1193.617
1304.593
1420.503
16.069558
19.729202
23.980968
28.885524
34.506497
40.910473
54
56
58
60
62
64
22.902
24.630
26.421
28.274
30.191
32.170
15.4590
17.2411
19.1551
21.2058
23.3978
25.7359
41.7393
48.2750
55.5497
63.6173
72.5332
82.3550
17.978
19.335
20.740
22.195
23.700
25.253
0.006553
0.007579
0.008721
0.009988
0.011388
0.012930
500
520
540
560
580
600
1693.495
2123.717
2290.221
2463.009
2642.079
2827.433
12271.8463
13804.1581
15458.9920
17241.0605
19155.0758
21205.7504
306796.1572
358908.1107
417392.7849
482749.6930
555497.1978
636172.5116
1541.344
1667.118
1797.824
1933.462
2074.032
2219.535
48.166997
56.348573
65.530667
75.791702
87.213060
99.879084
66
68
70
72
74
76
34.212
36.317
38.485
40.715
43.008
45.365
28.2249
30.8693
33.6739
36.6435
39.7828
43.0964
93.1420
104.9556
117.8588
131.9167
147.1963
163.7662
26.856
28.509
30.210
31.961
33.762
35.611
0.014623
0.016478
0.018504
0.020711
0.023110
0.025711
620
640
660
680
700
720
3019.071
3216.991
3421.194
3631.681
3848.451
4071.504
23397.7967
25735.9270
28224.8538
30869.2894
33673.9462
36643.5367
725331.6994
823549.6636
931420.1743
1049555.8389
1178588.1176
1319167.3201
2369.970
2525.338
2685.638
2850.870
3021.034
3196.131
113.877076
129.297297
146.232967
164.780267
185.038334
207.109269
78
80
82
84
86
88
47.784
50.265
52.810
55.418
58.088
60.821
46.5890
50.2655
54.1304
58.1886
62.4447
66.9034
181.6972
201.0619
221.9347
244.3920
268.5120
294.3748
37.510
39.458
41.456
43.503
45.599
47.745
0.028526
0.031567
0.034844
0.038370
0.042156
0.046217
740
760
780
800
820
840
4300.840
4536.460
4778.362
5026.548
5281.017
5541.769
39782.7731
43096.3680
46589.0336
50265.4824
54130.4268
58188.5791
1471962.6056
1637661.9830
1816972.3105
2010619.2960
2219347.4971
2443920.3207
3376.160
3561.121
3751.015
3945.840
4145.599
4350.289
231.098129
257.112931
285.264653
315.667229
348.437557
383.695490
90
92
95
100
105
110
63.617
66.476
70.882
78.540
86.590
95.033
71.5694
76.4475
84.1726
98.1748
113.6496
130.6706
322.0623
351.6586
399.8198
490.8739
596.6602
718.6884
49.940
52.184
55.643
61.654
67.973
74.601
0.050564
0.055210
0.062772
0.077067
0.093676
0.112834
860
880
900
920
940
960
980
1000
5808.805
6082.123
6361.725
6647.610
6939.778
7238.229
7542.964
7853.982
62444.6517
66903.3571
71569.4076
76447.5155
81542.3934
86858.7536
92401.3084
98174.7703
2685120.0234
2943747.7113
3220623.3401
3516585.7151
3832492.4910
4169220.1722
4527664.1126
4908738.5156
4559.912
4774.467
4993.954
5218.374
5447.726
5682.010
5921.227
6165.376
421.563844
462.168391
505.637864
552.103957
601.701321
654.567567
710.843266
770.671947
5
51
Siemens MD · 2009
Mechanics / Strength of Materials
Stresses on Structural Members
and Fatigue Strength of Structures
Yield point R
e
; R
p0.2
Diffusion of stress in structural members: loading types
static dynamic alternating oscillating
Maximum stress limit:
Mean stress:
Minimum stress limit:
Ruling coefficient of strength of material for the calculation of structural members:
s
m
+s
sch
ń2
s
o
+s
sch
s
u
+0
s
m
+0
s
o
+)s
w
s
u
+*s
w
s
m
+s
v
(initial stress)
s
o
+s
m
)s
a
s
u
+s
m
*s
a
Resistance to
breaking R
m
Fatigue strength under
fluctuating stresses V
Sch
Fatigue strength under
alternating stresses V
W
Resistance to
deflection V
A
Coefficients of fatigue strength V
D
Alternate area / Area of fluctuation
In case of stresses below the damage
curve initial damage will not occur to
the material.
Stressnumber diagram
S
t
r
e
s
s
V
Number of cycles to failure N
Example:
TensionCompression
Fatigue strength diagram acc. to SMITH
Fatigue strength under
fluctuating stresses V
Sch
F
a
t
i
g
u
e
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
u
n
d
e
r
a
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
n
g
s
t
r
e
s
s
e
s
V
D
= ruling fatigue strength value of
the material
b
= surface number (d 1)
b
d
= size number (d 1)
ß
k
= stress concentration factor (t 1)
S = safety (1.2 ... 2)
Reduced stress
on the member
Permissible
stress
Design strength
of the member
Alternating bending, dynamic torsion: D
 0.7
Alternating bending, alternating torsion: D
 1.0
Static bending, alternating torsion: D
 1.6
Reduced stress V
v
For the frequently occurring case of com
bined bending and torsion, according to
the distortion energy theory:
with:
V = single axis bending stress
W = torsional stress
D
= constraint ratio according to Bach
s
v
+ s
2 Ǹ
)3 (a
0
t)
2
Surfaces with
rolling skin
For bending and torsion
S
i
z
e
n
u
m
b
e
r
b
d
Diameter of component d
S
u
r
f
a
c
e
n
u
m
b
e
r
b
0
Resistance to breaking of the material R
m
S
u
r
f
a
c
e
r
o
u
g
h
n
e
s
s
R
t
i
n
P
m
with:
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
s
o
f
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
Stressnumber
curve
Damage curve
Endurance limit
Fatigue limit
Resistance to breaking R
m
Yield point R
e
Resistance to deflection V
A
Mean stress V
m
for tension/
compression
b
d
= 1.0
s
v
d s
perm.
=
s
D
.
b
0
.
b
d
S
.
ß
k
5
52
Siemens MD · 2009
Table of Contents Section 6
Hydraulics Page
Hydrostatics 53
(Source: K. Gieck, Technische Formelsammlung, 29th edition, Gieck Verlag, Heilbronn)
Hydrodynamics 54
(Source: K. Gieck, Technische Formelsammlung, 29th edition, Gieck Verlag, Heilbronn)
6
53
Siemens MD · 2009
Hydraulics
Hydrostatics
p
1
+p
0
)g r h
1
For r
k
density of the body applies:
r > r
k
the body floats
r = r
k
the body is suspended
r < r
k
the body sinks
Pressure distribution in a fluid
Linear pressure
P
2
+p
1
)g r (h
2
*h
1
) +p
1
)g r Dh
Hydrostatic force of pressure on planes
The hydrostatic force of pressure F is that force
which is exerted on the wall by the fluid only  i.e.
without consideration of pressure p
0
.
F +g r y
s
A cos a +g r h
s
A
Hydrostatic force of pressure on curved surfaces
The hydrostatic force of pressure on the curved surface
1  2 is resolved into a horizontal component F
H
and a
vertical component F
V
.
F
V
is equal to the weight of the fluid having a volume V
located (a) or thought to be located (b) over the surface
1  2. The line of application runs through the centre of
gravity.
F
H
is equal to the hydrostatic force of pressure on the
projection of surface 1  2 perpendicular to F
H
.
Ť
F
V
Ť
+g r V (N, kN)
Buoyance
The buoyant force F
A
is equal to the weight of the dis
placed fluids having densities r and r’.
If the fluid with density r’ is a gas, the following applies:
S = centre of gravity of plane A
D = centre of pressure
,
x
, ,
s
= moments of inertia
,
xy
= product of inertia of plane A referred to the x and yaxes
in the liquid
F
A
+g r V )g rȀ VȀ (N, kN)
F
A
[g r V (N, kN)
`
y
D
=
,
x
y
s
A
= y
s
+
,
s
y
s
A
; x
D
=
,
xy
y
s
A
m, mm
6
54
Siemens MD · 2009
Hydraulics
Hydrodynamics
v +ö 2
Ǹ
g H
v: discharge velocity
g: gravity
r: density
p
ü
: excess pressure compared to external pressure
M: coefficient of friction (for water M = 0.97)
H: coefficient of contraction (H = 0.62 for sharpedged openings)
(H = 0.97 for smoothrounded openings)
F: force of reaction
b: width of opening
Discharge of liquids from vessels
V
.
+ö e A 2
Ǹ
g H
Vessel with small lateral opening
v +ö 2
Ǹ
g H
s +2
Ǹ
H h
(without any coefficient of friction)
V
.
+ö e A 2
Ǹ
g H
F +r V
.
v
Vessel with wide lateral opening
V
.
+
2
3
e b 2
Ǹ
g (H
2
3ń2
*H
1
3ń2
)
Vessel with excess pressure on liquid level
Vessel with excess pressure on outlet
V
.
: volume flow rate
v +ö 2 ( g H )
p
ü
r
Ǹ
)
V
.
+ö e A 2 ( g H )
p
ü
r
Ǹ
)
v +ö 2
p
ü
r
Ǹ
V
.
+ö e A 2
p
ü
r
Ǹ
Vessel with bottom opening
6
55
Siemens MD · 2009
Table of Contents Section 7
Electrical Engineering Page
Basic Formulae 56
Speed, Power Rating and Efficiency of Electric Motors 57
Types of Construction and Mounting Arrangements of Rotating Electrical Machinery 58
Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment 59
(Protection Against Contact and Foreign Bodies)
Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment 60
(Protection Against Water)
7
56
Siemens MD · 2009
Electrical Engineering
Basic Formulae
U + I @ R I +
U
R
R +
U
I
36
0.83
4.84
13
6.7...10
43.5
58
22
14.5
9.35
1.04
61
7.4
18.2
16.5
8.3
30.0
48
36
18
2.0
2.32
15.9
3.33
0.92
2.32
5.0
7.7
1.85
0.046
0.015
0.014
0.0278
1.2
0.2066
0.0769
0.15..0,1
0.023
0.01724
0.045
0.069
0.107
0.962
0.0164
0.135
0.055
0.061
0.12
0.033
0.02083
0.02778
0.05556
0.50
0.43
0.063
0.30
1.09
0.43
0.20
0.13
0.54
22
65
70
R = resistance (:)
l = length of conductor (m)
J = electric conductivity (m/: mm
2
)
A = cross section of conductor (mm
2
)
r = specific electrical resistance
(: mm
2
/m)
Ohm’s law:
Series connection of resistors:
R +R
1
)R
2
)R
3
) AAA )R
n
R +total resistance
ƪ
W
ƫ
R
n
+individual resistance
ƪ
W
ƫ
Shunt connection of resistors:
1
R
+
1
R
1
)
1
R
2
)
1
R
3
) AAA )
1
R
n
R +total resistance
ƪ
W
ƫ
P +U @ I
R
n
+individual resistance
ƪ
W
ƫ
Electric power:
I +
P
U
Power
Resistance of a conductor:
Material
g r
Current
consumption
D
i
r
e
c
t
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
S
i
n
g
l
e

p
h
a
s
e
a
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
n
g
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
T
h
r
e
e

p
h
a
s
e
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
a) Metals
Aluminium
Bismuth
Lead
Cadmium
Iron wire
Gold
Copper
Magnesium
Nickel
Platinum
Mercury
Silver
Tantalum
Tungsten
Zinc
Tin
b) Alloys
Aldrey (AlMgSi)
Bronze I
Bronze II
Bronze III
Constantan (WM 50)
Manganin
Brass
Nickel silver (WM 30)
Nickel chromium
Niccolite (WM 43)
Platinum rhodium
Steel wire (WM 13)
Wood’s metal
c) Other
conductors
Graphite
Carbon, homog.
Retort graphite
P = 1.73
.
U
.
,
.
cos M , =
P
1.73
.
U
.
cos M
, =
P
U
.
cos M
P = U
.
,
.
cos M
m
: mm
2
ƪ ƫ
m
: mm
2
ƪ ƫ
R =
l
J
.
A
=
l
.
r
A
7
57
Siemens MD · 2009
Electrical Engineering
Speed, Power Rating and Efficiency
of Electric Motors
Speed: Power rating:
n = speed (min
1
)
f = frequency (Hz)
p = number of pole pairs
Example:
Efficiency and power factor of a fourpole 1.1kW motor and a 132kW motor dependent
on the load
Example: f = 50 Hz, p = 2
Efficiency:
h +
P
ab
P
zu
@ 100
ƪ
%
ƫ
1)
Output power
1)
Direct current:
P
ab
= U
.
I
.
K
Singlephase alternating current:
P
ab
= U
.
I
.
cosö
.
h
Threephase current:
P
ab
= 1.73
.
U
.
I
.
cosö
.
h
Power output P / P
N
1) P
ab
= mechanical output power on the motor shaft
P
zu
= absorbed electric power
Power factor cos M Efficiency K
132kW motor
1.1kW motor
n =
f
.
60
p
n =
50
.
60
2
= 1500 min
1
7
58
Siemens MD · 2009
Electrical Engineering
Types of Construction and Mounting Arrangements
of Rotating Electrical Machinery
Types of construction and mounting arrangements of rotating electrical machinery
(Extract from DIN EN 50347)
Machines with end shields, horizontal arrangement
Design Explanation
Sym
bol
Figure Bearings
Stator
(Housing)
Shaft
General
design
Design / Explanation
Fastening or
Installation
B 3
2
end
shields
with
feet
free
shaft
end
ï
installation on
substructure
B 5
2
end
shields
without
feet
free
shaft
end
mounting flange
close to bearing,
access from
housing side
flanged
B 6
2
end
shields
with
feet
free
shaft
end
design B3, if
necessary end
shields turned
through 90q
wall fastening,
feet on LH side
when looking at
input side
B 7
2
end
shields
with
feet
free
shaft
end
design B3, if
necessary end
shields turned
through 90q
wall fastening,
feet on RH side
when looking at
input side
B 8
2
end
shields
with
feet
free
shaft
end
design B3, if
necessary end
shields turned
through 180q
fastening on
ceiling
B 35
2
end
shields
with
feet
free
shaft
end
mounting flange
close to bearing,
access from
housing side
installation on
substructure with
additional flange
Machines with end shields, vertical arrangement
Design Explanation
Sym
bol
Figure Bearings
Stator
(Housing)
Shaft
General
design
Design / Explanation
Fastening or
Installation
V 1
2
end
shields
without
feet
free
shaft end
at the
bottom
mounting flange
close to bearing
on input side,
access from
housing side
flanged at the bottom
V 3
2
end
shields
without
feet
free
shaft end
at the
top
mounting flange
close to bearing
on input side,
access from
housing side
flanged at the top
V 5
2
end
shields
with
feet
free
shaft end
at the
bottom
ï
fastening to
wall or on
substructure
V 6
2
end
shields
with
feet
free
shaft end
at the
top
ï
fastening to
wall or on
substructure
7
59
Siemens MD · 2009
Electrical Engineering
Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment
(Protection Against Contact and Foreign Bodies)
1) For equipment with degrees of protection from 1 to 4, uniformly or nonuniformly shaped
foreign bodies with three dimensions perpendicular to each other and above the correspond
ing diameter values are prevented from ingress.
2) For degrees of protection 3 and 4, the respective expert commission is responsible for the
application of this table for equipment with drain holes or cooling air slots.
3) For degree of protection 5, the respective expert commission is responsible for the applica
tion of this table for equipment with drain holes.
Types of protection for electrical equipment
(Extract from DIN EN 60529)
Example of designation Type of protection DIN EN 60529 4
Designation
DIN number
Code letters
First type number
Second type number
An enclosure with this designation is protected against the ingress of solid foreign bodies
having a diameter above 1 mm and of splashing water.
Degrees of protection for protection against contact and foreign bodies
(first type number)
First type
number
Degree of protection
(Protection against contact and foreign bodies)
0 No special protection
Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above
1 50 mm (large foreign bodies) 1)
No protection against intended access, e.g. by hand, however, protection of
persons against contact with live parts
Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above
2 12 mm (mediumsized foreign bodies) 1)
Keeping away of fingers or similar objects
Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above
3 2.5 mm (small foreign bodies) 1) 2)
Keeping away tools, wires or similar objects having a thickness above 2.5 mm
Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above
4 1 mm (grain sized foreign bodies) 1) 2)
Keeping away tools, wires or similar objects having a thickness above 1 mm
Protection against harmful dust covers. The ingress of dust is not entirely
5 prevented, however, dust may not enter to such an amount that operation of the
equipment is impaired (dustproof). 3)
Complete protection against contact
6 Protection against the ingress of dust (dusttight)
Complete protection against contact
4 IP
7
60
Siemens MD · 2009
Electrical Engineering
Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment
(Protection Against Water)
Types of protection for electrical equipment
(Extract from DIN EN 60529)
Example of designation Type of protection DIN EN 60529 4
Designation
DIN number
Code letters
First type number
Second type number
An enclosure with this designation is protected against the ingress of solid foreign bodies
having a diameter above 1 mm and of splashing water.
4 IP
Protection against dripping water falling vertically.
2 It may not have any harmful effect on equipment (enclosure) inclined by up to 15q
relative to its normal position (diagonally falling dripping water).
Degrees of protection for protection against water (second type number)
Second type
number
Degree of protection
(Protection against water)
0 No special protection
1 Protection against dripping water falling vertically.
It may not have any harmful effect (dripping water).
Protection against water falling at any angle up to 60q relative to the perpendi
3 cular.
It may not have any harmful effect (spraying water).
Protection against water if the equipment (enclosure) is immersed under deter
7 mined pressure and time conditions.
No harmful quantities of water may enter the equipment (enclosure) (immersion).
1) This degree of protection is normally for airtight enclosed equipment. For certain equipment,
however, water may enter provided that it has no harmful effect.
8 The equipment (enclosure) is suitable for permanent submersion under condi
tions to be described by the manufacturer (submersion). 1)
Protection against water spraying on the equipment (enclosure) from all direc
4 tions.
It may not have any harmful effect (splashing water).
Protection against a water jet from a nozzle which is directed on the equipment
5 (enclosure) from all directions.
It may not have any harmful effect (hosedirected water).
6 Protection against heavy sea or strong water jet.
No harmful quantities of water may enter the equipment (enclosure) (flooding).
7
61
Siemens MD · 2009
Table of Contents Section 8
Materials Page
Conversion of Fatigue Strength Values of Miscellaneous Materials 62
Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels 63
Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Quenched and Tempered Steels 64
GeneralPurpose Structural Steels 65
Fatigue Strength Diagrams of GeneralPurpose Structural Steels 66
Case Hardening Steels 67
Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Case Hardening Steels 68
Cold Rolled Steel Strips 69
Cast Steels for General Engineering Purposes 69
Round Steel Wire for Springs 70
Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron 71
Nodular Graphite Cast Iron 71
CopperTin and CopperZincTin Casting Alloys 72
CopperAluminium Casting Alloys 72
Aluminium Casting Alloys 73
Lead and Tin Casting Alloys for Babbit Sleeve Bearings 74
Conversion of Hardness Values 75
Values of Solids and Liquids 76
Coefficient of Linear Expansion 77
IronCarbon Diagram 77
Pitting and Tooth Root Fatigue Strength Values of Steels 77
Heat Treatment During Case Hardening of Case Hardening Steels 78
8
62
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
Conversion of Fatigue Strength Values
of Miscellaneous Materials
Conversion of fatigue strength values of miscellaneous materials
Material
Tension
3)
Bending
1)
Torsion
1)
V
W
V
Sch
V
bW
V
bSch
V
bF
W
W
W
Sch
W
F
Structural
steel
0.45
.
R
m
1.3
.
V
W
0.49
.
R
m
1.5
.
V
bW
1.5
.
R
e
0.35
.
R
m
1.1
.
W
W
0.7
.
R
e
Quenched
and
tempered
steel
0.41
.
R
m
1.7
.
V
W
0.44
.
R
m
1.7
.
V
bW
1.4
.
R
e
0.30
.
R
m
1.6
.
W
W
0.7
.
R
e
Case
hardening
steel
2)
0.40
.
R
m
1.6
.
V
W
0.41
.
R
m
1.7
.
V
bW
1.4
.
R
e
0.30
.
R
m
1.4
.
W
W
0.7
.
R
e
Grey cast
iron
0.25
.
R
m
1.6
.
Vw 0.37
.
R
m
1.8
.
V
bW
ï 0.36
.
R
m
1.6
.
W
W
ï
Light metal 0.30
.
R
m
ï 0.40
.
R
m
ï ï 0.25
.
R
m
ï ï
1) For polished round section test piece of about 10 mm diameter.
2) Casehardened; determined on round section test piece of about 30 mm diameter. R
m
and R
e
of
core material.
3) For compression, V
Sch
is larger, e.g. for spring steel V
dSch
 1.3
.
V
Sch
For grey cast iron V
dSch
 3
.
V
Sch
Ultimate stress values
Type of load
Tension Bending Torsion
Tensile strength R
m
ï ï
Yield point R
e
V
bF
W
F
Fatigue strength under
alternating stresses
V
W
V
bW
W
W
Fatigue strength under
fluctuating stresses
V
Sch
V
bSch
W
Sch
8
63
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
Mechanical Properties of
Quenched and Tempered Steels
Quenched and tempered steels (Extract from DIN EN 10083)
Mechanical properties of steels in quenched and tempered condition
Material
Diameter
up to 16 mm
above 16
up to 40 mm
above 40
up to 100 mm
above 100
up to 160 mm
above 160
up to 250 mm
Symbol
Num
ber
Yield
point
(0.2
Gr)
N/mm
2
min.
R
e
R
p 0.2
Tensile
strength
N/mm
2
R
m
Yield
point
(0.2
Gr)
N/mm
2
min.
Re
Rp
0.2
Tensile
strength
N/mm
2
R
m
Yield
point
(0.2
Gr)
N/mm
2
min.
R
e
R
p 0.2
Tensile
strength
N/mm
2
R
m
Yield
point
(0.2
Gr)
N/mm
2
min.
R
e
R
p 0.2
Tensile
strength
N/mm
2
R
m
Yield
point
(0.2
Gr)
N/mm
2
min.
R
e
R
p 0.2
Tensile
strength
N/mm
2
R
m
C22
C35
C45
C55
C60
1.0402
1.0501
1.0503
1.0535
1.0601
350
430
500
550
580
550 ï 700
630 ï 780
700 ï 850
800 ï 950
850 ï1000
300
370
430
500
520
500 ï 650
600 ï 750
650 ï 800
750 ï 900
800 ï 950
ï
320
370
430
450
ï
550 ï 700
630 ï 780
700 ï 850
750 ï 900
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
C22E
C35E
C35R
C45E
C45R
C55E
C55R
C60E
C60R
1.1151
1.1181
1.1180
1.1191
1.1201
1.1203
1.1209
1.1221
1.1223
350
430
430
500
500
550
550
580
580
550 ï 700
630 ï 780
630 ï 780
700 ï 850
700 ï 850
800 ï 950
800 ï 950
850 ï1000
850 ï1000
300
370
370
430
430
500
500
520
520
500 ï 650
600 ï 750
600 ï 750
650 ï 800
650 ï 800
750 ï 900
750 ï 900
800 ï 950
800 ï 950
ï
320
320
370
370
430
430
450
450
ï
550 ï 700
550 ï 700
630 ï 780
630 ï 780
700 ï 850
700 ï 850
750 ï 900
750 ï 900
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
28Mn6 1.1170 590 780 ï 930 490 690 ï 840 440 640 ï 790 ï ï ï ï
38Cr2
46Cr2
34Cr4
34CrS4
37Cr4
37CrS4
41Cr4
41CrS4
1.7003
1.7006
1.7033
1.7037
1.7034
1.7038
1.7035
1.7039
550
650
700
700
750
750
800
800
800 ï 950
900 ï1100
900 ï1100
900 ï1100
950 ï1150
950 ï1150
1000ï1200
1000ï1200
450
550
590
590
630
630
660
660
700 ï 850
800 ï 950
800 ï 950
800 ï 950
850 ï1000
850 ï1000
900 ï1100
900 ï1100
350
400
460
460
510
510
560
560
600 ï 750
650 ï 800
700 ï 850
700 ï 850
750 ï 900
750 ï 900
800 ï 950
800 ï 950
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
25CrMo4
34CrMo4
34CrMoS4
42CrMo4
42CrMoS4
50CrMo4
1.7218
1.7220
1.7226
1.7225
1.7227
1.7228
700
800
800
900
900
900
900 ï1100
1000ï1200
1000ï1200
1100ï1300
1100ï1300
1100ï1300
600
650
650
750
750
780
800 ï 950
900 ï1100
900 ï1100
1000ï1200
1000ï1200
1000ï1200
450
550
550
650
650
700
700 ï 850
800 ï 950
800 ï 950
900 ï1100
900 ï1100
900 ï1100
400
500
500
550
550
650
650 ï 800
750 ï 900
750 ï 900
800 ï 950
800 ï 950
850 ï1000
ï
450
450
500
500
550
ï
700ï 850
700ï 850
750ï 900
750ï 900
800ï 950
36CrNiMo4
34CrNiMo6
30CrNiMo8
1.6511
1.6582
1.6580
900
1000
1050
1100ï1300
1200ï1400
1250ï1450
800
900
1050
1000ï1200
1100ï1300
1250ï1450
700
800
900
900 ï1100
1000ï1200
1100ï1300
600
700
800
800 ï 950
900 ï1100
1000ï1200
550
600
700
750ï 900
800ï 950
900ï1100
51CrV4
30CrMoV9
1.8159
1.7707
900
1050
1100ï1300
1250ï1450
800
1020
1000ï1200
1200ï1450
700
900
900 ï1100
1100ï1300
650
800
850 ï1000
1000ï1200
600
700
800ï 950
900ï1100
8
64
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
Fatigue Strength Diagrams of
Quenched and Tempered Steels
Fatigue strength diagrams of quenched and tempered steels, DIN EN 10083
(in quenched and tempered condition, test piece diameter d = 10 mm)
Quenched and tempered steels not
illustrated may be used as follows:
34CrNiMo6 like 30CrNiMo8
30CrMoV4 like 30CrNiMo8
42CrMo4 like 50CrMo4
36CrNiMo4 like 50CrMo4
51CrV4 like 50CrMo4
34CrMo4 like 41Cr4
28Cr4 like 46Cr2
C45 like C45E
C22 like C22E
C60 and C50 lie approximately
between C45E and 46Cr2.
C40, 32Cr2, C35, C30 and
C25 lie approximately
between C22E and C45E.
a) Tension/compression fatigue
strength
b) Bending fatigue strength
c) Torsional fatigue strength
Loading type I: static
Loading type II: dynamic
Loading type III: alternating
8
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o
b
e
a
g
r
e
e
d
u
p
o
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T
o
b
e
a
g
r
e
e
d
u
p
o
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65
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
GeneralPurpose Structural Steels
Generalpurpose structural steels (Extract from DIN EN 10025)
Material
Treat
ment
condi
tion
Tensile strength R
m
in N/mm
2
for
product thickness
in mm
Upper yield point
R
eH
in N/mm
2
(minimum)
for
product thickness
in mm Symbol
( in
Germany )
Num
ber
Symbol
acc. to
DIN EN
10025
1)
< 3
t 3
d100
>100 d16
>16
d 40
> 40
d 63
> 63
d 80
> 80
d100
>100
St33 1.0035 S185 U, N
310...
540
290...
510
185
175
2)
ï ï ï
St372
USt372
1.0037
1.0036
S235JR
S235JRG1
U, N
U, N
360...
510
340...
470
235 225 215 205 195
RSt372
St373U
St373N
1.0038
1.0114
1.0116
S235JRG2
S235JO
S235J2G3
U, N,
U
N
235 225 215 215 215
St442
St443U
St443N
1.0044
1.0143
1.0144
S275JR
S275JO
S275J2G3
U, N
U
N
430...
580
410...
560
275 265 255 245 235
St523U
St523N
1.0553
1.0570
S355JO
S355J2G3
U
N
510...
680
490...
630
355 345 335 325 315
St502 1.0050 E295 U, N
490...
660
470...
610
295 285 275 265 255
St602 1.0060 E335 U, N
590...
770
570...
710
335 325 315 305 295
St702 1.0070 E360 U, N
690...
900
670...
830
365 355 345 335 325
1) N normalized; U hotrolled, untreated
2) This value applies to thicknesses up to 25 mm only
8
66
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
Fatigue Strength Diagrams of
GeneralPurpose Structural Steels
Fatigue strength diagrams of generalpurpose structural steels, DIN EN 10025
(test piece diameter d = 10 mm)
a) Tension/compression fatigue
strength
b) Bending fatigue strength
c) Torsional fatigue
strength
E360
E335
E295
S275
S235
E360
E335
E295
S275
S235
E360
E335
E295
S275
S235
Loading type I: static
Loading type II: dynamic
Loading type III: alternating
8
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d
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t
a
i
l
s
,
s
e
e
D
I
N
E
N
1
0
0
8
4
T
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e
a
t
m
e
n
t
c
o
n
d
i
t
i
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67
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
Case Hardening Steels
Case hardening steels; Quality specifications (Extract from DIN EN 10084)
Material 1) For dia. 11 For dia. 30 For dia. 63
Symbol
( in
Germany )
Num
ber
Symbol
acc. to
DIN EN
10084
Yield
point
R
e
N/mm
2
min.
Tensile
strength
R
m
N/mm
2
Yield
point
R
e
N/mm
2
min.
Tensile
strength
R
m
N/mm
2
Yield
point
R
e
N/mm
2
min.
Tensile
strength
R
m
N/mm
2
C10
Ck10
1.0301
1.1121
C10
C10E
390
390
640 ï 790
640 ï 790
295
295
490 ï 640
490 ï 640
ï
ï
ï
ï
C15
Ck15
Cm15
1.0401
1.1141
1.1140
C15
C15E
C15R
440
440
440
740 ï 890
740 ï 890
740 ï 890
355
355
355
590 ï 790
590 ï 790
590 ï 790
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
15Cr13 1.7015 15Cr13 510 780 ï1030 440 690 ï 890 ï ï
16MnCr5
16MnCrS5
20MnCr5
20MnCrS5
1.7131
1.7139
1.7147
1.7149
16MnCr5
16MnCrS5
20MnCr5
20MnCrS5
635
635
735
735
880 ï1180
880 ï1180
1080 ï1380
1080 ï1380
590
590
685
685
780 ï1080
780 ï1080
980 ï1280
980 ï1280
440
440
540
540
640 ï 940
640 ï 940
780 ï1080
780 ï1080
20MoCr4
20MoCrS4
25MoCrS4
1.7321
1.7323
1.7325
20MoCr4
20MoCrS4
25MoCrS4
635
635
735
880 ï1180
880 ï1180
1080 ï1380
590
590
685
780 ï1080
780 ï1080
980 ï1280
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
ï
15CrNi6
18CrNi8
1.5919
1.5920
15CrNi6
18CrNi8
685
835
960 ï1280
1230 ï1480
635
785
880 ï1180
1180 ï1430
540
685
780 ï1080
1080 ï1330
17CrNiMo6 1.6587 18CrNiMo76 835 1180 ï1430 785 1080 ï1330 685 980 ï1280
1) Dependent on treatment, the Brinell hardness is different.
Treatment condition Meaning
C treated for shearing load
G soft annealed
BF treated for strength
BG treated for ferrite/pearlite structure
8
68
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
Fatigue Strength Diagrams of
Case Hardening Steels
Fatigue strength diagrams of case hardening steels, DIN EN 10084
(Core strength after case hardening, test piece diameter d = 10 mm)
a) Tension/compression fatigue
strength
b) Bending fatigue strength
c) Torsional fatigue strength
Case hardening steels not illustrated
may be used as follows:
25MoCr4 like 20MnCr5
17CrNiMo6 like 18CrNi8
Loading type I: static
Loading type II: dynamic
Loading type III: alternating
8
69
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
Cold Rolled Steel Strips
Cast Steels for General Engineering Purposes
Cold rolled steel strips (Extract from DIN EN 10132)
Material
Tensile strength
R
m
1)
N/mm
2
maximum
Symbol
( in Germany )
Number
Symbol
acc. to
DIN EN 10132
C55
Ck55
1.0535
1.1203
C55
C55E
610
C60
Ck60
1.0601
1.1221
C60
C60E
620
C67
Ck67
1.0603
1.1231
C67
C67S
640
C75
Ck75
1.0605
1.1248
C75
C75S
640
Ck85
Ck101
1.1269
1.1274
C85S
C100S
670
690
71Si7 1.5029 71Si7 800
67SiCr5 1.7103 67SiCr5 800
50CrV4 1.8159 50CrV4 740
1) R
m
for cold rolled and softannealed condition; for strip thicknesses up to 3 mm
Cast steels for general engineering purposes (Extract from DIN 1681)
Material Yield point
R
e,
R
p 0.2
Tensile
strength
R
m
Notched bar impact work
(ISOVnotch specimens)
A
v
Symbol Number
d 30 mm ! 30 mm
N/mm
2
min.
N/mm
2
min.
Mean value
1)
J
min.
GS38 ( GE200 ) 1.0420 200 380 35 35
GS45 ( GE240 ) 1.0446 230 450 27 27
GS52 ( GE260 ) 1.0552 260 520 27 22
GS60 ( GE300 ) 1.0558 300 600 27 20
The mechanical properties apply to specimens which are taken from test pieces with thicknesses
up to 100 mm. Furthermore, the yield point values also apply to the casting itself, in so far as the
wall thickness is d 100 mm.
1) Determined from three individual values each.
8
70
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
Round Steel Wire for Springs
Round steel wire for springs (Extract from DIN EN 10218)
Diameter
of wire
Grade of wire
A B C D
mm Tensile strength R
m
in N/mm
2
0.07 ï ï ï 2800 ï 3100
0.3 ï 2370 ï 2650 ï 2660 ï 2940
1 1720 ï 1970 1980 ï 2220 ï 2230 ï 2470
2 1520 ï 1750 1760 ï 1970 1980 ï 2200 1980 ï 2200
3 1410 ï 1620 1630 ï 1830 1840 ï 2040 1840 ï 2040
4 1320 ï 1520 1530 ï 1730 1740 ï 1930 1740 ï 1930
5 1260 ï 1450 1460 ï 1650 1660 ï 1840 1660 ï 1840
6 1210 ï 1390 1400 ï 1580 1590 ï 1770 1590 ï 1770
7 1160 ï 1340 1350 ï 1530 1540 ï 1710 1540 ï 1710
8 1120 ï 1300 1310 ï 1480 1490 ï 1660 1490 ï 1660
9 1090 ï 1260 1270 ï 1440 1450 ï 1610 1450 ï 1610
10 1060 ï 1230 1240 ï 1400 1410 ï 1570 1410 ï 1570
11 ï 1210 ï 1370 1380 ï 1530 1380 ï 1530
12 ï 1180 ï 1340 1350 ï 1500 1350 ï 1500
13 ï 1160 ï 1310 1320 ï 1470 1320 ï 1470
14 ï 1130 ï 1280 1290 ï 1440 1290 ï 1440
15 ï 1110 ï 1260 1270 ï 1410 1270 ï 1410
16 ï 1090 ï 1230 1240 ï 1390 1240 ï 1390
17 ï 1070 ï 1210 1220 ï 1360 1220 ï 1360
18 ï 1050 ï 1190 1200 ï 1340 1200 ï 1340
19 ï 1030 ï 1170 1180 ï 1320 1180 ï 1320
20 ï 1020 ï 1150 1160 ï 1300 1160 ï 1300
8
71
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron
Nodular Graphite Cast Iron
Lamellar graphite cast iron (Extract from DIN EN 1561)
Material
Wall
thicknesses
in mm
Tensile
strength
1)
R
m
Brinell
hardness
1)
Compressive
strength
2)
V
dB
Symbol Number
Symbol
acc. to
DIN 1691
above up to N/mm
2
HB 30 N/mm
2
ENGJL100 ENJL1010 GG10 5 40 min. 100
2)
ï ï
ENGJL150 ENJL1020 GG15
10
20
40
80
20
40
80
150
130
110
95
80
225
205
ï
ï
600
ENGJL200 ENJL1030 GG20
10
20
40
80
20
40
80
150
180
155
130
115
250
235
ï
ï
720
ENGJL250 ENJL1040 GG25
10
20
40
80
20
40
80
150
225
195
170
155
265
250
ï
ï
840
ENGJL300 ENJL1050 GG30
10
20
40
80
20
40
80
150
270
240
210
195
285
265
ï
ï
960
ENGJL350 ENJL1060 GG35
10
20
40
80
20
40
80
150
315
280
250
225
285
275
ï
ï
1080
The values apply to castings which are made in sand moulds or moulds with comparable heat
diffusibility.
1) These values are reference values.
2) Values in the separately cast test piece with 30 mm diameter of the unfinished casting.
Nodular graphite cast iron (Extract from DIN EN 1563)
Properties in caston test pieces
Material
Wall thickness
of casting
Thickness
of caston
test piece
Tensile
strength
R
m
0.2%
proof
stress
R
p0.2
Symbol Number
Symbol
acc. to
DIN 1693
mm mm N/mm
2
N/mm
2
ENGJS40018ULT ENJS1049 GGG40.3
from 30 up to 60
above 60 up to 200
40
70
390
370
250
240
ENGJS40015U ENJS1072 GGG40
from 30 up to 60
above 60 up to 200
40
70
390
370
250
240
ENGJS5007U ENJS1082 GGG50
from 30 up to 60
above 60 up to 200
40
70
450
420
300
290
ENGJS6003U ENJS1092 GGG60
from 30 up to 60
above 60 up to 200
40
70
600
550
360
340
ENGJS7002U ENJS1102 GGG70
from 30 up to 60
above 60 up to 200
40
70
700
650
400
380
8
72
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
CopperTin and CopperZincTin Casting Alloys
CopperAluminium Casting Alloys
Coppertin and copperzinctin casting alloys (Extract from DIN EN 1982)
Material
Condition on
delivery
0.2%
proof stress
1)
R
p0.2
Tensile
strength
1)
R
m
Symbol Number
Symbol acc.
to DIN 1705
min. in
N/mm
2
min. in
N/mm
2
CuSn12CGS
CuSn12CGZ
CuSn12CGC
CC483K
GCuSn12
GZCuSn12
GCCuSn12
Sandmould cast iron
Centrifugally cast iron
Continuously cast iron
140
150
140
260
280
280
CuSn12NiCGS
CuSn12NiCGZ
CuSn12NiCGC
CC484K
GCuSn12Ni
GZCuSn12Ni
GCCuSn12Ni
Sandmould cast iron
Centrifugally cast iron
Continuously cast iron
160
180
170
280
300
300
CuSn12Pb2CGS
CuSn12Pb2CGZ
CuSn12Pb2CGC
CC482K
GCuSn12Pb
GZCuSn12Pb
GCCuSn12Pb
Sandmould cast iron
Centrifugally cast iron
Continuously cast iron
140
150
140
260
280
280
CuSn10CuGS CC480K GCuSn10 Sandmould cast iron 130 270
CuSn7Zn4Pb7CGS
CuSn7Zn4Pb7CGZ
CuSn7Zn4Pb7CGC
CC493K
GCuSn7ZnPb
GZCuSn7ZnPb
GCCuSn7ZnPb
Sandmould cast iron
Centrifugally cast iron
Continuously cast iron
120
130
120
240
270
270
CuSn7Zn2Pb3CGS CC492K GCuSn6ZnNi Sandmould cast iron 140 270
CuSn5Zn5Pb5CGS CC491K GCuSn5ZnPb Sandmould cast iron 90 220
CuSn3Zn8Pb5CGS CC490K GCuSn2ZnPb Sandmould cast iron 90 210
1) Material properties in the test bar
Copperaluminium casting alloys (Extract from DIN EN 1982)
Material
Condition on
delivery
0.2%
proof stress
1)
R
p0.2
Tensile
strength
1)
R
m
Symbol Number
Symbol acc.
to DIN 1714
min. in
N/mm
2
min. in
N/mm
2
CuAl10Fe2CGS
CuAl10Fe2CGM
CuAl10Fe2CGZ
CC331G
GCuAl10Fe
GKCuAl10Fe
GZCuAl10Fe
Sandmould cast iron
Chilled casting
Centrifugally cast iron
180
200
200
500
550
550
CuAl10Ni3Fe2CGS
CuAl10Ni3Fe2CGK
CuAl10Ni3Fe2CGZ
CC332G
GCuAl9Ni
GKCuAl9Ni
GZCuAl9Ni
Sandmould cast iron
Chilled casting
Centrifugally cast iron
200
230
250
500
530
600
CuAl10Fe5Ni5CGS
CuAl10Fe5Ni5CGM
CuAl10Fe5Ni5CGZ
CuAl10Fe5Ni5CGC
CC333G
GCuAl10Ni
GKCuAl10Ni
GZCuAl10Ni
GCCuAl10Ni
Sandmould cast iron
Chilled casting
Centrifugally cast iron
Continuously cast iron
270
300
300
300
600
600
700
700
CuAl11Fe6Ni6CGS
CuAl11Fe6Ni6CGM
CuAl11Fe6Ni6CGZ
CC334G
GCuAl11Ni
GKCuAl11Ni
GZCuAl11Ni
Sandmould cast iron
Chilled casting
Centrifugally cast iron
320
400
400
680
680
750
1) Material properties in the test bar
8
73
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
Aluminium Casting Alloys
Aluminium casting alloys (Extract from DIN EN 1706)
Material
0.2% proof stress
R
p0.2
Tensile strength
R
m
Symbol Number
Symbol
acc. to
DIN 17252
in N/mm
2
in N/mm
2
ACAlCu4MgTi AC21000 GAlCu4TiMg 200 up to 220 300 up to 320
ACAlCu4Ti AC21100 GAlCu4Ti 180 up to 220 280 up to 330
ACAlSi7Mg AC42100 GAlSi7Mg 180 up to 210 230 up to 290
ACAlSi10Mg(a) AC43000 GAlSi10Mg 80 up to 220 150 up to 240
ACAlSi10Mg(Cu) AC43200 GAlSi10Mg(Cu) 80 up to 200 160 up to 240
ACAlSi9Mg AC43300 GAlSi9Mg 180 up to 210 230 up to 290
ACAlSi10Mg(Fe) AC43400 GAlSi10Mg 140 240
ACAlSi11 AC44000 GAlSi11 70 up to 80 150 up to 170
ACAlSi12(a) AC44200 GAlSi12 70 up to 80 150 up to 170
ACAlSi12(Fe) AC44300 GDAlSi12 130 240
ACAlSi6Cu4 AC45000 GAlSi6Cu4 90 up to 100 150 up to 170
ACAlSi9Cu3(Fe) AC46000 GDAlSi9Cu3 140 240
ACAlSi8Cu3 AC46200 GAlSi9Cu3 90 up to 140 150 up to 240
ACAlSi12(Cu) AC47000 GAlSi12(Cu) 80 up to 90 150 up to 170
ACAlSi12Cu1(Fe) AC47100 GDAlSi12(Cu) 140 240
ACAlMg3(a) AC51100 GAlMg3 70 140 up to 150
ACAlMg9 AC51200 GDAlMg9 130 200
ACAlMg5 AC51300 GAlMg5 90 up to 100 160 up to 180
ACAlMg5(Si) AC51400 GAlMg5Si 100 up to 110 160 up to 180
8
74
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
Lead and Tin Casting Alloys
for Babbit Sleeve Bearings
Lead and tin casting alloys for babbit sleeve bearings (Extract from DIN ISO 4381)
Material
Brinell hardness
1)
HB 10/250/180
0.2% proof stress
1)
R
p 0.2
in N/mm
2
Symbol Number 20 qC 50 qC 120 qC 20 qC 50 qC 100 qC
PbSb15SnAs 2.3390 18 15 14 39 37 25
PbSb15Sn10 2.3391 21 16 14 43 32 30
PbSb14Sn9CuAs 2.3392 22 22 16 46 39 27
PbSb10Sn6 2.3393 16 16 14 39 32 27
SnSb12Cu6Pb 2.3790 25 20 12 61 60 36
SnSb8Cu4 2.3791 22 17 11 47 44 27
SnSb8Cu4Cd 2.3792 28 25 19 62 44 30
1) Material properties in the test bar
8
75
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
Conversion of Hardness Values
(DIN EN ISO 18265)
Tensile
strength
Vickers
hard
ness
Brinell hardness
2)
Ǒ 0.102
.
F
D
2
ǐ = 30
N
mm
2
Rockwell
hardness
Tensile
strength
Vickers
hard
ness
Brinell hardness
2)
Ǒ 0.102
.
F
D
2
ǐ = 30
N
mm
2
Rockwell
hardness
N/mm
2
(Ft98N) HRB HRC HRA
HRD
1)
N/mm
2
(Ft98N) HRC HRA
HRD
1)
255
270
285
305
320
80
85
90
95
100
76.0
80.7
85.5
90.2
95.0
41.0
48.0
52.0
56.2
1155
1190
1220
1255
1290
360
370
380
390
400
342
352
361
371
380
36.6
37.7
38.8
39.8
40.8
68.7
69.2
69.8
70.3
70.8
52.8
53.6
54.4
55.3
56.0
335
350
370
385
400
105
110
115
120
125
99.8
105
109
114
119
62.3
66.7
1320
1350
1385
1420
1455
410
420
430
440
450
390
399
409
418
428
41.8
42.7
43.6
44.5
45.3
71.4
71.8
72.3
72.8
73.3
56.8
57.5
58.2
58.8
59.4
415
430
450
465
480
130
135
140
145
150
124
128
133
138
143
71.2
75.0
78.7
1485
1520
1555
1595
1630
460
470
480
490
500
437
447
(456)
(466)
(475)
46.1
46.9
47.7
48.4
49.1
73.6
74.1
74.5
74.9
75.3
60.1
60.7
61.3
61.6
62.2
495
510
530
545
560
155
160
165
170
175
147
152
156
162
166
81.7
85.0
1665
1700
1740
1775
1810
510
520
530
540
550
(485)
(494)
(504)
(513)
(523)
49.8
50.5
51.1
51.7
52.3
75.7
76.1
76.4
76.7
77.0
62.9
63.5
63.9
64.5
64.8
575
595
610
625
640
180
185
190
195
200
171
176
181
185
190
87.1
89.5
91.5
1845
1880
1920
1955
1995
560
570
580
590
600
(532)
(542)
(551)
(561)
(570)
53.0
53.6
54.1
54.7
55.2
77.4
77.8
78.0
78.4
78.6
65.4
65.8
66.2
66.7
67.0
660
675
690
705
720
205
210
215
220
225
195
199
204
209
214
92.5
93.5
94.0
95.0
96.0
2030
2070
2105
2145
2180
610
620
630
640
650
(580)
(589)
(599)
(608)
(618)
55.7
56.3
56.8
57.3
57.8
78.9
79.2
79.5
79.8
80.0
67.5
67.9
68.3
68.7
69.0
740
755
770
785
800
230
235
240
245
250
219
223
228
233
238
96.7
98.1
99.5
20.3
21.3
22.2
60.7
61.2
61.6
40.3
41.1
41.7
660
670
680
690
700
58.3
58.8
59.2
59.7
60.1
80.3
80.6
80.8
81.1
81.3
69.4
69.8
70.1
70.5
70.8
820
835
850
865
880
255
260
265
270
275
242
247
252
257
261
(101)
(102)
23.1
24.0
24.8
25.6
26.4
62.0
62.4
62.7
63.1
63.5
42.2
43.1
43.7
44.3
44.9
720
740
760
780
800
61.0
61.8
62.5
63.3
64.0
81.8
82.2
82.6
83.0
83.4
71.5
72.1
72.6
73.3
73.8
900
915
930
950
965
280
285
290
295
300
266
271
276
280
285
(104)
(105)
27.1
27.8
28.5
29.2
29.8
63.8
64.2
64.5
64.8
65.2
45.3
46.0
46.5
47.1
47.5
820
840
860
880
900
64.7
65.3
65.9
66.4
67.0
83.8
84.1
84.4
84.7
85.0
74.3
74.8
75.3
75.7
76.1
995
1030
1060
1095
1125
310
320
330
340
350
295
304
314
323
333
31.0
32.3
33.3
34.4
35.5
65.8
66.4
67.0
67.6
68.1
48.4
49.4
50.2
51.1
51.9
920
940
67.5
68.0
85.3
85.6
76.5
76.9
The figures in brackets are hardness values outside the domain of definition of standard hardness test
methods which, however, in practice are frequently used as approximate values. Furthermore, the Brinell
hardness values in brackets apply only if the test was carried out with a carbide ball.
1) Internationally usual, e.g. ASTM E 1874 (American Society for Testing and Materials)
2) Calculated from HB = 0.95 HV (Vickers hardness)
Determination of Rockwell hardness HRA, HRB, HRC, and HRD acc. to DIN EN 10109 Part 1
Determination of Vickers hardness acc. to DIN 50133 Part 1
Determination of Brinell hardness acc. to DIN EN 10003 Part 1
Determination of tensile strength acc. to DIN EN 10002 Part 1 and Part 5
8
76
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
Values of Solids and Liquids
Values of solids and liquids Mean density of the earth = 5.517 g/cm
3
Substance (solid)
Sym
bol
Density
r
Melting
point
Thermal
conducti
vity O
at 20 qC
Substance (solid)
Sym
bol
Density
r
Melting
point
Thermal
conducti
vity O
at 20 qC
g/cm
3
t in qC W/(mK) g/cm
3
t in qC W/(mK)
Agate 2.5...2.8 1600 11.20 Porcelain 2.2...2.5 1650 1
Aluminium Al 2.7 658 204 Pyranite 3.3 1800 8.14
Aluminium bronze 7.7 1040 128 Quartzflint 2.5...2.8 1480 9.89
Antimony Sb 6.67 630 22.5 Radium Ra 5 700 ï
Arsenic As 5.72 ï ï Rhenium Re 21 3175 71
Asbestos 2.5 1300 ï Rhodium Rh 12.3 1960 88
Asphaltum 1.1...1.5 80...100 0.698 Gunmetal 8.8 950 38
Barium Ba 3.59 704 ï Rubidium Rb 1.52 39 58
Barium chloride 3.1 960 ï Ruthenium Ru 12.2 2300 106
Basalt, natural 2.7...3.2 ï 1.67 Sand, dry 1.4...1.6 1480 0.58
Beryllium Be 1.85 1280 1.65 Sandstone 2.1...2.5 1500 2.3
Concrete 2 ï 1 Brick, fire 1.8...2.3 2000 1.2
Lead Pb 11.3 327.4 34.7 Slate 2.6...2.7 2000 0.5
Boron (amorph.) B 1.73 2300 ï Emery 4 2200 11.6
Borax 1.72 740 ï Sulphur, rhombic S 2.07 112.8 0.27
Limonite 3.4...3.9 1565 ï Sulphur, monoclinic S 1.96 119 0.13
Bronze 8.83 910 64 Barytes 4.5 1580 ï
Chlorine calcium 2.2 774 ï Selenium, red Se 4.4 220 0.2
Chromium Cr 7.1 1800 69 Silver Ag 10.5 960 407
Chromium nickel 7.4 1430 52.335 Silicon Si 2.33 1420 83
Delta metal 8.6 950 104.7 Silicon carbide 3.12 ï 15.2
Diamond C 3.5 ï ï Sillimanite 2.4 1816 1.69
Iron, pure Fe 7.86 1530 81 Soapstone (talcous) 2.7 ï 3.26
Grease 0.92...0.94 30...175 0.209 Steel, plain + lowalloy 7.9 1460 47...58
Gallium Ga 5.9 29.75 ï stainless 7.9 1450 14
Germanium Ge 5.32 936 58.615 nonmagnetic 8 1450 16.28
Gypsum 2.3 1200 0.45 Tungsten steel 18W 8.7 1450 26
Glass, window 2.5 700 0.81 Hard coal 1.35 ï 0.24
Mica 2.8 1300 0.35 Strontium Sr 2.54 797 0.23
Gold Au 19.29 1063 310 Tantalum Ta 16.6 2990 54
Granite 2.6...2.8 ï 3.5 Tellurium Te 6.25 455 4.9
Graphite C 2.24 3800 168 Thorium Th 11.7 1800 38
Grey cast iron 7.25 1200 58 Titanium Ti 4.5 1670 15.5
Laminated fabric 1.3...1.42 ï 0.34...0.35 Tombac 8.65 1000 159
Hard rubber 1.4 ï 0.17 Clay 1.8...2.6 1500..1700 0.93...1.28
Hard metal K20 14.8 2000 81 Uranium 99.99% U 18.7 1133 28
Woods 0.45...0.85 ï 0.12...0.17 Vanadium V 6.1 1890 31.4
Indium In 7.31 156 24 Soft rubber 1...1.8 ï 0.14...0.23
Iridium Ir 22.5 2450 59.3 White metal 7.5...10.1 300...400 34.9...69.8
Cadmium Cd 8.64 321 92.1 Bismuth Bi 9.8 271 8.1
Potassium K 0.86 63.6 110 Wolfram W 19.2 3410 130
Limestone 2.6 ï 2.2 Cesium Cs 1.87 29 ï
Calcium Ca 1.55 850 ï Cement, hard 2...2.2 ï 0.9...1.2
Calcium oxide (lime) 3.4 2572 ï Cerium Ce 6.79 630 ï
Caoutchouc, crude 0.95 125 0.2 Zinc Zn 6.86 419 110
Cobalt Co 8.8 1490 69.4 Tin Sn 7.2 232 65
Salt, common 2.15 802 ï Zirconium Zr 6.5 1850 22
Coke 1.6...1.9 ï 0.184
Constantan 8.89 1600 23.3
Corundum (AL
2
O
3
) 3.9...4 2050 12...23
Chalk 1.8...2.6 ï 0.92
Substance (liquid)
Sym
bol
Density r
at
Boiling
point at
1.013MPa
Thermal
conductivity
O
at 20 qC
Copper Cu 8.9 1083 384
Leather, dry 0.9....1 ï 0.15
Lithium Li 0.53 179 71
Magnesium Mg 1.74 657 157 g/cm
3
qC qC W/(mK)
Magnesium, alloyed 1.8...1.83 650 69.8..145.4 Ether 0.72 20 35 0.14
Manganese Mn 7.43 1250 30 Benzine 0.73 15 25...210 0.13
Marble 2.6...2.8 1290 2.8 Benzole, pure 0.83 15 80 0.14
Red lead oxide 8.6...9.1 ï 0.7 Diesel oil 0.83 15 210...380 0.15
Brass 8.5 900 116 Glycerine 1.26 20 290 0.29
Molybdenum Mo 10.2 2600 145 Resin oil 0.96 20 150...300 0.15
Monel metal 8.8 1300 19.7 Fuel oil EL 0.83 20 > 175 0.14
Sodium Na 0.98 97.5 126 Linseed oil 0.93 20 316 0.17
Nickel silver 8.7 1020 48 Machinery oil 0.91 15 380...400 0.125
Nickel Ni 8.9 1452 59 Methanol 0.8 15 65 0.21
Niobium Nb 8.6 2415 54.43 Methyl chloride 0.95 15 24 0.16
Osmium Os 22.5 2500 ï Mineral oil 0.91 20 > 360 0.13
Palladium Pd 12 1552 70.9 Petroleum ether 0.66 20 > 40 0.14
Paraffin 0.9 52 0.26 Petroleum 0.81 20 > 150 0.13
Pitch 1.25 ï 0.13 Mercury Hg 13.55 20 357 10
Phosphorus (white) P 1.83 44 ï Hydrochloric acid 10% 1.05 15 102 0.5
Platinum Pt 21.5 1770 70 Sulphuric acid, strong 1.84 15 338 0.47
Polyamide A, B 1.13 250 0.34 Silicon fluid 0.94 20 ï 0.22
8
77
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
Coefficient of Linear Expansion;
IronCarbon Diagram;
Pitting and Tooth Root Fatigue Strength Values of Steels
Coefficient of linear expansion D
The coefficient of linear expansion D gives
the fractional expansion of the unit of
length of a substance per 1 degree K rise
in temperature. For the linear expansion of
a body applies:
Dl +l
0
@ a @ DT
where
'l: change of length
l
: original length
D: coefficient of linear expansion
'T: rise of temperature
Coefficients of linear expansion of
some substances at 0 ... 100 qC
Substance D [10
6
/K]
Aluminium alloys 21 ... 24
Grey cast iron
(e.g. GG20, GG25) 10.5
Steel, plain and
lowalloy 11.5
Steel, stainless
(18CrNi8) 16
Steel, rapid machining steel 11.5
Copper 17
Brass CuZn37 18.5
Bronze CuSn8 17.5
Ironcarbon diagram
Cementite content in weight percentage
(cubic face centered)
(cubic body centered)
Mixed crystals
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
i
n
q
C
(ferrite)
Melting + Gmixed crystals
Melting
Melting +
Jmixed crystals
Melting +
primary cementite
Jmixed crystals
(austenite)
Jmixed crystals
+ sec. cementite
+ ledeburite
Primary cementite
+ ledeburite
Jm.c. +
sec.cem.
pearlite
Sec.cem.
+ pearlite
Sec.cem. + pear
lite + ledeburite
L
e
d
e
b
u
r
i
t
e
Primary cementite
+ ledeburite
Carbon content in weight percentage
Mixed crystals
Mixed crystals
Mixed crystals
(cementite)
P
e
a
r
l
i
t
e
Pitting and tooth root fatigue strength values of steels
Grade of steel
Material
symbol
Hardness on
finished gear
V
Hlim
V
Flim
HV1 N/mm
2
N/mm
2
Case hardening steels,
casehardened
16MnCr5
20MnCr5
18CrNiMo76
720
680
740
1470
1470
1500
430
430
500
Quenched and tempered
steels,
quenched and tempered
30CrNiMo8
34CrNiMo6
42CrMo4
290
310
280
730
770
740
300
310
305
Quenched and tempered
steels,
nitrided
34CrNiMo6
42CrMo4
630
600
1000
1000
370
370
8
78
Siemens MD · 2009
Materials
Heat Treatment During Case Hardening
of Case Hardening Steels
Heat treatment during case hardening of case hardening steels acc. to DIN EN 10084
Usual heat treatment during case hardening
A. Direct hardening or double
hardening
B. Single hardening
C. Hardening after isothermal
transformation
Direct hardening from carburizing
temperature
Single hardening from core or case
hardening temperature
Hardening after isothermal transfor
mation in the pearlite stage (e)
Direct hardening after lowering to
hardening temperature
Single hardening after intermediate
annealing (soft annealing) (d)
Hardening after isothermal transfor
mation in the pearlite stage (e) and
coolingdown to room temperature
a carburizing temperature
b hardening temperature
c tempering temperature
d intermediate annealing (soft annealing) temperature
e transformation temperature in the pearlite stage
Double hardening
Usual case hardening temperatures
Material a b c
Symbol Number
Carburizing
temperature
1)
Core hardening
temperature
2)
Case hardening
temperature
2)
Quenchant Tempering
qC qC qC qC
C10
C10E
C15
1.0301
1.1121
1.0401
880 up to 980
880 up to 920
780 up to 820
With regard to
the properties of
the component,
the selection of
the quenchant
depends on the
hardenability or
casehardenabi
lity of the steel,
the shape and
cross section of
the work piece
to be hardened,
as well as on
the effect of the
quenchant.
150
up to
200
15Cr3
17Cr3
16MnCr5
16MnCrS5
20MnCr5
20MnCrS5
20MoCr4
20MoCrS4
20NiCrMo22
20NiCrMoS22
1.7015
1.7016
1.7131
1.7139
1.7147
1.7149
1.7321
1.7323
1.6523
1.6526
860 up to 900
15CrNi6
18CrNiMo76
1.5919
1.6587
830 up to 870
1) Decisive criteria for the determination of the carburizing temperature are mainly the required time of carburizing the
chosen carburizing agent, and the plant available, the provided course of process, as well as the required structural
constitution. For direct hardening, carburizing usually is carried out at temperatures below 950 qC. In special cases
carburizing temperatures up to above 1000 qC are applied.
2) In case of direct hardening, quenching is carried out either from the carburizing temperature or any lower temperature.
In particular if there is a risk of warping, lower hardening temperatures are preferred.
8
79
Siemens MD · 2009
Table of Contents Section 9
Lubricating Oils Page
ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for Mineral Oils 80
ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for Synthetic Oils of PolyDOlefine Base 81
ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for Synthetic Oils of Polyglycole Base 82
Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity 83
Viscosity Table for Mineral Oils 84
9
80
Siemens MD · 2009
Lubricating Oils
ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for
Mineral Oils
Viscositytemperaturediagram for mineral oils
Temperature (qC)
K
i
n
e
m
a
t
i
c
v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
(
m
m
2
/
s
)
9
81
Siemens MD · 2009
Lubricating Oils
ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for
Synthetic Oils of PolyDOlefine Base
Viscositytemperaturediagram for synthetic oils of polyDolefine base
Temperature (qC)
K
i
n
e
m
a
t
i
c
v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
(
m
m
2
/
s
)
9
82
Siemens MD · 2009
Lubricating Oils
ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for
Synthetic Oils of Polyglycole Base
Viscositytemperaturediagram for synthetic oils of polyglycole base
Temperature (qC)
K
i
n
e
m
a
t
i
c
v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
(
m
m
2
/
s
)
9
83
Siemens MD · 2009
Lubricating Oils
Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity
for Mineral Oils at any Temperature
Kinematic viscosity X
Quantities for the determination of the kinematic viscosity
VG grade W
40
>ï@ m >ï@
32
46
68
0.18066
0.22278
0.26424
3.7664
3.7231
3.6214
100
150
220
0.30178
0.33813
0.36990
3.5562
3.4610
3.4020
320
460
680
0.39900
0.42540
0.45225
3.3201
3.3151
3.2958
1000
1500
0.47717
0.50192
3.2143
3.1775
W = m (2.49575 ï lgT) + W
40
(1)
u +10
10
W
*0.8 (2)
m >@ slope
T >K@ thermodynamic temperature
1)
W
40
>@ auxiliary quantity at 40 qC
W >@ auxiliary quantity
X >cSt@ kinematic viscosity
1) T = t + 273.15 [K]
Dynamic viscosity K
K = X
.
r
.
0.001 (3)
r = r
15
t ï 15
.
0.0007 (4)
t >qC@ temperature
r
15
[kg/dm
3
]: density at 15 qC
r [kg/dm
3
]: density
X >cSt@ kinematic viscosity
K >Ns/m
2
@ dynamic viscosity
Density r
15
in kg/dm
3
of lubricating oils for gear units
2)
(Example)
VG grade 68 100 150 220 320 460 680
ARAL Degol BG Plus ï 0.888 0.892 0.897 0.895 0.902 0.905
MOBIL Mobilgear 600 XP 0.880 0.880 0.890 0.890 0.900 0.900 0.910
MOBIL Mobilgear XMP ï 0.890 0.896 0.900 0.903 0.909 0.917
CASTROL Optigear BM 0.890 0.893 0.897 0.905 0.915 0.920 0.930
CASTROL Tribol 1100 0.888 0.892 0.897 0.904 0.908 0.916 0.923
2) Mineral base gear oils in accordance with designation CLP as per DIN 51517 Part 3. These oils
comply with the minimum requirements as specified in DIN 51517 Part 3. They are suitable for
operating temperatures from 10 qC up to +90 qC (briefly +100 qC).
9
84
Siemens MD · 2009
Lubricating Oils
Viscosity Table for Mineral Oils
ISOVG
DIN
51519
Approx.
assign
ment to
previous
DIN 51502
Mean viscosity (40 qC) and approx.
viscosities in mm
2
/s (cSt) at
Saybolt
universal
seconds
(SSU)
at 40 qC
(mean
value)
1)
AGMA
lubricant
Nq at
40 qC
1)
Approx.
assignment
to
20 qC 40 qC 50 qC 100 qC
motor
oils
motor
car
gear
oils
cSt cSt cSt Engler cSt SAE SAE
5 2
8
4.6 4 1.3 1.5
(1.7 E)
7 4
12
6.8 5 1.4 2.0
(2 E)
10 9
21
10 8 1.7 2.5
(3 E)
15 ï 34 15 11 1.9 3.5 5 W
22
16
55 22 15 2.3 4.5
10 W
70 W
75 W
32 88 32 21 3 5.5
25
46 137 46 30 4 6.5 214 1 EP
15 W
20 W
20
36
80 W
68 219 68 43 6 8.5 316 2.2 EP
49
100 345 100 61 8 11 464 3.3 EP 30
68
85 W
150 92 550 150 90 12 15 696 4.4 EP 40
90
220
114
865 220 125 16 19 1020 5.5 EP 50
144
320 169 1340 320 180 24 24 1484 6.6 EP
140
460 225 2060 460 250 33 30 2132 7 EP
680 324 3270 680 360 47 40 3152 8 EP
1000 5170 1000 510 67 50
250
1500 8400 1500 740 98 65
1) Approximate comparative value to ISO VG grades
9
85
Siemens MD · 2009
Table of Contents Section 10
Cylindrical Gear Units Page
Symbols and Units 86 + 87
General Introduction 88
Geometry of Involute Gears
Concepts and Parameters Associated With Involute Teeth 88
Standard Basic Rack Tooth Profile 88
Module 89
Tool Reference Profile 89
Generating Tooth Flanks 90
Concepts and Parameters Associated With Cylindrical Gears 91
Geometric Definitions 91
Pitches 91
Addendum Modification 92
Concepts and Parameters Associated With a Cylindrical Gear Pair 93
Terms 93
Mating Quantities 93
Contact Ratios 94
Summary of the Most Important Formulae 95 ï 97
Gear Teeth Modifications 98 + 99
Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears
Scope of Application and Purpose 99 + 100
Basic Details 100 + 101
General Factors 102
Application Factor 102
Dynamic Factor 102
Face Load Factor 102
Transverse Load Factor 102
Tooth Flank Load Carrying Capacity 103
Effective Hertzian Pressure 103
Permissible Hertzian Pressure 103 + 104
Tooth Root Load Carrying Capacity 104
Effective Tooth Root Stress 104 ï 106
Permissible Tooth Root Stress 106
Safety Factors 106
Calculation Example 106 + 107
Gear Unit Types
Standard Designs 107
Load Sharing Gear Units 107
Comparisons 107 + 108
Load Value 108
Referred Torques 109 + 110
Efficiencies 110
Example 110
Noise Emitted by Gear Units
Definitions 111 + 112
Measurements 112
Determination via Sound Pressure 112 + 113
Determination via Sound Intensity 113
Prediction 113 + 114
Possibilities of Influencing 114
10
86
Siemens MD · 2009
Cylindrical Gear Units
Symbols and Units for Cylindrical Gear Units
a mm Centre distance
a
d
mm Reference centre distance
b mm Facewidth
c
p
mm
Bottom clearance between
standard basic rack tooth
profile and counter profile
d mm Reference diameter
d
a
mm Tip diameter
d
b
mm Base diameter
d
f
mm Root diameter
d
w
mm Pitch diameter
e mm
Spacewidth on the reference
cylinder
e
p
mm
Spacewidth on the standard
basic rack tooth profile
f Hz Frequency
g
D
mm Length of path of contact
h mm Tooth depth
h
a
mm Addendum
h
aP
mm
Addendum of the standard
basic rack tooth profile
h
aP0
mm
Addendum of the tool’s stand
ard basic rack tooth profile
h
f
mm Dedendum
h
fP
mm
Dedendum of the standard
basic rack tooth profile
h
fP0
mm
Dedendum of the tool’s stand
ard basic rack tooth profile
h
p
mm
Tooth depth of the standard
basic rack tooth profile
h
P0
mm
Tooth depth of the tool’s stand
ard basic rack tooth profile
h
prP0
mm
Protuberance height of the
tool’s standard basic rack
tooth profile
h
wP
mm
Working depth of the standard
basic rack tooth profile and the
counter profile
k ï
Addendum modification
factor
m mm Module
m
n
mm Normal module
m
t
mm Transverse module
n min
1
Speed
p N/mm
2
Pressure; compression
p mm Pitch on the reference circle
p
bt
mm Pitch on the base circle
p
e
mm Normal base pitch
p
en
mm Normal base pitch at a point
p
et
mm Normal transverse pitch
p
ex
mm Axial pitch
p
t
mm
Transverse base pitch; refer
ence circle pitch
pr
P0
mm
Protuberance value on the
tool’s standard basic rack
tooth profile
q mm
Machining allowance on the
cylindrical gear tooth flanks
r mm
Reference circle radius;
radius
r
a
mm Tip radius
r
b
mm Base radius
r
w
mm
Radius of the working pitch
circle
s mm
Tooth thickness on the refer
ence circle
s
an
mm
Tooth thickness on the tip
circle
s
p
mm
Tooth thickness of the stand
ard basic rack tooth profile
s
P0
mm
Tooth thickness of the tool’s
standard basic rack tooth
profile
u ï Gear ratio
v m/s
Circumferential speed on the
reference circle
w N/mm Line load
x ï
Addendum modification coef
ficient
x
E
ï
Generating addendum modifi
cation coefficient
z ï Number of teeth
A m
2
Gear teeth surface
A
s
mm Tooth thickness deviation
B
L
N/mm
2
Load value
10
87
Siemens MD · 2009
Cylindrical Gear Units
Symbols and Units for Cylindrical Gear Units
D mm Construction dimension
F
n
N Load
F
t
N
Nominal peripheral force at
the reference circle
G N Weight
HV1 ï
Vickers hardness at
F = 9.81 N
K
A
ï Application factor
K
FD
ï
Transverse load factor (for
tooth root stress)
K
FE
ï
Face load factor (for tooth root
stress)
K
HD
ï
Transverse load factor (for
contact stress)
K
HE
ï
Face load factor (for contact
stress)
K
v
ï Dynamic factor
L
pA
dB
Sound pressure level,
Aweighted
L
WA
dB
Sound power level,
Aweighted
P kW
Nominal power rating of
driven machine
R
Z
Pm Mean peaktovalley height
S
F
ï
Factor of safety from tooth
breakage
S
H
ï Factor of safety from pitting
S m
2
Enveloping surface
T Nm Torque
Y
E
ï Helix angle factor
Y
H
ï Contact ratio factor
Y
FS
ï Tip factor
Y
R
ï Roughness factor
Y
X
ï Size factor
Z
E
ï Helix angle factor
Z
H
ï Contact ratio factor
Z
H
ï Zone factor
Z
L
ï Lubricant factor
Z
v
ï Speed factor
Z
X
ï Size factor
D Degree
Transverse pressure angle at
a point; pressure angle
a
rad
Angle D in the circular
measure
ǒ
a + a @ p ń180
Ǔ
D
at
Degree
Transverse pressure angle at
the tip circle
D
n
Degree Normal pressure angle
D
P
Degree
Pressure angle at a point of
the standard basic rack tooth
profile
D
P0
Degree
Pressure angle at a point of
the tool’s standard basic rack
tooth profile
D
prP0
Degree
Protuberance pressure angle
at a point
D
t
Degree
Transverse pressure angle at
the reference circle
D
wt
Degree
Working transverse pressure
angle at the pitch circle
E Degree
Helix angle at the reference
circle
E
b
Degree Base helix angle
H
D
ï Transverse contact ratio
H
E
ï Overlap ratio
H
J
ï Total contact ratio
] Degree Working angle of the involute
K ï Efficiency
r mm Radius of curvature
r
aP0
mm
Tip radius of curvature of the
tool’s standard basic rack
tooth profile
r
fP0
mm
Root radius of curvature of the
tool’s standard basic rack
tooth profile
V
H
N/mm
2
Effective Hertzian pressure
V
Hlim
N/mm
2
Allowable stress number for
contact stress
V
HP
N/mm
2
Allowable Hertzian pressure
V
F
N/mm
2
Effective tooth root stress
V
Flim
N/mm
2
Bending stress number
V
FP
N/mm
2
Allowable tooth root stress
X
40
mm
2
/s
Lubricating oil viscosity
at 40 qC
Note: The unit rad ( = radian ) may be replaced by 1.
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General Introduction
Geometry of Involute Gears
1. Cylindrical gear units
1.1 Introduction
In the industry, mainly gear units with case
hardened and finemachined gears are used
for torque and speed adaptation of prime movers
and driven machines. After carburising and
hardening, the tooth flanks are finemachined
by grinding (or removing material by means of
shaping or generating tools coated with me
chanically resistant material). In comparison
with other gear units, which, for example, have
quenched and tempered or nitrided gears, gear
units with case hardened gears have higher
power capacities, i.e. they require less space
for the same speeds and torques. Further, gear
units have the best efficiencies. Motion is trans
mitted without slip at constant speed. As a rule,
an infinitely variable changespeed gear unit
with primary or secondary gear stages presents
the most economical solution even in case of
variable speed control.
In industrial gear units mainly involute gears
are used. Compared with other tooth profiles,
the technical and economical advantages are
basically:
H Simple manufacture with straightsided
flanked tools;
H The same tool for all numbers of teeth;
H Generating different tooth profiles and centre
distances with the same number of teeth
by means of the same tool by addendum
modification;
H Uniform transmission of motion even in case
of centre distance errors from the nominal
value;
H The direction of the normal force of teeth
remains constant during meshing;
H Advanced stage of development;
H Good availability on the market.
When load sharing gear units are used, output
torques can be doubled or tripled in comparison
with gear units without load sharing. Load shar
ing gear units mostly have one input and one out
put shaft. Inside the gear unit the load is distri
buted and then brought together again on the
output shaft gear. The uniform sharing of the load
between the individual branches is achieved by
special design measures.
1.2 Geometry of involute gears
The most important concepts and parameters
associated with cylindrical gears and cylindrical
gear pairs with involute teeth in accordance with
DIN 3960 are represented in sections 1.2.1 to
1.2.4. /1/
1.2.1 Concepts and parameters associated
with involute teeth
1.2.1.1 Standard basic rack tooth profile
The standard basic rack tooth profile is the
normal section through the teeth of the basic rack
which is produced from an external gear tooth
system with an infinitely large diameter and an
infinitely large number of teeth. From figure 1
follows:
ï The flanks of the standard basic rack tooth
profile are straight lines and are located
symmetrically below the pressure angle at a
point D
P
to the tooth centre line;
ï Between module m and pitch p the relation
is p = Sm;
ï The nominal dimensions of tooth thickness
and spacewidth on the datum line are equal,
i.e. s
P
= e
P
= p/2;
ï The bottom clearance c
P
between basic rack
tooth profile and counter profile is 0.1 m up to
0.4 m;
ï The addendum is fixed by h
aP
= m, the de
dendum by h
fP
= m + c
P
and thus, the tooth
depth by h
P
= 2 m + c
P
;
ï The working depth of basic rack tooth profile
and counter profile is h
wP
= 2 m.
Tip line Counter profile
Datum line
Standard basic rack
tooth profile
Root line
Fillet
Tooth root surface
Tooth centre line
Figure 1 Basic rack tooth profiles for involute teeth of cylindrical gears (acc. to DIN 867)
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Geometry of Involute Gears
1.2.1.2 Module
The module m of the standard basic rack tooth
profile is the module in the normal section m
n
of the gear teeth. For a helical gear with helix
angle E on the reference circle, the transverse
module in a transverse section is m
t
= m
n
/cosE.
For a spur gear E = 0 and the module is m = m
n
= m
t
. In order to limit the number of the required
gear cutting tools, module m has been standard
ized in preferred series 1 and 2, see table 1.
Table 1 Selection of some modules m in mm (acc. to DIN 780)
Series 1 1 1.25 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 32
Series 2 1.75 3.5 4.5 7 9 14 18 22 28
1.2.1.3 Tool reference profile
The tool reference profile according to figure 2a
is the counter profile of the standard basic rack
tooth profile according to figure 1. For industrial
gear units, the pressure angle at a point of the
tool reference profile D
P0
= D
P
is 20q, as a rule.
The tooth thickness s
P0
of the tool on the tool
datum line depends on the stage of machining.
The premachining tool leaves on both flanks of
the teeth a machining allowance q for finish
machining. Therefore, the tooth thickness for
premachining tools is s
P0
< p/ 2, and for finish
machining tools s
P0
= p/ 2.
The premachining tool generates the root dia
meter and the fillet on a cylindrical gear. The
finishmachining tool removes the machining
allowance on the flanks, however, normally it
does not touch the root circle ï like on the tooth
profile in figure 3a.
Between pre and finishmachining, cylindrical
gears are subjected to a heat treatment which, as
a rule, leads to warping of the teeth and growing
of the root and tip circles.
Especially for cylindrical gears with a relatively
large number of teeth or a small module there is
a risk of generating a notch in the root on finish
machining. To avoid this, premachining tools
are provided with protuberance flanks as shown
in figure 2b. They generate a root undercut on
the gear, see figure 3b. On the tool, protuberance
value pr
P0
, protuberance pressure angle at a
point D
prP0
, as well as the tip radius of curvature
r
aP0
must be so dimensioned that the active
tooth profile on the gear will not be reduced and
the tooth root will not be weakened too much.
On cylindrical gears with small modules one
often accepts on purpose a notch in the root if
its distance to the root circle is large enough
and thus the tooth root load carrying capacity
is not impaired by a notch effect, figure 3c. In
order to prevent the tip circle of the mating gear
from touching the fillet it is necessary that a
check for meshing interferences is carried out
on the gear pair. /1/
b) Protuberance flank a) Tool datum line
Figure 2
Reference profiles of gear cutting tools for involute teeth of cylindrical gears
a) For premachining and finishmachining
b) For premachining with root undercut (protuberance)
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Geometry of Involute Gears
Figure 3
Tooth profiles of cylindrical gears during pre and finishmachining
Root undercut
Finishmachining
Machining
allowance q
Premachining
Notch
a) Pre and finishmachining down to the root circle
b) Premachining with root undercut (protuberance)
c) Finishmachining with notch
c) a) b)
1.2.1.4 Generating tooth flanks
With the development of the envelope, an enve
lope line of the base cylinder with the base dia
meter d
b
generates the involute surface of a spur
gear.
A straight line inclined by a base helix angle E
b
to
the envelope line in the developed envelope is
the generator of an involute surface (involute
helicoid) of a helical gear, figure 4.
The involute which is always lying in a transverse
section, figure 5, is described by the transverse
Developed
base cylinder
envelope
Figure 4
Base cylinder with involute helicoid
and generator
Base cylinder envelope line
Involute of base cylinder
Involute helicoid
Developed
envelope
line
Generator
Involute of base
cylinder
Base cylinder
pressure angle at a point D and radius r in the
equations
invD = tanD (1) a
r = r
b
/ cosD (2)
r
b
= d
b
/ 2 is the base radius. The angle invD is
termed involute function, and the angle
] = a + invD = tanD
tanD is termed working angle.
Involute
Figure 5
Involute in a transverse section
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Geometry of Involute Gears
1.2.2 Concepts and parameters associated
with cylindrical gears
1.2.2.1 Geometric definitions
In figure 6 the most important geometric quanti
ties of a cylindrical gear are shown.
The reference circle is the intersection of the
reference cylinder with a plane of transverse
section. When generating tooth flanks, the
straight pitch line of the tool rolls off at the
reference circle. Therefore, the reference circle
periphery corresponds to the product of pitch
p and number of teeth z, i.e. S · d = p · z. Since
m
t
= p/ S, the equation for the reference diame
ter thus is d = m
t
· z. Many geometric quantities
of the cylindrical gear are referred to the refer
ence circle.
For a helical gear, at the point of intersection of
the involute with the reference circle, the trans
verse pressure angle at a point D in the trans
verse section is termed transverse pressure
angle D
t
, see figures 5 and 7. If a tangent line is
put against the involute surface in the normal
section at the point of intersection with the
reference circle, the corresponding angle is
termed normal pressure angle D
n
; this is equal
to the pressure angle D
P0
of the tool. The inter
relationship with the helix angle E at the refer
ence circle is tanD
n
= cosE · tanD
t
. On a spur
gear D
n
= D
t
.
Between the base helix angle E
b
and the helix
angle E on the reference circle the relation
ship is sinE
b
= cosD
n
· sinE. The base diameter
d
b
is given by the reference diameter d, by d
b
=
d · cosD
t
.
In the case of internal gears, the number of teeth
z and thus also the diameters d, d
b
, d
a
, d
f
are
negative values.
Left flank
Right flank
Tooth trace
Reference cylinder
Reference circle
d Reference diameter
d
a
Tip diameter
d
f
Root diameter
b Facewidth
h Tooth depth
h
a
Addendum
h
f
Dedendum
s Tooth thickness on the reference
circle
e Spacewidth on the reference circle
p Pitch on the reference circle
Figure 6
Definitions on the
cylindrical gear
1.2.2.2 Pitches
The pitch p
t
of a helical gear (p in the case of a
spur gear) lying in a transverse section is the
length of the reference circle arc between two
successive right or left flanks, see figures 6 and
7. With the number of teeth z results p
t
= S · d/ z
= S · m
t
.
The normal transverse pitch p
et
of a helical gear
is equal to the pitch on the basic circle p
bt
, thus
p
et
= p
bt
= S · d
b
/ z. Hence, in the normal section
the normal base pitch at a point p
en
=p
et
/ cosE
b
is resulting from it, and in the axial section the
axial pitch p
ex
= p
et
/ tanE
b
, see figure 13.
Figure 7
Pitches in the transverse section
of a helical gear
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Geometry of Involute Gears
1.2.2.3 Addendum modification
When generating tooth flanks on a cylindrical
gear by means of a toothracklike tool (e.g. a
hob), a straight pitch line parallel to the datum line
of tool rolls off on the reference circle. The dis
tance (x · m
n
) between the straight pitch line and
the datum line of tool is the addendum modifica
tion, and x is the addendum modification coeffi
cient, see figure 8.
An addendum modification is positive, if the
datum line of tool is displaced from the reference
circle towards the tip, and it is negative if the
datum line is displaced towards the root of the
gear. This is true for both external and internal
gears. In the case of internal gears the tip points
to the inside. An addendum modification for
external gears should be carried through approx
imately within the limits as shown in figure 9.
The addendum modification limits x
min
and x
max
are represented dependent on the virtual num
ber of teeth z
n
= z / (cosE · cos
2
E
b
). The upper
limit x
max
takes into account the intersection
circle of the teeth and applies to a normal crest
width in the normal section of s
an
= 0.25 m
n
.
When falling below the lower limit x
min
this results
in an undercut which shortens the usable invo
lute and weakens the tooth root.
A positive addendum modification results in a
greater tooth root width and thus in an increase in
the tooth root carrying capacity. In the case of
small numbers of teeth this has a considerably
stronger effect than in the case of larger ones.
One mostly strives for a greater addendum modi
fication on pinions than on gears in order to
achieve equal tooth root carrying capacities for
both gears, see figure 19.
Further criteria for the determination of adden
dum modification are contained in /2/, /3/, and /4/.
The addendum modification coefficient x refers
to gear teeth free of backlash and deviations. In
order to take into account tooth thickness devia
tion A
s
(for backlash and manufacturing toler
ances) and machining allowances q (for pre
machining), one has to give the following gen
erating addendum modification coefficient for
the manufacture of a cylindrical gear:
X
E
= x +
A
s
2m
n
· tan D
n
+
q
m
n
· sinD
n
(3)
Figure 8
Different positions of the datum line of tool
in relation to the straight pitch line through
pitch point C.
a) Zero addendum modification; x = 0
b) Negative addendum modification; x < 0
c) Positive addendum modification; x > 0
a)
Datum line of tool = straight pitch line
b)
c)
Datum line of tool
Straight pitch line
Straight pitch line
Figure 9
Addendum modification limit x
max
(inter
section circle) and x
min
(undercut limit) for
external gears dependent on the virtual
number of teeth z
n
(for internal gears, see /1/
and /3/).
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Geometry of Involute Gears
1.2.3 Concepts and parameters associated
with a cylindrical gear pair
1.2.3.1 Terms
The mating of two external cylindrical gears (ex
ternal gears) gives an external gear pair. In the
case of a helical external gear pair one gear has
lefthanded and the other one righthanded flank
direction.
The mating of an external cylindrical gear with an
internal cylindrical gear (internal gear) gives an
internal gear pair. In the case of a helical internal
gear pair, both gears have the same flank direc
tion, that is either righthanded or lefthanded.
The subscript 1 is used for the size of the smaller
gear (pinion), and the subscript 2 for the larger
gear (wheel or internal gear).
In the case of an unmodified gear pair (a zero
gear pair), both gears have as addendum modi
fication coefficient x
1
= x
2
= 0 (zero gears).
In the case of a gear pair at reference centre di
stance, both gears have addendum modifica
tions (modified gears), that is with x
1
+x
2
= 0, i.e.
x
1
=  x
2
.
For a modified gear pair, the sum is not equal to
zero, i.e. x
1
+ x
2
z 0. One of the cylindrical gears
in this case may, however, have an addendum
modification x = 0.
1.2.3.2 Mating quantities
The gear ratio of a gear pair is the ratio of the
number of teeth of the gear z
2
to the number of
teeth of the pinion z
1
, thus u = z
2
/ z
1
. Working
pitch circles with diameter d
w
= 2 · r
w
are those
transverse intersection circles of a cylindrical
gear pair, which have the same circumferen
tial speed at their mutual contact point (pitch
point C), figure 10. The working pitch circles
divide the centre distance a = r
w1
+ r
w2
in the
ratio of the tooth numbers, thus d
w1
= 2 · a / (u + 1)
and d
w2
= 2 · a · u / (u +1).
In the case of both an unmodified gear pair
and a gear pair at reference centre distance,
the centre distance is equal to the zero centre
distance a
d
= (d
1
+ d
2
) / 2, and the pitch circles
are simultaneously the reference circles, i.e.
d
w
= d. However, in the case of a modified gear
pair, the centre distance is not equal to the
zero centre distance, and the pitch circles are
not simultaneously the reference circles.
If in the case of modified gear pairs the bottom
clearance c
p
corresponding to the standard
basic rack tooth profile is to be retained (which
is not absolutely necessary), then an addendum
modification is to be carried out. The addendum
modification factor is k = (a  a
d
) / m
n
 (x
1
+ x
2
).
For unmodified gear pairs and gear pairs at
reference centre distance, k = 0. In the case of
external gear pairs k < 0, i.e. the tip diameters
of both gears become smaller. In the case of
internal gear pairs k > 0, i.e. the tip diameters
of both gears become larger (on an internal
gear with negative tip diameter the absolute
value becomes smaller).
Figure 10
Transverse section of an external gear pair
with contacting lefthanded flanks
In a cylindrical gear pair either the left or the
right flanks of the teeth contact each other on the
line of action. Changing the flanks results in a
line of action each lying symmetrical in relation
to the centre line through O
1
O
2
. The line of
action with contacting left flanks in figure 10 is
the tangent to the two base circles at points
T
1
and T
2
. With the common tangent on the
pitch circles it includes the working pressure
angle D
wt
.
The working pressure angle D
wt
is the transverse
pressure angle at a point belonging to the
working pitch circle. According to figure 10 it is
determined by cos D
wt
= d
b1
/ d
w1
= d
b2
/ d
w2
.
In the case of unmodified gear pairs and gear
pairs at reference centre distance, the working
pressure angle is equal to the transverse pres
sure angle on the reference circle, i.e. D
wt
= D
t
.
The length of path of contact g
D
is that part of
the line of action which is limited by the two tip
circles of the cylindrical gears, figure 11.
The starting point A of the length of path of
contact is the point at which the line of action
intersects the tip circle of the driven gear, and
the finishing point E is the point at which the
line of action intersects the tip circle of the
driving gear.
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Geometry of Involute Gears
Figure 11
Length of path of contact AE in the trans
verse section of an external gear pair
A Starting point of engagement
E Finishing point of engagement
C Pitch point
Driving
Line of action
Driven
1.2.3.3 Contact ratios
The transverse contact ratio H
D
in the transverse
section is the ratio of the length of path of con
tact g
D
to the normal transverse pitch p
et
, i.e.
H
D
= g
D
/ p
et
, see figure 12.
In the case of spur gear pairs, the transverse
contact ratio gives the average number of pairs
of teeth meshing during the time of contact of a
tooth pair. According to figure 12, the lefthand
tooth pair is in the individual point of contact D
while the righthand tooth pair gets into mesh at
the starting point of engagement A. The right
hand tooth pair is in the individual point of con
tact B when the lefthand tooth pair leaves the
mesh at the finishing point of engagement E.
Along the individual length of path of contact
BD one tooth pair is in mesh, and along the
double lengths of paths of contact AB and DE
two pairs of teeth are simultaneously in mesh.
In the case of helical gear pairs it is possible to
achieve that always two or more pairs of teeth
are in mesh simultaneously. The overlap ratio H
E
gives the contact ratio, owing to the helix of the
teeth, as the ratio of the facewidth b to the axial
pitch p
ex
, i.e. H
E
= b/ p
ex
, see figure 13.
The total contact ratio H
J
is the sum of transverse
contact ratio and overlap ratio, i.e. H
J
= H
D
+ H
E
.
With an increasing total contact ratio, the load
carrying capacity increases, as a rule, while the
generation of noise is reduced.
Figure 12
Single and double contact region in the
transverse section of an external gear pair
B, D Individual points of contact
A, E Starting and finishing point of
engagement, respectively
C Pitch point
Driving
Line of action
Driven
Figure 13
Pitches in the plane of action
A Starting point of engagement
E Finishing point of engagement
Length of path of contact
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Geometry of Involute Gears
1.2.4 Summary of the most important
formulae
Tables 2 and 3 contain the most important formu
lae for the determination of sizes of a cylindrical
gear and a cylindrical gear pair, and this for both
external and internal gear pairs.
The following rules for signs are to be observed:
In the case of internal gear pairs the number of
teeth z
2
of the internal gear is a negative quantity.
Thus, also the centre distance a or a
d
and the
gear ratio u as well as the diameters d
2
, d
a2
, d
b2
,
d
f2
, d
w2
and the virtual number of teeth z
n2
are
negative.
When designing a cylindrical gear pair for a gear
stage, from the output quantities of tables 2 and 3
only the normal pressure angle D
n
and the gear
ratio u are given, as a rule. The number of teeth of
the pinion is determined with regard to silent
running and a balanced foot and flank load
carrying capacity, at approx. z
1
= 18 ... 23. If
a high foot load carrying capacity is required,
the number may be reduced to z
1
= 10. For
the helix angle, E = 10 up to 15 degree is given,
in exceptional cases also up to 30 degree.
The addendum modification limits as shown in
figure 9 are to be observed. On the pinion, the
addendum modification coefficient should be
within the range of x
1
= 0.2 up to 0.6 and from
IuI > 2 the width within the range b
1
= (0.35 to
0.45) a. Centre distance a is determined either
by the required power to be transmitted or by
the constructional conditions.
10
m
t
=
m
n
cosE
tanD
t
=
tanD
n
cosE
sinE
b
= sinE · cosD
n
d = m
t
· z
d
f
= d ï 2 (h
aP0
ï m
n
· x
E
)
d
b
= d · cosD
t
p
t
=
z
S · d
= S · m
t
p
et
= p
bt
=
z
S · d
b
= p
t
· cosD
t
cos D
at
=
d
b
d
a
s
t
= m
t
2
S
+ 2 · x · tanD
n
s
n
= s
t
· cosE
s
at
= d
a
d
+ invD
t
ï invD
at
s
t
z
n
=
cosE · cos
2
E
b
z
**)
d
a
= d + 2 m
n
(1 + x + k)
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Geometry of Involute Gears
Table 2 Parameters for a cylindrical gear *)
Output quantities:
m
n
mm normal module
D
n
degree normal pressure angle
E degree reference helix angle
z ï number of teeth *)
x ï addendum modification coefficient
x
E
ï generating addendum modification coefficient, see equation (3)
h
aP0
mm addendum of the tool
Item Formula
Transverse module
Transverse pressure angle
Base helix angle
Reference diameter
Tip diameter (for k, see table 3)
Root diameter
Base diameter
Transverse pitch
Transverse pitch on path of contact;
Transverse base pitch
Transverse pressure angle
at tip circle
Transverse tooth thickness
on the pitch circle
Normal tooth thickness
on the pitch circle
Transverse tooth thickness
on the addendum circle
Virtual number of teeth
*) For an internal gear, z is to be used as a negative quantity. **) For invD, see equation (1).
10
u =
z
2
a =
d
w1
=
g
D
=
cosD
wt
=
m
t
2 · a
z
1
x
1
+ x
2
=
z
1
+ z
2
2 · tanD
n
(invD
wt
ï invD
t
)
invD
wt
= 2
x
1
+ x
2
tanD
n
+ invD
t
z
1
+ z
2
m
t
2
(z
1
+ z
2
)
cosD
t
cosD
wt
a
d
=
m
t
2
(z
1
+ z
2
)
k =
a ï a
d
m
n
ï (x
1
+ x
2
)
2 · a
u + 1
= d
1
cosD
t
cosD
wt
d
w2
=
2 · a · u
u + 1
= d
2
cosD
t
cosD
wt
1
2
d
a1
2
ï d
b1
2
+
u
IuI
d
a2
2
ï d
b2
2
ï a · sinD
wt
g
D
p
et
H
D
=
H
E
=
b · tanE
b
p
et
b = min (b
1
, b
2
)
H
J
= H
D
+ H
E
(z
1
+ z
2
) cosD
t
=
d
1
+ d
2
2
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Geometry of Involute Gears
Table 3 Parameters for a cylindrical gear pair *)
Output quantities:
The parameters for pinion and wheel according to table 2 must be given, further the facewidths b
1
and b
2
, as well as either the centre distance a or the sum of the addendum modification coefficients
x
1
+ x
2
.
Item Formula
Gear ratio
Working transverse pressure angle
(“a” given)
Sum of the addendum modification
coefficients
Working transverse pressure angle
(x
1
+ x
2
given)
Centre distance
Reference centre distance
Addendum modification factor **)
Working pitch circle diameter
of the pinion
Working pitch circle diameter
of the gear
Length of path of contact
Transverse contact ratio
Overlap ratio
Total contact ratio
*) For internal gear pairs, z
2
and a are to be used as negative quantities.
**) See subsection 1.2.3.2.
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Geometry of Involute Gears
1.2.5 Gear teeth modifications
The parameters given in the above subsections
1.2.1 to 1.2.4 refer to nondeviating cylindrical
gears. Because of the hightensile gear materi
als, however, a high load utilization of the gear
units is possible. Noticeable deformations of
the elastic gear unit components result from it.
The deflection at the tooth tips is, as a rule, a
multiple of the manufacturing form errors. This
leads to meshing interferences at the entering
and leaving sides, see figure 14. There is a
negative effect on the load carrying capacity
and generation of noise.
Figure 14
Cylindrical gear pair under load
1 Driving gear
2 Driven gear
a, b Tooth pair being in engagement
c, d Tooth pair getting into engagement
Line of
action
Further, the load causes bending and twisting of
pinion and wheel shaft, pinion and wheel body,
as well as settling of bearings, and housing de
formations. This results in skewing of the tooth
flanks which often amounts considerably higher
than the tooth trace deviations caused by manu
facture, see figure 15. Nonuniform load carrying
occurs along the face width which also has a ne
gative effect on the load carrying capacity and
generation of noise.
The runningin wear of case hardened gears
amounts to a few micrometers only and cannot
compensate the mentioned deviations. In order
to restore the high load carrying capacity of case
hardened gears and reduce the generation of
noise, intentional deviations from the involute
(profile correction) and from the theoretical
tooth trace (longitudinal correction) are produc
ed in order to attain nearly ideal geometries
with uniform load distribution under load again.
The loadrelated form corrections are calculated
and made for one load only ï as a rule for 70 ...
100% of the permanently acting nominal load ï
/5, 6, 7/. At low partial load, contact patterns
which do not cover the entire tooth depth and
facewidth are achieved. This has to be taken into
consideration especially in the case of checks of
contact patterns carried out under low loads. Un
der partial load, however, the local maximum
load rise is always lower than the theoretical uni
form load distribution under full load. In the case
of modified gear teeth, the contact ratio is re
duced under partial load because of incomplete
carrying portions, making the noise generating
levels increase in the lower part load range. With
increasing load, the carrying portions and thus
the contact ratio increase so that the generating
levels drop. Gear pairs which are only slightly
loaded do not require any modification.
Load distribution
across the face
width w
Figure 15
Deformations and manufacturing
deviations on a gear unit shaft
Pinion
Wheel
Bending
Torsion
Manufac
turing
deviation
Bearing
deformation
Housing
deformation
Runningin wear
Effective tooth
trace deviation
F
E
= 6fy
E
In figure 16, usual profile and longitudinal correc
tions are illustrated. In the case of profile correc
tion, the flanks on pinion and wheel are relieved
at the tips by an amount equal to the length
they are protruding at the entering and leaving
sides due to the bending deflection of the teeth.
Root relief may be applied instead of tip relief
which, however, is much more expensive. Thus,
a gradual load increase is achieved on the tooth
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Geometry of Involute Gears
Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears
getting into engagement, and a load reduction
on the tooth leaving the engagement. In the
case of longitudinal correction, the tooth trace
relief often is superposed by a symmetric lon
gitudinal crowning. With it, uniform load carry
ing along the facewidth and a reduction in load
concentration at the tooth ends during axial
displacements is attained.
Profile correction
Figure 16
Gear teeth modifications designed for removing local load increases
due to deformations under nominal load
Longitudinal correction
1.3 Load carrying capacity of involute gears
1.3.1 Scope of application and purpose
The calculation of the load carrying capacity of
cylindrical gears is generally carried out in
accordance with the calculation method accord
ing to DIN 3990 /8/ (identical with ISO 6336)
which takes into account pitting, tooth root
bending stress and scoring as load carrying
limits. Because of the relatively large scope of
standards, the calculation in accordance with
this method may be carried out only by using
EDP programs. As a rule, gear unit manufac
turers have such a tool at hand. The standard
work is the FVAStirnradprogramm /9/ which
includes further calculation methods, for in
stance, according to Niemann, AGMA, DNV,
LRS, and others.
In DIN 3990, different methods A, B, C ... are
suggested for the determination of individual
factors, where method A is more exact than
method B, etc. The application standard /10/
according to DIN 3990 is based on simplified
methods.
Because of its ï even though limited ï univer
sal validity it still is relatively timeconsuming.
The following calculation method for pitting re
sistance and tooth strength of casehardened
cylindrical gears is a further simplification if
compared with the application standard, how
ever, without losing some of its meaning. Certain
conditions must be adhered to in order to attain
high load carrying capacities which also results
in preventing scuffing. Therefore, a calculation
of load carrying capacity for scuffing will not
be considered in the following.
It has to be expressly emphasized that for the
load carrying capacity of gear units the exact
calculation method ï compared with the
simplified one ï is always more meaningful
and therefore is exclusively decisive in border
line cases.
Design, selection of material, manufacture, heat
treatment, and operation of industrial gear units
are subject to certain rules which lead to a long
service life of the cylindrical gears.
Those rules are:
ï Gear teeth geometry acc. to DIN 3960;
ï Cylindrical gears out of casehardened steel;
Tooth flanks in DIN quality 6 or better, fine
machined;
ï Quality of material and heat treatment proved
by quality inspections acc. to DIN 3990 /11/;
ï Effective case depth after carburizing accord
ing to instructions /12/ with surface hardnes
ses of 58 ... 62 HRC;
ï Gears with required tooth corrections and
without harmful notches in the tooth root;
ï Gear unit designed for fatigue strength, i.e.
life factors Z
NT
= Y
NT
= 1.0;
ï Flank fatigue strength V
Hlim
y 1200 N/mm
2
;
ï Subcritical operating range, i.e. pitch circle
velocity lower than approx. 35 m/s;
ï Sufficient supply of lubricating oil;
ï Use of prescribed gear oils of criteria
stage 12 acc. to the gear rig test by the
FZGmethod and sufficient grey staining
load capacity;
ï Maximum operating temperature 95 qC.
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears
If these requirements are met, a number of
factors can be definitely given for the calculation
of the load carrying capacity according to DIN
3990, so that the calculation procedure is partly
considerably simplified. Nonobservance of the
above requirements, however, does not neces
sarily mean that the load carrying capacity is re
duced. In case of doubt one should, however,
carry out the calculation in accordance with the
more exact method.
1.3.2 Basic details
The calculation of the load carrying capacity is
based on the nominal torque of the driven
machine. Alternatively, one can also start from
the nominal torque of the prime mover if this
corresponds with the torque requirement of the
driven machine.
In order to be able to carry out the calculation
for a cylindrical gear stage, the details listed in
table 4 must be given in the units mentioned
in the table. The geometric quantities are cal
culated according to tables 2 and 3. Usually,
they are contained in the workshop drawings for
cylindrical gears.
Table 4 Basic details
Abbreviation Meaning Unit
P Power rating kW
n
1
Pinion speed min
1
a Centre distance mm
m
n
Normal module mm
d
a1
Tip diameter of the pinion mm
d
a2
Tip diameter of the wheel mm
b
1
Facewidth of the pinion mm
b
2
Facewidth of the wheel mm
z
1
Number of teeth of the pinion ï
z
2
Number of teeth of the wheel ï
x
1
Addendum modification coefficient of the pinion ï
x
2
Addendum modification coefficient of the wheel ï
D
n
Normal pressure angle Degree
E Reference helix angle Degree
X
40
Kinematic viscosity of lubricating oil at 40 qC mm
2
/ s
R
z1
Peaktovalley height on pinion flank Pm
R
z2
Peaktovalley height on wheel flank Pm
10
g
D
=
1
2
d
a1
2
ï d
b1
2
+
u
IuI
d
a2
2
ï d
b2
2
ï a · sinD
wt
F
t
=
S
6 · 10
7
·
d
1
· n
1
P
F
u
= F
t
·
2 · a
d
1
(u+1)
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Siemens MD · 2009
Cylindrical Gear Units
Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears
In the further course of the calculation, the quantities listed in table 5 are required. They are derived
from the basic details according to table 4.
Table 5 Derived quantities
Designation Relation Unit
Gear ratio u = z
2
/ z
1
ï
Reference diameter
of the pinion
d
1
= z
1
· m
n
/ cosE mm
Transverse tangential force
at pinion reference circle
N
Transverse tangential force
at pitch circle
N
Circumferential speed
at reference circle
v = S · d
1
· n
1
/ 60000 m/s
Base helix angle E
b
= arc sin (cosD
n
· sinE) Degree
Virtual number of teeth
of the pinion
z
n1
= z
1
/ (cosE · cos
2
E
b
) ï
Virtual number of teeth
of the wheel
z
n2
= z
2
/ (cosE · cos
2
E
b
) ï
Transverse module m
t
= m
n
/ cosE mm
Transverse pressure angle D
t
= arc tan (tanD
n
/ cosE) Degree
Working transverse
pressure angle
D
wt
= arc cos [(z
1
+ z
2
) m
t
· cosD
t
/ (2 · a)]
Degree
Transverse pitch p
et
= S · m
t
· cosD
t
mm
Base diameter of the
pinion
d
b1
= z
1
· m
t
· cosD
t
mm
Base diameter of the
wheel
d
b2
= z
2
· m
t
· cosD
t
mm
Length of path of contact mm
Transverse contact ratio H
D
= g
D
/ p
et
ï
Overlap ratio H
E
= b · tanE
b
/ p
et
b = min (b
1
, b
2
) ï
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears
1.3.3 General factors
1.3.3.1 Application factor
With the application factor K
A
, all additional
forces acting on the gears from external
sources are taken into consideration. It is
dependent on the characteristics of the driving
and driven machines, as well as the couplings,
the masses and stiffness of the system, and
the operating conditions.
The application factor is determined by the
service classification of the individual gear. If
possible, the factor K
A
should be determined
by means of a careful measurement or a com
prehensive analysis of the system. Since
very often it is not possible to carry out the
one or other method without great expendi
ture, reference values are given in table 6
which equally apply to all gears in a gear unit.
Table 6 Application factor K
A
Working mode
of prime mover
Working mode of the driven machine
Uniform
Moderate
shock loads
Average
shock loads
Heavy
shock loads
Uniform 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75
Moderate shock loads 1.10 1.35 1.60 1.85
Average shock loads 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 or higher
Heavy shock loads 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 or higher
1.3.3.2 Dynamic factor
With the dynamic factor K
v
, additional internal
dynamic forces caused in the meshing are
taken into consideration. Taking z
1
, v and u
from tables 4 and 5, it is calculated from
K
v
= 1 + 0.0003 · z
1
· v
1 + u
2
u
2
(4)
1.3.3.3 Face load factor
The face load factor K
HE
takes into account the
increase in the load on the tooth flanks caused by
nonuniform load distribution over the facewidth.
According to /8/, it can be determined by means
of different methods. Exact methods based on
comprehensive measurements or calculations
or on a combination of both are very expensive.
Simple methods, however, are not exact, as a
consequence of which estimations made to be
on the safe side mostly result in higher factors.
For normal cylindrical gear teeth without longitu
dinal correction, the face load factor can be cal
culated according to method D in accordance
with /8/ dependent on facewidth b and reference
diameter d
1
of the pinion, as follows:
K
HE
= 1.15 + 0.18 (b / d
1
)
2
+ 0.0003 · b (5)
with b = min (b
1
, b
2
). As a rule, the gear unit
manufacturer carries out an analysis of the load
distribution over the facewidth in accordance
with an exact calculation method /13/. If required,
he makes longitudinal corrections in order to
attain uniform load carrying over the facewidth,
see subsection 1.2.5. Under such conditions, the
face load factor lies within the range of K
HE
= 1.1
... 1.25. As a rough rule applies: A sensibly
selected crowning symmetrical in length reduces
the amount of K
HE
lying above 1.0 by approx. 40
to 50%, and a directly made longitudinal correc
tion by approx. 60 to 70%.
In the case of slim shafts with gears arranged on
one side, or in the case of lateral forces or mo
ments acting on the shafts from external
sources, for the face load factors for gears
without longitudinal correction the values may lie
between 1.5 and 2.0 and in extreme cases even
at 2.5.
Face load factor K
FE
for the determination of in
creased tooth root stress can approximately be
deduced from face load factor K
HE
according to
the relation
K
FE
= (K
HE
(6)
1.3.3.4 Transverse load factors
The transverse load factors K
HD
and K
FD
take
into account the effect of the nonuniform distri
bution of load between several pairs of simulta
neously contacting gear teeth. Under the condi
tions as laid down in subsection 1.3.1, the result
for surface stress and for tooth root stress
according to method B in accordance with /8/ is
K
HD
= K
FD
= 1.0 (7)
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears
1.3.4 Tooth flank load carrying capacity
The calculation of surface durability against
pitting is based on the Hertzian pressure at
the pitch circle. For pinion and wheel the same
effective Hertzian pressure V
H
is assumed. It
must not exceed the permissible Hertzian pres
sure V
HP
, i.e. V
H
x V
HP
.
1.3.4.1 Effective Hertzian pressure
The effective Hertzian pressure is dependent
on the load, and for pinion and wheel is equally
derived from the equation
V
H
= Z
E
Z
H
Z
E
Z
H
(8)
u
u + 1 F
t
d
1
· b
K
A
K
v
K
HD
K
HE
V
H
Effective Hertzian pressure in N/mm
2
Further:
b Common facewidth of pinion
and wheel
F
t
, u, d
1
acc. to table 5
K
A
Application factor acc. to table 6
K
v
Dynamic factor acc. to equation (4)
K
HE
Face load factor acc. to eq (5)
K
HD
Transverse load factor
acc. to eq (7)
Z
E
Elasticity factor; Z
E
= 190 N/mm
2
for gears out of steel
Z
H
Zone factor acc. to figure 17
Z
E
Helix angle factor acc. to eq (9)
Z
H
Contact ratio factor acc. to eq (10)
or (11)
With ß according to table 4 applies:
cosE Z
E
= (9)
With H
D
and H
E
according to table 5 applies:
(10)
3
4 ï H
D
(1 ï H
E
) +
H
E
H
D
for H
E
< 1 Z
H
=
Z
H
= (11)
1
H
D
for H
E
y 1
Figure 17
Zone factor Z
H
depending on helix angle E as
well as on the numbers of teeth z
1
, z
2
, and
addendum modification coefficients x
1
, x
2
;
see table 4.
1.3.4.2 Permissible Hertzian pressure
The permissible Hertzian pressure is determined
by
V
HP
= Z
L
Z
v
Z
X
Z
R
Z
W
V
Hlim
S
H
(12)
V
HP
permissible Hertzian pressure in N/mm
2
. It
is of different size for pinion and wheel if
the strengths of materials V
Hlim
are different.
Factors Z
L
, Z
v
, Z
R
, Z
W
and Z
X
are the same for
pinion and wheel and are determined in the
following.
The lubricant factor is computed from the
lubricating oil viscosity X
40
according to table 4
using the following formula:
0.25
1 +
Z
L
= 0.91 +
112
X
40
2
) (
(13)
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears
For the speed factor, the following applies using
the circumferential speed v according to table 5:
Z
v
= 0.93 +
0.157
1 +
40
v
(14)
The roughness factor can be determined as a func
tion of the mean peaktovalley height R
Z
= (R
Z1
+
R
Z2
) / 2 of the gear pair as well as the gear ratio u and
the reference diameter d
1
of the pinion, see tables 4
and 5, from
Z
R
=
0.513
R
z
(15)
3
(1 + IuI) d
1 [ ]
0.08
For a gear pair with the same tooth flank hardness
on pinion and wheel, the work hardening factor is
Z
W
= 1.0 (16)
The size factor is computed from module m
n
according to table 4 using the following formula:
Z
X
= 1.05 ï 0.005 m
n
(17)
with the restriction 0.9 x Z
X
x 1.
V
Hlim
Endurance strength of the gear material.
For gears made out of case hardening
steel, case hardened, figure 18 shows a
range from 1300 ... 1650 N/mm
2
depend
ing on the surface hardness of the tooth
flanks and the quality of the material. Under
the conditions as described in subsection
1.3.1, material quality MQ may be selected
for pinion and wheel, see table on page 77.
S
H
Required safety factor against pitting, see
subsection 1.3.6.
1.3.5 Tooth strength
The maximum load in the root fillet at the 30
degree tangent is the basis for rating the
tooth strength. For pinion and wheel it shall
be shown separately that the effective tooth
root stress V
F
does not exceed the permis
sible tooth root stress V
FP
, i.e. V
F
< V
FP
.
1.3.5.1 Effective tooth root stress
As a rule, the loaddependent tooth root stresses
for pinion and wheel are different. They are cal
culated from the following equation:
s
F
= K
A
K
v
K
FD
K
FE
· (18)
b · m
n
F
t
· Y
FS
Y
E
Y
H
V
F
Effective tooth root stress in N/mm
2
The following factors are of equal size for pinion
and wheel:
m
n
, F
t
acc. to tables 4 and 5
K
A
Application factor acc. to table 6
K
v
Dynamic factor acc. to equation (4)
K
FE
Face load factor acc. to equation (6)
K
FD
Transverse load factor acc. to eq (7)
Y
H
Contact ratio factor acc. to eq (19)
Y
E
Helix angle factor acc. to eq (20)
The following factors are of different size for
pinion and wheel:
b
1,
b
2
Facewidths of pinion and wheel acc. to
table 4. If the facewidths of pinion and
wheel are different, it may be assumed
that the load bearing width of the wider
facewidth is equal to the smaller face
width plus such extension of the wider that
does not exceed one times the module at
each end of the teeth.
Y
FS1,
Tip factors acc. to figure 19. They account
Y
FS2
for the complex stress condition inclusive
of the notch effect in the root fillet.
Figure 18
Allowable stress number for contact stress
V
Hlim
of alloyed case hardening steels, case
hardened, depending on the surface hard
ness HV1 of the tooth flanks and the material
quality.
ML modest demands on the material quality
MQ normal demands on the material quality
ME high demands on the material quality,
see /11/
Flank hardness HV1
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Siemens MD · 2009
Cylindrical Gear Units
Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears
Figure 19
Tip factor Y
FS
for external gears with standard basic rack tooth profile acc. to DIN 867
depending on the number of teeth z (or z
n
in case of helical gears) and addendum modification
coefficient x, see tables 4 and 5. The following only approximately applies to internal gears:
Y
FS
= Y
FSf
( value for x = 1.0 and z = 300).
D
n
= 20 degree
h
a0
= 1.35 · m
n
r
a0
= 0.2 · m
n
D
n
= 20 degree
h
a0
= 1.4 · m
n
r
a0
= 0.25 · m
n
D
pr0
= 10 degree
pr
0
= 0.025 · m
n
D
n
= 20 degree
h
a0
= 1.4 · m
n
r
a0
= 0.3 · m
n
D
pr0
= 10 degree
pr
0
= 0.0205 · m
n
Y
FS
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears
With the helix angle E acc. to table 4 and the
overlap ratio H
E
acc. to table 5 follows:
0.75
H
D
(19) Y
H
= 0.25 + · cos
2
E
with the restriction 0.625 x Y
H
x 1
E
(20) Y
E
= 1 ï H
E
·
120 _
with the restriction
Y
E
y max. [(1  0.25 H
E
); (1ï E/120)].
1.3.5.2 Permissible tooth root stress
The permissible tooth root stress for pinion and
wheel is determined by
(S
F
)
V
FP
= Y
ST
Y
GrelT
Y
RrelT
Y
X
V
Flim
(21)
V
FP
permissible tooth root stress in N/mm
2
.
It is not equal for pinion and wheel if the material
strengths V
Flim
are not equal. Factors Y
ST
, Y
GrelT
,
Y
RrelT
and Y
X
may be approximately equal for
pinion and wheel.
Y
ST
is the stress correction factor of the refer
ence test gears for the determination of
the bending stress number V
Flim
. For
standard reference test gears, Y
ST
= 2.0
has been fixed in the standard.
Y
GrelT
is the relative sensitivity factor (notch
sensitivity of the material) referring to the
standard reference test gear. By approxi
mation Y
GrelT
= 1.0.
For the relative surface factor (surface rough
ness factor of the tooth root fillet) referring to the
standard reference test gear the following applies
by approximation, depending on module m
n
:
(22)
Y
RrelT
= 1.00 for m
n
x 8 mm
= 0.98 for 8 mm < m
n
x 16 mm
= 0.96 for m
n
> 16 mm
and for the size factor
(23) Y
X
= 1.05 ï 0.01 m
n
with the restriction 0.8 x Y
X
x 1.
V
Flim
Bending stress number of the gear mate
rial. For gears out of case hardening steel,
case hardened, a range from 310 ... 520
N/mm
2
is shown in figure 20 depending
on the surface hardness of the tooth
flanks and the material quality. Under the
conditions according to subsection 1.3.1,
a strength pertaining to quality MQ may
be used as a basis for pinion and wheel,
see table on page 77.
S
F
Safety factor required against tooth
breakage, see subsection 1.3.6.
Figure 20
Bending stress number V
Flim
of alloyed case
hardening steel, case hardened, depending
on the surface hardness HV1 of the tooth
flanks and the material quality.
ML modest demands on the material quality
MQ normal demands on the material quality
ME high demands on the material quality,
see /11/
Flank hardness HV1
18CrNiMo76
15CrNi6
16MnCr5
1.3.6 Safety factors
The minimum required safety factors according
to DIN are:
against pitting S
H
= 1.0
against tooth breakage S
F
= 1.3.
In practice, higher safety factors are usual. For
multistage gear units, the safety factors are de
termined about 10 to 20% higher for the expen
sive final stages, and in most cases even higher
for the cheaper preliminary stages.
Also for risky applications a higher safety factor is
given.
1.3.7 Calculation example
An electric motor drives a coal mill via a multi
stage cylindrical gear unit. The low speed gear
stage is to be calculated.
Given: Nominal power rating P = 3300 kW;
pinion speed n
1
= 141 min
1
; centre distance a =
815 mm; normal module m
n
= 22 mm; tip diame
ter d
a1
= 615.5 mm and d
a2
= 1100 mm; pinion
and wheel widths b
1
= 360 mm and b
2
= 350 mm;
numbers of teeth z
1
= 25 and z
2
= 47; addendum
modification coefficients x
1
= 0.310 and x
2
=
0.203; normal pressure angle D
n
= 20 degree;
helix angle E = 10 degree; kinematic viscosity of
the lubricating oil X
40
= 320 cSt; mean peakto
valley roughness R
z1
= R
z2
= 4.8 Pm.
The cylindrical gears are made out of the mate
rial 18CrNiMo76. They are case hardened and
ground with profile corrections and widthsym
metrical crowning.
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears
Gear Unit Types
Calculation (values partly rounded):
Gear ratio u = 1.88; reference diameter of the pin
ion d
1
= 558.485 mm; nominal circumferential
force on the reference circle F
t
= 800425 N;
circumferential speed on the reference circle
v = 4.123 m/s; base helix angle E
b
= 9.391
degree; virtual numbers of teeth z
n1
= 26.08 and
z
n2
= 49.03; transverse module m
t
= 22.339 mm;
transverse pressure angle D
t
= 20.284 degree;
working transverse pressure angle D
wt
= 22.244
degree; normal transverse pitch p
et
=65.829 mm;
base diameters d
b1
= 523.852 mm and d
b2
=
984.842 mm; length of path of contact g
D
=
98.041 mm; transverse contact ratio H
D
= 1.489;
overlap ratio H
E
= 0.879.
Application factor K
A
= 1.50 (electric motor
with uniform mode of operation, coal mill with
medium shock load); dynamic factor K
v
= 1.027;
face load factor K
HE
= 1.20 >acc. to equation (5)
follows K
HE
= 1.326, however, because of
symmetrical crowning the calculation may be
made with a smaller value@; K
FE
= 1.178; K
HD
=
K
FD
= 1.0.
Load carrying capacity of the tooth flanks:
Elasticity factor Z
E
= 190 Nńmm
2
Ǹ
; zone fac
tor Z
H
= 2.342; helix angle factor Z
E
= 0.992;
contact ratio factor Z
H
= 0.832. According to
equation (8), the Hertzian pressure for pinion
and wheel is V
H
= 1251 N/mm
2
.
Lubricant factor Z
L
= 1.047; speed factor Z
V
=
0.978; roughness factor Z
R
= 1.018; work
hardening factor Z
W
= 1.0; size factor Z
X
= 0.94.
With the allowable stress number for contact
stress (pitting) V
Hlim
= 1500 N/mm
2
, first the
permissible Hertzian pressure V
HP
= 1470
N/mm
2
is determined from equation (12) without
taking into account the safety factor.
The safety factor against pitting is found by S
H
=
V
HP
/V
H
= 1470/1251 = 1.18. The safety factor
referring to the torque is S
H
2
= 1.38.
Load carrying capacity of the tooth root:
Contact ratio factor Y
H
= 0.738; helix angle
factor Y
E
= 0.927; tip factors Y
FS1
= 4.28 and
Y
FS2
= 4.18 (for h
a0
= 1.4 m
n
; r
a0
= 0.3 m
n
;
D
pr0
= 10 degree; pr
0
= 0.0205 m
n
). The effec
tive tooth root stresses V
F1
= 537 N/mm
2
for
the pinion and V
F2
= 540 N/mm
2
for the wheel
can be obtained from equation (18).
Stress correction factor Y
ST
= 2.0; relative
sensitivity factor Y
GrelT
= 1.0; relative surface
factor Y
RrelT
= 0.96; size factor Y
X
= 0.83. With
out taking into consideration the safety factor,
the permissible tooth root stresses for pinion
and wheel V
FP1
= V
FP2
= 797 N/mm
2
can be
obtained from equation (21) with the bending
stress number V
Flim
= 500 N/mm
2.
The safety factors against tooth breakage
referring to the torque are S
F
= V
FP
/V
F
: for the
pinion S
F1
= 797/537 = 1.48 and for the wheel
S
F2
= 797/540 = 1.48.
1.4 Gear unit types
1.4.1 Standard designs
In the industrial practice, different types of gear
units are used. Preferably, standard helical and
bevelhelical gear units with fixed transmission
ratio and size gradation are applied. These sin
glestage to fourstage gear units according to
the modular construction system cover a wide
range of speeds and torques required by the
driven machines. Combined with a standard
electric motor such gear units are, as a rule, the
most economical drive solution.
But there are also cases where no standard
drives are used. Among others, this is true for
high torques above the range of standard gear
units. In such cases, special design gear units
are used, load sharing gear units playing an
important role there.
1.4.2 Load sharing gear units
In principle, the highest output torques of
gear units are limited by the manufacturing
facilities, since gear cutting machines can
make gears up to a maximum diameter only.
Then, the output torque can be increased
further only by means of load sharing in the
gear unit. Load sharing gear units are, however,
also widely used for lower torques as they
provide certain advantages in spite of the larger
number of internal components, among others
they are also used in standard design. Some
typical features of the one or other type are
described in the following.
1.4.3 Comparisons
In the following, singlestage and twostage
gear units up to a ratio of i = 16 are examined.
For common gear units the last or the last and
the last but one gear stage usually come to
approx. 70 to 80% of the total weight and also
of the manufacturing expenditure. Adding further
gear stages in order to achieve higher trans
mission ratios thus does not change anything
about the following fundamental description.
In figure 21, gear units without and with load
sharing are shown, shaft 1 each being the HSS
and shaft 2 being the LSS. With speeds n
1
and
n
2
, the transmission ratio can be obtained from
the formula
(24) i = n
1
/ n
2
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Gear Unit Types
The diameter ratios of the gears shown in
figure 21 correspond to the transmission ratio
i = 7. The gear units have the same output
torques, so that in figure 21 a size comparison
to scale is illustrated. Gear units A, B, and
C are with offset shaft arrangement, and gear
units D, E, F, and G with coaxial shaft arrange
ment.
Figure 21
Diagrammatic view of cylindrical gear unit
types without and with load sharing. Trans
mission ratio i = 7. Size comparison to scale
of gear units with the same output torque.
Gear unit A has one stage, gear unit B has
two stages. Both gear units are without load
sharing. Gear units C, D, E, F, and G have
two stages and are load sharing. The idler
gears in gear units C and D have different
diameters. In gear units E, F, and G the idler
gears of one shaft have been joined to one gear
so that they are also considered to be single
stage gear units.
Gear unit C has double load sharing. Uni
form load distribution is achieved in the high
speed gear stage by double helical teeth and
the axial movability of shaft 1.
In gear unit D the load of the highspeed gear
stage is equally shared between three gears
which is achieved by the radial movability of
the sun gear on shaft 1. In the lowspeed gear
stage the load is shared six times altogether
by means of the double helical teeth and the
axial movability of the intermediate shaft.
In order to achieve equal load distribution be
tween the three intermediate gears of gear units
E, F, and G the sun gear on shaft 1 mostly is ra
dially movable. The large internal gear is an
annulus gear which in the case of gear unit E is
connected with shaft 2, and in the case of gear
units F and G with the housing. In gear units F
and G, web and shaft 2 form an integrated whole.
The idler gears rotate as planets around the cen
tral axle. In gear unit G, double helical teeth and
axial movability of the idler gears guarantee
equal load distribution between six branches.
1.4.3.1 Load value
By means of load value B
L
, it is possible to com
pare cylindrical gear units with different ultimate
stress values of the gear materials with each
other in the following examinations.
According to /14/, the load value is the tooth peri
pheral force F
u
referred to the pinion pitch diame
ter d
w
and the carrying facewidth b, i.e.
B
L
=
(25)
F
u
b · d
w
The permissible load values of the meshings
of the cylindrical gear units can be computed
from the pitting resistance by approximation, as
shown in /15/ (see section 1.3.4), using the
following formula:
B
L
 7 · 10
6
(26)
u
u + 1
V
2
Hlim
K
A
· S
H
2
with B
L
in N/mm
2
and allowable stress number
for contact stress (pitting) V
Hlim
in N/mm
2
as well
as gear ratio u, application factor K
A
and factor of
safety from pitting S
H
. The value of the gear ratio
u is always greater than 1, and is negative for in
ternal gear pairs (see table 3).
Load value B
L
is a specific quantity and
independent of the size of the cylindrical gear
unit. The following applies for practically execut
ed gear units: cylindrical gears out of case
hardening steel B
L
= 4... 6 N/mm
2
; cylindrical
gears out of quenched and tempered steel B
L
=
1 ... 1.5 N/mm
2
; planetary gear stages with
annulus gears out of quenched and tempered
steel, planet gears and sun gears out of case
hardening steel B
L
= 2.0 ... 3.5 N/mm
2
.
10
G =
m T
2
D
3
B
L
J =
T
2
G B
L
D =
T
2
A
3/2
B
L
mm
m mm
2
kg
mm
2
m
2
T
2
in Nm
B
L
in N/mm
2
D in mm
G in kg
A in m
2
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Gear Unit Types
1.4.3.2 Referred torques
In figure 22, referred torques for the gear units
shown in figure 21 are represented, dependent
on the transmission ratio i. Further explanations
are given in table 7. The torque T
2
is referred to
the construction dimension D when comparing
the sizes, to the weight of the gear unit G when
comparing the weights, and to the generated
surface A of the pitch circle cylinders when com
paring the gear teeth surfaces. Gear unit weight
G and gear teeth surface A (= generated surface)
are measures for the manufacturing cost. The
higher a curve, in figure 22, the better the re
spective gear unit in comparison with the others.
Table 7 Referred Torques
Comparison criteria Definition Dimension
Units of the
basic details
Size
Weight
Gear teeth surface
d) Fullload efficiency c) Torque referred to gear teeth surface
Figure 22
Comparisons of cylindrical gear unit types in figure 21 dependent on the transmission
ratio i. Explanations are given in table 7 as well as in the text.
b) Torque referred to gear unit weight a) Torque referred to size
Ratio i Ratio i
Ratio i Ratio i
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Gear Unit Types
For all gear units explained in figures 21 and 22,
the same prerequisites are valid. For all gear
units, the construction dimension D is larger than
the sum of the pitch diameters by the factor 1.15.
Similar definitions are valid for gear unit height
and width. Also the wall thickness of the housing
is in a fixed relation to the construction dimension
D /15/.
With a given torque T
2
and with a load value B
L
computed according to equation (26), the
construction dimension D, the gear unit weight
G, and the gear teeth surface A can be deter
mined by approximation by figure 22 for a given
transmission ratio i. However, the weights of
modulartype gear units are usually higher, since
the housing dimensions are determined
according to different points of view.
Referred to size and weight, planetary gear
units F and G have the highest torques at small
ratios i. For ratios i < 4, the planet gear becomes
the pinion instead of the sun gear. Space require
ment and load carrying capacity of the planet
gear bearings decrease considerably. Usually,
the planet gear bearings are arranged in the
planet carrier for ratio i < 4.5.
Gear units C and D, which have only external
gears, have the highest torque referred to size
and weight for ratios above i  7. For planetary
gear units, the torque referred to the gear teeth
surface is more favourable only in case of small
ratios, if compared with other gear units. It is to be
taken into consideration, however, that internal
gears require higher manufacturing expenditure
than external gears for the same quality of manu
facture.
The comparisons show that there is no optimal
gear unit available which combines all advan
tages over the entire transmission ratio range.
Thus, the output torque referred to size and
weight is the most favourable for the planetary
gear unit, and this all the more, the smaller the
transmission ratio in the planetary gear stage.
With increasing ratio, however, the referred
torque decreases considerably. For ratios above
i = 8, load sharing gear units having external
gears only are more favourable because with
increasing ratio the referred torque decreases
only slightly.
With regard to the gear teeth surface, planetary
gear units do not have such big advantages if
compared to load sharing gear units having
external gears only.
1.4.3.3 Efficiencies
When comparing the efficiencies, figure 22d,only
the power losses in the meshings are taken into
consideration. Under full load, they come to
approx. 85% of the total power loss for common
cylindrical gear units with rolling bearings. The
efficiency as a quantity of energy losses results
from the following relation with the input power
at shaft 1 and the torques T
1
and T
2
(27)
h +
Ť
1
i
T
2
T
1
Ť
All gear units shown in figure 21 are based on
the same coefficient of friction of tooth profile
P
z
= 0.06. Furthermore, gears without adden
dum modification and numbers of teeth of the
pinion z = 17 are uniformly assumed for all gear
units /15/, so that a comparison is possible.
The single stage gear unit A has the best
efficiency. The efficiencies of the two stage gear
units B, C, D, E, F, and G are lower because
the power flow passes two meshings. The inter
nal gear pairs in gear units E, F, and G show
better efficiencies owing to lower sliding velo
cities in the meshings compared to gear units B,
C, and D which only have external gear pairs.
The lossfree coupling performance of planetary
gear units F and G results in a further improve
ment of the efficiency. It is therefore higher than
that of other comparable load sharing gear units.
For higher transmission ratios, however, more
planetary gear stages are to be arranged in
series so that the advantage of a better efficiency
compared to gear units B, C, and D is lost.
1.4.3.4 Example
Given: Two planetary gear stages of type F
arranged in series, total transmission ratio
i = 20, output torque T
2
= 3 · 10
6
Nm, load value
B
L
= 2.3 N/mm
2
. A minimum of weight is appro
ximately achieved by a transmission ratio divi
sion of i = 5 · 4 of the HS and LS stage. At J
1
= 30 m mm
2
/kg and J
2
= 45 m mm
2
/kg accord
ing to figure 22 b, the weight for the HS stage
is approximately 10.9 t and for the LS stage
approximately 30 t, which is a total 40.9 t. The
total efficiency according to figure 22 d is K =
0.986 · 0.985 = 0.971.
In comparison to a gear unit of type D with the
same transmission ratio i = 20 and the same
output torque T
2
= 3 · 10
6
Nm, however, with a
better load value B
L
= 4 N/mm
2
this gear unit
has a weight of 68.2 t according to figure 22
with J = 11 m mm
2
/kg and is thus heavier by
67%. The advantage is a better efficiency of
K = 0.98. The two planetary gear stages of
type F together have a power loss which is by
45% higher than that of the gear unit type D. In
addition, there is not enough space for the
rolling bearings of the planet gears in the stage
with i = 4.
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Noise Emitted by Gear Units
Figure 23
Correction curve according to DIN 45635 /16/ for the Aweighted sound
power level or sound pressure level
L
e
v
e
l
c
o
r
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
d
B
)
Correction curve A
Frequency (Hz)
1.5 Noise emitted by gear units
1.5.1 Definitions
Noise emitted by a gear unit ï like all other
noises ï is composed of tones having differ
ent frequencies f.
Measure of intensity is the sound pressure p
which is the difference between the highest
(or lowest) and the mean pressure in a sound
wave detected by the human ear.
The sound pressure can be determined for a
single frequency or ï as a combination ï for
a frequency range (singlenumber rating). It
is dependent on the distance to the source
of sound.
In general, no absolute values are used but
amplification or level quantities in bel (B) or
decibel (dB).
Conversion of the absolute values is made for
the sound pressure using equation
L
p
= 20 · log(p/p
0
) [dB] (28)
and for the sound power using equation
L
W
= 10 · log(P/P
0
) [dB] (29)
The reference values (e.g. p
0
and P
0
) have been
determined in DIN EN ISO 1683. For the sound
pressure, the threshold of audibility of the human
ear at 2 kHz has been taken as reference value
(p
0
=2·10
5
Pa). For the conversion of the sound
power applies (P
0
=10
12
W).
In order to take into consideration the different
sensitivities of the human ear at different
frequencies, the physical sound pressure value
at the different frequencies is corrected
according to rating curve A, see figure 23.
Aweighted quantities are marked by subscript
“A” (e.g. sound pressure L
p
; Aweighted sound
pressure L
pA
).
Apart from sound pressures at certain places,
sound powers and sound intensities of a whole
system can be determined.
From the gear unit power a very small part is
turned into sound power. This mainly occurs in
the meshings, but also on bearings, fan blades,
or by oil movements. The sound power is
transmitted from the sources to the outside gear
unit surfaces mainly by structureborne noise
(material vibrations). From the outside surfaces,
air borne noise is emitted.
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Noise Emitted by Gear Units
The sound power L
WA
is the Aweighted sound
power emitted from the source of sound and
thus a quantity independent of the distance. The
sound power can be converted to an average
sound pressure for a certain place. The sound
pressure decreases with increasing distance
from the source of sound.
The sound intensity is the flux of sound power
through a unit area normal to the direction of
propagation. For a point source of sound it
results from the sound power L
W
divided
by the spherical enveloping surface 4 · S · r
2
,
concentrically enveloping the source of sound.
Like the sound pressure, the sound intensity
is dependent on the distance to the source of
sound, however, unlike the sound pressure it is
a directional quantity.
The recording instrument stores the sound
pressure or sound intensity over a certain period
of time and writes the dB values in frequency
ranges (bands) into the spectrum (system of
coordinates).
Very small frequency ranges, e.g. 10 Hz or 1/12
octaves are termed narrow bands, see figure 24.
Figure 24
Narrow band frequency spectrum for L
pA
(Aweighted sound pressure level)
at a distance of 1 m from a gear unit.
(Frequency)
Histograms occur in the onethird octave spec
trum and in the octave spectrum, see figures
25 and 26. In the onethird octave spectrum
(spectrum with 1/3 octaves), the bandwidth
results from
f
o
/ f
u
= 2, i.e. f
o
/ f
u
= 1.26,
3
f
o
= f
m
.
1.12 and f
u
= f
m
/ 1.12;
f
m
= mean band frequency, f
o
= upper band fre
quency, f
u
= lower band frequency. In case of
octaves, the upper frequency is twice as big
as the lower one, or
f
o
= f
m
.
1.41 and f
u
= f
m
/ 1.41.
Bandwidth
S
o
u
n
d
i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
l
e
v
e
l
>
d
B
(
A
)
@
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 25
Onethird octave spectrum of a gear unit
(sound intensity level, Aweighted)
S
o
u
n
d
i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
l
e
v
e
l
>
d
B
(
A
)
@
Frequency (Hz)
Bandwidth
Figure 26
Octave spectrum of a gear unit
(sound intensity level, Aweighted)
The total level (resulting from logarithmic
addition of individual levels of the recorded
frequency range) is a singlenumber rating. The
total level is the common logical value for
gear unit noises. The sound pressure level is
valid for a certain distance, in general 1 m from
the housing surface as an ideal parallelepiped.
1.5.2 Measurements
The main noise emission parameter is the sound
power level.
1.5.2.1 Determination via sound pressure
DIN 45635 Part 1 and Part 23 describe how to
determine the sound power levels of a given
gear unit /16/. For this purpose, sound pressure
levels L
pA
are measured at fixed points sur
rounding the gear unit and converted into sound
power levels L
WA
. The measurement surface
ratio L
S
is an auxiliary quantity which is depend
ent on the sum of the measurement surfaces.
When the gear unit is placed on a reverberant
base, the bottom is not taken into consideration,
see example in figure 27.
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Noise Emitted by Gear Units
Measure
ment
surface
Figure 27
Example of arrangement of measuring
points according to DIN 45635 /16/
Machine enclosing
reference box
In order to really detect the noise radiated by the
gear unit alone, corrections for background noise
and environmental influences are to be made.
They are estimated by measuring background
noises (caused by noise radiating machines in
the vicinity) and the characteristics of the room
(reverberation time, resonances in the room) and
are used as correction values in the sound power
calculation. If the background noises are too loud
(limit values of correction factors are achieved),
this method can no longer be used because of
insufficient accuracy.
1.5.2.2 Determination via sound intensity
The gear unit surface is scanned manually all
around at a distance of, for instance, 10 cm, by
means of a special measuring device contain
ing two opposing microphones. The mean of
the levels is taken via the specified time, e.g.
two minutes. The sound intensity determined
in this way is the average sound energy flow
penetrating the scanned surface. The sound
power can be determined by multiplying the
sound intensity by the scanned surface area.
This method has been standardized in DIN EN
ISO 96142. Because of the special property
of the measuring device ï to determine the direc
tion of sound incidence ï it is very easy to elimi
nate background noises.
The results correspond to the values as deter
mined in accordance with DIN 45635. As a rule,
the sound intensity method is more accurate
(less measurement uncertainty) because it is
less insensitive to noises and can also be
used in case of loud background noises (e.g.
in industrial plants).
1.5.3 Prediction
It is not possible to exactly calculate in advance
the sound power level of a gear unit to be made.
However, one can base the calculations on
experience. In the VDI guidelines 2159 /17/, for
example, reference values are given. Gear unit
manufacturers, too, mostly have own records.
The VDI guidelines are based on measurements
carried out on a large number of industrial gear
units. Main influence parameters for gear unit
noises are gear unit type, transmitted power,
manufacturing quality, and speed. In VDI 2159,
a distinction is made between cylindrical gear
units with rolling bearings, see figure 28, cylin
drical gear units with sliding bearings (high
speed gear units), bevel gear and bevelhelical
gear units, planetary gear units, and worm gear
units. Furthermore, information on speed varia
tors can be found in the guidelines.
Figure 28 exemplary illustrates a characteristic
diagram of emissions for cylindrical gear units.
Similar characteristic diagrams are also avail
able for the other gear unit types mentioned.
Within the characteristic diagrams, 50% and
80%lines are drawn. The 80%line means, for
example, that 80% of the recorded industrial
gear units radiate lower noises.
The lines are determined by mathematical equa
tions. For the 80%lines, the equations according
to VDI 2159 are:
Gear units Total sound power level L
WA
Cylindrical gear units (rolling bearings) 77.1 + 12.3
.
log P / kW (dB)
Cylindrical gear units (sliding bearings) 85.6 + 6.4
.
log P / kW (dB)
Bevel gear and bevelhelical gear units 71.7 + 15.9
.
log P / kW (dB)
Planetary gear units 87.7 + 4.4
.
log P / kW (dB)
Worm gear units 65.0 + 15.9
.
log P / kW (dB)
For restrictions, see VDI 2159.
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Cylindrical Gear Units
Noise Emitted by Gear Units
Logarithmic regression
L
WA
= 77.1 + 12.3 x log P/kW dB
(80%line)
Certainty rate r
2
= 0.83
Probability 90%
Figure 28
Characteristic diagram of emissions for cylindrical gear
units (industrial gear units) acc. to VDI 2159 /17/
Mechanical power rating P
S
o
u
n
d
p
o
w
e
r
l
e
v
e
l
L
W
A
Type: Cylindrical gear units with external teeth mainly (> 80%) having the following characteristic
features:
Housing: Cast iron housing
Bearing arrangement: Rolling bearings
Information on gear teeth:
HS gear stage with helical teeth
(b = 10q up to 30q), hardened,
finemachined, DIN quality 5 to 8
No. of gear stages: 1 to 3
Output torque:
100 up to 200 000 Nm
Max. circumferential speed:
1 up to 20 ms
1
Input speed ( = max. speed):
1000 up to 5000 min
1
(mostly 1500 min
1
)
Power rating: 0.7 up to 2400 kW
Installation:
Rigid on steel or concrete
Lubrication: Dip lubrication
To calculate a sound pressure level from the
given sound power values a measuring method
is used comparable with that described in DIN
45635. It is assumed that the sound energy is
uniquely radiated from the object in all directions
and can propagate undisturbed (free sound pro
pagation). This assumption results in the socall
ed measurement surface sound pressure level,
the average sound pressure at a determined
distance to the gear unit.
The measurement surface sound pressure level
L
pA
at a distance of 1 m is calculated from the to
tal sound power level
(30) L
pA
= L
WA
ï L
s
(dB)
(31) L
s
= 10
.
log S (dB)
S = Sum of the hypothetical surfaces (m
2
) en
veloping the gear unit at a distance of 1 m
(ideal parallelepiped)
Example of information for P = 100 kW in a two
stage cylindrical gear unit of size 200 (centre
distance in the 2nd gear stage in mm), with rolling
bearings, of standard quality:
“The sound power level, determined in accord
ance with DIN 45635 (sound pressure measure
ment) or according to the sound intensity meas
urement method, is 102 r 3 dB (A). Room and
connection influences have not been taken into
consideration. If it is agreed that measurements
are to be made they will be carried out on the
manufacturer’s test stand.”
Note:
For this example, a measurement surface
sound pressure level of 102  13.2  89 dB (A),
tolerance r 3 dB, is calculated at a distance
of 1 m with a measurement surface S = 21 m
2
and a measurement surface ratio L
S
= 13.2 dB.
(Error of measurement according to DIN EN
ISO 96142 for measurements in the industrial
area with accuracy grade 2.)
Individual levels in a frequency spectrum cannot
safely be predicted for gear units because of the
multitude of influence parameters.
1.5.4 Possibilities of influencing
With the selection of other than standard geo
metries and with special tooth modifications
(see section 1.2.5), gear unit noises can be
positively influenced. In some cases, such a
procedure results in a reduction in the per
formance (e.g. module reduction) for the same
size, in any case, however, in special design
and manufacturing expenditure. Housing design,
distribution of masses, type of rolling bearing,
lubrication and cooling are also important.
Sometimes, the only way is to enclose the
gear units which makes possible that the total
level is reduced by 10 to 25 dB, dependent on
the conditions.
Attention has to be paid to it, that no structure
borne noise is radiated via coupled elements
(couplings, connections) to other places from
where then airborne noise will be emitted.
A sound screen does not only hinder the pro
pagation of airborne noise but also the heat
dissipation of a gear unit, and it requires more
space.
10
115
Siemens MD · 2009
Table of Contents Section 11
Shaft Couplings Page
General Fundamental Principles 116
Torsionally Rigid Couplings, Flexible Pin Couplings 117
Flexible Claw Couplings
Highly Flexible Ring Couplings, Highly Flexible Rubber Tyre Couplings 118
Highly Flexible Rubber Disk Couplings, Flexible Pin and Bush Couplings
Allsteel Couplings, Torque Limiters 119
Highspeed Couplings, Composite Couplings
Miniature Couplings, Gear Couplings 120
Universal Gear Couplings, Multiple Disk Clutches
Fluid Couplings, Overrunning Clutches, Torque Limiters 121
Couplings for Pump Drives 122
Coupling Systems for Railway Vehicles 123
Coupling Systems for Wind Power Stations 124
11
116
Siemens MD · 2009
Shaft Couplings
General Fundamental Principles
Rigid and Torsionally Flexible Couplings
2. Shaft couplings
2.1 General fundamental principles
In mechanical equipment, drives are consisting
of components like prime mover, gear unit,
shafts, and driven machine. Such components
are connected by couplings which have the
following tasks:
S Transmitting motion of rotation and torques;
S Compensating shaft misalignments (radial,
axial, angular);
S Reducing the torsional vibration load, influenc
ing and displacing the resonant ranges;
S Damping torque and speed impulses;
S Interrupting the motion of rotation (clutches);
S Limiting the torque (torque limiters);
S Sound isolation;
S Electrical insulation.
The diversity of possible coupling variants is
shown in the overview in figure 29. A distinction is
made between the two main groups: couplings
and clutches.
Shaft couplings
Couplings
Flexible
Clutches
Figure 29
Overview of possible shaft coupling designs
Clamp
couplings
Flange
couplings
Radial
tooth
couplings
Hydro
dynamic
couplings
Magnetic
couplings
Friction
couplings
Gear
couplings
Allsteel
couplings
Universal
joint
couplings
Parallel
offset
couplings
Steel spring
couplings
Pin and bush
couplings
Claw
couplings
Flexible
element
couplings
Rubber tyre
couplings
Rubber disk
couplings
Rubber ring
couplings
Overriding
clutches
Overrunning
clutches
Clutches Torque
limiters
Centrifugal
clutches
Rigid
Friction Positive
Highly flexible Tors. flexible Tors. rigid
Externally
operated
Torque
controlled
Speed
controlled
Directionofro
tation controlled
11
117
Siemens MD · 2009
Shaft Couplings
Torsionally Rigid Couplings, Flexible Pin Couplings
Flexible Claw Couplings
NEUPEX
Flexible pin couplings
NEUPEXDS
Flexible pin couplings
Flange couplings
Torsionally rigid couplings
Nominal torque: 1 300 ... 180 000 Nm
Nominal torque: 19 ... 62 000 Nm
Universally applicable coupling for compensating
shaft displacements S maximum operational relia
bility owing to failsafe device S suitable for plug
in assembly and simplified assembly of the design
consisting of three parts
Nominal torque: 19 ... 21 200 Nm
Connect two shafts ends torsionally rigid and
exactly centered to each other S designed for
heavily stressed shafts S not subject to wear
and require no maintenance S suitable for both
directions of rotation
Disconnecting driving and driven machines upon
failure of flexible elements (without failsafe de
vice) S universally applicable since combination
with all parts of the NEUPEX product range is
possible
Nominal torque: 13.5 ... 3 700 Nm
Failsafe universal coupling S very compact de
sign, high power capacity S very well suitable for
plugin assembly and assembly into bell housing
S also with Taper bush for easy assembly and
bore adaptation
BIPEX
Flexible claw couplings
Brochure MD 10.1
on request
Brochure MD 10.1
Brochure MD 10.1
11
118
Siemens MD · 2009
Shaft Couplings
Highly Flexible Ring Couplings, Highly Flexible Rubber Tyre Couplings
Highly Flexible Rubber Disk Couplings, Flexible Pin and Bush Couplings
ELPEX
Highly flexible ring couplings
ELPEXS
Highly flexible rubber disk couplings
ELPEXB
Highly flexible rubber tyre couplings
Nominal torque: 1 600 ... 90 000 Nm
Coupling without torsional backlash S can be used
for large shaft misalignments S suitable for high
dynamic loads, good damping properties
Nominal torque: 24 ... 14 500 Nm
Coupling without torsional backlash S compensat
ing very large shaft misalignments S the rubber
tyre can be easily replaced without the need
to move the coupled machines S easy mounting
on the shafts to be connected by means of Taper
bushes
Nominal torque: 330 ... 63 000 Nm
For connecting machines having a very non
uniform torque characteristic S very easy plugin
assembly S replacement of rubber disk element
is possible without the need to move the coupled
machines S flange with dimensions acc. to SAE
J620d
Nominal torque: 200 ... 1 300 000 Nm
Failsafe universal coupling for medium up to high
torques, absorbing large shaft displacements S
compact design, low weights and mass moments
of inertia S suitable for plugin assembly
RUPEX
Flexible pin and bush couplings
Brochure MD 10.1
Brochure MD 10.1
Brochure MD 10.1
Brochure MD 10.1
11
119
Siemens MD · 2009
Shaft Couplings
Allsteel Couplings, Torque Limiters
Highspeed Couplings, Composite Couplings
ARPEX  ARS (ARF / ARC / ARW)
Allsteel couplings
Nominal torque: 92 ... 1 450 000 Nm
Torsionally rigid coupling without clearance S com
pensates radial, angular and axial shaft displace
ments by means of two flexible disc packs S packs
made out of stainless spring steel S easy assembly
of coupling due to compact disc packs S modular
system: many standard types by combination of
standard components
ARPEX  AKR
Torque limiters
Nominal torque: 10 ... 75 000 Nm
On reaching the preset disconnecting torque, the
torque limiter separates the coupled drive compo
nents both during slow and fast rising torques S after
the disengagement process the coupling halves
are out of contact, so that a wearfree running down
can be realized
ARPEX  ART
Highspeed couplings
Nominal torque: 1 000 ... 535 000 Nm
Were designed for the energy and petrochemical
industries and marine propulsion drives S are used
for all highspeed purposes where reliable power
transmission is required even with unavoidable
shaft misalignment S meet the requirements of
API 671
ARPEX  ARS Composite
Composite couplings
Nominal torque: 1 250 ... 7 600 Nm
Corrosionresistant, extreme light weight coupling
for drives with great shaft distances (e.g. cooling
tower fan) S up to 6 metres without centre bearing
support S easy to handle and to install S mainte
nancefree and wearfree S reduced coupling vibra
tions
Brochure MD 10.1
Brochure MD 10.11
Brochure MD 10.9
Brochure MD 10.5
11
120
Siemens MD · 2009
Shaft Couplings
Miniature Couplings, Gear Couplings
Universal Gear Couplings, Multiple Disk Clutches
ZAPEXZI
Universal gear couplings
Nominal torque: 850 ... 125 000 Nm
Doublejointed gear coupling with hobbed and
crowned external gear teeth and low torsional back
lash S largest possible bore range with grease lubri
cated gear teeth S mounting dimensions in metric
and inch measures acc. to international standards
ZAPEXZW
Gear couplings
Nominal torque: 1 300 ... 7 200 000 Nm
Doublejointed coupling compensating angular, par
allel and axial misalignment of shafts S longterm
lubrication is ensured by design measures and
by using special seals S small dimensions; can be
used for high shock loads S available in many
types and variants
ARPEX  ARM
Miniature couplings
Nominal torque: 5 ... 25 Nm
Designed for applications with very low torques
S fields of application: control systems, machine
tools, computer technology, tacho drives, measuring
and registering systems, printing and packaging
machines, stepping and servomotors, test stands
Nominal torque: 10 ... 30 000 Nm
Constant torque transmission by means of contact
pressure ensured by springs S many applications
possible owing to mechanical, electrical, pneumatic
or hydraulic disengaging devices S protects drives
against overloading
on request
PLANOX
Multiple disk clutches
Brochure MD 10.1
Brochure MD 10.1
Brochure MD 10.10
11
121
Siemens MD · 2009
Shaft Couplings
Fluid Couplings, Overrunning Clutches
Torque Limiters
Dimensioned drawing M 495
UZWN
Overrunning clutches
Overrunning clutches allow to drive shafts and
machines first by means of an auxiliary drive at
low speed for startup and then by means of the
main drive at higher speeds for fullload operation,
the auxiliary drive then being shut off by over
running.
Nominal torque: 9 000 ... 100 000 Nm
FLUDEX
Fluid couplings
Nominal power ratings: 0.5 ... 2 500 kW
Soft starting without shocks and acceleration of
large masses during a loadrelieved start of mo
tor S torque limitation during starting and overload
S excellent vibration separation and shock damping
S torque transmission without wear
SECUREX
Torque limiters
With SECUREX, Siemens provides a unique modular system of mechanical torque limiters.
Owing to a variety of possibilities to combine standard components, the functions Protection
from overload as well as Compensation of shaft misalignment can be fulfilled with just one
compact unit.
With the development of SECUREX, Siemens has concentrated its experiences gained over
decades in the fields of both overload protection and compensation of shaft misalignments in
one product line.
SECUREX is based on the wide range of FLENDER standard couplings of different basic types
and on standardized safety elements. With this combination, economical coupling solutions can be
realized.
With the modular SECUREX system, Siemens has focused on its core competence in the
torque range of up to 1,500,000 Nm and benefits from its rich fund of knowledge and experience
gained from application and productrelated R&D (e.g. sliding hubs in the wind energy industry,
shear pin solutions in rolling mills, torque limiters in extruder applications, etc.).
Certified according to directive 94/9/EC (ATEX 95)
This coupling is particularly suitable for the use in hazardous locations
Brochure K 440
Brochure MD 10.1
11
122
Siemens MD · 2009
Shaft Couplings
Couplings for Pump Drives
Couplings for pump drives
ARPEX  ARP
Allsteel couplings
Nominal torque: 100 ... 17 000 Nm
Were specially designed for pump drives
D Meet the requirements of API 610
D Design according to API 671, “NONSPARKING”
and certified acc. to directive 94/9/EC (ATEX 95)
also available
NEUPEX
Flexible pin couplings
Types B / BDS  in two parts
Types A / ADS  in three parts
Types H / HDS  with intermediate sleeve
Type BDS
Type H
D Tried and tested drive element in millions of
pump drives
D Good value for money, reliable, available world
wide
D Complete applicationoriented assortment! In
addition to the failsafe standard design, a
variant without failsafe device is available 
especially developed for hazardous locations
Type A
Katalog MD 10.1
Katalog MD 10.1
Certified acc. to directive 94/9/EC (ATEX 95)
11
123
Siemens MD · 2009
Shaft Couplings
Coupling Systems for Railway Vehicles
Coupling systems for railway vehicles
Input side couplings
Max. nominal torque: 3 425 Nm
Max. shaft diameter: 86 mm
Membrane coupling, Type MBG
Max. nominal torque: 15 000 Nm
Max. shaft diameter: 100 mm
Gear coupling, Type ZBG
Output side couplings
Max. nominal torque: 13 440 Nm
Max. shaft diameter: 260 mm
Articulated joint rubber coupling,
Type GKG
on request
D Allsteel membrane coupling for the connection
of motor and gear unit
D Without backlash; compensating relatively small
shaft misalignments
D Doublejointed grease lubricated gear coupling
between motor and gear unit
D Compensating extremely large shaft misalignments
D Split spacer with crowned gear teeth
D Doublejointed, flexible coupling without backlash,
between axle drive and driving wheel shaft
D Low wear and low maintenance
D Compensating extremely large shaft misalign
ments, with low restoring forces
on request
11
124
Siemens MD · 2009
Shaft Couplings
Coupling Systems for Wind Power Stations
Coupling systems for wind power stations
on request
FLUDEX
Fluid couplings in combination
with other couplings
Articulated joint rubber couplings
Type GKGW
with brake disk
ARPEX
Allsteel couplings
D Design with hexagonal or square disc pack for
very large shaft misalignments
D Optionally with slip hub for limiting the torque
load in case of generator shortcircuit
D Light spacer out of glassfibre compound ma
terial for lightning insulation
D Conical bolt connection of disc packs for easy
assembly
on request
D Fluid coupling with slip between 2 and 3%.
Peak torques caused by gusts of wind are
compensated
D Combination with RUPEX coupling for small
shaft misalignments
D Combination with articulated joint rubber cou
pling or ARPEX coupling for large shaft misa
lignments
D Rubberelastic ball bearings for extremely large
shaft misalignments between gear unit and gen
erator
D Very low restoring forces
D Electrically insulating and structureborne noise
absorbing
D Wearing parts and coupling can be removed
without the need to move the generator
D Optional with torquelimiting slip hub
on request
11
125
Siemens MD · 2009
Table of Contents Section 12
Vibrations Page
Symbols and Units 126
General Fundamental Principles 127 ï 129
Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators 129 + 130
Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion 130 + 131
Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations 131
Terms, Symbols and Units 132
Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations 133 ï 135
Evaluation of Vibrations 135 + 136
12
x
^
ö
^
ö
.
ö
..
ö
h
ö
^
p
ö
^
stat
ö
p
w
0
126
Siemens MD · 2009
Vibrations
Symbols and Units
a m Length of overhanging end
A m
2
Crosssectional area
A m, rad Amplitude of oscillation
A
D
;
A
e
Damping energy; elastic energy
c Nm/rad Torsional stiffness
c’ N/m
Translational stiffness;
bending stiffnes
d m Diameter
d
i
m Inside diameter
d
a
m Outside diameter
D ï
Attenuation ratio (Lehr’s
damping)
D
m
m
Mean coil diameter
(coil spring)
e = 2.718 Euler’s number
E N/m
2
Modulus of elasticity
f, f
e
Hz Frequency; natural frequency
f m Deformation
F N Force
F (t) N Timevariable force
G N/m
2
Shear modulus
i ï Transmission ratio
i
F
ï
Number of windings
(coil spring)
l
a
m
4
Second axial moment of area
l
p
m
4
Second polar moment of area
J, J
i
kgm
2
Mass moment of inertia
J* kgm
2
Reduced mass moment of inertia
of a twomass vibration generat
ing system
k
Nms/
rad
Viscous damping in case of
torsional vibrations
k’ Ns/m
Viscous damping in case of
translational and bending
vibrations
l m
Length;
distance between bearings
m, m
i
kg Mass
M (t) Nm Timevariable excitation moment
M
0
Nm Amplitude of moment
M
0
* Nm
Reduced amplitude of moment of
a twomass vibration generating
system
n
e
1/min
Natural frequency (vibrations per
minute)
n
1
; n
2
min
1
Input speed; output speed
q ï
Influence factor for taking into
account the mass of the shaft
when calculating the natural
bending frequency
t s Time
T s Period of a vibration
T Nm Torque
V m
3
Volume
V ï
Magnification factor; Dynamic /
static load ratio
x m
Displacement coordinate
(translational, bending)
m Displacement amplitude
D rad Phase angle
J rad
Phase angle with free
vibration
G 1/s Damping constant
H rad
Phase displacement angle with
forced vibration
K ï
Excitation frequency /natural
frequency ratio
O
i
ï
Inherent value factor for ith
natural frequency
/ ï Logarithmic decrement
S = 3.14159
Peripheral/diameter
ratio
r kg/m
3
Specific density
M, M
i
rad Angle of rotation
rad
Angular amplitude of a
vibration
rad/s
Angular velocity (first time
derivation of ö)
rad/s
2
Angular acceleration (second
time derivation of ö)
rad
Vibratory angle of the free
vibration (homogeneous
solution)
rad
Vibratory angle of the
forced vibration (particular
solution)
rad
Angular amplitude of the
forced vibration
rad
Angular amplitude of the
forced vibration under load
(ö = 0)
\ ï
Damping coefficient acc. to
DIN 740 /18/
Z rad/s
Angular velocity, natural radian
frequency of the damped vibra
tion
rad/s
Natural radian frequency of the
undamped vibration
: rad/s
Radian frequency of the
excitation on vibration
Note: The unit “rad” ( = radian ) may be replaced
with “1”.
12
127
Siemens MD · 2009
Vibrations
General Fundamental Principles
3. Vibrations
3.1 General fundamental principles
Vibrations are more or less regularly occurring
temporary variations of state variables. The state
of a vibrating system can be described by
suitable variables, such as displacement, angle,
velocity, pressure, temperature, electric voltage/
current, and the like.
The simplest form of a mechanical vibrating
system consists of a mass and a spring with fixed
ends, the mass acting as kinetic energy store
and the spring as potential energy store, see
figure 30. During vibration, a periodic conversion
of potential energy to kinetic energy takes place,
and vice versa, i.e. the kinetic energy of the mass
and the energy stored in the spring are converted
at certain intervals of time. Dependent on the
mode of motion of the mass, a distinction is made
between translational (bending) and torsional
vibrating systems as well as coupled vibrating
systems in which translational and torsional
vibrations occur at the same time, influencing
each other.
Translational vibration
generatig system
Bending vibration
generating system
Figure 30
Different vibrating systems with one degree of freedom
Torsional vibration
generating system
Further, a distinction is made between free
vibrations and externally forced vibrations, and
whether the vibration takes place without energy
losses (undamped) or with energy losses
(damped).
A vibration is free and undamped if energy
is neither supplied nor removed by internal
friction so that the existing energy content
of the vibration is maintained. In this case
the system carries out steadystate natural
vibrations the frequency of which is deter
mined only by the characteristics of the
spring/mass system (natural frequency), figure
32 a.
The vibration variation with time x can be
described by the constant amplitude of
oscillation A and a harmonic function (sine,
cosine) the arguments of which contain na
tural radian frequency Z = 2 · S · f (f = natural
frequency in Hertz) and time, see figure 31.
Amplitude
V
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
Period
x = A · sinZ · t
A = Amplitude
Z = Radian frequency
t = Time
x = A · sin (Z · t + D)
D = Phase angle
Figure 31
Mathematical description of an undamped vibration with and without phase angle
Amplitude
12
128
Siemens MD · 2009
Vibrations
General Fundamental Principles
A damped vibration exists, if during each pe
riod of oscillation a certain amount of vibra
tional energy is removed from the vibration
generating system by internal or external friction.
If a constant viscous damping (Newton’s friction)
exists, the amplitudes of oscillation decrease
in accordance with a geometric progression,
figure 32 b. All technical vibration generating
systems are subject to more or less strong
damping effects.
Displacement x
a)
Undamped
vibration
(G = 0)
b)
Damped
vibration
(G > 0)
c)
Stimulated
vibration
(G < 0)
Time t
Figure 32
Vibration variations with time (A = initial
amplitude at time t = 0; G = damping constant)
If the vibrating system is excited by a periodic
external force F(t) or moment M(t), this is a forc
ed or stimulated vibration. With the periodic ex
ternal excitation force, energy can be supplied to
or removed from the vibrating system.
After a buildingup period, a damped vibrating
system does no longer vibrate with its natural
frequency but with the frequency of the external
excitation force.
Resonance exists, when the applied frequency
is at the natural frequency of the system. Then,
in undamped systems the amplitudes of oscil
lation grow at an unlimited degree, figure 32 c. In
damped systems, the amplitude of oscillation
grows until the energy supplied by the excita
tion force and the energy converted into heat
by the damping energy are in equilibrium. Reso
nance points may lead to high loads in the
components and therefore are to be avoided
or to be quickly traversed (example: natural
bending frequency in highspeed gear units).
The range of the occurring amplitudes of oscil
lation is divided by the resonance point (natural
frequency = excitation frequency, critical vibra
tions) into the subcritical and supercritical oscil
lation range. As a rule, for technical vibrating
systems (e.g. drives), a minimum frequency
distance of 15% or larger from a resonance
point is required.
Technical vibrating systems often consist of
several masses which are connected with
each other by spring or damping elements.
Such systems have as many natural frequen
cies with the corresponding natural vibration
modes as degrees of freedom of motion. A
free, i.e. unfixed torsional vibration system
with n masses, for instance, has n1 natural
frequencies. All these natural frequencies can
be excited to vibrate by periodic external or
internal forces, where mostly only the lower
natural frequencies and especially the basic
frequency (first harmonic) are of importance.
In technical drive systems, vibrations are excited
by the following mechanisms:
a) From the input side:
Starting processes of electric motors, system
short circuits, Diesel and Otto engines, tur
bines, unsteady processes, starting shock
impulses, control actions.
b) From transmitting elements:
Meshing, unbalance, universaljoint shaft,
alignment error, influences from bearings.
c) From the output side:
Principle of the driven machine, uniform, non
uniform, e.g. piston compressor, propeller.
As a rule, periodic excitation functions can be
described by means of sine or cosine functions
and the superpositions thereof. When analysing
vibration processes, a Fourier analysis may
often be helpful where periodic excitation
processes are resolved into fundamental and
harmonic oscillations and thus in comparison
with the natural frequencies of a system show
possible resonance points.
In case of simple vibrating systems with one
or few (maximum 4) masses, analytic solu
tions for the natural frequencies and the vibra
tion variation with time can be given for
steady excitation. For unsteady loaded vibrating
12
129
Siemens MD · 2009
Vibrations
General Fundamental Principles
Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators
systems with one or more masses, however,
solutions can be calculated only with the aid
of numerical simulation programmes. This
applies even more to vibrating systems with
nonlinear or periodic variable parameters
(nonlinear torsional stiffness of couplings;
periodic meshing stiffnesses). With EDP pro
grammes, loads with steady as well as un
steady excitation can be simulated for com
plex vibrating systems (linear, nonlinear,
parameterexcited) and the results be repre
sented in the form of frequency analyses, load
as a function of time, and overvoltages of
resonance. Drive systems with torsionally flexi
ble couplings can be designed dynamically
in accordance with DIN 740 /18/. In this stand
ard, simplified solution proposals for shock
loaded and periodically loaded drives are
made, the drive train having been reduced
to a twomass vibration generating system.
3.2 Solution proposal for simple torsional
vibrators
Analytic solution for a periodically excited one
(fixed) or twomass vibration generating system,
figure 33.
Figure 33
Fixed onemass vibration generating
system
Free twomass vibration generating
system
J, J
1
, J
2
= mass moment of inertia [kgm
2]
c = torsional stiffness [Nm/rad]
k = viscous damping [Nms/rad]
M (t) = external excitation moment [Nm], timevariable
= angle of rotation [rad], (M = M
1
ï M
2
for twomass vibration generating systems
as relative angle)
= angular velocity [rad/s] (first time derivation of M)
= angular acceleration [rad/s
2
] (second time derivation of M)
ö
ö
.
ö
..
Torsional vibrators
Differential equation of motion:
Onemass vibration generating system:
ö
..
)
k
J
ö
.
)
c
J
@ ö +
M (t)
J
(32)
( (
2 d w
2
0
Twomass vibration generating system with
relative coordinate:
ö
..
)
k
J *
@ ö
.
)
c
J *
@ ö +
M(t)
J
1
(33)
( (
2 d w
2
0
with ö + ö
1
*ö
2
(34)
J * =
J
1
.
J
2
J
1
+ J
2
(35)
Natural radian frequency (undamped): Z
Z
0
=
c
J
[rad/s] (36)
w
0
+ c @
J
1
)J
2
J
1
@ J
2
Ǹ ƪ
radńs
ƫ
(37)
Natural frequency:
f
e
=
Z
0
2S
[Hz] (38)
n
e
=
Z
0
.
30
S
[1/min] (39)
d +
k
J
+damping constant [1/s] (40)
Z
0
= natural radian frequency of the undamped
vibration [rad/s]
f
e
= natural frequency [Hertz]
n
e
= natural frequency [1/min]
12
130
Siemens MD · 2009
Vibrations
Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators
Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion
Damped natural radian frequency:
w + w
2
0
*d
2
Ǹ
+w
0
@ 1 *D
2 Ǹ
(41)
Attenuation ratio (Lehr’s damping): D
=
G
Z
0
D =
2
.
c
k
.
Z
0
=
4S
\
(42)
\ = damping coefficient on torsionally flexible
coupling, determined by a damping hystere
sis of a period of oscillation acc. to DIN 740
/18/ and/or acc. to FLENDER standard
couplings brochure.
\ =
elastic deformation energy
damping energy
A
e
A
D
=
Reference values for some components:
D = 0.001...0.01 shafts (material damping
of steel)
D = 0.04...0.08 gear teeth in gear units
D = 0.04...0.15 (0.2) torsionally flexible cou
plings
D = 0.01...0.04 gear couplings, allsteel
couplings, universal joint
shafts
Static spring characteristic for
one load cycle
Figure 34
Damping hysteresis of a torsionally
flexible component
3.3 Solution of the differential equation of
motion
Periodic excitation moment
M(t) +M
0
@ cos W@ t (43)
M
0
= amplitude of moment [Nm]
: = exciting circuit frequency [rad/s]
Total solution:
ö +ö
h
)ö
p
(44)
a) Free vibration (homogeneous solution ö
h
)
A
.
e
.
cos ( Z
.
t ï J ) M
h
=
G t
.
ï
(45)
Constants A and J are determined by the start
ing conditions, e.g. by ö
h
= 0 and ö
.
h
= 0 (initial
value problem).
In damped vibrating systems (G > 0) the free
component of vibration disappears after a
transient period.
b) Forced vibration (particular solution ö
p
)
ö
p
+
M
*
0
c
@
1
(1 *h
2
)
2
)4D
2
@ h
2 Ǹ
@ cos (W@ t * H (46)
Phase angle: tan H =
2
.
D
.
K
1 ï K
2
(47)
Frequency ratio: h +
W
w
0
(48)
Onemass vibration generating system:
M
0
* +M
0
(49)
Twomass vibration generating system:
M
0
* =
J
2
J
1
+ J
2
.
M
0
(50)
c) Magnification factor
M
p
=
M
0
*
c
.
V
.
cos (:
.
t ï H (51)
V +
1
(1 *h
2
)
2
)4D
2
@ h
2 Ǹ
+
ö
^
p
ö
^
stat
+
M
M
*
0
(52)
12
131
Siemens MD · 2009
Vibrations
Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion
Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations
ö
^
p
= vibration amplitude of forced vibration
ö
^
stat
= vibration amplitude of forced vibration at
a frequency ratio K = 0.
The magnification factor shows the ratio of
the dynamic and static load and is a measure
for the additional load caused by vibrations
(figure 35).
Figure 35
Magnification factors for forced, damped
and undamped vibrations at periodic mo
ment excitation (power excitation).
Magnification factors V and phase dis
placement angle H.
P
h
a
s
e
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e

m
e
n
t
a
n
g
l
e
H
Frequency ratio +h +
W
w
0
M
a
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
f
a
c
t
o
r
V
3.4 Formulae for the calculation of vibra
tions
For the calculation of natural frequencies and
vibrational loads, a general vibration generating
system has to be converted to a calculable sub
stitute system with point masses, spring and
damping elements without mass.
3.4.1 Mass
m = r · V [kg]
V = volume [m
3
]
r = specific density [kg/m
3
]
3.4.2 Mass moment of inertia
J = ŕr
2
dm: general integral formula
D
L
c =
S
.
G
32 L
.
D
4
D
L
d
c =
S
.
G
32 L
.
(D
4
ï d
4
)
J =
r
.
S
.
L
32
.
D
4
J =
r
.
S
.
L
32
.
(D
4
ï d
4
)
D
2
L
D
1
D
2
L
D
1
d
2
d
1
Cylinder
Cone
Hollow cone
Hollow
cylinder
Torsional stiffness Mass moment of inertia
J =
r
.
S
.
L
160
D
1
5
ï D
2
5
.
D
1
ï D
2
c =
3
.
S
.
G
32 L
(D
1
3 .
D
2
3
)
.
(D
1
2
+ D
1
D
2
+ D
2
2
)
c =
3
.
S
.
G
32 L
(D
1
3 .
D
2
3
)
.
(d
1
3 .
d
2
3
)
(D
1
2
+D
1
D
2
+D
2
2
)
(d
1
2
+d
1
d
2
+d
2
2
)
ï
J =
r
.
S
.
L
160
D
1
5
ï D
2
5
.
D
1
ï D
2
ï
d
1
5
ï d
2
5
d
1
ï d
2
ǐ
Ǒ
12
x
.
ö
.
m@ x
..
J @ ö
..
x
^
n
ń x
^
n)1
w
0
+ cńJ
Ǹ
x
max,
x
^
, A
ö
^
n
ń ö
^
n)1
L +In (x
^
n
ń x
^
n)1
)
ö
max,
ö
^
, A
L +
2 @ p @ D
1 *D
2
Ǹ
L +In (ö
^
n
ń ö
^
n)1
)
w
0
+ cńm
Ǹ
w
d
+ w
2
0
*d
2
Ǹ
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Siemens MD · 2009
Vibrations
Terms, Symbols and Units
Table 8 Symbols and units of translational and torsional vibrations
Term Quantity Unit Explanation
Mass,
Mass moment of inertia
m
J
kg
kg · m
2
Translatory vibrating mass m; Torsionally
vibrating mass with mass moment of
inertia J
Instantaneous value of
vibration
(displacement, angle)
x
M
m
rad *)
Instantaneous, timedependent value of
vibration amplitude
Amplitude
m
rad
Amplitude is the maximum instantaneous
value (peak value) of a vibration.
Oscillating velocity
m/s
rad/s
Oscillating velocity; Velocity is the in
stantaneous value of the velocity of
change in the direction of vibration.
Inertia force,
Moment of inertia forces
N
N · m
The d’Alembert’s inertia force or the mo
ment of inertia force acts in the opposite
direction of the positive acceleration.
Spring rate,
Torsional spring rate
c’
c
Nm
N· m/rad
Linear springs
Spring force,
Spring moment
c’
.
x
c
.
M
N
N · m
In case of linear springs, the spring recoil
is proportional to deflection.
Attenuation constant
(Damping coefficient),
Attenuation constant
for rotary motion
k’
k
N · s/m
Nms/rad
In case of Newton’s friction, the damping
force is proportional to velocity and
attenuation constant (linear damping).
Damping factor
(Decay coefficient)
G = k’/ (2
.
m)
G = k/ (2
.
J)
1/s
1/s
The damping factor is the damping
coefficient referred to twice the mass.
Attenuation ratio
(Lehr’s damping)
D = GZ
ï
For D < 1, a damped vibration exists; for
D t 1, an aperiodic case exists.
Damping ratio
ï
ï
The damping ratio is the relation between
two amplitudes, one cycle apart.
Logarithmic damping
decrement
ï
Time t s Coordinate of running time
Phase angle D rad
In case of a positive value, it is a lead
angle.
Phase displacement
angle
H = D
D
rad
Difference between phase angles of two
vibration processes with same radian
frequency.
Period of a vibration T = 2
.
S Z
s
Time during which a single vibration
occurs.
Frequency of natural
vibration
f = 1/T = Z
/(2
.
S) Hz
Frequency is the reciprocal value to a
period of vibrations; vibrations per sec.
Radian frequency of
natural vibration
Z
= 2
.
S
.
f rad/s
Radian frequency is the number of vibra
tions in 2
.
S seconds.
Natural radian frequency
(Natural frequency)
rad/s
rad/s
Vibration frequency of the natural vibra
tion (undamped) of the system.
Natural radian frequency
when damped
rad/s
For a very small attenuation ratio
D < 1 becomes Z
d
 Z
0
.
Excitation frequency : rad/s Radian frequency of excitation
Radian frequency ratio K = :/Z
ï Resonance exists at K = 1.
*) The unit “rad” may be replaced with “1”.
12
133
Siemens MD · 2009
Vibrations
Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations
3.4.3 Determination of stiffness
Table 9 Calculation of stiffness (examples)
Example Stiffness Symbols
i
F
= number of
windings
G = shear modulus
1)
d = diameter of wire
D
m
= mean coil
diameter
,
p
= second polar
moment of area
l = length
d, d
i
, d
a
= diameters of
shafts
E = modulus of
elasticity
1)
A = crosssectional area
F = force
f = deformation at centre
of mass under
force F
,
a
= second axial
moment of area
l = distance between
bearings
a = length of overhang
ing end
1) For steel: E = 21 S 10
10
N/m
2
; G = 8.1 S 10
10
N/m
2
12
Coil spring
Torsion bar
Tension bar
Cantilever beam
Transverse beam (single
load in the middle)
Transverse beam with
overhanging end
c =
l
G
.
,
p
rad
Nm
Ʃ ƨ
Shaft: ,
p
=
32
S
.
d
4
c’ =
8
.
D
m
.
i
F
G
.
d
4
m
N
Ʃ ƨ
3
c’ =
l
E
.
A
m
N
Ʃ ƨ
Hollow shaft: ,
p
=
32
S
( d
a
ï d
i
)
4 4
c’ =
f
F
m
N
Ʃ ƨ
l
3
3
.
E
.
,
a
=
Shaft: ,
a
=
64
S
.
d
4
Hollow shaft: ,
a
=
64
S
( d
a
ï d
i
)
4 4
c’ =
f
F
m
N
Ʃ ƨ
l
3
48
.
E
.
,
a
=
c’ =
f
F
m
N
Ʃ ƨ
a
2 .
(l + a)
3
.
E
.
,
a
=
134
Siemens MD · 2009
Vibrations
Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations
Measuring the stiffness:
In a test, stiffness can be determined by meas
uring the deformation. This is particularly help
ful if the geometric structure is very complex
and very difficult to acquire.
Translation:
cȀ +
F
f
ƪ
Nńm
ƫ
(53)
F = applied force [N]
f = measured deformation [m]
Torsion:
c +
T
ö
ƪ
Nmńrad
ƫ
(54)
T = applied torsion torque [Nm]
M = measured torsion angle [rad]
Measurements of stiffness are furthermore
required if the material properties of the spring
material are very complex and it is difficult to
rate them exactly. This applies, for instance,
to rubber materials of which the resilient prop
erties are dependent on temperature, load
frequency, load, and mode of stress (tension,
compression, shearing). Examples of applica
tion are torsionally flexible couplings and resil
ient buffers for vibration isolation of machines
and internal combustion engines.
These components often have nonlinear pro
gressive stiffness characteristics, dependent on
the direction of load of the rubber material.
Slope =
static
stiffness
Slope =
dynamic
stiffness
Figure 36
Static and dynamic torsional stiffness
For couplings the dynamic stiffness is given,
as a rule, which is measured at a vibrational
frequency of 10 Hz (vibrational amplitude =
25% of the nominal coupling torque). The
dynamic torsional stiffness is greater than the
static torsional stiffness, see figure 36.
3.4.4 Overlaying of different stiffnesses
To determine resulting stiffnesses, single stiff
nesses are to be added where arrangements
in series connection or parallel connection are
possible.
Series connection:
Rule: The individual springs in a series connec
tion carry the same load, however, they are sub
jected to different deformations.
1
c
ges
+
1
c
1
)
1
c
2
)
1
c
3
) AAA )
1
c
n
(55)
Parallel connection:
Rule: The individual springs in a parallel connec
tion are always subject to the same deformation.
c
ges
+c
1
)c
2
)c
3
) AAA )c
n
(56)
3.4.5 Conversions
If drives or shafts with different speeds are com
bined in one vibration generating system, the
stiffnesses and masses are to be converted to a
reference speed (input or output).
Conversion is carried out as a square of the
transmission ratio:
Transmission ratio:
i =
n
2
n
1
=
speed
reference speed
(57)
Conversion of stiffnesses c
n2
and masses J
n2
with speed n
2
to the respective values c
n1
and
J
n1
with reference speed n
1
:
c
n1
+c
n2
ńi
2
(58)
J
n1
+J
n2
ńi
2
(59)
Before combining stiffnesses and masses with
different inherent speeds, conversion to the
common reference speed has to be carried
out first.
3.4.6 Natural frequencies
a) Formulae for the calculation of the natural
frequencies of a fixed onemass vibration
generating system and a free twomass vibra
tion generating system.
Natural frequency f
e
in Hertz (1/s):
12
135
Siemens MD · 2009
Vibrations
Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations
Evaluation of Vibrations
Onemass vibration generating system:
Torsion: f
e
=
2S
1
J
c
(60)
Twomass vibration generating system:
f
e
+
1
2p
c
J
1
)J
2
J
1
@ J
2
Ǹ (61)
c = torsional stiffness [Nm/rad]
J, J
i
= mass moments of inertia [kgm
2
]
Translation, Bending : f
e
+
1
2p
cȀ
m
Ǹ (62) f
e
+
1
2p
cȀ
m
1
)m
2
m
1
@ m
2
Ǹ (63)
c’ = translational stiffness (bending stiffness) [N/m]
m, m
i
= masses [kg]
b) Natural bending frequencies of shafts sup
ported at both ends with applied masses
with known deformation f due to the dead
weight.
f
e
+
q
2p
g
f
Ǹ
[Hz
ƫ
(64)
g = 9.81 m/s
2
gravity
f = deformation due to dead weight [m]
q = factor reflecting the effect of the shaft
masses on the applied mass
q = 1 shaft mass is neglected compared with
the applied mass
q = 1.03 ... 1.09 common values when consid
ering the shaft masses
q = 1.13 solid shaft without pulley
c) Natural bending frequencies for shafts, taking
into account dead weights (continuum); gen
eral formula for the natural frequency in the
order f
e
,
i
.
f
e,i
+
1
2p
@ ǒ
l
i
l
Ǔ
2
@
I E
r @ A
Ǹ
ƪ
Hz
ƫ
(65)
O
i
= inherent value factor for the ith natural
frequency
l = length of shaft [m]
E = modulus of elasticity [N/m
2
]
, = moment of area [m
4
]
r = density [kg/m
3
]
A = crosssectional area [m
2
]
d = diameter of solid shaft [m]
Table 10 Ovalues for the first three natural
frequencies, dependent on mode of fixing
Bearing application O
1
O
2
O
3
1.875 4.694 7.855
4.730 7.853 10.966
S 2S 3S
3.927 7.069 10.210
For the solid shaft with free bearing support on
both sides, equation (65) is simplified to:
f
e,i
+
p @ d
8
ǒ
i
l
Ǔ
2
@
E
r
Ǹ
ƪ
Hz
ƫ
(66)
i = 1st, 2nd, 3rd ... order of natural bending
frequencies.
3.5 Evaluation of vibrations
The dynamic load of machines can be deter
mined by means of different measurement
methods. Torsional vibration loads in drives,
for example, can be measured directly on the
shafts by means of wire strain gauges. This
requires, however, much time for fixing the
strain gauges, for calibration, signal transmis
sion and evaluation. Since torques in shafts
are generated via bearing pressure in gear
units, belt drives, etc., in case of dynamic
loads, structureborne noise is generated which
can be acquired by sensing elements at the
bearing points in different directions (axial, hori
zontal, vertical). Dependent on the require
ments, the amplitudes of vibration displace
ment, velocity and acceleration can be record
ed and evaluated in a sum (effective vibration
12
136
Siemens MD · 2009
Vibrations
Evaluation of Vibrations
velocity) or frequencyselective. The struc
tureborne noise signal reflects besides the
torque load in the shafts also unbalances,
alignment errors, meshing impulses, bearing
noises, and possibly developing machine
damages.
To evaluate the actual state of a machine, VDI
guideline 2056
1)
or DIN ISO 108161 /19, 20/
is consulted for the effective vibration velocity,
as a rule, taking into account structureborne
noise in the frequency range between 10 and
1,000 Hertz. Dependent on the machine sup
port structure (resilient or rigid foundation) and
power transmitted, a distinction is made be
tween four machine groups (table 11). Depend
ent on the vibration velocity, the vibrational state
of a machine is judged to be “good”, “ac
ceptable”, “still permissible”, and “nonpermis
sible”. If vibration velocities are in the “non
permissible” range, measures to improve the
vibrational state of the machine (balancing, im
proving the alignment, replacing defective
machine parts, displacing the resonance) are
required, as a rule, or it has to be verified in
detail that the vibrational state does not
impair the service life of the machine (expe
rience, verification by calculation).
Structureborne noise is emitted from the ma
chine surface in the form of airborne noise
and has an impact on the environment by
the generated noises. For the evaluation of
noise, sound pressure level and sound inten
sity are measured. Gear unit noises are
evaluated according to VDI guideline 2159 or
DIN 45635 /17, 16/, see subsection 1.5.
Table 11 Boundary limits acc. to VDI guideline 2056
1)
for four machine groups
Machine
groups
Including gear units and
machines with input power
ratings of ...
Range classification acc. to VDI 2056
(“Effective value of the vibration velocity”
in mm/s)
Good Acceptable
Still
permissible
Non
permissible
K
... up to approx. 15 kW with
out special foundation.
up to 0.7 0.7 ... 1,8 1.8 ... 4.5 from 4.5 up
M
... from approx. 15 up to 75
kW without special founda
tion.
... from approx. 75 up to 300
kW and installation on highly
tuned, rigid or heavy founda
tions.
up to 1.1 1.1 ... 2.8 2.8 ... 7.1 from 7.1 up
G
... over 300 kW and installa
tion on highly tuned, rigid or
heavy foundations.
up to 1.8 1.8 ... 4.5 4.5 ... 11 from 11 up
T
... over 75 kW and installation
on broadly tuned resilient
foundations (especially also
steel foundations designed
according to lightconstruc
tion guidelines).
up to 2.8 2.8 ... 7 7 ... 18 from 18 up
1) 08/97 withdrawn without replacement; see /20/
12
137
Siemens MD · 2009
Table of Contents Section 13
Page
Bibliography of Sections 10, 11, and 12 138 + 139
13
138
Siemens MD · 2009
Bibliography
/1/ DIN 3960: Definitions, parameters and equations for involute cylindrical gears and gear pairs.
March 1987 edition. Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin
/2/ DIN 3992: Addendum modification of external spur and helical gears. March 1964 edition.
Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin
/3/ DIN 3993: Geometrical design of cylindrical internal involute gear pairs; Part 3. August 1981
edition. Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin
/4/ DIN 3994: Addendum modification of spur gears in the 05system. August 1963 edition. Beuth
Verlag GmbH, Berlin
/5/ Niemann, G. und Winter, H.: Maschinenelemente, Band II, Getriebe allgemein, Zahnradge
triebeGrundlagen, Stirnradgetriebe. 3rd edition. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, New York,
Tokyo (1985)
/6/ Sigg, H.: Profile and longitudinal corrections on involute gears. SemiAnnual Meeting of the
AGMA 1965, Paper 109.16
/7/ Hösel, Th.: Ermittlung von Tragbild und Flankenrichtungskorrekturen für EvolventenStirn
räder, Berechnungen mit dem FVAProgramm “Ritzelkorrektur”, Zeitschrift Antriebstechnik
22, (1983) Nr. 12
/8/ DIN 3990: Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears.
Part 1: Introduction and general influence factors
Part 2: Calculation of pitting resistance
Part 3: Calculation of tooth strength
Part 4: Calculation of scuffing load capacity
Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin, December 1987
/9/ FVAStirnradprogramm: Vergleich und Zusammenfassung von Zahnradberechnungen mit
Hilfe von EDVAnlagen (jeweils neuester Programmstand), FVAForschungsvorhaben Nr. 1,
Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik, Frankfurt am Main
/10/ DIN 3990: Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears. Application standard for industrial
gears.
Part 11: Detailed method; February 1989 edition
Part 12: Simplified method; Draft May 1987
Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin
/11/ DIN 3990: Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears.
Part 5: Endurance limits and material qualities; December 1987
Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin
13
139
Siemens MD · 2009
Bibliography
/12/ FVAArbeitsblatt zum Forschungsvorhaben Nr. 8: Grundlagenversuche zur Ermittlung der
richtigen Härtetiefe bei Wälz und Biegebeanspruchung. Stand Dezember 1976, Forschungs
vereinigung Antriebstechnik, Frankfurt am Main
/13/ FVARitzelkorrekturprogramm: EDVProgramm zur Ermittlung der Zahnflankenkorrekturen
zum Ausgleich der lastbedingten Zahnverformungen (jeweils neuester Programmstand),
FVAForschungsvorhaben Nr. 30,
Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik, Frankfurt am Main
/14/ Niemann, G.: Maschinenelemente 2. Bd., SpringerVerlag Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1965
/15/ Theissen, J.: Vergleichskriterien für Grossgetriebe mit Leistungsverzweigung, VDIBericht
488 “Zahnradgetriebe 1983  mehr Know how für morgen”, VDIVerlag, 1983
/16/ DIN 45635: Measurement of noise emitted by machines.
Part 1: Airborne noise emission; Enveloping surface method; Basic method, divided into 3
grades of accuracy; April 1984 edition
Part 23: Measurement of airborne noise; Enveloping surface method; Gear transmission;
July 1978 edition
Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin
/17/ VDIRichtlinien 2159: Emissionskennwerte technischer Schallquellen; Getriebegeräusche;
Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, July 1985
/18/ DIN 740: Flexible shaft couplings. Part 2. Parameters and design principles. August 1986
edition; Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin
/19/ VDIRichtlinien 2056: Beurteilungsmaßstäbe für mechanische Schwingungen von
Maschinen. VDIHandbuch Schwingungstechnik; Verein Deutscher Ingenieure; October
1964; (08.97 withdrawn without replacement)
/20/ DIN ISO 108161: Mechanical vibration  Evaluation of machine vibration by measurements
on nonrotating parts. August 1997 edition; Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin
13
140
Siemens MD · 2009
TRANSLATION
of
Technical Handbook
5th Edition 03/2009
Copyright by Siemens AG, Bocholt
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FLENDER drives Fundamental Principles of Mechanical Engineering Technical Handbook Technical Drawings 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Standardization Physics Mathematics / Geometry Mechanics / Strength of Materials Hydraulics Electrical Engineering Materials Lubricating Oils Cylindrical Gear Units Shaft Couplings Vibrations Bibliography .
and lowvoltage switching technology as well as industrial software from standard products up to entire industry solutions. Our drive and automation solutions based on Totally Integrated Automation (TIA) and Totally Integrated Power (TIP) are employed in all kinds of industry. In industrial as well as in functional buildings. . The industry software enables our industry customers to optimize the entire value chain – from product design and development through manufacture and sales up to aftersales service. Check out the opportunities our automation and drive solutions provide. Our electrical and mechanical components offer integrated technologies for the entire drive train – from couplings to gear units. And discover how you can sustainably enhance your competitive edge with us. Our technology platform TIP offers robust solutions for power distribution. Siemens Industry answers the challenges in the manufacturing and the process industry as well as in the building automation business. from motors to control and drive solutions for all engineering industries. Siemens offers automation. drive. In the manufacturing and the process industry.Answers for Industry.
Quantity of Heat Power. Fit Tolerances Parallel Keys and Taper Keys. Allowances. Centre Holes 25 26 27 28 + 29 30 Section 3 Physics Internationally Determined Prefixes Basic SI Units Derived SI Units Legal Units Outside the SI Physical Quantities and Units of Lengths and Their Powers Physical Quantities and Units of Time Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics Physical Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Physical Quantities and Units of Electrical Engineering Physical Quantities and Units of Lighting Engineering Different Measuring Units of Temperature Measures of Length and Square Measures Cubic Measures and Weights Energy. Work. Energy Flow. Title Block. Lettering Example Page 5+6 7 21 22 23 Section 2 Standardization ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse Pitch Threads) ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse and Fine Pitch Threads) Cylindrical Shaft Ends ISO Tolerance Zones.Contents Section 1 Technical Drawings Surface Texture Geometrical Tolerancing Sheet Sizes. Nonstandard Formats Type Sizes. Heat Flow Pressure and Tension Velocity Equations for Linear Motion and Rotary Motion 32 32 33 33 34 35 35 37 37 + 38 38 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42 43 Section 4 Mathematics / Geometry Calculation of Areas Calculation of Volumes 45 46 Section 5 Mechanics / Strength of Materials Axial Section Moduli and Axial Second Moments of Area (Moments of Inertia) of Different Profiles Deflections in Beams Values for Circular Sections Stresses on Structural Members and Fatigue Strength of Structures Siemens MD · 2009 48 49 50 51 1 . Lines.
and CopperZincTin Casting Alloys CopperAluminium Casting Alloys Aluminium Casting Alloys Lead and Tin Casting Alloys for Babbit Sleeve Bearings Conversion of Hardness Values Values of Solids and Liquids Coefficient of Linear Expansion IronCarbon Diagram Pitting and Tooth Root Fatigue Strength Values of Steels Heat Treatment During Case Hardening of Case Hardening Steels 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 70 71 71 72 72 73 74 75 76 77 77 77 78 Section 9 Lubricating Oils ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for Mineral Oils ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for Synthetic Oils of Poly. Power Rating and Efficiency of Electric Motors Types of Construction and Mounting Arrangements of Rotating Electrical Machinery Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Contact and Foreign Bodies) Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Water) 56 57 58 59 60 Section 8 Materials Conversion of Fatigue Strength Values of Miscellaneous Materials Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Quenched and Tempered Steels GeneralPurpose Structural Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of GeneralPurpose Structural Steels Case Hardening Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Case Hardening Steels Cold Rolled Steel Strips Cast Steels for General Engineering Purposes Round Steel Wire for Springs Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron Nodular Graphite Cast Iron CopperTin.Contents Section 6 Hydraulics Hydrostatics Hydrodynamics Page 53 54 Section 7 Electrical Engineering Basic Formulae Speed.Olefine Base ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for Synthetic Oils of Polyglycole Base Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity Viscosity Table for Mineral Oils 80 81 82 83 84 Siemens MD · 2009 2 .
Flexible Pin and Bush Couplings Allsteel Couplings. Torque Limiters Highspeed Couplings. and 12 138 + 139 Siemens MD · 2009 3 . Highly Flexible Rubber Tyre Couplings Highly Flexible Rubber Disk Couplings. Multiple Disk Clutches Fluid Couplings. Overrunning Clutches. Torque Limiters Couplings for Pump Drives Coupling Systems for Railway Vehicles Coupling Systems for Wind Power Stations 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 Section 12 Vibrations Symbols and Units General Fundamental Principles Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Terms. Flexible Pin Couplings Flexible Claw Couplings Highly Flexible Ring Couplings. 11.Contents Section 10 Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and Units General Introduction Geometry of Involute Gears Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Gear Unit Types Noise Emitted by Gear Units Page 86 + 87 88 88 99 107 111 89 107 110 114 Section 11 Shaft Couplings General Fundamental Principles Torsionally Rigid Couplings. Composite Couplings Miniature Couplings. Gear Couplings Universal Gear Couplings. Symbols and Units Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Evaluation of Vibrations 133 127 126 129 129 + 130 130 + 131 131 132 135 135 + 136 Section 13 Bibliography of Sections 10.
Table of Contents Section 1 1 Technical Drawings Surface Texture Method of Indicating Surface Texture on Drawings acc. Nonstandard Formats Sheet Sizes for Technical Drawings Title Block for Technical Drawings Nonstandard Formats for Technical Drawings Sizes of Type Lines acc. Title Block. Included Tolerances Additional Symbols Toleranced Features Tolerance Zones Datums and Datum Systems Theoretically Exact Dimensions Detailed Definitions of Tolerances Sheet Sizes. to DIN ISO 128. Symbols. General Explanations Tolerance Frame Kinds of Tolerances. to DIN EN ISO 1302 Surface Roughness Parameters Geometrical Tolerancing General Application. Part 20 and Part 24 Lettering Example 22 22 22 23 23 23 11 9 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 11 11 21 5 5+6 Page 4 Siemens MD · 2009 .
leadfree 0. Material removal is prohibited (without requirements). Material removal applies to the external contour of the view. or other requirements concerning the manufacturing method.2 Definition of the surface parameter Ra The centre line average height Ra of the assessed profile is defined in DIN EN ISO 4287 and 1.g.Technical Drawings Surface Texture 1 1. Requirement for the surface: “leadfree”.4 . 5 . The base profile is the reference profile displaced to Siemens MD · 2009 such an extent perpendicular to the geometrical ideal profile within the roughness reference length. d = Surface grooves and their direction e = Machining allowance (x) = No longer applicable (formerly: indication of Ra) 2. preserved Material removal by machining is required (with additional indication). Material removal.3 mm.8 mm. Method of indicating surface texture on drawings acc. 1.4 . etc. coating. surface roughness value Ra = 6.3 Indications added to the graphic symbols the evaluation length for assessing the roughness in DIN EN ISO 4288.0. Machining allowance specified by a numerical value in mm (e. treatment. to DIN EN ISO 1302 1. that contacts the point of the actual profile most distant from the reference profile (point T in figure 1). 3 mm).0. nonporous Material removal is prohibited (with additional indication). to DIN 4762 Part 1 is the distance of the base profile to the reference profile (see figure 1).1 Peaktovalley height Rt The peaktovalley height Rt in mm acc. Surface roughness parameters 2. surface roughness value Ra = 0. a = Requirements on the surface appearance b = Two or more requirements on the surface appearance c = Production method.8 Material removal (by machining).1 Symbols for the surface texture Graphic symbols Meaning Material removal by machining is required (without requirements).
5 1. based on comparison measurements. since they are given in inches.15 12.1 0.5 500 N 10 40 100 6. a diagram for the conversion from Ra into Rz and vice versa is shown in supplement 1 to DIN 4768.from ness value to Rz in m 160 250 6 Siemens MD · 2009 . 2.2 Mean peaktovalley height Rz The mean peaktovalley height Rz in mm acc. to DIN 4768 is the largest of the single irregularities Z1 occurring over the evaluation length lm (see figure 2).Technical Drawings Surface Texture 1 Geometrical ideal profile Actual profile Reference profile Mean profile Roughness reference length l Figure 1 2.1 4 N3 0.5 0.4 2.05 0.25 1. 2.4 Roughness grade numbers N In Germany.8 2000 1000 N 11 80 160 Roughness grade no.8 4 0. 3. N 12 Surface rough.3 0.025 2 N2 0.3 20 0.4 16 N5 1.2 125 N8 12.5 0.3 250 N9 25 63 3.2 8 N4 0.3 Maximum roughness height Rmax The maximum roughness height Rmax in mm acc.6 63 N7 6. For surfaces which are generated by manufacturing methods of the group “metal cutting”.8 32 N6 3. The Ra values assigned to the Rz values are subject to scattering (see table). to DIN 4768 is the arithmetic average of the single irregularities of five consecutive sam Base profile pling lengths (see figure 2). le = lm = lt = z1z5 = Sampling length Evaluation length Traversed length Single irregularities Startup length Figure 2 Runout length An exact conversion of the peaktovalley height Rz into the centre line average height Ra and vice versa can neither be theoretically justified nor empirically proved.6 6.6 1 N1 0. Note: The definition given for Rz in DIN differs from its definition in ISO. Centre line average height Ra and roughness grade numbers in relation to the mean peaktovalley height Rz Surface roughness value Ra m in 50 25 12.5 31. it is not allowed to use roughness grade numbers (N grades). Rmax is applied only in cases where the largest single irregularity (“runaway”) is to be recorded for reasons important for function.
or “6 x” shall be written above the frame (see figures 7 and 8). i. General 4. there is no direct relation between them. the area between two equidistant lines or two parallel straight lines. unless a more restrictive indication is given.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 4. 5.1 The particulars given are in accordance with the international standard DIN ISO 1101. The term “geometrical tolerances” is used in this standard as generic term for these tolerances. 5. 6 holes Figure 7 6x Figure 8 Figure 9 7 . in the following order (see figures 3. b) the envelope requirements according to DIN 7167.7 Tolerance frame The tolerance requirements are shown in a rectangular frame which is divided into two or more compartments. if appropriate.2 Relationship between tolerances of size. The toleranced feature may be of any form or orientation within this tolerance zone.6 Geometrical tolerances which are assigned to features referred to a datum do not limit the form deviations of the datum feature itself. and establishes the appropriate geometrical definition. the area between two concentric circles. i. 5. the tolerance applies to the whole length or surface of the considered feature. 5 and 6). the space between two parallel planes. the space within a parallelepiped or a sphere. the space within a cylinder. for example “6 holes”. “4 surfaces”. Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Remarks referred to the tolerance. form and position According to current standards there are two possibilities of making indications on technical drawings in accordance with: a) the principle of independence according to DIN ISO 8015 where tolerances of size.3 A geometrical tolerance applied to a feature defines the tolerance zone within which the feature (surface. Siemens MD · 2009 5. the tolerance specifications are given in tolerance frames one under the other (see figure 9). location and runout. 5. the tolerance value in the unit used for linear dimensions.5 The datum feature is a real feature of a part. In this case reference must be made on the drawing to DIN ISO 8015. the space between two coaxial cylinders. This value is preceded by the symbol if the tolerance zone is circular or cylindrical. that the size tolerances limit the form tolerances. or median plane) is to be contained. 4. according to which the tolerances of size and form are in direct relation with each other. If it is necessary to specify more than one tolerance characteristic for a feature. or by the symbol “S ” if the tolerance zone is spherical. These compartments contain. general explanations 5. 4 and 5): the symbol for the characteristic to be toleranced. axis. from top to bottom.2 Indicating geometrical tolerances does not necessarily imply the use of any particular method of production.4 Unless otherwise specified. the capital letter or letters identifying the datum feature or features (see figures 4. which is used to establish the location of a datum. 5.1 Geometrical tolerances shall be specified on drawings only if they are imperative for the functioning and/or economical manufacture of the respective workpiece. the tolerance zone is one of the following: the area within a circle.e.e. the general tolerances according to DIN ISO 2768 apply. Otherwise. The form of a datum feature shall be sufficiently accurate for its purpose and it may therefore be necessary to specify tolerances of form for the datum features (see table on page 8). March 1985 edition. This standard gives the principles of symbolization and indication on technical drawings of tolerances of form. 5. Application. measurement or gauging. orientation. form and position must be adhered to independent of each other. According to the characteristic to be toleranced and the manner in which it is dimensioned.
Coaxiality. included tolerances Tolerances Toleranced characteristics Symbols Included tolerances Straightness Flatness Form tolerances Circularity (Roundness) Cylindricity Profile tolerances Profile any line Profile any surface Parallelism Orientation tolerances Tolerances of position Perpendicularity Angularity Position Location tolerances Concentricity (for centre points).Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Table 1: Kinds of tolerances. Coaxiality. Concentricity Concentricity. Coaxiality (for axes) Symmetry Circular runout Runout tolerances Total runout Straightness Straightness. Parallelism. symbols. Flatness. Flatness. form. Parallelism Circularity. Circularity Flatness Flatness Flatness Straightness. 8 Siemens MD · 2009 . and position tolerances Least material requirement Dimension describing the least material state of a form feature Free state condition (nonrigid parts) Envelope requirement: The maximum material dimension must not breach a geometrically ideal envelope. Perpendicularity Table 2: Additional symbols Description Symbols direct Toleranced feature indications Datum feature indication (by letter only) Datum target indication 2 = Dimension of the target area A1 = Datum feature and datum target number by letter Theoretically exact dimension Projected tolerance zone Maximum material requirement Dependent on dimensional. Parallelism.
median plane) must lie. Siemens MD · 2009 Figure 19 a Figure 19 b 9 . line.10 Datums and datum systems Datum features are features according to which a workpiece is aligned for recording the toleranced deviations. unless the tolerance value is preceded by the symbol (see figures 16 and 17). The width of the tolerance zone is in the direction of the arrow of the leader line joining the tolerance frame to the feature which is toleranced. To identify the datum. Figure 15 Note: Whether a tolerance should be applied to the contour of a cylindrical or symmetrical feature or to its axis or median plane. surface.10.9 Tolerance zones The tolerance zone is the zone within which all the points of a geometric feature (point.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 5. the requirement is indicated by the words “common zone” above the tolerance frame (see figure 18). 5. Where a common tolerance zone is applied to several separate features. Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 16 Figure 17 as an extension of a dimension line when the tolerance refers to the axis or median plane defined by the feature so dimensioned (see figures 12 to 14). Common zone Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 18 5. a capital letter enclosed in a frame is connected to a datum triangle (see figures 19 a and 19 b). this is generally shown by datum letters.8 Toleranced features The tolerance frame is connected to the toleranced feature by a leader line terminating with an arrow in the following way: on the outline of the feature or an extension of the outline (but clearly separated from the dimension line) when the tolerance refers to the line or surface itself (see figures 10 and 11). on the axis or the median plane when the tolerance refers to the common axis or median plane of two or more features (see figure 15). 5.1 When a toleranced feature is referred to a datum. depends on the functional requirements. The same letter which defines the datum is repeated in the tolerance frame.
and the datum letter placed first should refer to the directional datum feature (see figures 28. 30 and 31). Figure 20 as an extension of the dimension line when the datum feature is the axis or median plane (see figures 21 and 22). where the sequence from left to right shows the order of priority. Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 30 Siemens MD · 2009 10 . Note: If there is not enough space for two arrows.10. In a datum system (see also 5. Datum system formed by two datums (directional datum “A” and short axis “B”). Figure 29 Figure 23 If the tolerance frame can be directly connected with the datum feature by a leader line.2) the sequence of two or more datum features is important. A common datum formed by two datum features is identified by two datum letters separated by a hyphen (see figures 27 and 29). A single datum is identified by a capital letter (see figure 26).10. The datum letters are to be placed in different compartments. Datum formed by two form features (common datum): Figure 21 Figure 22 on the axis or median plane when the datum is: a) the axis or median plane of a single feature (for example a cylinder). Figure 26 Figure 27 Secondary datum Primary datum Tertiary datum Figure 28 5.2 Datum system A datum system is a group of two or more datums to which one toleranced feature refers in common. A datum system is frequently required because the direction of a short axis cannot be determined alone. the datum letter may be omitted (see figures 24 and 25). when the datum feature is the line or surface itself (see figure 20). b) the common axis or median plane formed by two features (see figure 23). one of them may be replaced by the datum triangle (see figure 22).Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 The datum triangle with the datum letter is placed: on the outline of the feature or an extension of the outline (but clearly separated from the dimension line).
12 Definitions of tolerances Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5. These dimensions are enclosed. Figure 31 5. Indication and interpretation Figure 34 Figure 35 Any portion of length 200 of any generator of the cylindrical surface indicated by the arrow shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0.1 apart.11 Theoretically exact dimensions If tolerances of position or angularity are prescribed for a feature. larity tolerance specified within the tolerance frame (see figures 32 and 33).Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Datum system formed by one plane and one perpendicular axis of a cylinder: Datum “A” is the plane formed by the plane contact surface. Datum “B” is the axis of the largest inscribed cylinder.1 Straightness tolerance The tolerance zone when projected in a Any line on the upper surface parallel to the plane is limited by two parallel straight plane of projection in which the indication lines a distance t apart. The corresponding actual dimensions of the part are subject only to the position tolerance or angu Figure 32 Figure 33 5.12. for example 30 . Figure 36 Siemens MD · 2009 11 . the axis being at right angles with datum “A” (see figure 31). is shown shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0. the dimensions determining the theoretically exact position or angle shall not be toleranced.1 apart in a plane containing the axis.
12.2 Flatness tolerance Figure 40 The tolerance zone is limited by two paral. to each other.3 Circularity tolerance Figure 42 The tolerance zone in the considered The circumference of each crosssection of plane is limited by two concentric circles the outside diameter shall be contained a distance t apart. between two coplanar concentric circles 0. in a cylindrical zone of diameter 0.2 in the horizontal direction. Figure 41 5. Figure 45 12 Siemens MD · 2009 .03 apart.The surface shall be contained between two lel planes a distance t apart.08 apart. Figure 37 Figure 38 The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder The axis of the cylinder to which the tolerof diameter t if the tolerance value is ance frame is connected shall be contained preceded by the symbol .1 apart.08.The axis of the bar shall be contained within epiped of section t1 · t2 if the tolerance is a parallelepipedic zone of width 0. Figure 39 5.1 in the specified in two directions perpendicular vertical and 0. parallel planes 0.12. Figure 43 Figure 44 The circumference of each crosssection shall be contained between two coplanar concentric circles 0.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation The tolerance zone is limited by a parallel.
Figure 46 5. which are parallel to the datum axis A and lie in the horizontal direction.12. Figure 53 Siemens MD · 2009 Figure 54 Figure 55 13 . if the tolerance zone is only specified in one direction. The toleranced axis shall be contained between two straight lines 0. which are parallel to the datum axis A and lie in the vertical direction (see figures 49 and 50). Figure 52 The toleranced axis shall be contained in a parallelepipedic tolerance zone having a width of 0. Figure 49 Figure 48 Figure 50 The toleranced axis shall be contained between two straight lines 0.1 in the vertical direction and which is parallel to the datum axis A (see figures 54 and 55).4 Cylindricity tolerance Indication and interpretation 1 The tolerance zone is limited by two The considered surface area shall be coaxial cylinders a distance t apart.12.5 Parallelism tolerance Figure 47 Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and parallel to the datum line.1 apart.1 apart.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5.2 in the horizontal and 0. Figure 51 The tolerance zone is limited by a parallelepiped of section t1 · t2 and parallel to the datum line if the tolerance is specified in two planes perpendicular to each other. contained between two coaxial cylinders 0.1 apart.
01 apart and the datum surface.The toleranced axis of the hole shall be conlel planes a distance t apart and parallel to tained between two planes 0.03 parallel to the tolerance value is preceded by the the datum axis A (datum line). Figure 60 Figure 61 Parallelism tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by two paral. the datum axis C of the hole. Siemens MD · 2009 14 . shall be contained between two parallel planes 0. Figure 56 Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum surface Figure 57 The tolerance zone is limited by two paral. placed anywhere on this surface.1 apart and parallel to to the datum line. parallel to the datum surface D (figure 63).01 apart and parallel to the datum surface A (figure 64). Figure 58 Parallelism tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum line Figure 59 The tolerance zone is limited by two paral. Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 All the points of the toleranced surface in a length of 100. symbol .The toleranced surface shall be contained lel planes a distance t apart and parallel between two planes 0.01 apart and to the datum surface.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder The toleranced axis shall be contained in a of diameter t parallel to the datum line if cylindrical zone of diameter 0.The toleranced surface shall be contained lel planes a distance t apart and parallel between two parallel planes 0. parallel to the datum surface B.
12. perpendicular to the datum surface.1 apart.1 · 0.06 apart and perpendicular to the axis of the horizontal hole A (datum line). Figure 69 The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder of diameter t perpendicular to the datum surface if the tolerance value is preceded by the symbol .Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5. shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.6 Perpendicularity tolerance Indication and interpretation 1 Perpendicularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and perpendicular to the datum line. Figure 65 Figure 66 Perpendicularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and perpendicular to the datum plane if the tolerance is specified only in one direction.2 which is perpendicular to the datum surface. The toleranced axis of the inclined hole shall be contained between two parallel planes 0. Figure 70 The toleranced axis of the cylinder to which the tolerance frame is connected shall be contained in a cylindrical zone of diameter 0. The toleranced axis of the cylinder. Figure 67 The tolerance zone is limited by a parallelepiped of section t1 · t2 and perpendicular to the datum surface if the tolerance is specified in two directions perpendicular to each other. Figure 68 The toleranced axis of the cylinder shall be contained in a parallelepipedic tolerance zone of 0.01 perpendicular to the datum surface A. to which the tolerance frame is connected. Figure 71 Siemens MD · 2009 Figure 72 15 .
face A. Figure 75 5. Figure 73 Figure 74 Perpendicularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by two The toleranced surface shall be contained parallel planes a distance t apart and between two parallel planes 0.08 apart and perpendicular to the horizontal datum surperpendicular to the datum surface.12.08 apart and perpendicular to the axis A (datum line). Figure 79 Figure 80 Siemens MD · 2009 16 . Figure 77 Figure 78 Angularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by two paral. Figure 76 The toleranced axis of the hole shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0.7 Angularity tolerance Angularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line Line and datum line in the same plane.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation Perpendicularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone is limited by two The toleranced face of the workpiece shall parallel planes a distance t apart and be contained between two parallel planes perpendicular to the datum line. 0. surface.08 apart which are inclined at 60 to the horizontal axis A .The toleranced surface shall be contained lel planes a distance t apart and inclined between two parallel planes 0.08 apart which at the specified angle to the datum are inclined at 40 to the datum surface A.B (datum line). The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and inclined at the specified angle to the datum line.
with reference to the surfaces A and B (datum surfaces). exact position of the considered hole. The inclined surface shall be contained between two parallel planes which are 0.08 the axis of which is in the theoretically exact position of the considered line.12.1 the axis of which is in the theoretically preceded by the symbol .8 Positional tolerance Positional tolerance of a line The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically with respect to the theoretically exact position of the considered line if the tolerance is specified only in one direction.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5. with reference to the surface A (datum surface). Figure 82 Figure 81 The axis of the hole shall be contained within a cylindrical zone of diameter 0.05 apart and which are symmetrically disposed with respect to the theoretically exact position of the considered surface with reference to the datum surface A and the axis of the datum cylinder B (datum line). Figure 86 Siemens MD · 2009 Figure 87 17 . with reference to the surfaces A and B (datum surfaces). The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder Figure 84 of diameter t the axis of which is in the theoretically exact position of the Each of the axes of the eight holes shall be considered line if the tolerance value is contained within a cylindrical zone of diameter 0. Figure 83 Figure 85 Positional tolerance of a flat surface or a median plane The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically with respect to the theoretically exact position of the considered surface. Indication and interpretation 1 Each of the toleranced lines shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0.05 apart which are symmetrically disposed about the theoretically exact position of the considered line.
Figure 89 The axis of the cylinder. shall be contained with the datum point. Figure 88 Coaxiality tolerance of an axis The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder of diameter t. in a circle of diameter 0.B.12. shall be contained in a cylindrical zone of diameter 0. Figure 93 The axis of the hole shall be contained between two parallel planes which are 0.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 5. which are 0. the axis of which coincides with the datum axis if the tolerance value is preceded by the symbol .08 apart and symmetrically disposed with respect to the actual common median plane of the datum slots A and B.12.01 concentric with the centre of the datum circle A. Figure 90 5.9 Concentricity and coaxiality tolerance Concentricity tolerance of a point The tolerance zone is limited by a circle of The centre of the circle. Figure 92 Symmetry tolerance of a line or an axis The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically with respect to the datum axis (or datum plane) if the tolerance is specified only in one direction. Figure 91 The median plane of the slot shall be contained between two parallel planes.10 Symmetry Symmetry tolerance of a median plane The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically to the median plane with respect to the datum axis or datum plane. Figure 94 Figure 95 Siemens MD · 2009 18 .08 coaxial with the datum axis A . to which the tolerdiameter t the centre of which coincides ance frame is connected.08 apart and symmetrically disposed about the median plane with respect to the datum feature A. to which the tolerance frame is connected.
axis of which coincides with the datum axis.1 position by two circles a distance t apart at any position of measurement during one lying in a cylinder of measurement.B.05 in the vertical direction and the axis of which coincides with the datum axis formed by the intersection of the two median planes of the datum slots A .11 Circular runout tolerance Circular runout tolerance .1 in the horizontal and 0.D. the revolution about the datum axis D.12.radial Figure 97 The tolerance zone is limited within any The radial runout shall not be greater than plane of measurement perpendicular to 0. Figure 100 Circular runout tolerance . Indication and interpretation 1 The axis of the hole shall be contained in a parallelepipedic zone of width 0.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Symmetry tolerance of a line or an axis The tolerance zone is limited by a parallelepiped of section t1 · t2. the centre of which coincides with the datum axis. distance t apart. Toleranced surface Figure 99 The radial runout shall not be greater than 0. Cylinder of measurement Figure 101 Figure 103 Figure 102 Siemens MD · 2009 19 . Figure 96 5. Figure 98 Plane of measurement Runout normally applies to complete revolutions about the axis but could be limited to apply to a part of a revolution. the axis of which coincides with the datum axis if the tolerance is specified in two directions perpendicular to each other.1 in any plane of measurement during one the axis by two concentric circles a revolution about the datum axis A .axial The tolerance zone is limited at any radial The axial runout shall not be greater than 0.B and C .2 in any plane of measurement when measuring the toleranced part of a revolution about the centre line of hole A (datum axis).
1 in any cone of measurement during one revolution about the datum axis C.1 in any cone of measurement during one revolution about the datum axis C. Figure 107 5. and with relative axial movement between part and measuring instrument. The runout in the specified direction shall not be greater than 0.1 at any point on the specified surface during several revolutions about the datum axis AB. Figure 108 Figure 109 20 Siemens MD · 2009 . Cone of measurement Indication and interpretation The runout in the direction indicated by the arrow shall not be greater than 0.12 Total runout tolerance Total radial runout tolerance The tolerance zone is limited by two coaxial cylinders a distance t apart. the axis of which coincides with the datum axis by two circles a distance t apart. With relative movement the measuring instrument or the workpiece shall be guided along a line having the theoretically perfect form of the contour and being in correct position to the datum axis. The total radial runout shall not be greater than 0. Figure 105 The runout in the direction perpendicular to the tangent of a curved surface shall not be greater than 0.1 in any cone of measurement during one revolution about the datum axis C.12.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Circular runout tolerance in any direction The tolerance zone is limited within any cone of measurement. Unless otherwise specified the measuring direction is normal to the surface. the axis of which coincides with the datum axis by two circles a distance t apart. Figure 104 Figure 106 Circular runout tolerance in a specified direction The tolerance zone is limited within any cone of measurement of the specified angle. the axes of which coincide with the datum axis.
during several revolutions about the datum axis D and with relative radial movement between the measuring instrument and the part.1 at any point on the specified surface pendicular to the datum axis. Figure 110 Figure 111 Siemens MD · 2009 21 .The total axial runout shall not be greater allel planes a distance t apart and per.than 0.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Total axial runout tolerance Indication and interpretation 1 The tolerance zone is limited by two par. With relative movement the measuring instrument or the workpiece shall be guided along a line having the theoretically perfect form of the contour and being in correct position to the datum axis.
Table 3 Formats of trimmed and untrimmed sheets and of the drawing area Sheet sizes acc. The sheet sizes listed below have been taken from DIN EN ISO 5457. Siemens MD · 2009 22 .1 Title block Formats w A3 are produced in broadside. extract from DIN EN ISO 5457.Technical Drawings Sheet Sizes. For the A4 format the title block area is at the bottom of the short side (upright format). 6. The title block area is in the bottom right corner of the trimmed sheet. the filing margin. This standard may also be used for other technical documents. When necessary they should be created using the dimensions of the short side of an Aformat with the long side of a greater Aformat. Drawing area Trimmed drawing sheet Title block 6. 6. to DIN EN ISO 5457. Sheet sizes The DIN EN ISO 5457 standard applies to the presentation of drawing forms even if they are created by CAD. the possible sectioning margin. Title Block. Nonstandard Formats 1 Technical drawings. A series A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 Trimmed sheet a1 x b1 mm 841 x 1189 594 x 841 420 x 594 297 x 420 210 x 297 Drawing area a2 x b2 mm 821 x 1159 574 x 811 400 x 564 277 x 390 180 x 277 1) Untrimmed sheet a3 x b3 mm 880 x 1230 625 x 880 450 x 625 330 x 450 240 x 330 1) The actually available drawing area is reduced by the title block. etc.2 Nonstandard formats Nonstandard formats should be avoided.
A 3. A 3 and A 4 h 7 3. symbols 10 5 3.1 The type sizes as assigned to the paper sizes in table 4 MUST be adhered to with regard to their application range.25 7.7 A 1.35 0. Part 20 and Part 24 Table 5: Line groups.5 x 0. Larger type heights are also permissible.35 0. For the A4. drawing no. A3 and A2 formats.35 A 2. Assignment to the drawing formats A 1 and 9.7 0.4 Siemens MD · 2009 23 . roughness values.7 0. A 0 8.25 0.25 0.35 0. Lines Lettering Example 1 7.25 0.5 b 0.25 0.5 x 0.7 may be used as well.5 0. Lettering example 9.5 A 4.25 0.5 0.1 Example for formats A 4 to A 2 A0 is prescribed.35 0.1 Line groups 0. DIN 332 .5 0. line types and line widths Line group Drawing format Line type Solid line (thick) Solid line (thin) Short dashes (thin) Dotdash line (thick) Dotdash line (thin) Dash/doubledot line (thin) Freehand (thin) 0. b = line width) Paper sizes Application range for lettering h Type.5 A 0 and A 1 b 1 0. to DIN ISO 128. 20% will be accepted if this is required in a drawing because of restricted circumstances.7 with the pertaining line width according to table 5 may only be used.Technical Drawings Type Sizes. Type heights smaller by approx. Type sizes Table 4: Type sizes for drawing formats (h = type height.5 2.DS M24 DIN 509 E 2. line group 0.35 0. Lines acc. A 2 Line width 0. 8.7 0.35 0.4 DIN 509 F 2.5 and 0. Texts and nominal dimensions Tolerances.
Table of Contents Section 2
Standardization
Page 25 26 27 28 29 30
2
ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse Pitch Threads) ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse and Fine Pitch Threads) Cylindrical Shaft Ends ISO Tolerance Zones, Allowances, Fit Tolerances; Inside Dimensions (Holes) ISO Tolerance Zones, Allowances, Fit Tolerances; Outside Dimensions (Shafts) Parallel Keys, Taper Keys, and Centre Holes
24
Siemens MD · 2009
Standardization ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse Pitch Threads)
ISO metric screw threads (coarse pitch threads) following DIN 13, Part 1
Nut
D1 + d * 2 H1 d 2 + D 2 + d * 0.64952 P d 3 + d * 1.22687 P H + 0.86603 P
Bolt
2
H 1 + 0.54127 P h 3 + 0.61343 P
Bolt thread diameter
Nut thread diameter
R + H + 0.14434 P 6
Diameters of series 1 should be preferred to those of series 2, and these again to those of series 3. Nominal thread diameter d = D
Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 52 56 60 64 68
Pitch P
mm 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.75 0.8 1 1 1.25 1.25 1.5 1.5 1.75 2 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 3 3.5 3.5 4 4 4.5 4.5 5 5 5.5 5.5 6 6
Pitch diameter d2 = D2
mm 2.675 3.110 3.545 4.013 4.480 5.350 6.350 7.188 8.188 9.026 10.026 10.863 12.701 14.701 16.376 18.376 20.376 22.051 25.051 27.727 30.727 33.402 36.402 39.077 42.077 44.752 48.752 52.428 56.428 60.103 64.103
Core diameter d3
mm 2.387 2.764 3.141 3.580 4.019 4.773 5.773 6.466 7.466 8.160 9.160 9.853 11.546 13.546 14.933 16.933 18.933 20.319 23.319 25.706 28.706 31.093 34.093 36.479 39.479 41.866 45.866 49.252 53.252 56.639 60.639
Depth of thread h3
mm 0.307 0.368 0.429 0.460 0.491 0.613 0.613 0.767 0.767 0.920 0.920 1.074 1.227 1.227 1.534 1.534 1.534 1.840 1.840 2.147 2.147 2.454 2.454 2.760 2.760 3.067 3.067 3.374 3.374 3.681 3.681
Round R
mm 0.072 0.087 0.101 0.108 0.115 0.144 0.144 0.180 0.180 0.217 0.217 0.253 0.289 0.289 0.361 0.361 0.361 0.433 0.433 0.505 0.505 0.577 0.577 0.650 0.650 0.722 0.722 0.794 0.794 0.866 0.866
D1
mm 2.459 2.850 3.242 3.688 4.134 4.917 5.917 6.647 7.647 8.376 9.376 10.106 11.835 13.835 15.294 17.294 19.294 20.752 23.752 26.211 29.211 31.670 34.670 37.129 40.129 42.587 46.587 50.046 54.046 57.505 61.505
H1
mm 0.271 0.325 0.379 0.406 0.433 0.541 0.541 0.677 0.677 0.812 0.812 0.947 1.083 1.083 1.353 1.353 1.353 1.624 1.624 1.894 1.894 2.165 2.165 2.436 2.436 2.706 2.706 2.977 2.977 3.248 3.248
2
Tensile stress crosssection As 1)
mm2 5.03 6.78 8.78 11.3 14.2 20.1 28.9 36.6 48.1 58.0 72.3 84.3 115 157 193 245 303 353 459 561 694 817 976 1121 1306 1473 1758 2030 2362 2676 3055
1) The tensile stress crosssection is calculated acc. to DIN 13 Part 28 with formula
Siemens MD · 2009
As =
4
S
d2 + d3 2
25
Standardization ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse and Fine Pitch Threads)
Selection of nominal thread diameters and pitches for coarse and fine pitch threads from 1 mm to 68 mm diameter, following DIN ISO 261
2
Nominal thread diameter Coarse d=D pitch Series Series Series thread 1 2 3 1 1.2 1.6 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 18 20 24 22 25 26 28 32 33 36 39 42 48 45 52 56 60 64 68 50 55 58 65 35 38 40 1.4 1.8 2.2 3.5 0.25 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.45 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 3 3.5 3.5 4 4 4.5 4.5 5 5 5.5 5.5 6 6
Pitches P for fine pitch threads 4 3 2 1.5 1.25 1 0.75 0.5
14
15 17
1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
1.25 1.25 1.25
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0.75 0.75 0.75
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
27 30
26
Siemens MD · 2009
to DIN 748/1 Diameter Series 1 2 Cylindrical shaft ends Acc.Standardization Cylindrical Shaft Ends Cylindrical shaft ends Acc. to DIN 748/1 Diameter Series 1 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 2 mm mm FLENDER works standard W 0470 FLENDER works standard W 0470 2 ISO ISO Length tolertolerDiaLength ance ance meter zone Long Short zone ISO ISO Length tolertolerDiaLength ance ance meter zone Long Short zone mm mm 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 19 20 22 24 25 28 30 32 35 38 40 42 45 48 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 m6 mm 16 16 20 20 23 23 30 30 40 40 50 50 50 60 60 80 80 80 80 110 110 110 110 110 110 140 140 140 140 170 170 170 170 mm mm mm mm 210 210 210 250 250 250 300 300 300 350 350 350 mm 165 165 165 200 200 200 240 240 240 280 280 280 330 330 330 380 380 380 450 450 450 540 540 540 540 540 540 540 680 680 680 680 mm 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 250 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 450 460 480 500 mm 180 m6 210 240 270 15 15 18 18 28 28 36 36 36 42 42 58 58 58 58 82 82 82 82 82 82 105 105 105 105 130 130 130 130 14 16 19 20 22 24 25 28 30 32 35 38 40 42 45 48 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 30 180 190 200 310 350 400 450 500 550 590 650 690 750 790 n6 k6 35 k6 220 240 250 260 280 300 m6 320 340 40 50 410 410 410 470 470 470 550 550 550 650 650 650 650 650 650 650 800 800 800 800 60 70 360 380 400 420 80 m6 90 105 120 140 160 440 450 460 480 500 530 560 600 630 Siemens MD · 2009 27 .
fit tolerances. Allowances. Series 2 P7 N7 N9 M7 K7 J6 J7 H11 G7 28 Siemens MD · 2009 . Inside dimensions (holes) acc. Fit Tolerances Inside Dimensions (Holes) ISO tolerance zones.Standardization ISO Tolerance Zones. Series 2 from to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to 1 3 3 6 6 10 10 14 14 18 18 24 24 30 30 40 40 50 50 65 65 80 80 100 100 120 120 140 140 160 160 180 180 200 200 225 225 250 250 280 280 315 315 355 355 400 400 450 450 500 H7 +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 +25 0 +30 0 +35 0 H8 +14 0 +18 0 +22 0 +27 0 +33 0 +39 0 +46 0 +54 0 F8 + + + + + + 20 6 28 10 35 13 + + + + + + E9 39 14 50 20 61 25 + + + + + + D10 + + + + + + 60 20 78 30 98 40 C11 +120 + 60 +145 + 70 +170 + 80 Tolerance zones shown for nominal dimension 60 mm P7 6 16 8 20 9 24 11 29 14 35 17 42 21 51 24 59 N7 4 14 4 16 4 19 5 23 7 28 8 33 9 39 10 45 N9 4 29 0 30 0 36 0 43 0 52 0 62 0 74 0 87 M7 2 12 0 12 0 15 0 18 0 21 0 25 0 30 0 35 K7 0 10 + 3 9 + 5 10 + 6 12 + 6 15 + 7 18 + 9 21 +10 25 J6 + 2 4 + 5 3 + 5 4 + 6 5 + 8 5 +10 6 +13 6 +16 6 J7 + 4 6 + 6 6 + 8 7 +10 8 +12 9 +14 11 +18 12 +22 13 H11 + 60 0 + 75 0 + 90 0 +110 0 +130 0 +160 0 +190 0 +220 0 G7 +12 + 2 +16 4 +20 + 5 +24 + 6 +28 + 7 +34 + 9 +40 +10 +47 +12 D9 45 20 60 30 76 40 A11 +330 +270 +345 +270 +370 +280 +400 +290 +430 +300 +470 +310 +480 +320 +530 +340 +550 +360 +600 +380 +630 +410 +710 +460 +770 +520 +830 +580 +950 +660 +1030 + 740 +1110 + 820 +1240 + 920 +1370 +1050 +1560 +1200 +1710 +1350 +1900 +1500 +2050 +1650 A11 + 43 + 75 + 93 +120 +205 + 16 + 32 + 50 + 50 + 95 + 53 + 92 +117 +149 +240 + 20 + 40 + 65 + 65 +110 +280 + 64 +112 +142 +180 +120 + 25 + 50 + 80 + 80 +290 +130 +330 + 76 +134 +174 +220 +140 + 30 + 60 +100 +100 +340 +150 +390 + 90 +159 +207 +260 +170 + 36 + 72 +120 +120 +400 +180 +450 +200 +106 +185 +245 +305 +460 + 43 + 85 +145 +145 +210 +480 +230 +530 +240 +122 +215 +285 +355 +550 + 50 +100 +170 +170 +260 +570 +280 +620 +137 +240 +320 +400 +300 + 56 +110 +190 +190 +650 +330 +720 +151 +265 +350 +440 +360 + 62 +125 +210 +210 +760 +400 +840 +165 +290 +385 +480 +440 + 68 +135 +230 +230 +880 +480 F8 E9 D9 D10 C11 Nominal dimensions in mm 28 68 12 52 0 100 0 40 +12 28 +18 7 +26 14 +40 0 +63 0 +250 0 +54 +14 33 79 14 60 0 115 0 46 +13 33 +22 7 +30 16 +46 0 +72 0 +290 0 +61 +15 36 88 41 98 45 108 14 66 16 73 17 80 0 130 0 140 0 155 0 52 0 57 0 63 +16 36 +17 40 +18 45 +25 7 +29 7 +33 7 +36 16 +39 18 +43 20 +52 0 +57 0 +63 0 H7 +81 0 +89 0 +97 0 H8 +320 0 +360 0 +400 0 +69 +17 +75 +18 +83 +20 ISO Series 1 abbrev. allowances. to DIN 7157. DIN ISO 286 Part 2 m 2 + 500 + 400 + 300 + 200 + 100 0 100 200 300 400 500 ISO Series 1 abbrev.
5 +45 +28 +35 +18 +25 +13 +11 +23 +13 +13 + 3 + 3 9 11 +52 +33 +40 +21 +28 +14 +12. to DIN 7157.5 0 0 0 +27 +15 +15 + 3 + 3 11 12. DIN ISO 286 Part 2 m + 500 + 400 + 300 + 200 + 100 0 100 200 300 400 500 ISO Series 1 x8/u8 abbrev. Outside dimensions (shafts) acc.5 +20 +11 +11 + 2 + 2 7 9.5 + 28 + 23 + 23 +12 + 7 + 7 + 1 + 1 3 5.5 + 1 2 4.5 + 35 + 28 + 28 +15 + 8 + 8 + 2 + 2 4 6. Fit Tolerances Outside Dimensions (Shafts) ISO tolerance zones. fit tolerances. above nominal dimension 24 mm: u8 Siemens MD · 2009 29 .5 + 39 + 31 + 34 +23 +15 +18 + 9 +12 + 8 +5. Series 2 + 34 + 20 + 46 + 28 + 56 + 34 + 67 + 40 + 72 + 45 + 87 + 54 + 81 + 48 + 99 + 60 +109 + 70 +133 + 87 +148 +102 +178 +124 +198 +144 +233 +170 +253 +190 +273 +210 +308 +236 +330 +258 +356 +284 +396 +315 +431 +350 +479 +390 +524 +435 +587 +490 +637 +540 x8/u8 1) Tolerance zones shown for nominal dimension 60 mm 2 s6 + + + + + + 20 14 27 19 32 23 + + + + + + r5 14 10 20 15 25 19 + + + + + + r6 16 10 23 15 28 19 n6 +10 + 4 +16 + 8 +19 +10 m5 m6 k5 + 6 + 2 + 9 + 4 +12 + 6 + 8 + 2 +12 + 4 +15 + 6 + 4 0 + 6 + 1 + 7 + 1 k6 j6 js6 h6 0 6 0 8 0 9 0 11 h7 h8 0 0 10 14 0 0 12 18 0 0 15 22 0 0 18 27 h9 0 25 0 30 0 36 0 43 0 52 0 62 0 74 0 87 h11 0 60 0 75 0 90 0 110 0 130 0 160 0 190 0 220 g6 2 8 4 12 5 14 6 17 7 20 9 25 10 29 12 34 f7 6 16 10 22 13 28 16 34 20 41 25 50 30 60 36 71 e8 14 28 20 38 25 47 32 59 40 73 50 89 60 106 72 126 d9 20 45 30 60 40 76 50 93 65 117 80 142 100 174 120 207 c11 60 120 70 145 80 170 95 205 110 240 120 280 130 290 140 330 150 340 170 390 180 400 200 450 210 460 230 480 240 530 260 550 280 570 300 620 330 650 360 720 400 760 440 840 480 880 c11 a11 270 330 270 345 280 370 290 400 300 430 310 470 320 480 340 530 360 550 380 600 410 630 460 710 520 770 580 830 660 950 740 1030 820 1100 920 1240 1050 1370 1200 1560 1350 1710 1500 1900 1650 2050 a11 + 6 + 4 + 3 0 2 3 + 9 + 6 + 4 + 1 2 4 +10 + 7 +4.Standardization ISO Tolerance Zones.5 29 46 72 0 115 0 290 15 44 50 96 100 172 170 285 +66 +43 +52 +27 +36 +16 +16 +34 +20 +20 + 4 + 4 16 16 +73 +46 +57 +29 +40 +18 +18 +37 +21 +21 + 4 + 4 18 18 +80 +50 +63 +32 +45 +20 +20 +40 +23 +23 + 5 + 5 20 20 n6 m5 m6 k5 k6 j6 js6 0 0 0 32 52 81 0 0 0 36 57 89 0 0 0 40 63 97 h6 h7 h8 0 130 0 140 0 155 h9 0 320 0 360 0 400 h11 17 49 18 54 20 60 g6 56 108 62 119 68 131 f7 110 191 125 214 135 232 e8 190 320 210 350 230 385 d9 1) Up to nominal dimension 24 mm: x8. Series 2 1) from 1 to 3 above 3 to 6 above 6 to 10 above 10 to 14 above 14 to 18 above 18 to 24 above 24 to 30 above 30 to 40 above 40 to 50 above 50 to 65 above 65 to 80 above 80 to 100 above 100 to 120 above 120 to 140 above 140 to 160 above 160 to 180 above 180 to 200 above 200 to 225 above 225 to 250 above 250 to 280 above 280 to 315 above 315 to 355 above 355 to 400 above 400 to 450 above 450 to 500 ISO Series 1 abbrev.5 + 48 + 37 + 41 +28 +17 +21 +11 +15 + 9 +6. allowances.5 25 40 63 0 100 0 250 14 39 43 83 85 148 145 245 +60 +37 +46 +24 +33 +16 +14.5 + 59 + 45 + 50 +33 +20 +25 +13 +18 +11 + 43 + 34 + 34 +17 + 9 + 9 + 2 + 2 5 + 72 + 53 + 78 + 59 + 93 + 71 +101 + 79 +117 + 92 +125 +100 +133 +108 +151 +122 +159 +130 +169 +140 +190 +158 +202 +170 +226 +190 +244 +208 +272 +232 +292 +252 s6 + 54 + 41 + 56 + 43 + 66 + 51 + 69 + 54 + 81 + 63 + 83 + 65 + 86 + 68 + 97 + 77 +100 + 80 +104 + 84 +117 + 94 +121 + 98 +133 +108 +139 +114 +153 +126 +159 +132 r5 + 60 + 41 + 62 + 43 + 73 + 51 + 76 + 54 + 88 + 63 + 90 + 65 + 93 + 68 +106 + 77 +109 + 80 +113 + 84 +126 + 94 +130 + 98 +144 +108 +150 +114 +166 +126 +172 +132 r6 +8 8 0 0 0 13 21 33 0 0 0 16 25 39 0 0 0 19 30 46 0 0 0 22 35 54 Nominal dimensions in mm +39 +24 +30 +15 +21 +12 +9. Allowances.5 0 0 0 +31 +17 +17 + 4 + 4 13 14.
5 3.4 0.6 13.6 55 66.4 14. The shaft 36 22 14.2 40.4 5.5 6 20 6 20 3 6 36 8 36 1.6 12. 50 31 19.3 0.9 36 160 40 160 10 6 4.4 11.5 4.5 21 26.4 5.1 280 400 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 28 32 36 40 45 50 56 63 70 80 90 100 110 125 140 160 180 200 220 250 280 320 360 400 Centre holes Minimum in shaft ends (centerings) acc.5 t3 +1 2.9 56 220 56 220 Taper and roundended sunk key and 14 9 5.4 4.9 t4 1.taper keys with gib 45 28 17.4 6.5 16 18 Form B DIN 332/1 2.2 6.5 5 3 2. 12 14 17 21 25 30 37 45 53 63 77 93 105 d3 5 6.3 3. to DIN 332 dimensions Part 1 t 3.2 1.3 1.5 3.Standardization Parallel Keys.7 8.4 10.9 Parallel key and keyway acc. to DIN 6885 Part 1.6 20 d3 3.3 6.5 32 37.9 2.8 12.4 2.6 3.6 1.5 7 4 3.4 22 110 25 110 8 5 3.4 13.0 1.5 10. and dimension tz the 32 20 12.2 0.1 180 400 largest depth of the hub keyway.2 Form DS d5 5.1 220 400 deteraccording to DIN 6887 .6 0.3 38 44.8 10.3 5.7 Dimensions of 60 centre holes in mm Recommended Bore diameters diameter d 2) d1 above to 6 10 1.6 8.2 4 8 45 10 45 2.4 45 180 45 180 11 7 4.8 7.1 160 400 largest height of the key.4 70 280 70 280 16 10 6.5 25 63 3.4 10.5 16 19 22 28 36 42 50 60 74 84 t2 min.4 7.5 0. The tolerance zone for 22 13 9.5 18.5 13 17 21 25 31 37 43 b 0.3 d2 3.4 90 360 90 360 parallel keys with normal fit is ISO JS9 and 20 12 8.4 63 250 63 250 keyway acc.4 16.8 8.25 5. 28 17 11.5 13. to DIN 332 Part 2 Drill diameter for tappingsize holes acc.9 3.8 1. see below l1 l DIN 6886 Parallel keys and taper keys acc.3 0.9 18.5 9.8 0.4 11. and Centre Holes Dimensions of parallel keys and taper keys Depth of keyDiameter Width Height way in shaft d b h t1 2 Depth of keyway in hub t2 DIN 6885/ 6886/ 1 6887 2) Lengths.3 31.4 8 8 11 15 t5 0.1 140 400 140 400 2) Dimension h of the taper key names the 32 20 12.4 18 90 20 90 8 5 3.4 8.3 6.are equal to those of DIN 6886.3 1.4 4.3 19.3 2.1 23 28.4 d4 5.8 1.2 14 70 16 70 6 3.8 25.8 2.4 80 320 80 320 1) The tolerance zone for hub keyway width b for 18 11 7.6 t1 +2 9 10 12.35 4.2 4.7 10 56 12 56 Square and rectangular taper keys 2.4 3.4 50 200 50 200 12 7.4 6.2 14.6 10 25 2 2.1 9. Taper Keys.1 250 400 mined head .7 15.1 110 400 110 400 shaft keyway width b with normal fit is ISO N9 25 15 10.8 2.2 14 17.3 2.5 6.4 4.4 9.4 0. to DIN 6886 14 9 5.7 60.2 5 6.4 34.4 8.4 0.5 12 15 18 22 22 26 Keyway Form DS (with thread) DIN 332/2 1) 2) * 3) Cuttingoff dimension in case of no centering Diameter applies to finished workpiece Dimensions not acc.2 1.0 0.8 2.3 2.3 8 10 12.2 49.6 10. to DIN 336 Part 1 30 Siemens MD · 2009 .4 8.1 2.6 1.1 125 400 125 400 and with close fit ISO P9.2 4 5 6 7.3 5.3 6.3 3.1 100 400 100 400 with close fit ISO P9.3 Recommended diameters d6 2) above to 7 10 10 13 13 16 16 21 21 24 24 30 30 38 38 50 50 85 85 130 130 225 225 320 320 500 d1 M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 M30* M36* M42* d2 3) Form B a 1) 5. to DIN 6885 Part 1 1.7 8.3 2.9 1.6 0.3 10 12.5 10.15 4 63 100 5 6.4 28 140 32 140 9 5.8 3.3 4. 6886 and 6887 Side fitting square and rectangular keys above to 1) 2) 6885/1 mm mm mm 6 8 2 8 10 3 10 12 4 12 17 5 17 22 6 8 22 30 30 38 10 38 44 12 44 50 14 50 58 16 58 65 18 65 75 20 75 85 22 85 95 25 95 110 28 110 130 32 130 150 36 150 170 40 170 200 45 200 230 50 230 260 56 260 290 63 290 330 70 330 380 80 380 440 90 440 500 100 Lengths mm I1 or I from to from to mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm 2 1.8 4.7 1.8 8.1 200 400 Lengths keyway and hub keyway dimensions not 40 25 15.2 16.
Heat Flow Pressure and Tension Velocity Equations for Linear Motion and Rotary Motion Page 32 32 33 33 34 35 35 37 3 37 + 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 42 43 Siemens MD · 2009 31 . Energy Flow.Table of Contents Section 3 Physics Internationally Determined Prefixes Basic SI Units Derived SI Units Having Special Names and Special Unit Symbols Legal Units Outside the SI Physical Quantities and Units of Lengths and Their Powers Physical Quantities and Units of Time Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics Physical Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Physical Quantities and Units of Electrical Engineering Physical Quantities and Units of Lighting Engineering Different Measuring Units of Temperature Measures of Length Square Measures Cubic Measures Weights Energy. Work. Quantity of Heat Power.
106s 106s1 = 106Hz = 1 MHz Prefixes are not used with the basic SI unit kilogram (kg) but with the unit gram (g).94 mm 1. Prefixes and symbols are used only in combination with unit names and unit symbols. NOT microkilogram ( kg). the prefixes should be chosen in such a way that the numerical values are between 0. When giving sizes by using prefix symbols and unit symbols. Factor by which the unit is multiplied 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 101 Prefix Atto Femto Pico Nano Micro Milli Centi Deci m c d Symbol a f p n Factor by which the unit is multiplied 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 6 10 9 10 12 10 15 10 18 Prefix Deka Hecto Kilo Mega Giga Tera Peta Exa Symbol da h k M G T P E 3 Prefix symbols and unit symbols are written without blanks and together they form the symbol for a new unit. 106m3 1 s = 1 . (102m)3 = 1 .401 kPa 31 ns instead of instead of instead of instead of 1.1 .00394 m 1401 Pa 3. year. 108s Combinations of prefixes and the following units are not allowed: Units of angularity: degree. day Unit of temperature: degree Celsius Basic SI units Physical quantity Length Mass Time Electric current Basic SI unit Name Metre Kilogram Second Ampere Symbol m kg s A Physical quantity Basic SI unit Name Kelvin Mol Candela Symbol K mol cd Thermodynamic temperature Amount of substance Luminous intensity 32 Siemens MD · 2009 . Example: Milligram (mg). hour.Physics Internationally Determined Prefixes Basic SI Units Internationally determined prefixes Decimal multiples and submultiples of units are represented with prefixes and symbols. second Units of time: minute.2 . Example: 1 cm3 = 1 . An exponent on the unit symbol also applies to the prefix symbol. Example: 12 kN 3. minute. 104N 0.1 and 1000.
m2) / A2 . cycles per second Force Pressure. s3) 1 F = 1 C/V = 1 (A2 .Physics Derived SI Units Legal Units Outside the SI Derived SI units having special names and special unit symbols Physical quantity Plane angle Solid angle Frequency. m2) / (A .15 K 1 C = 1K 1 H = 1 V .s 1 V = 1 J/C = 1 (kg . s3) / (kg . quantity of heat Power. s2) 1 J = 1 N . s = 1 kg . work. m2 / s3 1C = 1A. s/ A Legal units outside the SI Physical quantity Unit name Round angle Gon Degree Minute Second Litre Minute Hour Day Year Ton Bar Unit symbol 1) Definition 1 perigon = 2 rad 1 gon = ( / 200) rad 1 = ( /180) rad 1’ = (1/60) 1’’ = (1/60)’ 1 l = 1 dm3 = (1/1000) m3 Plane angle gon ’ ’’ l min h d a t bar 2) 2) 2) Volume Time 2) 2) 2) 2) 1 min = 60 s 1 h = 60 min = 3600 s 1 d = 24 h = 86 400 s 1 a = 365 d = 8760 h 1 t = 103 kg = 1 Mg 1 bar = 105 Pa Mass Pressure 1) A symbol for the round angle has not been internationally determined 2) Do not use with prefixes Siemens MD · 2009 33 . m = 1 W . m2) 1 = 1 V/A = 1 (kg . s4) / (kg . heat flow Electric charge Electric potential Electric capacitance Electric resistance Electric conductance Celsius temperature Inductance SI unit Name Radian Steradian Hertz Newton Pascal Joule Watt Coulomb Volt Farad Ohm Siemens degrees Celsius Henry S C H rad sr Hz N Pa J W C V F Relation 1 rad = 1 m/ m 1 sr = 1 m2 / m2 1 Hz = 1 s1 1 N = 1 kg . m2) 0 C = 273. m2 / s2 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 kg . s3) 1 3 1S = 1 = 1 (A2 . mechanical stress Energy. m/ s2 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 = 1 kg / (m .
: moment of a force. moment of resistance L.U. : Right angle (L) : 1L + p rad 2 Centesimal degree (g) : 1g + 1 gon Centesimal minute ( c) : 1 c + 1 gon 100 c cc cc Centesimal second ( ) : 1 + 1 100 Solid angle sr (steradian) N.U.A. mm.: formerly: geometrical moment of inertia L.: m. cm3. dm2.U.: mm4. km2 are (a): 1 a = 102 m2 hectare (ha): 1 ha = 104 m2 L. etc.A. cm3 N.: Units no longer allowed N.: Further legal units N.: mm3. cm2.U. N. cm4 N.U.A.: L.: Basic unit L.U.U. mrad Plane angle rad (radian) Degree ( o) : 1 o + p rad 180 o Minute ( ) : 1 + 1 60 Second ( ) : 1 + 1 60 Gon (gon) : 1 gon + p rad 200 N. : mrad. cm.: 1 rad = 1 m (arc) 1m = = 1m/m 1 m (radius) 1m l Length 3 A V H Area Volume Moment of area Second moment of area 1 rad 1 degree + 1 o + p rad 180 90 o + p rad 2 L. dm3 litre (l): 1 l = 1 dm3 N. dm.: 1 sr = 1 m2 (spherical surface) 1 m2 (square of spherical radius) = 1 m2 m2 34 Siemens MD · 2009 .Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Lengths and Their Powers Physical quantities and units of lengths and their powers Symbol Physical quantity SI unit Symbol Name m (metre) m2 (square metre) m3 (cubic metre) m3 m4 Note N.: mm2.: mm3.: micron ( ): 1 = 1 m Ångström (Å): 1 Å = 1010 m L. km.
m/h.: Basic unit L. mg.: ns.: cm/s.: Units no longer allowed N.: min1 = 1/min L. t/m2 m m’ Mass per unit length Mass in relation to the surface kg/m m’’ kg/m2 Siemens MD · 2009 35 . Periodic frequency Rotational frequency (speed) Velocity Acceleration.: mg/m. Normal gravity (gn): gn = 9.U. s.: l/s. Volume flow rate L. ms.U. km/s.: m’’ = m/A L.: Reciprocal value of the duration of one revolution L. Mg ton (t): 1 t = 1000 kg N. dm3/s. linear Gravity Angular velocity Angular acceleration Hz (Hertz) s1 n v m/s m/s2 m/s2 a g rad/s rad/s2 m3/s L.U.: Note L.U.: Basic unit L.: g. g. d. THz Hertz (Hz): 1 Hz = 1/s N. GHz. Duration s (second) 3 f Frequency. g/m2.U.: Timerelated velocity L.Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Time and of Mechanics Physical quantities and units of time Symbol Physical quantity SI unit Symbol Name Note N. MHz.U.U.: Further legal units N. ks Minute (min): 1 min = 60 s Hour (h): 1 h = 60 min Day (d): 1 d = 24 h Year (a): 1 a = 365 d (Do not use prefixes for decimal multiples and submultiples of min. h. l/min. Period.: kHz.: g/mm2.U.A.80665 m/s2 9.: Gravity varies locally. g/km In the textile industry: Tex (tex): 1 tex = 106 kg/m = 1 g/km N.: m’ = m/l L.U.6 N.: Units no longer allowed N.U. etc. Physical quantities and units of mechanics Symbol Physical quantity Mass SI unit Symbol Name kg (kilogram) N. l/h.: L.: rad/min L. km/h 1 km h + 1 m s 3.A.: /s2 V .: Further legal units N.U.: cm/s2 N.U.81 m/s2 t Time. a) L. m3/h.U.
N.: r = m/V L. t . m2. mmHg. kNm.U.: kpm. etc.322 Pa = 133. etc.322 Pa 760 1 mWS = 9806. kNm.U.322 N/m2 r Density Mass moment of inertia. 1 N = 1 kg m/s2 N.Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics Physical quantities and units of mechanics (continued) Symbol Physical quantity SI unit Symbol Name kg/m3 Note N.: Nm. t/m3.U. etc. MN. mbar N.: kp/cm2. second mass moment Rate of mass flow Force Weight Torque Bending moment 3 J m F G M.: L.: Weight = mass acceleration due to gravity L.: Bar (bar): 1 bar = 100 000 Pa = 105 Pa bar. T Mb .U. kg/s N (Newton) N (Newton) Nm Nm p Pressure Pa (Pascal) pabs pamb Absolute pressure Ambient atmospheric pressure Pressure above atmospheric Direct stress (tensile and compressive stress) Shearing stress Extension Pa (Pascal) Pa (Pascal) Pa (Pascal) pe = pabs pamb pe N/m2 L. MN. m2 L. mm/m Siemens MD · 2009 N/m2 m/m 36 .: kg . mmWS.: kg/h.65 Pa = 9806.: N/mm2 1 N/mm2 = 106 N/m2 = 1 MPa L. cm/m.A. mN. etc. Torr 1kp/cm2 = 1 at = 0. kpmm.: N/mm2 N. L. m2 Instead of the former flywheel effect GD2 2 GD 2 in kpm 2 now : J + GD 4 L. kpcm. GN.: L. N. etc. pcm.: g . N. ata.A.: g/cm3. Ncm. Mg/m3.: kN.A. atü.U.A.: Further legal units N.A.980665 bar 1 atm = 101 325 Pa = 1. MNm.: 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 L.: l/l m/m.U.65 N/m2 1 mmHg = 133.U.U. pmm. etc. kg/l 1g/cm3 = 1 kg/dm3 = 1 Mg/m3 = 1 t/m3 = 1 kg/l N.U.: Nmm.U.: kp (1 kp = 9.. L. at.01325 bar 1 Torr + 101325 Pa + 133. mNm.U. kN.: Units no longer allowed N. t/h L.: kpm.: N.80665 N) N.U. kg/dm3.
A.6 MJ N. TJ N.A. GJ. kJ/s. N.: cal.49875 W 1 kpm/s = 9.A.: 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 Nm/s L. kJ. kJ/h.16 W 1 hp = 745.1 Pa .U. mW.: 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws L.: mK The degrees Celsius ( C) is a special name for the degrees Kelvin (K) when stating Celsius temperatures. kW.: Units no longer allowed N. kWh 1 kWh = 3.: Further legal units N.: Units no longer allowed N.: Further legal units N.: PS.: mm2/s.: Note L. cm2/s N.15 K = 100 C L. T t Celsius temperature Heat.: Poise (P): 1 P = 0. s. The temperature interval of 1 K equals that of 1 C. etc. 860 kcal = 1 kWh N.U. cp = thermal conductivity = density of the body a Temperature conductivity m2/s W / (m .: Basic unit 273.: dPa . kJ. Dynamic viscosity Kinematic viscosity Pa .A.70 W N. etc. W Physical quantity Work Energy SI unit Symbol Name Note N.: mJ. A E.U. kcal 1 cal = 4. MJ. s L.U.A. s m2/s Physical quantities and units of thermodynamics and heat transfer Symbol Physical quantity Thermodynamic temperature SI unit Symbol Name K (Kelvin) N.: C Q J 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws L.: 1 Pa .U. MJ/h. TJ.U.: W.U. K) = specific heat capacity at constant pressure Siemens MD · 2009 37 . mPa . K) r kg/ m3 cp J / (kg .: mJ. Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Physical quantities and units of mechanics (continued) Symbol W. kcal a= r . Quantity of heat N. kpm/s. cal.: kpm.15 K = 0 C 373. GJ.: L. kcal/h 1 PS = 735. s = 1 Ns/m2 L.81 W 1 kcal/h = 1. MJ.Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics. MW.: Stokes (St): 1 St = 1/10 000 m2/s 1cSt = 1 mm2/s J (Joule) 3 P Power W (Watt) Heat flow Q .A.1868 J. s N.U.A.
K). s .: Reciprocal of electric resistance 1 S = 1 1 = 1 / .: pF.U. etc.A. G = 1 / R L. m) L. kS Q U R (Ohm) S (Siemens) G C Electric capacitance F (Farad) 1 F = 1 C/V = 1 A . grd) 4. MV.A.: kcal/deg.: Temperature unit/length unit ratio L. kcal/ K L. s/V = 1 A2 . K) J / (K . nC.U.: Further legal units N.A.U.: pC.U. mA. MJ. m . mm / (m . K) 1 J / (K .: m / (m .: Basic unit L.: S. m / (s . C. A2) = 1 N . A) L.: V. deg) N.: .: Temperature unit/volume ratio N. mS.: kJ/K N. Mcal.: pA. K) N.U. = 1 N . kA. K) N. kg) = W .: Note L. A) = 1 A . etc. Siemens MD · 2009 38 . grd). 1 J/K = 1 Ws/K = 1 Nm/K L. etc. K) = K1 N.A.U.2 kJ / (m2 . etc. 1C = 1A.: W / (cm2 .A.: kJ. A2) L. grd). k .: H 3 s Entropy J/K h c Heat transfer coefficient Specific heat capacity Coefficient of linear thermal expansion Coefficient of volumetric expansion W / (m2 .: cal. kcal / (kg . F. K). kJ / (m2 . 1 = 1 V / A = 1 W / A2 1 J / (s . Heat Transfer and Electrical Engineering Physical quantities and units of thermodynamics and heat transfer (continued) Symbol Physical quantity Enthalpy (Heat content) SI unit Symbol Name J N.: m3 / (m3 . s / (kg . kV. N.: cal / (cm2 . Quantity of electricity Electric voltage Electric resistance Electric conductance SI unit Symbol Name A (Ampere) C (Coulomb) V (Volt) N.: Units no longer allowed Quantity of heat absorbed under certain conditions L.U.U.U.: Note L. K) m3 / (m3 .: cal / (g . m / (s . mV. etc. kg) l K1 v K1 Physical quantities and units of electrical engineering Symbol I Physical quantity Current strength Electric charge.: Heat capacity referred to mass N. nA.: Units no longer allowed N.A.Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics. etc.U. m / (m . A. h . etc. grd) kcal / (m2 .U. cm / (m . s2 / J = 1 A2 . K).: Further legal units N. K) = K1 N. h . N.s 1 Ah = 3600 As L. s / W = 1 A2 .U.A. kC 1 V = 1 W / A = 1 J / (s . s2 / (N . h .
sr L. 1 1 asb + p cd m 2 N.00 + 255.A.: Note L.38 ) 5 @ t F 9 TK + 5 @ TR 9 Degrees Celsius C tC t C + T K * 273.00 + 32.01 C.: Apostilb (asb): Nit (nt): Stilb (sb): lm (Lumen) lx (Lux) 1 nt = 1 cd / m2 1 sb = 104 cd / m2 N.67 0.00 + 459. Temperature comparison of F with C Siemens MD · 2009 39 .U.: cd / cm2.U. mcd/m2.67 Degrees Rankine R TR TR + 9 @ TK 5 TR + 9 5 t c ) 273. Different Measuring Units of Temperature Physical quantities and units of lighting engineering Symbol Physical quantity Luminous intensity Luminous density.78 0.67 ) t F Comparison of some temperatures 0.Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Lighting Engineering.15 17.: 3 L 1 Im = 1 cd .: Units no longer allowed Basic unit 1 cd = 1 lm (lumen) / sr (Steradian) L.00 + 0. Luminance Luminous flux E Illuminance SI unit Symbol Name cd (Candela) cd / m2 N.00 459.67 + 491.15 273.15 t C + 5 t F * 32 9 t C + 5 T R * 273.67 + 491.25 hPa).01 + 100.U.15 T R + 459. The triple point of pure water is the equilibrium point between pure ice.67 5 t F + 32 ) 9 @ t C 5 t F + T R * 459.A.15 9 Degrees Fahrenheit F tF t F + 9 @ T K * 459.69 + 671.15 ) t C T K + 255. kcd L.: klm 1 lx = 1 lm / m2 Different measuring units of temperature Kelvin K TK T K + 273.: Further legal units N.: mcd.16 + 373. airfree water and water vapour (at 1013.02 + 212.15 + 273.67 1) 1) 1) The triple point of water is + 0.37 + 273.00 + 32. etc.00 0.U.
45 mm 1 saschen = 2.3048 0.281 .29 83.y. 1012 km 1 parsec (parallax second.376 mm Other measures of length of the metric system France: 1 toise = 1.0929 0. werst = = = = 0.452 mm2 1 sq surveyor’s link = 0.0254 m 1 mil = 1 thou = 0.001 in = 0.02778 0.306 m2 = 0.2 0.7112 m 1 werst = 1.01 1 Other square measures of the Imperial system 1 sq mil = 1 .047 a 1 acre = 4 rood = 40.0005067mm 2 4 (circular area with 1 mil dia.3 1853.29 m2 1 sq chain = 16 sq rod = 4.3030 m 1 ken = 1.609 1.8361 259 2.5 1550 sq ft 1 9 sq yd 0.46 .3861 dm2 0.0925 ha 1.8684 1 1.0254 0.48 m 1 rod = 1 perch = 1 pole = 25 surv link = 5.9917a = 15.853 10 6 0.08333 1 3 5280 6080 3. distances to the stars) = 3.59 0.Physics Measures of Length and Square Measures Measures of length Unit 1 in 1 ft 1 yd 1 stat mile 1 naut mile 1 mm 1m 1 km = = = = = = = = Inch in 1 12 36 63 360 72 960 0.307 km) 1 internat.01 sq in = 6.01 1 100 10000 0.138 km2 Japan: 1 tsubo 1 se 1 hori = 3.2 m 1 stat league = 3 stat miles = 4. archin 1 kwadr.1076 10.829 m 1 engineer’s chain = 100 eng link = 100 ft = 30.12 m 1 furlong = 1000 surv link = 201.927 km Other measures of length of the Imperial system 1 microin = 106 in = 0.0006452 mm2 1 sq line = 0.196 119.54 mm 1 fathom = 2 yd = 1.5396 1 1000 106 1 German statute mile = 7500 m 1 geograph.496 .61 0.281 3281 Yard yd 0.01 1 100 10000 m2 a ha km2 1 0.37 39 370 Foot ft 0.121 km) Astronomical units of measure 1 lightsecond = 300 000 km 1 l. 103 1.1111 1 sq mile cm2 6.094 1094 Stat mile Naut mile mm 25. (lightyear) = 9.24 km2 p 1 circular in + sq in + 5.26 l.9144 1609.4 m = 4 arc minutes at the equator (1 at the equator = 111.01196 1.6214 0.06452 9. 1 astronomical unit (mean distance of the earth from the sun) = 1.0254 mm 1 line = 0. nautical mile 1 German nautical mile (sm) 1 mille marin (French) = 1852 m = 1 arc minute at the degree of longitude (1 at the meridian = 111.949 m 1 myriametre = 10 000 m Russia: 1 werschok = 44.155 15.03937 39.452 929 8361 1 100 10000 0.0668 km Japan: 1 shaku = 0.828 km Square measures Unit 1 square inch 1 square foot 1 square yard 1 square mile 1 cm2 1 dm2 1 m2 1a 1 ha 1 km2 = = = = = = = = = = sq in 1 144 1296 0.76 1076 0.067cm 2 (circular area with 1 in dia. 103 3.47 a 1 township (US) = 36 sq miles = 3.01 1 100 10000 0. mile = 7420.4 m 0.) 4 p 1 circular mil + sq mil + 0.5522 m2 1. 106 sq in = 0.1 in = 2.029 m 1 surveyor’s chain = 100 surv link = 20.6 0.4 304.) Other square measures of the metric system Russia: 1 kwadr.5058 m2 4.y.04047 m2 1 sq rod = 1 sq perch = 1 sq pole = 625 sq surv link = 25.42 km2 40 Siemens MD · 2009 . 108 km Typographical unit of measure: 1 point (p) = 0.8 914.001 1 1000 km 3 1 1.152 0.1336 m 1 arschin = 0.094 .001 1 0.818 m 1 ri = 3.3333 1 1760 2027 1. saschen 1 dessjatine 1 kwadr.01 1 100 0.
201 0.8 426.e.36 277.78 .27 2.648 .102 377.39 dm3 (l) 0.552 cm3 1 Imp fl oz = 8 fl drachm = 0.685 .016 106 0.273 l 1 Imp peck = 4 pottles = 9.38 kg (CIS) 1 berkowetz = 163. 106 9. 1 in lb = 0.5 gallons = 119. 106 367. 1 therm (English) = 105.84 .36 2.3 860 1 0.1855 . 106 2.24 l 1 US liquid barrel = 31.785 1.481 202 0.4 0. 109 37.8929 1 1 1000 106 kg 0.3768 106 27. 103 1 1.5682 l 1 Imp quart = 2 pints = 1. mostly given in long tons.9863 1 1.3002 1.02832 0.55 .2 1016 0.8929 1 17.05 0.8326 3.92 672.113 Nm.5506 l 1 US dry quart = 2 dry pints = 1.014 .087 .9 .1605 0.04464 45359 0. 106 kWh 0.0508 0.5 .04536 0.8 907. 106 37.8326 0.77 .807 1 3.092 l 1 Imp bushel = 4 pecks = 36. 103 . 106 9. 1 tdw = 1016 kg Energy.0616 cm3 (USA) 1 US fl dram = 60 minims = 3. 109 1055 107. 106 . 103 1.0625 16 1 1600 1792 32000 35840 100 112 2000 2240 0.7355 0.625 m3 1 Imp minim = 0.0592 cm3 (GB) 1 Imp fl drachm = 60 minims = 3.95 kg 1 kilopound = 1kp = 1000 lb = 453.163 .05 19. Btu 1. 103 94.205 0. 109 7.12 20 22. 103 2510 2545 3413 3.2 0.2659 g (CIS) (CIS) 1 lot = 3 solotnik = 12.136 4. quantity of heat Work 1 ft lb 1 erg 1 Joule (WS) 1 kpm 1 PSh 1 hph 1 kWh 1 kcal 1 Btu = = = = = = = = = ft lb erg .1383 0.35 kg 1 short quarter = 1/4 short cwt = 11.653 .02957 l 1 US gill = 4 fl oz = 0. 106 632. 106 273. kcal 0.03342 0.0648 g 1 stone = 14 lb = 6.1365 l 1 lmp gallon = 4 quarts = 4.4536 45.003906 1 0.4 3785 1136 4546 1 1000 106 3 1 US minim = 0. 1 thermi (French) = 4.7457 1 1.01442 24. Quantity of Heat Cubic measures Unit 1 cu in 1 cu ft 1 cu yd 1 US liquid quart 1 US gallon 1 Imp quart 1 Imp gallon 1 cm3 1 dm3 (l) 1 m3 = = = = = = = = = cu in 1 1728 46656 57.5643 0.51 .0833ft lb = 0.057 1057 US gallon 7.02841 l 1 Imp gill = 5 fl oz = 0. 106 26.6 kg 1 solotnik = 96 dol = 4.5121 106 73.101 l 1 US peck = 8 dry quarts = 8.92 807. 109 3.8 l (for crude oil) 1 US cord = 128 cu ft = 3.02835 0. 106 0. 106 . 109 4186.4 . 109 100 . 1012 948. 103 1.05 50802 1 1.8 .102 0.2642 264.001 1 m3 0.03527 0.25 1 0.01968 = 35270 2205 22. 106 1. 109 2.4732 l 1 US liquid quart = 2 liquid pints = 0. 1012 2.1 . hph 0.5 641.505 .56 1.1183 l 1 US liquid pint = 4 gills = 0.072 kpcm. 1015 372.01639 28.25 1 0. 106 J Common in case of piston engines: 1 litreatmosphere (litre .142 l 1 Imp pint = 4 gills = 0. 106 26. i.75 231 69.331 1 4 0.286 . 1015 277.02205 0.8 kg 1 kwan = 100 tael = 1000 momme = 10000 fun = 3.3 35.725 .6 0.12 0.4 .02 61023 cu ft 1 27 0.6 1.002205 = 564.25 . atmosphere) = 98.98 . 1012 .7376 10 .559 .7 . 106 J.9 1 4 1.36 50.Physics Cubic Measures and Weights. 106 1 0.233 98.75 kg (J) (J) 1 hyaku kin = 1 picul = 16 kwan = 60 kg (J) tdw = tons dead weight = lading capacity of a cargo vessel (cargo + ballast + fuel + stores). Energy.6 398.94 l Weights Unit 1 dram 1 oz (ounce) 1 lb (pound) = = = dram 1 16 256 oz lb short cwt long cwt short ton long ton g 1.1337 0.35 453.056 0. 106 270 .01 1 1.68 (GB) (GB) (USA) (GB / USA) (USA) (F) (USA) 1.03531 35.48 .696 cm3 1 US fl oz = 8 fl drams = 0.2 . work.804 1.008929 0.87 20 1 short cwt (US) = 25600 1 long cwt (GB/US) = 28672 1 short ton (US) = 1 long ton (GB/US) = 1g 1kg 1t = 0.32 764.8 0. 1015 1 0.7 kg 1 quintal or 1 cental = 100 lb = 45.785 l 1 US dry pint = 0. 1012 2.04014 0.0625 0.953 .36 kg 1 quintal = 100 livres = 48.00177 0.229 168.7646 946. 103 392.301 .76 .968 1 1 13. 1012 238 . 103 293 . 103 41.9 .2082 0.341 1.9464 3.704 . 109 10.067 J Siemens MD · 2009 41 .001 1 1000 0.9842 1 grain = 1 / 7000 lb = 0.6 10. Work.811 l 1 US bushel = 4 pecks = 35.581 .31 US liquid quart 0.85 .001 1 t 0.88 880 Imp gallon 6.409 kg (CIS) 1 pud = 40 funt = 16.5461 l 1 lmp pottle = 2 quarts = 2.356 0.324 103 23.07 .8 .22 220 cm3 16.9072 1.87 .01732 29.2 Imp quart 0. 106 0.201 4.9464 l 1 US gallon = 4 liquid quarts = 3.4 0.37 l 1 Imp quarter = 8 bushels = 64 gallons = 290.9 778.06102 61.2 l 1 US barrel = 42 gallons = 158.772 28.6 0. 103 3.001 1 1000 106 0.252 1 in oz = 0.34 kg 1 long quarter = 1/4 long cwt = 12. J = Nm = Ws 106 kpm PSh .344 .7978 g (CIS) 1 funt = 32 lot = 0.546 0.655 36 3.
136 0.6 10332 1 Torr = 1 mm = QS at 0 C 1 atm (pressure of the = atmosphere) 1 lb/sq ft 1 lb/sq in = 1 psi 1 long ton/sq in (GB) = = = 1. 107 PS .36 1. Energy Flow.5 0.3591 1 96.1341 1.665 W. 109 1010 41.00133 1013 1.22 1422 0.341 .6 0.278 0.0703 157.06 1 0.Physics Power.102 0. 1 pièce (pz) (French) = 1 sn/m2 102 kp/m2. Velocity Power. 103 13.04 102 426.0114 1 Siemens MD · 2009 42 .622 0. flyweel effect: 1 kgm2 = 3418 lb in 2 Pressure and tension Unit 1 b = daN 1 mbar = cN/cm2 1 bar = daN/cm2 1 WS at 4 C 1 p/cm2 kp/m2 = 1mm = = = = = bar mbar = = cN/ dN/m2 cm2 1 1000 106 98.055 0.0005 1.9807 10000 98.415 23.92 mile/h 2.4788 68 948 68.12 1 14.7 0.102 1 75 76.02 1020 0. 107 7.0145 14.807 735.001 1 1000 bar = daN/ cm2 kp/m2 kp/cm2 mm p/cm2 = at WS 0.341 5.07 980. 1 barye (French) = 1 b. 109 7.239 0.78 2.4 . 109 W 107 1 9.9807 980.8 0.1 1 1000 105 1. 1 micron (USA) = 0. 1012 103 239 .595 kg/dm3.1 70.882 0.00689 N / mm2 1 N/m2 (Newton/m2) = 10 b.6 0.344 .1758 0.72 3. 1012 Btu/s 3 0.406 51.7457 0.804 .0064 0.6 .7501 0.333 0.0183 1.692 5.0072 0. 103 2.33 .5 140.87 .1 144 1 2240 2000 1 0.7068 1 0.296 .187 1 3. 103 1 0. 103 13.968 1.82 km/h 3.807 .9 107. 103 9. heat flow Power 1 erg/s 1W 1 kpm/s 1 PS (ch) 2) 1hp 1 kW 1 kcal/s 1 Btu/s = = = = = = = = erg/s 1 107 9.71 1 short ton/sq = in (US) 1 psi = 0.614 1. i.4 136. 106 9.7 478.279 54.9 4.9678 73556 1 760 0.0051 0.575 1. 106 948.457 .089 2089 0.305 26. Heat Flow.001 1 100 0.0142 14.7112 1 kp/cm2 = 1 at = (technical atmosphere) 1 kp/mm2 = 0. Velocity Unit m/s m/min km/h ft/min mile/h = = = = = m/s 1 0.1 0.4882 703.0373 0.07 106 13.7355 0. 0 inches Hg = 760 mm QS and 29.02 0.0102 750.609 ft/min 196. 1 hpz = 100 pz = 1.6 1.15 .55 .0001 0. 109 hp .36 1033 1.048 2048 0. “inches Hg” are calculated from the top. 108 10.001 Torr.033 0.355 .36 . The specific gravity of mercury is assumed to be 13.7356 735.4 137. Pressure and Tension. 109 kW 1010 kcal/s .0167 0. 103 0.6972 0.2 10197 1 10 1.8929 0.9484 4.7 98067 1333 0.645 1 87.5 745.785 0.014 1 1.001 1 10.92 inches Hg = 0 mm QS = absolute vacuum.9869 2.447 m/min 60 1 16.001 mm QS = 0.9863 1.e.0102 kp/ mm2 Torr = mm QS atm lb sq ft lb sq in long ton sh ton sq in sq in 0.252 1 1 poncelet (French) = 980.95 0.2048 0.67 0.434 1.237 0.9 94.0689 154.013 2.068 152.31 0.02 kp/m2.103 1.635 0.00136 1.1782 0. In the USA.7 1000 4187 1055 kpm/s 0.84 .01 1 0.01934 2116 1 0. energy flow.
ö s v+s t s = v. t2 = 2 2 force . motion accelerated from rest: 3 = . h Ek + J @ w2 2 FF = m . second power of velocity M = J. motion accelerated from rest: a = 2s v = = t 2s t2 v2 = t = 2 2 = 2 t2 Velocity Circumferential speed Distance moved Uniform motion and constant force or constant torque Work m/s m/s m v v s v+a@t+ 2 a@s w+a@t v+r@w+r@a@t s = a .a Momentum (kinetic energy) equals half the mass .s work in unit of time = force . work in unit of time = torque . torque = second mass moment . angle of rotation in radian measure J W W = F. g . t2 t1 = t = const.Physics Equations for Linear Motion and Rotary Motion Definition Uniform motion Velocity Angular velocity Angle of rotation Distance moved Uniformly accelerated motion Acceleration Angular acceleration SI Symunit bol Basic formulae Linear motion distance moved divided by time Rotary motion angular velocity = angle of rotation in radian measure/time = 2 1 m/s rad/s rad m v v = s2 t2 s1 t1 = s t = const. second power of the angular velocity J J N Ek Ep FF Ek + m @ v2 2 weight . velocity W = M. height Ep = G . 2 (rs = centreofgravity radius) 43 . t = 2 . h = m .t acceleration equals change of velocity divided by time ö w+ t angle of rotation t angular acceleration equals change of angular velocity divided by time = 2 1 m/s2 rad/s2 a a = v2 t2 v1 t1 = v t = const. distance moved torque . 2 v . Kinetic energy due to rotation equals half the mass moment of inertia . t2 t1 = t = const. angular velocity Power Nonuniform (accelerated) motion Force In case of any motion Energie Potential energy (due to force of gravity) Centrifugal force Siemens MD · 2009 W P P+W+F@v t accelerating force = mass . angular acceleration N F F = m. v2 t = t = 2 2 2a angle of rotation = 2 . rs . acceleration P+W+M@w t accel.
Table of Contents Section 4 Mathematics / Geometry Calculation of Areas Calculation of Volumes Page 45 46 4 44 Siemens MD · 2009 .
1 ] + 256 a + b s + a ( 2 ) 1) Siemens MD · 2009 45 . = a. _ a = b.16 @ r 2 2 4 = r2 . Parallelogram A+a@h Circle A = d2 . h2 + b .785 @ d 2 U+2@r@p + d@p Trapezium A+m@h Circular ring A+ p @ (D 2 * d 2) 4 m = a+b 2 + (d ) b) b @ p b = D 2 r2 . h3 2 Rectangle A+a@b d + a2 ) b2 Formed area A + r (2 3 * p) 2 [ 0. _ b = 180_ r2 2 360_ Equilateral triangle a2 A+ 3 4 d+ a 3 2 Circular segment A = _. 180_ sin + 1 r (b * s) ) sh 2 a s + 2 r sin 2 s h = r (1 cos ) = tan 2 2 4 ^ Hexagon 3 .. a2 .d. 4 D+d .. 4 a = A h [ 0.Mathematics / Geometry Calculation of Areas A = area Square A = a2 a+ A d+a 2 U = circumference Polygon A + A1 ) A2 ) A3 = a ..h 2 2 A h .r 2 r. d Triangle A = a. 3 A = 2 d+2@a s+ 3@a 180_ ^ b+r@a = _. Circular sector A = = . .. U 2 U + p (a ) b) 1 ) A = 1 4 a b 2 a b 4 1 + a+b 64 a + b a b 6 . h1 + b . Ellipse Octagon A + 2a 2 ( 2 ) 1) d+a 4)2 2 D.b.
h 6 (3 a2 + 3 b2 + h2) (Cavalier principle) M+2@r@p@h . h Prismatoid V + h (A 1 ) A 2 ) 4A) 6 2 46 Siemens MD · 2009 .h 3 Spherical segment V = h 3 2 s ) h2 4 + p h2 r * h 3 M+2@r@p@h p + (s 2 ) 4h 2) 4 6 V + 2 @ h @ r2 @ p 3 Frustum of pyramid V= h 3 (A1 + A2 + A 1 @ A 2) Spherical sector .m (D + d) M = 2 +2@p@p@h V = m = D 2 d 2 + h2 Square prism V+a@b@c O + 2 (ab ) ac ) bc) d + a2 ) b2 ) c2 Sphere V + 4 r3 p + 1 @ d3 p 3 6 [ 4. 4 (D2 d2) Barrel V = h. Pyramid V = A.h (D2 + D d + d2) 12 . d2 4 M+2@r@p@h O + 2 @ r @ p @ (r ) h) O + D @ d @ p2 Hollow cylinder V = h. 12 (2 D2 + d2) Cone 3 M+r@p@m O + r @ p @ (r ) m) m+ h2 ) d 2 V = r2 .Mathematics / Geometry Calculation of Volumes V = volume Cube V + a3 O + 6 @ a2 d+a 3 O = surface M = generated surface Frustum of cone . 2 . O = r 2 (4 h + s) Cylinder V = d2 .189 @ r 3 O + 4 p @ r2 + p @ d2 4 Parallelepiped Spherical zone V+A@h V= . . 4 h Cylindrical ring V = D .
Table of Contents Section 5 Mechanics / Strength of Materials Axial Section Moduli and Axial Second Moments of Area (Moments of Inertia) of Different Profiles Deflections in Beams Values for Circular Sections Stresses on Structural Members and Fatigue Strength of Structures Page 48 49 50 51 5 Siemens MD · 2009 47 .
1098 r4 axis 11 = axis of centre of gravity 48 Siemens MD · 2009 .5756 r with e = r 1 3 W1 + I1 1 = /8 8 / (9 ) r4 = 0.5413 R 3 W1 = for e = 6b2 + 6bb1 + b2 1 2 h 12 (3b + 2b1) 1 3b + 2b1 3 2b + b1 h I1 + I2 + 5 16 3 R 4 + 0.1908 r 3 4 = 0.625 R 3 8 I 1 + bh 3 36 I 2 + hb 3 48 5 W 2 + 0.Mechanics / Strength of Materials Axial Section Moduli and Axial Second Moments of Area (Moments of Inertia) of Different Profiles Crosssectional area Section modulus W 1 + bh 2 6 Second moment of area I 1 + bh 3 12 I 2 + hb 3 12 W 2 + hb 2 6 W1 + W2 + a3 6 I 1 + I 2 + a 4 12 W 1 + bh 2 24 for e + 2 h 3 W 2 + hb 2 24 W1 + 5 3 R + 0.5413 R 4 1 = 6b2 + 6bb1 + b2 1 3 h 36 (2b + b1) W1 = BH3 6H bh3 1 = BH3 12 bh3 W 1 + W 2 + p D 3 32 [ D 3 10 I 1 + I 2 + p D 4 64 [ D 4 20 W1 = W2 = D4 32 D d4 I1 + I2 + p (D 4 * d 4) 64 or in case of thin wall thickness s: W 1 + W 2 + I (r ) s 2) [ psr 2 I 1 + I 2 + psr 3 1 ) (s 2r) 2 [ psr 3 W 1 + pa 2b 4 W 2 + pb 2a 4 I 1 + pa 3b 4 I 2 + pb 3a 4 p 3 (a b * a3 b2) 2 4 1 1 W1 + I1 a1 I1 + or in case of thin wall thickness s: s + a 1 * a 2 + b 1 * b 2 + 2 (a * a 2) + 2 (b * b2) W1 [ p a (a ) 3b) s 4 I1 [ p 2 a (a ) 3b) s 4 e + 0.
Mechanics / Strength of Materials Deflections in Beams
f, fmax, fm, w, w1, w2 a, b, l, x1, x1max, x2 E q, q0
Deflection (mm) Lengths (mm) Modulus of elasticity (N/mm2) Line load (N/mm)
w (x) = FB = F w (x) = ql4 8E 1 4 3
.
, 1, 2, A, B Angles ( ) Forces (N) F, FA, FB Second moment of area (mm4) (moment of inertia)
x 3 l f= Fl3 3E tan = Fl2 2E
Fl3 3E
1
3 2
.
x l
+
1 2
x l
+
1 3
x 4 l
f=
ql4 8E
tan
=
ql3 6E
FB = q . l w (x) = FB = q0l4 4 5. x l + x 5 l f= q0l4 30E tan = q0l3 24E
120E q0 . l 2
w (x) =
16E F FA = FB = 2
w1 (x1) =
Fl3 . x l
1
4 3
x 2 l
x
l 2
f=
Fl3 48E
tan
=
Fl2 16E
5
Fl3 . a l 6E Fl3 . b l 6E
l b 2 x1 1+ b l l l a 2 x2 1+ a l l
x2
1
ab x2 2 ab
x1
a
f=
Fl3 3E
a 2 b 2 f l tan 1 = 1+ 2a l l b l+b 3b l+b f l tan 2 = 1+ 3a a 2b
w2 (x2) =
x1max + a (l ) b) 3a for a > b change a and b for a < b
x2
b fmax = f
FA = F
w (x) =
b l
FB = F
a l
1 x 2 3 l 1 a 2 3 l f= Fl3 2E a 2 1 l 4.a 3 l tan 1 = 2E Fl2 . a 1 l a l
a Fl3 . x a 1 l 2E l l x = a l/2 x Fl3 . a x 1 w (x) = l 2E l l a x l/2 FA = FB = F Fl3 1 x1 3 3 l
fm =
8E
Fl3 . a 1 l
4 a 2 3 l
tan 2 =
2E
Fl2 . a a 1 2 l l
2 a a a x1 a 2 + 1+ . 1+ 3 l l l l l 2E Fl2 . a a Fl3 a 2 2 a x1 a tan 1 = 1+ f= 1+ . l 2E l l l 2E 3 x2 Fl3 . a . x2 Fl3 . a Fl2 . a 1 w2 (x2) = x2 l fm = tan 2 = l 2E l l 8E l l 2E FA = FB = F w1 (x1) = w1 (x1) = w2 (x2) = 6E Fl3 . a . x1 l l 1 x1 2 l l x1 x2 2 l x2 f= a Fl3 3E a a 2 1+ l l Fl3 9 3E tan
.
tan A = a l
6E
Fl2 . a l
Fl3 . x2 2a 3a . x2 + l l l l 6E a a FB = F 1 + FA = F l l
fmax =
tan B = 2 tan A Fl2 . a a = 2+3 l l 6E
w (x) = FA =
24E q.l 2
ql4 . x l
1
2
x 2 l FB =
+
x 3 l
0
x
l
fm =
5ql4 384E
tan
=
ql3 24E
q.l 2
Siemens MD · 2009
49
Mechanics / Strength of Materials Values for Circular Sections
Axial section modulus: Polar section modulus: Axial second moment of area (axial moment of inertia): Polar second moment of area (polar moment of area):
d mm 6 7 8 9 10 11 A cm2 0.293 0.385 0.503 0.636 0.785 0.950 1.131 1.327 1.539 1.767 2.011 2.270 2.545 2.835 3.142 3.464 3.801 4.155 4.524 4.909 5.309 5.726 6.158 6.605 7.069 8.042 9.079 10.179 11.341 12.566 13.854 15.205 16.619 18.096 19.635 21.237 22.902 24.630 26.421 28.274 30.191 32.170 34.212 36.317 38.485 40.715 43.008 45.365 47.784 50.265 52.810 55.418 58.088 60.821 63.617 66.476 70.882 78.540 86.590 95.033 Wa cm3 0.0212 0.0337 0.0503 0.0716 0.0982 0.1307 0.1696 0.2157 0.2694 0.3313 0.4021 0.4823 0.5726 0.6734 0.7854 0.9092 1.0454 1.1945 1.3572 1.5340 1.7255 1.9324 2.1551 2.3944 2.6507 3.2170 3.8587 4.5804 5.3870 6.2832 7.2736 8.3629 9.5559 10.8573 12.2718 13.9042 15.4590 17.2411 19.1551 21.2058 23.3978 25.7359 28.2249 30.8693 33.6739 36.6435 39.7828 43.0964 46.5890 50.2655 54.1304 58.1886 62.4447 66.9034 71.5694 76.4475 84.1726 98.1748 113.6496 130.6706 cm4 0.0064 0.0118 0.0201 0.0322 0.0491 0.0719 0.1018 0.1402 0.1986 0.2485 0.3217 0.4100 0.5153 0.6397 0.7854 0.9547 1.1499 1.3737 1.6286 1.9175 2.2432 2.6087 3.0172 3.4719 3.9761 5.1472 6.5597 8.2448 10.2354 12.5664 15.2745 18.3984 21.9787 26.0576 30.6796 35.8908 41.7393 48.2750 55.5497 63.6173 72.5332 82.3550 93.1420 104.9556 117.8588 131.9167 147.1963 163.7662 181.6972 201.0619 221.9347 244.3920 268.5120 294.3748 322.0623 351.6586 399.8198 490.8739 596.6602 718.6884
a
Wa =
d3 32 . d3 Wp = 16 . d4 a = 64
. p
Area: Mass: Density of steel: Second mass moment of inertia (mass moment of inertia):
d mm 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 A cm2 103.869 113.097 122.718 132.732 143 139 153.938 165.130 176.715 188.692 201.062 213.825 226.980 240.528 254.469 268.803 283.529 298.648 314.159 346.361 380.133 415.476 452.389 490.874 530.929 Wa cm3 149.3116 169.6460 191.7476 215.6900 241.5468 269.3916 299.2981 331.3398 365.5906 402.1239 441.0133 482.3326 526.1554 572.5553 621.6058 673.3807 727.9537 785.3982 909.1965 1045.3650 1194.4924 1357.1680 1533.9808 1725.5198 1932.3740 2155.1326 2650.7188 3216.9909 3858.6612 4580.4421 5387.0460 6283.1853 7273.5724 8362.9196 9555.9364 10857.3442 12271.8463 13804.1581 15458.9920 17241.0605 19155.0758 21205.7504 23397.7967 25735.9270 28224.8538 30869.2894 33673.9462 36643.5367 39782.7731 43096.3680 46589.0336 50265.4824 54130.4268 58188.5791 62444.6517 66903.3571 71569.4076 76447.5155 81542.3934 86858.7536 92401.3084 98174.7703 cm4 858.5414 1017.8760 1198.4225 1401.9848 1630.4406 1895.7410 2169.9109 2485.0489 2833.3269 3216.9909 3638.3601 4099.8275 4603.8598 5152.9973 5749.8539 6397.1171 7097.5481 7853.9816 9546.5638 11499.0145 13736.6629 16286.0163 19174.7598 22431.7569 26087.0491 30171.8558 39760.7820 51471.8540 65597.2399 82447.9575 102353.8739 125663.7060 152745.0200 183984.2320 219786.6072 260576.2608 306796.1572 358908.1107 417392.7849 482749.6930 555497.1978 636172.5116 725331.6994 823549.6636 931420.1743 1049555.8389 1178588.1176 1319167.3201 1471962.6056 1637661.9830 1816972.3105 2010619.2960 2219347.4971 2443920.3207 2685120.0234 2943747.7113 3220623.3401 3516585.7151 3832492.4910 4169220.1722 4527664.1126 4908738.5156
a
A = m =
.
d2 d2 . . l r kg dm3 32
J/ I kgm2/m 0.134791 0.159807 0.188152 0.220112 0.255979 0.296061 0.340676 0.390153 0.444832 0.505068 0.571223 0.643673 0.722806 0.809021 0.902727 1.004347 1.114315 1.233075 1.498811 1.805345 2.156656 2.556905 3.010437 3.521786 4.095667 4.736981 6.242443 8.081081 10.298767 12.944329 16.069558 19.729202 23.980968 28.885524 34.506497 40.910473 48.166997 56.348573 65.530667 75.791702 87.213060 99.879084 113.877076 129.297297 146.232967 164.780267 185.038334 207.109269 231.098129 257.112931 285.264653 315.667229 348.437557 383.695490 421.563844 462.168391 505.637864 552.103957 601.701321 654.567567 710.843266 770.671947
4
.
4
r = 7.85 J=
.
=
d4 32
.
J/ I kgm2/m 0.000001 0.000002 0.000003 0.000005 0.000008 0.000011 0.000016 0.000022 0.000030 0.000039 0.000051 0.000064 0.000081 0.000100 0.000123 0.000150 0.000181 0.000216 0.000256 0.000301 0.000352 0.000410 0.000474 0.000545 0.000624 0.000808 0.001030 0.001294 0.001607 0.001973 0.002398 0.002889 0.003451 0.004091 0.004817 0.005635 0.006553 0.007579 0.008721 0.009988 0.011388 0.012930 0.014623 0.016478 0.018504 0.020711 0.023110 0.025711 0.028526 0.031567 0.034844 0.038370 0.042156 0.046217 0.050564 0.055210 0.062772 0.077067 0.093676 0.112834
d4 . l . r
Mass / I kg/m 0.222 0.302 0.395 0.499 0.617 0.746 0.888 1.042 1.208 1.387 1.578 1.782 1.998 2.226 2.466 2.719 2.984 3.261 3.551 3.853 4.168 4.495 4.834 5.185 5.549 6.313 7.127 7.990 8.903 9.865 10.876 11.936 13.046 14.205 15.413 16.671 17.978 19.335 20.740 22.195 23.700 25.253 26.856 28.509 30.210 31.961 33.762 35.611 37.510 39.458 41.456 43.503 45.599 47.745 49.940 52.184 55.643 61.654 67.973 74.601
Mass / I kg/m 81.537 88.781 96.334 104.195 112.364 120.841 129.627 138.721 148.123 157.834 167.852 178.179 188.815 199.758 211.010 222.570 234.438 246.615 271.893 298.404 326.148 355.126 385.336 416.779 449.456 483.365 554.884 631.334 712.717 799.033 890.280 986.460 1087.572 1193.617 1304.593 1420.503 1541.344 1667.118 1797.824 1933.462 2074.032 2219.535 2369.970 2525.338 2685.638 2850.870 3021.034 3196.131 3376.160 3561.121 3751.015 3945.840 4145.599 4350.289 4559.912 4774.467 4993.954 5218.374 5447.726 5682.010 5921.227 6165.376
5
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 95 100 105 110
270 572.555 280 615.752 300 706.858 320 804.248 340 907.920 360 1017.876 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 960 980 1000 1134.115 1256.637 1385.442 1520.531 1661.903 1809.557 1693.495 2123.717 2290.221 2463.009 2642.079 2827.433 3019.071 3216.991 3421.194 3631.681 3848.451 4071.504 4300.840 4536.460 4778.362 5026.548 5281.017 5541.769 5808.805 6082.123 6361.725 6647.610 6939.778 7238.229 7542.964 7853.982
50
Siemens MD · 2009
Mechanics / Strength of Materials Stresses on Structural Members and Fatigue Strength of Structures
Diffusion of stress in structural members: loading types
static Maximum stress limit: Mean stress: Minimum stress limit:
dynamic s o + s sch s m + s sch 2 su + 0
alternating so + ) sw sm + 0 su + * sw
oscillating so + sm ) sa s m + s v (initial stress) su + sm * sa
Ruling coefficient of strength of material for the calculation of structural members: Resistance to Fatigue strength under Fatigue strength under Resistance to breaking Rm fluctuating stresses Sch alternating stresses W deflection A Yield point Re; Rp0.2 Coefficients of fatigue strength D
Stressnumber diagram
Stressnumber curve Stress Damage curve Endurance limit Fatigue limit Fatigue strength under alternating stresses Example: TensionCompression Coefficients of strength
Fatigue strength diagram acc. to SMITH
Resistance to breaking Rm Yield point Re
5
Resistance to deflection A Fatigue strength under fluctuating stresses Sch Mean stress m
Number of cycles to failure N
In case of stresses below the damage curve initial damage will not occur to the material. Reduced stress on the member sv Permissible stress sperm. =
Alternate area / Area of fluctuation
Design strength of the member sD . b0 . bd S . ßk
with:
D
b bd ßk S
= ruling fatigue strength value of the material = surface number ( 1) = size number ( 1) = stress concentration factor ( 1) = safety (1.2 ... 2)
Reduced stress v with: = single axis bending stress For the frequently occurring case of com= torsional stress bined bending and torsion, according to = constraint ratio according to Bach the distortion energy theory: Alternating bending, dynamic torsion: 0.7 1.0 Alternating bending, alternating torsion: s v + s 2 ) 3 (a 0t) 2 1.6 Static bending, alternating torsion:
For bending and torsion Surface roughness Rt in m Surfaces with rolling skin Resistance to breaking of the material Rm
for tension/ compression bd = 1.0
Diameter of component d
Surface number b0
Size number bd
Siemens MD · 2009
51
Heilbronn) Hydrodynamics (Source: K. Gieck. Technische Formelsammlung. 29th edition.Table of Contents Section 6 Hydraulics Hydrostatics (Source: K. Gieck. Heilbronn) Page 53 54 6 52 Siemens MD · 2009 . Technische Formelsammlung. Gieck Verlag. Gieck Verlag. 29th edition.
e. Buoyance The buoyant force FA is equal to the weight of the displaced fluids having densities r and r’. FA + g r V ) g r V FA [ g r V (N. FV is equal to the weight of the fluid having a volume V located (a) or thought to be located (b) over the surface 1 . without consideration of pressure p0.2 is resolved into a horizontal component FH and a vertical component FV.i.2 perpendicular to FH. s xy Siemens MD · 2009 53 . xD = xy ysA m.2. kN) If the fluid with density r’ is a gas. the following applies: For rk density of the body applies: r > rk the body floats in the liquid r = rk the body is suspended r < rk the body sinks S D = = = = centre of gravity of plane A centre of pressure moments of inertia product of inertia of plane A referred to the x.and yaxes x. mm 6 Hydrostatic force of pressure on curved surfaces The hydrostatic force of pressure on the curved surface 1 . The line of application runs through the centre of gravity. kN) FH is equal to the hydrostatic force of pressure on the projection of surface 1 . FV + g r V (N. F + g r y s A cos a + g r h s A yD = x y sA = ys + s ys A .Hydraulics Hydrostatics Pressure distribution in a fluid p1 + p0 ) g r h1 P 2 + p 1 ) g r (h 2 * h 1) + p 1 ) g r Dh Linear pressure Hydrostatic force of pressure on planes The hydrostatic force of pressure F is that force which is exerted on the wall by the fluid only . kN) (N.
62 for sharpedged openings) ( = 0. p 2 rü p 2 rü V+öeA v: g: r: pü: : : discharge velocity gravity density excess pressure compared to external pressure coefficient of friction (for water = 0.97) coefficient of contraction ( = 0. V : volume flow rate b: width of opening Siemens MD · 2009 54 . . p 2 ( g H ) rü ) p 2 ( g H ) rü ) Vessel with excess pressure on outlet V+öeA v+ö .97 for smoothrounded openings) F: force of reaction .Hydraulics Hydrodynamics Discharge of liquids from vessels Vessel with bottom opening v+ö 2 gH V+öeA 2 gH Vessel with small lateral opening v+ö 2 gH s+2 Hh (without any coefficient of friction) V+öeA 2 gH F+rVv Vessel with wide lateral opening . 6 V + 2 e b 2 g (H 2 3 . 3 2 * H1 3 2 ) Vessel with excess pressure on liquid level v+ö . .
Table of Contents Section 7 Electrical Engineering Basic Formulae Speed. Power Rating and Efficiency of Electric Motors Types of Construction and Mounting Arrangements of Rotating Electrical Machinery Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Contact and Foreign Bodies) Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Water) Page 56 57 58 59 60 7 Siemens MD · 2009 55 .
73 .83 4.35 1. U .50 0..061 0.0 48 36 18 2.0164 0.7.32 15.30 1.5 9.055 0.43 0.0 7. Retort graphite r mm2 m 0.0278 1.02083 0.12 Series connection of resistors: R + R 1 ) R 2 ) R 3 ) AAA ) R n R + total resistance W R n + individual resistance W Shunt connection of resistors: 1 + 1 ) 1 ) 1 ) AAA ) 1 R R1 R2 R3 Rn R + total resistance W R n + individual resistance W Electric power: Power Direct current Current consumption 36 0.0769 0.4 18.033 0.069 0.92 2.015 0.107 0. U .10 43.05556 0.73 .01724 0.32 5.5 58 22 14.962 0.063 0.13 0. .15.02778 0.84 13 6.04 61 7.09 0.Electrical Engineering Basic Formulae Ohm’s law: U+I@R I+U R R+U I g Material m mm2 a) Metals Aluminium Bismuth Lead Cadmium Iron wire Gold Copper Magnesium Nickel Platinum Mercury Silver Tantalum Tungsten Zinc Tin b) Alloys Aldrey (AlMgSi) Bronze I Bronze II Bronze III Constantan (WM 50) Manganin Brass Nickel silver (WM 30) Nickel chromium Niccolite (WM 43) Platinum rhodium Steel wire (WM 13) Wood’s metal c) Other conductors Graphite Carbon.046 0. cos = P 1.7 1.54 Singlephase alternating current P = 1.9 3. cos = P U . cos Threephase current 30.43 0. cos 0.3 7 P+U@I I+P U P=U .85 0. homog.2 16.20 0.5 8.045 0.2066 0. .023 0.1 0.135 0.0 2.0.r l R= = ..A A R = resistance ( ) l = length of conductor (m) = electric conductivity (m/ mm2) A = cross section of conductor (mm2) r = specific electrical resistance ( mm2/m) 56 Siemens MD · 2009 ..33 0.2 0.014 22 65 70 Resistance of a conductor: l.
h Efficiency: h+ P ab 1) @ 100 % P zu Example: Efficiency and power factor of a fourpole 1. U . I . h Threephase current: Pab = 1. cosö .1kW motor and a 132kW motor dependent on the load 7 Power factor cos Efficiency 132kW motor 1. Power Rating and Efficiency of Electric Motors Speed: n = f . cosö . 60 p Power rating: Output power 1) n = speed (min1) f = frequency (Hz) p = number of pole pairs Example: f = 50 Hz. I .Electrical Engineering Speed. I . Singlephase alternating current: Pab = U . 60 2 = 1500 min1 Direct current: Pab = U . p = 2 n = 50 .1kW motor Power output P / PN 1) Pab = mechanical output power on the motor shaft Pzu = absorbed electric power Siemens MD · 2009 57 .73 .
feet on RH side when looking at input side fastening on ceiling installation on substructure with additional flange B6 with feet B7 with feet 7 B8 with feet B 35 with feet Machines with end shields. access from housing side Design / Explanation Fastening or Installation V1 2 end shields without feet flanged at the bottom V3 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields without feet flanged at the top V5 with feet fastening to wall or on substructure fastening to wall or on substructure Siemens MD · 2009 V6 with feet 58 . if necessary end shields turned through 90 design B3. if necessary end shields turned through 90 design B3. access from housing side design B3. access from housing side mounting flange close to bearing on input side.Electrical Engineering Types of Construction and Mounting Arrangements of Rotating Electrical Machinery Types of construction and mounting arrangements of rotating electrical machinery (Extract from DIN EN 50347) Machines with end shields. vertical arrangement Design Symbol Figure Bearings Stator (Housing) Shaft free shaft end at the bottom free shaft end at the top free shaft end at the bottom free shaft end at the top Explanation General design mounting flange close to bearing on input side. access from housing side flanged wall fastening. feet on LH side when looking at input side wall fastening. if necessary end shields turned through 180 mounting flange close to bearing. horizontal arrangement Design Symbol B3 Figure Bearings 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields Explanation Stator (Housing) with feet without feet Shaft free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end General design Design / Explanation Fastening or Installation installation on substructure B5 mounting flange close to bearing.
3) For degree of protection 5. however. dust may not enter to such an amount that operation of the equipment is impaired (dustproof). the respective expert commission is responsible for the application of this table for equipment with drain holes. wires or similar objects having a thickness above 2. protection of persons against contact with live parts Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 12 mm (mediumsized foreign bodies) 1) Keeping away of fingers or similar objects Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 2. e. The ingress of dust is not entirely prevented.g.Electrical Engineering Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Contact and Foreign Bodies) Types of protection for electrical equipment (Extract from DIN EN 60529) Example of designation Designation DIN number Code letters First type number Second type number An enclosure with this designation is protected against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 1 mm and of splashing water.5 mm (small foreign bodies) 1) 2) Keeping away tools. wires or similar objects having a thickness above 1 mm Protection against harmful dust covers. uniformly or nonuniformly shaped foreign bodies with three dimensions perpendicular to each other and above the corresponding diameter values are prevented from ingress. 3) Complete protection against contact Protection against the ingress of dust (dusttight) Complete protection against contact Type of protection DIN EN 60529 IP 4 4 7 2 3 4 5 6 1) For equipment with degrees of protection from 1 to 4. by hand. Siemens MD · 2009 59 . Degrees of protection for protection against contact and foreign bodies (first type number) First type number 0 1 Degree of protection (Protection against contact and foreign bodies) No special protection Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 50 mm (large foreign bodies) 1) No protection against intended access.5 mm Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 1 mm (grain sized foreign bodies) 1) 2) Keeping away tools. 2) For degrees of protection 3 and 4. the respective expert commission is responsible for the application of this table for equipment with drain holes or cooling air slots. however.
It may not have any harmful effect (hosedirected water). Protection against heavy sea or strong water jet. It may not have any harmful effect (spraying water). Protection against dripping water falling vertically. No harmful quantities of water may enter the equipment (enclosure) (immersion). however. It may not have any harmful effect (dripping water).Electrical Engineering Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Water) Types of protection for electrical equipment (Extract from DIN EN 60529) Example of designation Designation DIN number Code letters First type number Second type number An enclosure with this designation is protected against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 1 mm and of splashing water. It may not have any harmful effect (splashing water). Degrees of protection for protection against water (second type number) Second type number 0 1 No special protection Protection against dripping water falling vertically. The equipment (enclosure) is suitable for permanent submersion under conditions to be described by the manufacturer (submersion). Protection against water spraying on the equipment (enclosure) from all directions. For certain equipment. water may enter provided that it has no harmful effect. No harmful quantities of water may enter the equipment (enclosure) (flooding). 1) Degree of protection (Protection against water) Type of protection DIN EN 60529 IP 4 4 7 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1) This degree of protection is normally for airtight enclosed equipment. Protection against a water jet from a nozzle which is directed on the equipment (enclosure) from all directions. Protection against water if the equipment (enclosure) is immersed under determined pressure and time conditions. 60 Siemens MD · 2009 . It may not have any harmful effect on equipment (enclosure) inclined by up to 15 relative to its normal position (diagonally falling dripping water). Protection against water falling at any angle up to 60 relative to the perpendicular.
and CopperZincTin Casting Alloys CopperAluminium Casting Alloys Aluminium Casting Alloys Lead and Tin Casting Alloys for Babbit Sleeve Bearings Conversion of Hardness Values Values of Solids and Liquids Coefficient of Linear Expansion IronCarbon Diagram Pitting and Tooth Root Fatigue Strength Values of Steels Heat Treatment During Case Hardening of Case Hardening Steels Page 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 70 71 71 72 72 73 74 75 76 77 77 77 78 8 Siemens MD · 2009 61 .Table of Contents Section 8 Materials Conversion of Fatigue Strength Values of Miscellaneous Materials Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Quenched and Tempered Steels GeneralPurpose Structural Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of GeneralPurpose Structural Steels Case Hardening Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Case Hardening Steels Cold Rolled Steel Strips Cast Steels for General Engineering Purposes Round Steel Wire for Springs Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron Nodular Graphite Cast Iron CopperTin.
8 .41 . Re 0. Rm 1.7 . Rm 0. Rm 0.25 .40 .g.40 . Rm 1.35 . for spring steel dSch 1. W 8 1) For polished round section test piece of about 10 mm diameter. Rm 1. W 0. Rm 1. e. bW 1. Re 0. Re 0.Materials Conversion of Fatigue Strength Values of Miscellaneous Materials Conversion of fatigue strength values of miscellaneous materials Material Tension W 3) Sch bW Bending bSch 1) bF W Torsion Sch 1) F Structural steel Quenched and tempered steel Case hardening steel 2) 0.3 .25 . W 0.6 . Sch For grey cast iron dSch 3 .7 . Re Grey cast iron Light metal 0.7 . bW 1.45 .7 .36 .30 .6 . Rm 1.4 .37 . W 0. W 0.3 .1 . determined on round section test piece of about 30 mm diameter. Re 0.5 . W 0. W 0. Rm 1. bW 0.30 .4 . Rm 1.6 . Rm 1. Re 0. bW 1. Rm 1.5 .7 .6 . Rm 1. Rm 1.7 . Sch Ultimate stress values Type of load Tension Bending Torsion Tensile strength Yield point Fatigue strength under alternating stresses Fatigue strength under fluctuating stresses Rm Re bF F W bW W Sch bSch Sch 62 Siemens MD · 2009 . w 0.4 . Rm 1.30 .41 . 3) For compression. 2) Casehardened.44 . Rm 0. Rm and Re of core material. Sch is larger.49 .
7220 34CrMoS4 1.2 (0.1191 1.7003 1.0402 1.6580 1050 1250 1450 1050 1250 1450 51CrV4 1.0535 1.7226 42CrMo4 1.7227 50CrMo4 1.1221 1. Re Rp 0. min.2 C22 C35 C45 C55 C60 C22E C35E C35R C45E C45R C55E C55R C60E C60R 28Mn6 38Cr2 46Cr2 34Cr4 34CrS4 37Cr4 37CrS4 41Cr4 41CrS4 1.2 (0.7037 1.6582 1000 1200 1400 800 1000 1200 900 1100 1300 700 900 1100 900 1100 30CrNiMo8 1.1201 1.Materials Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels Quenched and tempered steels (Extract from DIN EN 10083) Mechanical properties of steels in quenched and tempered condition Diameter Material up to 16 mm above 16 up to 40 mm Yield point above 40 up to 100 mm Yield point above 100 up to 160 mm Yield point above 160 up to 250 mm Yield point Symbol Yield point (0.2 Re Rp 0.2 Re Rp 0.1209 1.2 (0.1170 1. Rm Rm Rm Rm Rm Re Rp 0.7033 1.7039 350 430 500 550 580 350 430 430 500 500 550 550 580 580 590 550 650 700 700 750 750 550 630 700 800 700 780 850 950 300 370 430 500 520 300 370 370 430 430 500 500 520 520 490 450 550 590 590 630 630 660 660 600 650 650 500 600 650 750 800 500 600 600 650 650 750 750 800 800 690 700 800 800 800 650 750 800 900 950 650 750 750 800 800 900 900 950 950 840 850 950 950 950 320 320 370 370 430 430 450 450 440 350 400 460 460 510 510 560 560 450 550 550 650 650 700 700 550 550 630 630 700 700 750 750 640 600 650 700 700 750 750 800 800 700 800 800 700 700 780 780 850 850 900 900 790 750 800 850 850 900 900 950 950 850 950 950 400 500 500 550 550 650 600 700 650 750 750 800 800 800 900 900 950 950 450 450 500 500 550 550 600 700 600 700 700 700 750 750 800 750 800 850 850 900 900 950 900 950 320 370 430 450 550 630 700 750 700 780 850 900 850 1000 550 630 630 700 700 800 800 700 780 780 850 850 950 950 850 1000 850 1000 780 800 930 950 8 900 1100 900 1100 900 1100 950 1150 950 1150 850 1000 850 1000 900 1100 900 1100 800 950 800 1000 1200 800 1000 1200 700 900 1100 25CrMo4 1.1181 1. min.1203 1.7038 1.1223 1.0601 1.0501 1.8159 900 1100 1300 800 1000 1200 800 1000 1200 650 850 1000 900 1100 800 950 30CrMoV9 1.7034 1.0503 1.2 Num.1180 1.7218 34CrMo4 1.6511 800 1000 1200 800 1000 1200 900 1100 1300 900 1100 1300 900 1100 1300 900 1100 1300 900 1100 900 1100 750 1000 1200 750 1000 1200 780 1000 1200 800 1000 1200 900 1100 1300 900 1100 900 1100 900 1100 900 1100 850 1000 800 950 34CrNiMo6 1.Gr) N/mm2 ber min.2 Tensile Tensile Tensile Tensile Tensile (0. min.2 strength strength strength strength strength Gr) Gr) Gr) Gr) N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 min.7228 36CrNiMo4 1.7006 1.7225 42CrMoS4 1.1151 1.7707 1050 1250 1450 1020 1200 1450 900 1100 1300 800 1000 1200 900 1100 Siemens MD · 2009 63 .2 Re Rp 0.7035 1.
DIN EN 10083 (in quenched and tempered condition. C40. 32Cr2. test piece diameter d = 10 mm) a) Tension/compression fatigue strength c) Torsional fatigue strength 8 Quenched and tempered steels not illustrated may be used as follows: 34CrNiMo6 30CrMoV4 42CrMo4 36CrNiMo4 51CrV4 34CrMo4 28Cr4 C45 C22 like 30CrNiMo8 like 30CrNiMo8 like 50CrMo4 like 50CrMo4 like 50CrMo4 like 41Cr4 like 46Cr2 like C45E like C22E C60 and C50 lie approximately between C45E and 46Cr2. C30 and C25 lie approximately between C22E and C45E.Materials Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Quenched and Tempered Steels Fatigue strength diagrams of quenched and tempered steels. Loading type I: static Loading type II: dynamic b) Bending fatigue strength Loading type III: alternating Siemens MD · 2009 64 . C35.
U hotrolled. N U.0144 S275J2G3 St523U 1.. U N U. N 335 325 315 305 295 St702 1. to DIN EN 10025 S185 S235JR Treatment condition 1) Tensile strength Rm in N/mm2 for product thickness in mm <3 3 > 100 100 16 Upper yield point ReH in N/mm2 (minimum) for product thickness in mm > 16 40 > 40 63 > 63 80 > 80 > 100 100 ( in Germany ) Symbol Number St33 St372 1. 490.0114 S235JO St373N 1...0070 E360 U.. N 310.Materials GeneralPurpose Structural Steels Generalpurpose structural steels (Extract from DIN EN 10025) Material Symbol acc.0044 S275JR 235 360. 680 630 490.0143 S275JO St443N 1... N. untreated 2) This value applies to thicknesses up to 25 mm only Siemens MD · 2009 65 .. 770 710 690. 510 470 To be agreed upon 225 215 205 195 St443U 1..... 410. N U. 540 510 185 175 2) USt372 1.0116 S235J2G3 St442 1....0553 S355JO St523N 1.0037 U..0050 E295 430.... 470.0570 S355J2G3 St502 1...0060 E335 U. 670.0036 S235JRG1 RSt372 1. 340..0038 S235JRG2 St373U 1.. N 365 355 345 335 325 1) N normalized. 660 610 590. N U N U N U.. 570. 900 830 To be agreed upon 235 225 215 215 215 355 345 335 325 315 8 295 285 275 265 255 St602 1.... 290.. N U..0035 1. 580 560 275 265 255 245 235 510.
Materials Fatigue Strength Diagrams of GeneralPurpose Structural Steels Fatigue strength diagrams of generalpurpose structural steels. DIN EN 10025 (test piece diameter d = 10 mm) E360 E335 E295 S275 S235 E360 E335 E295 S275 S235 a) Tension/compression fatigue strength c) Torsional fatigue strength 8 E360 E335 E295 S275 S235 Loading type I: static b) Bending fatigue strength Loading type II: dynamic Loading type III: alternating 66 Siemens MD · 2009 .
295 295 355 355 355 440 590 590 685 685 590 590 685 635 785 785 Re N/mm2 min. 30 Yield point Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 For dia.0301 1.1121 1. 640 640 740 740 740 790 790 890 890 890 490 490 590 590 590 690 780 780 980 980 640 640 790 790 790 890 1080 1080 1280 1280 440 440 540 540 640 940 640 940 780 1080 780 1080 For details. Treatment condition C G BF BG Meaning treated for shearing load soft annealed treated for strength treated for ferrite/pearlite structure Siemens MD · 2009 67 .7131 1.6587 18CrNiMo76 1) Dependent on treatment.7015 1. see DIN EN 10084 510 635 635 735 735 635 635 735 685 835 835 780 1030 880 880 1080 1080 1180 1180 1380 1380 20MoCr4 1.7321 20MoCrS4 1. 11 Yield point Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 For dia. to DIN EN 10084 C10 C10E C15 C15E C15R 15Cr13 16MnCr5 16MnCrS5 20MnCr5 20MnCrS5 20MoCr4 20MoCrS4 25MoCrS4 15CrNi6 18CrNi8 Treatment condition Re N/mm2 min. the Brinell hardness is different.7147 1.5919 1.1141 1. 390 390 440 440 440 Re N/mm2 min.7325 15CrNi6 18CrNi8 1. Quality specifications (Extract from DIN EN 10084) Material Symbol Num( in ber Germany ) C10 Ck10 C15 Ck15 Cm15 15Cr13 16MnCr5 16MnCrS5 20MnCr5 20MnCrS5 1.7139 1.1140 1. 63 Yield point Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 Symbol acc.7149 1) For dia.0401 1.7323 25MoCrS4 1.5920 880 1180 880 1180 1080 1380 960 1280 1230 1480 1180 1430 780 1080 780 1080 980 1280 880 1180 1180 1430 1080 1330 540 685 685 780 1080 1080 1330 980 1280 8 17CrNiMo6 1.Materials Case Hardening Steels Case hardening steels.
test piece diameter d = 10 mm) a) Tension/compression fatigue strength c) Torsional fatigue strength 8 Case hardening steels not illustrated may be used as follows: 25MoCr4 like 20MnCr5 17CrNiMo6 like 18CrNi8 Loading type I: static Loading type II: dynamic b) Bending fatigue strength Loading type III: alternating Siemens MD · 2009 68 . DIN EN 10084 (Core strength after case hardening.Materials Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Case Hardening Steels Fatigue strength diagrams of case hardening steels.
0558 35 27 22 20 The mechanical properties apply to specimens which are taken from test pieces with thicknesses up to 100 mm.0552 1.2 Symbol Number N/mm2 min.1269 1. the yield point values also apply to the casting itself. for strip thicknesses up to 3 mm Cast steels for general engineering purposes (Extract from DIN 1681) Material Yield point Re.Materials Cold Rolled Steel Strips Cast Steels for General Engineering Purposes Cold rolled steel strips (Extract from DIN EN 10132) Material Symbol ( in Germany ) C55 Ck55 C60 Ck60 C67 Ck67 C75 Ck75 Ck85 Ck101 71Si7 67SiCr5 50CrV4 Number 1. in so far as the wall thickness is 100 mm.0605 1.0535 1.8159 Symbol acc.0420 1. 200 230 260 300 Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 min. 35 27 27 27 GS38 ( GE200 ) GS45 ( GE240 ) GS52 ( GE260 ) GS60 ( GE300 ) 1.1221 1.0601 1. 380 450 520 600 Notched bar impact work (ISOVnotch specimens) Av 30 mm 30 mm 1) 8 Mean value J min. to DIN EN 10132 C55 C55E C60 C60E C67 C67S C75 C75S C85S C100S 71Si7 67SiCr5 50CrV4 Tensile strength Rm 1) 2 maximum N/mm 610 620 640 640 670 690 800 800 740 1) Rm for cold rolled and softannealed condition. Siemens MD · 2009 69 .5029 1.1248 1.0446 1.1231 1. 1) Determined from three individual values each. Rp 0.0603 1.7103 1.1203 1. Furthermore.1274 1.
07 0.Materials Round Steel Wire for Springs Round steel wire for springs (Extract from DIN EN 10218) Diameter of wire mm 0.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1720 1520 1410 1320 1260 1210 1160 1120 1090 1060 1970 1750 1620 1520 1450 1390 1340 1300 1260 1230 2370 1980 1760 1630 1530 1460 1400 1350 1310 1270 1240 1210 1180 1160 1130 1110 1090 1070 1050 1030 1020 2650 2220 1970 1830 1730 1650 1580 1530 1480 1440 1400 1370 1340 1310 1280 1260 1230 1210 1190 1170 1150 1980 1840 1740 1660 1590 1540 1490 1450 1410 1380 1350 1320 1290 1270 1240 1220 1200 1180 1160 2200 2040 1930 1840 1770 1710 1660 1610 1570 1530 1500 1470 1440 1410 1390 1360 1340 1320 1300 Grade of wire A B C D Tensile strength Rm in N/mm2 2800 2660 2230 1980 1840 1740 1660 1590 1540 1490 1450 1410 1380 1350 1320 1290 1270 1240 1220 1200 1180 1160 3100 2940 2470 2200 2040 1930 1840 1770 1710 1660 1610 1570 1530 1500 1470 1440 1410 1390 1360 1340 1320 1300 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 70 Siemens MD · 2009 .
3 ENGJS40015U ENGJS5007U ENGJS6003U ENGJS7002U Siemens MD · 2009 ENJS1072 ENJS1082 ENJS1092 ENJS1102 GGG40 GGG50 GGG60 GGG70 71 . Nodular graphite cast iron (Extract from DIN EN 1563) Properties in caston test pieces Material Symbol acc.2 mm 40 70 40 70 40 70 40 70 40 70 N/mm2 N/mm2 390 370 390 370 450 420 600 550 700 650 250 240 250 240 300 290 360 340 400 380 8 Symbol Number ENGJS40018ULT ENJS1049 GGG40.Materials Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron Nodular Graphite Cast Iron Lamellar graphite cast iron (Extract from DIN EN 1561) Material Symbol ENGJL100 ENGJL150 Number ENJL1010 ENJL1020 Symbol acc. 2) Values in the separately cast test piece with 30 mm diameter of the unfinished casting.2% Thickness Tensile proof of caston strength stress test piece Rm Rp0. to DIN 1693 Wall thickness of casting mm from 30 up to 60 above 60 up to 200 from 30 up to 60 above 60 up to 200 from 30 up to 60 above 60 up to 200 from 30 up to 60 above 60 up to 200 from 30 up to 60 above 60 up to 200 0. 100 2) 130 110 95 80 180 155 130 115 225 195 170 155 270 240 210 195 315 280 250 225 225 205 250 235 265 250 285 265 285 275 600 HB 30 N/mm2 ENGJL200 ENJL1030 GG20 720 ENGJL250 ENJL1040 GG25 840 ENGJL300 ENJL1050 GG30 960 ENGJL350 ENJL1060 GG35 1080 The values apply to castings which are made in sand moulds or moulds with comparable heat diffusibility. to DIN 1691 GG10 GG15 Wall thicknesses in mm above 5 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 up to 40 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 Tensile Brinell Compressive strength 1) hardness strength 2) Rm 1) dB N/mm2 min. 1) These values are reference values.
Materials CopperTin and CopperZincTin Casting Alloys CopperAluminium Casting Alloys Coppertin and copperzinctin casting alloys (Extract from DIN EN 1982) Material Symbol CuSn12CGS CuSn12CGZ CuSn12CGC CuSn12NiCGS CuSn12NiCGZ CuSn12NiCGC CuSn12Pb2CGS CuSn12Pb2CGZ CuSn12Pb2CGC CuSn10CuGS CuSn7Zn4Pb7CGS CuSn7Zn4Pb7CGZ CuSn7Zn4Pb7CGC CuSn7Zn2Pb3CGS CuSn5Zn5Pb5CGS CuSn3Zn8Pb5CGS Number Symbol acc. to DIN 1714 GCuAl10Fe GKCuAl10Fe GZCuAl10Fe GCuAl9Ni GKCuAl9Ni GZCuAl9Ni GCuAl10Ni GKCuAl10Ni GZCuAl10Ni GCCuAl10Ni GCuAl11Ni GKCuAl11Ni GZCuAl11Ni Condition on delivery 0. to DIN 1705 GCuSn12 GZCuSn12 GCCuSn12 GCuSn12Ni GZCuSn12Ni GCCuSn12Ni GCuSn12Pb GZCuSn12Pb GCCuSn12Pb GCuSn10 GCuSn7ZnPb GZCuSn7ZnPb GCCuSn7ZnPb GCuSn6ZnNi GCuSn5ZnPb GCuSn2ZnPb Condition on delivery 0.2% Tensile proof stress 1) strength 1) Rp0.2% Tensile proof stress 1) strength 1) Rp0.2 min.2 min. in N/mm2 180 200 200 200 230 250 270 300 300 300 320 400 400 Rm min. in N/mm2 140 150 140 160 180 170 140 150 140 130 120 130 120 140 90 90 Rm min. in N/mm2 260 280 280 280 300 300 260 280 280 270 240 270 270 270 220 210 CC483K Sandmould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sandmould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sandmould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sandmould cast iron Sandmould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sandmould cast iron Sandmould cast iron Sandmould cast iron CC484K CC482K CC480K CC493K CC492K CC491K CC490K 8 1) Material properties in the test bar Copperaluminium casting alloys (Extract from DIN EN 1982) Material Symbol CuAl10Fe2CGS CuAl10Fe2CGM CuAl10Fe2CGZ CuAl10Ni3Fe2CGS CuAl10Ni3Fe2CGK CuAl10Ni3Fe2CGZ CuAl10Fe5Ni5CGS CuAl10Fe5Ni5CGM CuAl10Fe5Ni5CGZ CuAl10Fe5Ni5CGC CuAl11Fe6Ni6CGS CuAl11Fe6Ni6CGM CuAl11Fe6Ni6CGZ Number Symbol acc. in N/mm2 500 550 550 500 530 600 600 600 700 700 680 680 750 CC331G Sandmould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron Sandmould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron Sandmould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sandmould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron CC332G CC333G CC334G 1) Material properties in the test bar 72 Siemens MD · 2009 .
to DIN 17252 GAlCu4TiMg GAlCu4Ti GAlSi7Mg GAlSi10Mg GAlSi10Mg(Cu) GAlSi9Mg GAlSi10Mg GAlSi11 GAlSi12 GDAlSi12 GAlSi6Cu4 GDAlSi9Cu3 GAlSi9Cu3 GAlSi12(Cu) GDAlSi12(Cu) GAlMg3 GDAlMg9 GAlMg5 GAlMg5Si 0.2 in N/mm2 200 up to 220 180 up to 220 180 up to 210 80 up to 220 80 up to 200 180 up to 210 140 70 up to 80 70 up to 80 130 90 up to 100 140 90 up to 140 80 up to 90 140 70 130 90 up to 100 100 up to 110 Tensile strength Rm in N/mm2 300 up to 320 280 up to 330 230 up to 290 150 up to 240 160 up to 240 230 up to 290 240 150 up to 170 150 up to 170 240 150 up to 170 240 150 up to 240 150 up to 170 240 140 up to 150 200 160 up to 180 160 up to 180 8 Siemens MD · 2009 73 .Materials Aluminium Casting Alloys Aluminium casting alloys (Extract from DIN EN 1706) Material Symbol ACAlCu4MgTi ACAlCu4Ti ACAlSi7Mg ACAlSi10Mg(a) ACAlSi10Mg(Cu) ACAlSi9Mg ACAlSi10Mg(Fe) ACAlSi11 ACAlSi12(a) ACAlSi12(Fe) ACAlSi6Cu4 ACAlSi9Cu3(Fe) ACAlSi8Cu3 ACAlSi12(Cu) ACAlSi12Cu1(Fe) ACAlMg3(a) ACAlMg9 ACAlMg5 ACAlMg5(Si) Number AC21000 AC21100 AC42100 AC43000 AC43200 AC43300 AC43400 AC44000 AC44200 AC44300 AC45000 AC46000 AC46200 AC47000 AC47100 AC51100 AC51200 AC51300 AC51400 Symbol acc.2% proof stress Rp0.
2 in N/mm2 20 C 39 43 46 39 61 47 62 50 C 37 32 39 32 60 44 44 1) 100 C 25 30 27 27 36 27 30 1) Material properties in the test bar 8 74 Siemens MD · 2009 .2% proof stress Rp 0.3392 2.3390 2.3790 2.3791 2.3393 2.3391 2.Materials Lead and Tin Casting Alloys for Babbit Sleeve Bearings Lead and tin casting alloys for babbit sleeve bearings (Extract from DIN ISO 4381) Material Symbol PbSb15SnAs PbSb15Sn10 PbSb14Sn9CuAs PbSb10Sn6 SnSb12Cu6Pb SnSb8Cu4 SnSb8Cu4Cd Number 2.3792 Brinell hardness 1) HB 10/250/180 20 C 18 21 22 16 25 22 28 50 C 15 16 22 16 20 17 25 120 C 14 14 16 14 12 11 19 0.
9 45.3 46.5 45. e.1 (101) 24.5 90.102 D2 = 30 mm2 F N 255 270 285 305 320 335 350 370 385 400 415 430 450 465 480 495 510 530 545 560 575 595 610 625 640 660 675 690 705 720 740 755 770 785 800 820 835 850 865 880 900 915 930 950 965 995 1030 1060 1095 1125 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210 215 220 225 230 235 240 245 250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300 310 320 330 340 350 76.3 76.7 67.0 64.7 43.8 71.1 81.3 75. N/mm2 (F 98N) 0.0 78.2 62. ASTM E 1874 (American Society for Testing and Materials) 2) Calculated from HB = 0.4 67.1 47.0 52.7 52. 1) Internationally usual.6 54.9 75.8 57.0 32.5 94.3 64.2 61.2 41.8 78.8 71.4 62.0 85.0 56.4 35.8 75.2 75.0 67.4 84.6 44.3 61.8 84.7 69.8 59.3 74.7 76.2 95.3 73.6 37.7 38.3 58.0 96.0 46.1 76.5 64.6 78.8 81.4 76.9 63.3 75.3 56.6 80.0 68.0 87.7 98. to DIN EN 10109 Part 1 Determination of Vickers hardness acc.6 54.9 68.2 29.7 76.1 63.8 72.5 63.3 60.8 66.0 77.8 80.3 53.3 81.5 79.6 41.0 95.5 58.6 62.8 74.2 43.95 HV (Vickers hardness) Determination of Rockwell hardness HRA.1 20.3 80.8 70.8 50.7 65.2 82.7 85.4 49.8 57.5 70.4 83.6 74.8 64. Furthermore.5 63.8 73.2 55.5 48.1 46.1 54.6 68.3 34.8 53.1 60.9 47.1 42.1 99.7 55.4 50.4 49.1 51.7 69. to DIN 50133 Part 1 Determination of Brinell hardness acc. HRB.9 79. however.7 85.3 33.7 23.8 65.4 78.5 68.2 64.5 93.7 40.7 63.8 39.1 84.2 51.5 51.6 76.8 58.g.5 85.2 79. in practice are frequently used as approximate values.5 91.1 51.Materials Conversion of Hardness Values (DIN EN ISO 18265) Tensile strength Vickers hardness Brinell hardness 2) Rockwell hardness HRB HRC HRA HRD 1) Tensile strength Vickers hardness Brinell hardness 2) Rockwell hardness HRC HRA HRD 1) .8 (102) 25.9 66.8 65.3 70.1 43.3 72.3 56.1 72.5 72.8 105 109 114 119 124 128 133 138 143 147 152 156 162 166 171 176 181 185 190 195 199 204 209 214 219 223 228 233 238 242 247 252 257 261 266 271 276 280 285 295 304 314 323 333 41.6 26.9 1155 1190 1220 1255 1290 1320 1350 1385 1420 1455 1485 1520 1555 1595 1630 1665 1700 1740 1775 1810 1845 1880 1920 1955 1995 2030 2070 2105 2145 2180 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 342 352 361 371 380 390 399 409 418 428 437 447 (456) (466) (475) (485) (494) (504) (513) (523) (532) (542) (551) (561) (570) (580) (589) (599) (608) (618) 36.0 61. and HRD acc.0 48.3 44.3 57.8 59.4 77.5 63.5 22.0 83.8 42.102 D2 = 30 mm2 F N . to DIN EN 10002 Part 1 and Part 5 Siemens MD · 2009 75 .0 80.0 80.8 31.0 53.3 65. to DIN EN 10003 Part 1 Determination of tensile strength acc.2 69.1 27.4 55.5 67.6 73.0 69.2 58.8 70.1 89.0 56.4 69.3 66.3 73.3 21.7 85.2 65.0 52.0 62.2 62.1 49.1 70.8 41.0 99.5 29.7 71.6 83.5 74.2 59.7 77.4 (104) 27.7 81.8 82. N/mm2 (F 98N) 0.5 47.4 65.1 8 67.7 60.0 24.5 64.4 67.9 64.4 60. HRC.8 40.0 78.8 62.3 46.8 (105) 28.0 67.9 The figures in brackets are hardness values outside the domain of definition of standard hardness test methods which.5 92.8 66.3 61.0 96.7 44.2 66.3 68.1 61.7 61.7 48. the Brinell hardness values in brackets apply only if the test was carried out with a carbide ball.4 71.1 74.5 62.7 56.
8 1490 69.25 455 4.. pure Diesel oil Glycerine Resin oil Fuel oil EL Linseed oil Machinery oil Methanol Methyl chloride Mineral oil Petroleum ether Petroleum Mercury Hydrochloric acid 10% Sulphuric acid.. monoclinic Barytes Selenium.5 126 8.87 29 2.92 8..0..4 34.31 156 24 22.....96 119 0.2 6.94 30.1 1800 69 7.79 630 6..29 150.54 797 0.28 18..8 2000 81 0.2. dry Sandstone Brick..47 0..5...14 25..8 1600 11.6 950 104.26 7..23 1..2 2300 106 1...6 2.5 5.0.13 250 0..) Borax Limonite Bronze Chlorine calcium Chromium Chromium nickel Delta metal Diamond Iron..1 300..2 10.1..91 0.7 1450 26 1.5 2.5 8.8 1480 9.. fire Slate Emery Sulphur.6.23 7.14 210.86 1530 81 0.3 3.7 1133 28 6.2 232 65 6.. common Coke Constantan Corundum (AL2O3) Chalk Copper Leather.83 0.0.5 960 407 2..5 7.2 1.6.52 39 58 12.6 2.95 0.3 2..8 9.73 0..5 1670 15..7 0.1 1890 31.24 3800 168 7.1700 0.13 357 10 102 0.2 0.2.7 1800 38 4.5 2450 59.6 110 2.8 950 38 1.3.96 0.4 0.2...380 0.12..3.100 0..89 5 700 21 3175 71 12.9 0..6.07 112. pure Grease Gallium Germanium Gypsum Glass.9.9 1565 8.45 2.1..95 125 0.85 0.1 19. natural Beryllium Concrete Lead Boron (amorph.58 2.1 960 2.8.2..6 1500.9 1460 47.1..17 7.15 802 1.9.26 0.4.5 2500 12 1552 70..42 0..1 0.92.13 1.14 2.7 1020 48 8..1.1.16 > 360 0.8 271 8.7.8 1300 19.7 3.64 321 92.8 0.5 900 116 10.1.145..55 1..65 1000 159 1...3.94 C 20 15 15 15 20 20 20 20 15 15 15 20 20 20 20 15 15 20 Hg Thermal Boiling point at conductivity 1.9..14 > 150 0.17 14.7 658 204 7.6 2990 54 6..33 1420 83 3.6.517 g/cm3 Substance (solid) Porcelain Pyranite Quartzflint Radium Rhenium Rhodium Gunmetal Rubidium Ruthenium Sand.5 1770 70 1. red Silver Silicon Silicon carbide Sillimanite Soapstone (talcous) Steel.15 290 0.83 1.5 4 2200 11.69 2.210 0.93 0.27 1.83 0.6..7 1040 128 6.3 1960 88 8.35 1.4.28 8. alloyed Manganese Marble Red lead oxide Brass Molybdenum Monel metal Sodium Nickel silver Woods Indium Iridium In Ir Cd K Ca Co Cu Li Mg Mn Mo Na Ni Nb Os Pd P Pt Nickel Niobium Osmium Palladium Paraffin Pitch Phosphorus (white) Platinum Polyamide A. plain + lowalloy stainless nonmagnetic Tungsten steel 18W Hard coal Strontium Tantalum Tellurium Thorium Titanium Tombac Clay Uranium 99.615 2.34.74 657 157 1.35 0.17 380.84 0.13 4.8. crude Cobalt Salt.1 0....0.83 650 69.400 0.013MPa at 20 C C W/(mK) 35 0.7 1.5.335 8..9.2.13 > 40 0.9 11..2 1.5 338 0.24 2.2.12 15..43 22.23 16.26 1.184 8.0..10..81 2.5 1650 1 3.1.4 2572 0.73 2300 1.9 29.14 316 0..55 850 3.8 1300 0.5 1500 2.2.21 24 0..72 740 3.8 3.34 Ra Re Rh Rb Ru S S Se Ag Si Sr Ta Te Th Ti U V Bi W Cs Ce Zn Sn Zr 2.5 80.32 936 58.1.8.2 774 7..400 34.15 0..2.3 1200 0.86 419 110 7.22 76 Siemens MD · 2009 .58 7.91 0.86 63...2 8..59 704 3. window Mica Gold Granite Graphite Grey cast iron Laminated fabric Hard rubber Hard metal K20 Symbol Density r g/cm3 Al Sb As Ba Be Pb B Melting point t in C Thermal conductivity at 20 C W/(mK) Mean density of the earth = 5..8..3 2000 1..9 0..5 1850 22 Substance (liquid) Ether Benzine Benzole.43 1250 30 2.9 52 0..98 97.29 1063 310 2.65 2 1 11.9....2.83 44 21..4 220 0.4 7.8.93. hard Cerium Zinc Tin Zirconium Symbol Density r g/cm3 Melting point t in C Thermal conductivity at 20 C W/(mK) Cr C Fe Ga Ge Au C 8 Cadmium Potassium Limestone Calcium Calcium oxide (lime) Caoutchouc.8 8.8 1290 2.8 0..81 13.4 1.45.67 1.72 2.2 3410 130 1. B 2. dry Lithium Magnesium Magnesium.1 0.83 910 64 2.14.25 0..698 3..8 0.2 2....5. rhombic Sulphur.7 2000 0.6 2415 54..5 1580 4.4 2.9 1450 14 8 1450 16.85 1280 1.7 8.4 1816 1.1.15 > 175 0.99% Vanadium Soft rubber White metal Bismuth Wolfram Cesium Cement.Materials Values of Solids and Liquids Values of solids and liquids Substance (solid) Agate Aluminium Aluminium bronze Antimony Arsenic Asbestos Asphaltum Barium Barium chloride Basalt.3 1800 8.53 179 71 1.125 65 0.13 80 0.35 19.1.69.3 327.2 2600 145 8. strong Silicon fluid Symbol Density r at g/cm3 0.05 1.89 1600 23.4 1430 52.2 1.2.5 700 0.9 1083 384 0.20 2.175 0..67 630 22.3 8.75 5.7 3.4 2050 12..72 0.2.25 1200 58 1.2.66 0..209 5.6 1480 0..300 0..9 1452 59 8.6 0.5 1300 1.
+ sec.cem.5 11.cem.5 Ironcarbon diagram Mixed crystals Mixed crystals Temperature in C Melting + mixed crystals Melting (cementite) mixed crystals (austenite) Melting + mixed crystals mixed crystals + sec. stainless (18CrNi8) Steel. cementite + ledeburite Melting + primary cementite Primary cementite + ledeburite (cubic face centered) Mixed crystals Pearlite Sec. nitrided Siemens MD · 2009 Material symbol 16MnCr5 20MnCr5 18CrNiMo76 30CrNiMo8 34CrNiMo6 42CrMo4 34CrNiMo6 42CrMo4 Hardness on finished gear HV1 720 680 740 290 310 280 630 600 Hlim Flim N/mm2 1470 1470 1500 730 770 740 1000 1000 N/mm2 430 430 500 300 310 305 370 370 77 .cem..c. GG20. + pearlite Sec. casehardened Quenched and tempered steels.. 100 C Substance Aluminium alloys Grey cast iron (e. Pitting and Tooth Root Fatigue Strength Values of Steels Coefficient of linear expansion The coefficient of linear expansion gives the fractional expansion of the unit of length of a substance per 1 degree K rise in temperature. 8 Primary cementite + ledeburite pearlite (cubic body centered) Carbon content in weight percentage Cementite content in weight percentage Pitting and tooth root fatigue strength values of steels Grade of steel Case hardening steels. For the linear expansion of a body applies: Dl + l 0 @ a @ DT where l: change of length l : original length : coefficient of linear expansion T: rise of temperature Coefficients of linear expansion of some substances at 0 .5 16 11. GG25) Steel. quenched and tempered Quenched and tempered steels.. IronCarbon Diagram.Materials Coefficient of Linear Expansion.5 17 18. 24 10. plain and lowalloy Steel.g. + pearlite + ledeburite Ledeburite Mixed crystals (ferrite) m.5 17. rapid machining steel Copper Brass CuZn37 Bronze CuSn8 [106/K] 21 ..
5919 1. quenching is carried out either from the carburizing temperature or any lower temperature. the selection of the quenchant depends on the hardenability or casehardenability of the steel.7016 1. 2) In case of direct hardening.7147 1.7321 1. For direct hardening. the shape and cross section of the work piece to be hardened. C 880 up to 980 860 up to 900 780 up to 820 150 up to 200 830 up to 870 1) Decisive criteria for the determination of the carburizing temperature are mainly the required time of carburizing the chosen carburizing agent. Direct hardening or double hardening B. and the plant available.6526 1. lower hardening temperatures are preferred. carburizing usually is carried out at temperatures below 950 C. the provided course of process.7149 1. In particular if there is a risk of warping.7139 1.Materials Heat Treatment During Case Hardening of Case Hardening Steels Heat treatment during case hardening of case hardening steels acc.7015 1. to DIN EN 10084 Usual heat treatment during case hardening A. Hardening after isothermal transformation Direct hardening from carburizing temperature Single hardening from core or case hardening temperature Hardening after isothermal transformation in the pearlite stage (e) Direct hardening after lowering to hardening temperature Single hardening after intermediate annealing (soft annealing) (d) Hardening after isothermal transformation in the pearlite stage (e) and coolingdown to room temperature Double hardening a b c d e carburizing temperature hardening temperature tempering temperature intermediate annealing (soft annealing) temperature transformation temperature in the pearlite stage Usual case hardening temperatures Material a Number 1.6587 Carburizing temperature 1) b Core hardening Case hardening temperature 2) temperature 2) Quenchant c Tempering 8 Symbol C10 C10E C15 15Cr3 17Cr3 16MnCr5 16MnCrS5 20MnCr5 20MnCrS5 20MoCr4 20MoCrS4 20NiCrMo22 20NiCrMoS22 15CrNi6 18CrNiMo76 C C 880 up to 920 C With regard to the properties of the component.6523 1. as well as on the effect of the quenchant.1121 1.0301 1. as well as the required structural constitution.0401 1.7131 1. In special cases carburizing temperatures up to above 1000 C are applied. 78 Siemens MD · 2009 .7323 1. Single hardening C.
Olefine Base ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for Synthetic Oils of Polyglycole Base Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity Viscosity Table for Mineral Oils Page 80 81 82 83 84 9 Siemens MD · 2009 79 .Table of Contents Section 9 Lubricating Oils ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for Mineral Oils ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for Synthetic Oils of Poly.
Lubricating Oils ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for Mineral Oils Viscositytemperaturediagram for mineral oils 9 Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) Temperature ( C) 80 Siemens MD · 2009 .
olefine base Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) 9 Temperature ( C) Siemens MD · 2009 81 .Lubricating Oils ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for Synthetic Oils of Poly.Olefine Base Viscositytemperaturediagram for synthetic oils of poly.
Lubricating Oils ViscosityTemperatureDiagram for Synthetic Oils of Polyglycole Base Viscositytemperaturediagram for synthetic oils of polyglycole base 9 Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) Temperature ( C) 82 Siemens MD · 2009 .
3201 3.18066 0.5562 3.3151 3.888 0.900 0.920 0.888 0.4020 3. r .908 2) Mineral base gear oils in accordance with designation CLP as per DIN 51517 Part 3.880 0.890 0.897 0.8 m T K W40 W cSt W lgT) + W40 (1) (2) 1) 1) T = t + 273.15 [K] slope thermodynamic temperature auxiliary quantity at 40 C auxiliary quantity kinematic viscosity Dynamic viscosity = .923 0.890 0.909 0.4610 3.001 t 15 .915 0.36990 0.910 0.30178 0.2958 3.7664 3.880 (Example) 320 460 0.892 0.905 0.890 0. These oils comply with the minimum requirements as specified in DIN 51517 Part 3.900 0.42540 0.39900 0.Lubricating Oils Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity for Mineral Oils at any Temperature Kinematic viscosity Quantities for the determination of the kinematic viscosity VG grade 32 46 68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 W40 0.26424 0. 0.903 0. They are suitable for operating temperatures from 10 C up to +90 C (briefly +100 C).45225 0.890 0.904 680 0.1775 W = m (2.916 68 100 0.905 0.50192 m 3.892 150 0.895 0.33813 0. Siemens MD · 2009 83 .897 220 0.893 0.7231 3.897 0.22278 0.6214 3.2143 3.917 0.930 0.0007 (4) r = r15 t C r15 [kg/dm3]: r [kg/dm3]: cSt Ns/m2 temperature density at 15 C density kinematic viscosity dynamic viscosity 2) 9 Density r15 in kg/dm3 of lubricating oils for gear units VG grade ARAL Degol BG Plus MOBIL Mobilgear 600 XP MOBIL Mobilgear XMP CASTROL Optigear BM CASTROL Tribol 1100 0.896 0. (3) 0.49575 u + 10 10 * 0.47717 0.900 0.902 0.
9 2.Lubricating Oils Viscosity Table for Mineral Oils ISOVG DIN 51519 Approx.7 E) 12 (2 E) 21 (3 E) 34 55 88 16 25 46 36 68 49 100 68 92 114 144 169 225 324 137 219 345 550 865 1340 2060 3270 5170 8400 80 W 9 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 90 140 1) Approximate comparative value to ISO VG grades 84 Siemens MD · 2009 .4 EP 5. Saybolt assignment universal AGMA to seconds lubricant motor(SSU) N at car motor 100 C at 40 C 40 C gear oils (mean 1) oils value) cSt 1.6 6.8 10 15 22 32 46 68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 50 C cSt 4 5 8 11 15 21 30 43 61 90 125 180 250 360 510 740 Engler 1.5 10 W 5. viscosities in mm2/s (cSt) at 40 C cSt 4.6 EP 7 EP 8 EP 15 W 20 W 20 30 85 W 40 50 70 W 75 W 5W 1) SAE SAE 5 7 10 15 22 32 2 4 9 8 (1.3 3 4 6 8 12 16 24 33 47 67 98 Approx.5 2.5 8.5 11 15 19 24 30 40 50 250 65 214 316 464 696 1020 1484 2132 3152 1 EP 2.3 EP 4.3 1.2 EP 3.5 6.4 1.0 2.7 1. assignment to previous 20 C DIN 51502 cSt Mean viscosity (40 C) and approx.5 EP 6.5 4.5 3.
Table of Contents Section 10 Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and Units General Introduction Page 86 + 87 88 88 88 89 89 90 91 91 91 92 93 93 93 94 95 97 98 + 99 99 + 100 100 + 101 102 102 102 102 102 103 103 103 + 104 104 104 106 106 106 106 + 107 107 107 107 + 108 108 109 + 110 110 110 111 + 112 112 112 + 113 113 113 + 114 114 Geometry of Involute Gears Concepts and Parameters Associated With Involute Teeth Standard Basic Rack Tooth Profile Module Tool Reference Profile Generating Tooth Flanks Concepts and Parameters Associated With Cylindrical Gears Geometric Definitions Pitches Addendum Modification Concepts and Parameters Associated With a Cylindrical Gear Pair Terms Mating Quantities Contact Ratios Summary of the Most Important Formulae Gear Teeth Modifications Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Scope of Application and Purpose Basic Details General Factors Application Factor Dynamic Factor Face Load Factor Transverse Load Factor Tooth Flank Load Carrying Capacity Effective Hertzian Pressure Permissible Hertzian Pressure Tooth Root Load Carrying Capacity Effective Tooth Root Stress Permissible Tooth Root Stress Safety Factors Calculation Example Gear Unit Types Standard Designs Load Sharing Gear Units Comparisons Load Value Referred Torques Efficiencies Example 10 Noise Emitted by Gear Units Definitions Measurements Determination via Sound Pressure Determination via Sound Intensity Prediction Possibilities of Influencing Siemens MD · 2009 85 .
compression Pitch on the reference circle Pitch on the base circle Normal base pitch Normal base pitch at a point Normal transverse pitch Axial pitch Transverse base pitch. reference circle pitch Protuberance value on the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Machining allowance on the cylindrical gear tooth flanks Reference circle radius.Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and Units for Cylindrical Gear Units a mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Hz mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Centre distance Reference centre distance Facewidth Bottom clearance between standard basic rack tooth profile and counter profile Reference diameter Tip diameter Base diameter Root diameter Pitch diameter Spacewidth on the reference cylinder Spacewidth on the standard basic rack tooth profile Frequency Length of path of contact Tooth depth Addendum Addendum of the standard basic rack tooth profile Addendum of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Dedendum Dedendum of the standard basic rack tooth profile Dedendum of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Tooth depth of the standard basic rack tooth profile Tooth depth of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Protuberance height of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Working depth of the standard basic rack tooth profile and the counter profile Addendum modification factor n p p pbt pe pen pet pex pt prP0 q r ra rb rw s san sp sP0 u v w x xE z A As BL min1 N/mm2 mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Speed Pressure. radius Tip radius Base radius Radius of the working pitch circle Tooth thickness on the reference circle Tooth thickness on the tip circle Tooth thickness of the standard basic rack tooth profile Tooth thickness of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Gear ratio Circumferential speed on the reference circle Line load Addendum modification coefficient Generating addendum modification coefficient Number of teeth ad b cp d da db df dw e ep f g h ha haP haP0 hf hfP hfP0 mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm 10 hp hP0 hprP0 m/s N/mm mm hwP k m mn mt mm mm mm mm Module Normal module Transverse module m2 mm N/mm2 Gear teeth surface Tooth thickness deviation Load value Siemens MD · 2009 86 .
Siemens MD · 2009 87 . Aweighted Nominal power driven machine rating of ZX Degree a at n P Size factor Transverse pressure angle at a point.Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and Units for Cylindrical Gear Units D Fn Ft G HV1 KA KF KF KH KH Kv LpA LWA P RZ SF SH S T Y Y YFS YR YX Z Z ZH ZL Zv mm N N N Construction dimension Load Nominal peripheral force at the reference circle Weight Vickers hardness at F = 9.81 N Application factor Transverse load factor (for tooth root stress) Face load factor (for tooth root stress) Transverse load factor (for contact stress) Face load factor (for contact stress) Dynamic factor Sound pressure level. pressure angle Angle in the circular measure a + a @ p 180 Transverse pressure angle at the tip circle Normal pressure angle Pressure angle at a point of the standard basic rack tooth profile Pressure angle at a point of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Protuberance pressure angle at a point Transverse pressure angle at the reference circle Working transverse pressure angle at the pitch circle Helix angle at the reference circle Base helix angle Transverse contact ratio Overlap ratio Total contact ratio Degree Working angle of the involute Efficiency Radius of curvature Tip radius of curvature of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Root radius of curvature of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Effective Hertzian pressure Allowable stress number for contact stress Allowable Hertzian pressure Effective tooth root stress Bending stress number Allowable tooth root stress Lubricating oil viscosity at 40 C rad Degree Degree Degree P0 Degree Degree Degree Degree Degree prP0 t wt dB dB kW m b Degree Mean peaktovalley height Factor of safety from tooth breakage Factor of safety from pitting r raP0 m2 Nm Enveloping surface Torque Helix angle factor Contact ratio factor Tip factor Roughness factor Size factor Helix angle factor Contact ratio factor Zone factor Lubricant factor Speed factor mm mm 10 rfP0 H Hlim HP F Flim FP 40 mm N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm2/s Note: The unit rad ( = radian ) may be replaced by 1. Aweighted Sound power level.
Between module m and pitch p the relation is p = m. output torques can be doubled or tripled in comparison with gear units without load sharing. sP = eP = p/2. As a rule. Counter profile Datum line Standard basic rack tooth profile Root line Fillet Tooth root surface Tooth centre line Figure 1 Basic rack tooth profiles for involute teeth of cylindrical gears (acc. H Good availability on the market. When load sharing gear units are used. H Generating different tooth profiles and centre distances with the same number of teeth by means of the same tool by addendum modification. The nominal dimensions of tooth thickness and spacewidth on the datum line are equal. Inside the gear unit the load is distributed and then brought together again on the output shaft gear. Cylindrical gear units 1. which.2. 1. Compared with other tooth profiles. H The direction of the normal force of teeth remains constant during meshing. have quenched and tempered or nitrided gears. The uniform sharing of the load between the individual branches is achieved by special design measures. From figure 1 follows: The flanks of the standard basic rack tooth profile are straight lines and are located symmetrically below the pressure angle at a point P to the tooth centre line. to DIN 867) 10 Tip line 88 Siemens MD · 2009 . After carburising and hardening. i. In comparison with other gear units. The working depth of basic rack tooth profile and counter profile is hwP = 2 m.1. Further.4. Motion is transmitted without slip at constant speed. H The same tool for all numbers of teeth.e. they require less space for the same speeds and torques. The addendum is fixed by haP = m. H Advanced stage of development. gear units with case hardened gears have higher power capacities. an infinitely variable changespeed gear unit with primary or secondary gear stages presents the most economical solution even in case of variable speed control.2 Geometry of involute gears The most important concepts and parameters associated with cylindrical gears and cylindrical gear pairs with involute teeth in accordance with DIN 3960 are represented in sections 1.1 to 1.e. gear units have the best efficiencies.1 Concepts and parameters associated with involute teeth 1. the dedendum by hfP = m + cP and thus.2. In industrial gear units mainly involute gears are used.1 m up to 0. the tooth depth by hP = 2 m + cP. mainly gear units with case hardened and finemachined gears are used for torque and speed adaptation of prime movers and driven machines. i. H Uniform transmission of motion even in case of centre distance errors from the nominal value.1 Introduction In the industry. for example.4 m. the tooth flanks are finemachined by grinding (or removing material by means of shaping or generating tools coated with mechanically resistant material).1 Standard basic rack tooth profile The standard basic rack tooth profile is the normal section through the teeth of the basic rack which is produced from an external gear tooth system with an infinitely large diameter and an infinitely large number of teeth. /1/ 1. Load sharing gear units mostly have one input and one output shaft.Cylindrical Gear Units General Introduction Geometry of Involute Gears 1.2.2. the technical and economical advantages are basically: H Simple manufacture with straightsided flanked tools. The bottom clearance cP between basic rack tooth profile and counter profile is 0.
1. module m has been standardized in preferred series 1 and 2. For a helical gear with helix angle on the reference circle. protuberance value prP0. The premachining tool leaves on both flanks of the teeth a machining allowance q for finishmachining. Therefore. In order to limit the number of the required gear cutting tools. Table 1 Selection of some modules m in mm (acc. On the tool. For a spur gear = 0 and the module is m = mn = mt.1.75 2 2. and for finishmachining tools sP0 = p/2.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 32 28 1. /1/ 10 a) Tool datum line b) Protuberance flank Figure 2 Reference profiles of gear cutting tools for involute teeth of cylindrical gears a) For premachining and finishmachining b) For premachining with root undercut (protuberance) Siemens MD · 2009 89 . however. to DIN 780) Series 1 Series 2 1 1. the transverse module in a transverse section is mt = mn /cos .5 3 3.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 1. For industrial gear units. The tooth thickness sP0 of the tool on the tool datum line depends on the stage of machining. as a rule. as a rule. Between pre. In order to prevent the tip circle of the mating gear from touching the fillet it is necessary that a check for meshing interferences is carried out on the gear pair.5 1. The premachining tool generates the root diameter and the fillet on a cylindrical gear.and finishmachining. as well as the tip radius of curvature raP0 must be so dimensioned that the active tooth profile on the gear will not be reduced and the tooth root will not be weakened too much.2 Module The module m of the standard basic rack tooth profile is the module in the normal section mn of the gear teeth. the pressure angle at a point of the tool reference profile P0 = P is 20 .3 Tool reference profile The tool reference profile according to figure 2a is the counter profile of the standard basic rack tooth profile according to figure 1. premachining tools are provided with protuberance flanks as shown in figure 2b. They generate a root undercut on the gear. On cylindrical gears with small modules one often accepts on purpose a notch in the root if its distance to the root circle is large enough and thus the tooth root load carrying capacity is not impaired by a notch effect.5 4 4. normally it does not touch the root circle like on the tooth profile in figure 3a. see table 1. Especially for cylindrical gears with a relatively large number of teeth or a small module there is a risk of generating a notch in the root on finishmachining. To avoid this. leads to warping of the teeth and growing of the root and tip circles.2. the tooth thickness for premachining tools is sP0 < p/2. protuberance pressure angle at a point prP0.25 1. The finishmachining tool removes the machining allowance on the flanks.2. cylindrical gears are subjected to a heat treatment which. figure 3c. see figure 3b.
figure 5. is described by the transverse Base cylinder envelope line Involute of base cylinder Involute helicoid Base cylinder Involute pressure angle at a point equations inv = tan a and radius r in the (1) (2) r = rb / cos rb = db / 2 is the base radius.2. figure 4.and finishmachining down to the root circle b) Premachining with root undercut (protuberance) c) Finishmachining with notch 1. A straight line inclined by a base helix angle b to the envelope line in the developed envelope is the generator of an involute surface (involute helicoid) of a helical gear. The involute which is always lying in a transverse section.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Premachining Finishmachining Machining allowance q Root undercut a) b) Notch c) Figure 3 Tooth profiles of cylindrical gears during pre. and the angle = a + inv = tan tan is termed working angle.1. an envelope line of the base cylinder with the base diameter db generates the involute surface of a spur gear.and finishmachining a) Pre. The angle inv is termed involute function. 10 Developed envelope line Generator Developed base cylinder envelope Involute of base cylinder Figure 4 Base cylinder with involute helicoid and generator Figure 5 Involute in a transverse section Siemens MD · 2009 90 .4 Generating tooth flanks With the development of the envelope.
Since mt = p / . at the point of intersection of the involute with the reference circle. Hence.2. the equation for the reference diameter thus is d = mt · z. Therefore. thus pet = pbt = · db / z. and in the axial section the axial pitch pex = pet / tan b. When generating tooth flanks.1 Geometric definitions In figure 6 the most important geometric quantities of a cylindrical gear are shown. see figure 13. db.2. The interrelationship with the helix angle at the reference circle is tan n = cos · tan t. For a helical gear. · d = p · z. the reference circle periphery corresponds to the product of pitch p and number of teeth z. df are negative values. In the case of internal gears. Right flank Left flank Tooth trace Reference cylinder Reference circle d da df b h ha hf s Figure 6 Definitions on the cylindrical gear e p Reference diameter Tip diameter Root diameter Facewidth Tooth depth Addendum Dedendum Tooth thickness on the reference circle Spacewidth on the reference circle Pitch on the reference circle 10 1.2 Pitches The pitch pt of a helical gear (p in the case of a spur gear) lying in a transverse section is the length of the reference circle arc between two successive right or left flanks. the straight pitch line of the tool rolls off at the reference circle. The reference circle is the intersection of the reference cylinder with a plane of transverse section. the number of teeth z and thus also the diameters d. see figures 6 and 7. by db = d · cos t. On a spur gear n = t. Figure 7 Pitches in the transverse section of a helical gear Siemens MD · 2009 91 . The normal transverse pitch pet of a helical gear is equal to the pitch on the basic circle pbt.2.e. da. If a tangent line is put against the involute surface in the normal section at the point of intersection with the reference circle. Between the base helix angle b and the helix angle on the reference circle the relationship is sin b = cos n · sin .2. i.2 Concepts and parameters associated with cylindrical gears 1. The base diameter db is given by the reference diameter d. in the normal section the normal base pitch at a point pen = pet / cos b is resulting from it. the trans verse pressure angle at a point in the transverse section is termed transverse pressure angle t. Many geometric quantities of the cylindrical gear are referred to the reference circle. the corresponding angle is termed normal pressure angle n.2. this is equal to the pressure angle P0 of the tool. With the number of teeth z results pt = · d / z = · mt. see figures 5 and 7.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 1.
x > 0 XE = x + + q mn · sin n (3) Figure 9 Addendum modification limit xmax (intersection circle) and xmin (undercut limit) for external gears dependent on the virtual number of teeth zn (for internal gears. see figure 8. one has to give the following generating addendum modification coefficient for the manufacture of a cylindrical gear: As 2mn · tan n Datum line of tool = straight pitch line a) Straight pitch line b) Datum line of tool Straight pitch line c) Figure 8 Different positions of the datum line of tool in relation to the straight pitch line through pitch point C. if the datum line of tool is displaced from the reference circle towards the tip. When falling below the lower limit xmin this results in an undercut which shortens the usable involute and weakens the tooth root.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 10 1. This is true for both external and internal gears. In order to take into account tooth thickness deviation As (for backlash and manufacturing tolerances) and machining allowances q (for premachining). The upper limit xmax takes into account the intersection circle of the teeth and applies to a normal crest width in the normal section of san = 0. see /1/ and /3/). and it is negative if the datum line is displaced towards the root of the gear.3 Addendum modification When generating tooth flanks on a cylindrical gear by means of a toothracklike tool (e. In the case of small numbers of teeth this has a considerably stronger effect than in the case of larger ones. In the case of internal gears the tip points to the inside. and /4/. a straight pitch line parallel to the datum line of tool rolls off on the reference circle. One mostly strives for a greater addendum modification on pinions than on gears in order to achieve equal tooth root carrying capacities for both gears. An addendum modification is positive. x < 0 c) Positive addendum modification. /3/. Further criteria for the determination of addendum modification are contained in /2/. 92 Siemens MD · 2009 .25 mn. a) Zero addendum modification. see figure 19. The addendum modification coefficient x refers to gear teeth free of backlash and deviations.g. a hob).2.2. and x is the addendum modification coefficient. The distance (x · mn) between the straight pitch line and the datum line of tool is the addendum modification. The addendum modification limits xmin and xmax are represented dependent on the virtual number of teeth zn = z / (cos · cos2 b). A positive addendum modification results in a greater tooth root width and thus in an increase in the tooth root carrying capacity. An addendum modification for external gears should be carried through approximately within the limits as shown in figure 9. x = 0 b) Negative addendum modification.
that is with x1 + x2 = 0. in the case of a modified gear pair. the tip diameters of both gears become larger (on an internal gear with negative tip diameter the absolute value becomes smaller). Changing the flanks results in a line of action each lying symmetrical in relation to the centre line through O1 O2.e.e. x 1 = . For unmodified gear pairs and gear pairs at reference centre distance. i. both gears have addendum modifications (modified gears). 10 93 . dw = d.3.2. In the case of a helical internal gear pair. In the case of external gear pairs k < 0. The subscript 1 is used for the size of the smaller gear (pinion). and the pitch circles are simultaneously the reference circles. In the case of an unmodified gear pair (a zero gear pair).3 Concepts and parameters associated with a cylindrical gear pair 1. the centre distance is not equal to the zero centre distance. then an addendum modification is to be carried out. If in the case of modified gear pairs the bottom clearance cp corresponding to the standard basic rack tooth profile is to be retained (which is not absolutely necessary).e. Figure 10 Transverse section of an external gear pair with contacting lefthanded flanks In a cylindrical gear pair either the left or the right flanks of the teeth contact each other on the line of action. In the case of unmodified gear pairs and gear pairs at reference centre distance. i. The working pressure angle wt is the transverse pressure angle at a point belonging to the working pitch circle. and the subscript 2 for the larger gear (wheel or internal gear). which have the same circumferential speed at their mutual contact point (pitch point C). According to figure 10 it is determined by cos wt = db1 / dw1 = db2 / dw2. Working pitch circles with diameter dw = 2 · rw are those transverse intersection circles of a cylindrical gear pair.3. both gears have as addendum modification coefficient x1 = x2 = 0 (zero gears). the working pressure angle is equal to the transverse pressure angle on the reference circle. wt = t. In the case of both an unmodified gear pair and a gear pair at reference centre distance. The length of path of contact g is that part of the line of action which is limited by the two tip circles of the cylindrical gears.2. however. and the finishing point E is the point at which the line of action intersects the tip circle of the driving gear.1 Terms The mating of two external cylindrical gears (external gears) gives an external gear pair. both gears have the same flank direction. thus u = z2 / z1. The working pitch circles divide the centre distance a = rw1 + rw2 in the ratio of the tooth numbers. x1 + x2 0. the sum is not equal to zero. figure 11. the centre distance is equal to the zero centre distance ad = (d1 + d2) / 2. The starting point A of the length of path of contact is the point at which the line of action intersects the tip circle of the driven gear. and the pitch circles are not simultaneously the reference circles. i. With the common tangent on the pitch circles it includes the working pressure angle wt. 1.2 Mating quantities The gear ratio of a gear pair is the ratio of the number of teeth of the gear z2 to the number of teeth of the pinion z1. In the case of Siemens MD · 2009 internal gear pairs k > 0.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 1. However. that is either righthanded or lefthanded.e. The mating of an external cylindrical gear with an internal cylindrical gear (internal gear) gives an internal gear pair. thus dw1 = 2 · a / (u + 1) and dw2 = 2 · a · u / (u +1). For a modified gear pair. k = 0.e. i.ad) / mn . have an addendum modification x = 0. the tip diameters of both gears become smaller.e. i. In the case of a gear pair at reference centre distance. In the case of a helical external gear pair one gear has lefthanded and the other one righthanded flank direction. i. The addendum modification factor is k = (a .(x1 + x2).x2 . figure 10. One of the cylindrical gears in this case may. The line of action with contacting left flanks in figure 10 is the tangent to the two base circles at points T1 and T2.2.
D Individual points of contact A. contact ratio and overlap ratio.3. = g / pet. as the ratio of the facewidth b to the axial = b/ pex. The total contact ratio is the sum of transverse + . = With an increasing total contact ratio. the load carrying capacity increases. the lefthand tooth pair is in the individual point of contact D while the righthand tooth pair gets into mesh at the starting point of engagement A. as a rule. and along the double lengths of paths of contact AB and DE two pairs of teeth are simultaneously in mesh. pitch pex.e. The overlap ratio gives the contact ratio. owing to the helix of the teeth.e. E Starting and finishing point of engagement. see figure 12. the transverse contact ratio gives the average number of pairs of teeth meshing during the time of contact of a tooth pair. see figure 13. i. i.2. Along the individual length of path of contact BD one tooth pair is in mesh. Line of action Driving Figure 12 Single and double contact region in the transverse section of an external gear pair B. In the case of helical gear pairs it is possible to achieve that always two or more pairs of teeth are in mesh simultaneously.3 Contact ratios The transverse contact ratio in the transverse section is the ratio of the length of path of contact g to the normal transverse pitch pet. According to figure 12.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Driven Driven Line of action Driving Figure 11 Length of path of contact AE in the transverse section of an external gear pair A Starting point of engagement E Finishing point of engagement C Pitch point 1. In the case of spur gear pairs. respectively C Pitch point 10 Length of path of contact Figure 13 Pitches in the plane of action A Starting point of engagement E Finishing point of engagement Siemens MD · 2009 94 . i. while the generation of noise is reduced.e. The righthand tooth pair is in the individual point of contact B when the lefthand tooth pair leaves the mesh at the finishing point of engagement E.
from the output quantities of tables 2 and 3 only the normal pressure angle n and the gear ratio u are given. df2. dw2 and the virtual number of teeth zn2 are negative. the addendum modification coefficient should be within the range of x1 = 0. For the helix angle.. the number may be reduced to z1 = 10. Thus.45) a. If a high foot load carrying capacity is required.4 Summary of the most important formulae Tables 2 and 3 contain the most important formulae for the determination of sizes of a cylindrical gear and a cylindrical gear pair. in exceptional cases also up to 30 degree. The following rules for signs are to be observed: In the case of internal gear pairs the number of teeth z2 of the internal gear is a negative quantity. The number of teeth of the pinion is determined with regard to silent running and a balanced foot and flank load carrying capacity. and this for both external and internal gear pairs. z1 = 18 . 10 Siemens MD · 2009 95 .6 and from IuI > 2 the width within the range b1 = (0.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 1. When designing a cylindrical gear pair for a gear stage. at approx. = 10 up to 15 degree is given. also the centre distance a or ad and the gear ratio u as well as the diameters d2.2. db2. Centre distance a is determined either by the required power to be transmitted or by the constructional conditions.2 up to 0. On the pinion.35 to 0.. 23. da2. as a rule. The addendum modification limits as shown in figure 9 are to be observed.
Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Table 2 Parameters for a cylindrical gear *) Output quantities: mm mn degree n degree z x xE mm haP0 Item Transverse module Transverse pressure angle Base helix angle Reference diameter Tip diameter (for k. Transverse base pitch mt = tan sin t normal module normal pressure angle reference helix angle number of teeth *) addendum modification coefficient generating addendum modification coefficient. see equation (3) addendum of the tool Formula mn cos = tan cos n n b = sin · cos d = mt · z da = d + 2 mn (1 + x + k) df = d 2 (haP0 t mn · xE) db = d · cos pt = ·d = z · mt · db = pt · cos z pet = pbt = db da t 10 Transverse pressure angle at tip circle Transverse tooth thickness on the pitch circle Normal tooth thickness on the pitch circle Transverse tooth thickness on the addendum circle Virtual number of teeth cos at = st = mt 2 + 2 · x · tan n sn = st · cos st + inv d z cos · cos2 b sat = da zn = t inv at **) *) For an internal gear. **) For inv . see table 3) Root diameter Base diameter Transverse pitch Transverse pitch on path of contact. see equation (1). z is to be used as a negative quantity. Siemens MD · 2009 96 .
Item Gear ratio Working transverse pressure angle (“a” given) Sum of the addendum modification coefficients Working transverse pressure angle (x1 + x2 given) Centre distance u = z2 z1 wt Formula cos = mt 2·a (z1 + z2) cos t x1 + x2 = z1 + z2 2 · tan n (inv wt inv t) inv wt = 2 x1 + x2 tan z1 + z2 cos cos t wt n + inv t a = mt 2 mt 2 a (z1 + z2) (z1 + z2) Reference centre distance ad = k = = d1 + d2 2 Addendum modification factor **) Working pitch circle diameter of the pinion Working pitch circle diameter of the gear Length of path of contact ad mn (x1 + x2) t wt t wt dw1 = cos 2·a = d1 cos u+1 cos 2·a·u = d2 u+1 cos da12 db12 + dw2 = 10 da22 db22 a · sin wt g = 1 2 g pet IuI u Transverse contact ratio = Overlap ratio Total contact ratio = = b · tan pet + b b = min (b1.2.3. Siemens MD · 2009 97 .2.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Table 3 Parameters for a cylindrical gear pair *) Output quantities: The parameters for pinion and wheel according to table 2 must be given. further the facewidths b1 and b2. z2 and a are to be used as negative quantities. **) See subsection 1. as well as either the centre distance a or the sum of the addendum modification coefficients x1 + x2. b2) *) For internal gear pairs.
7/. The deflection at the tooth tips is.. In the case of profile correction. see figure 15. however. d Tooth pair getting into engagement Further. Under partial load. In the case of modified gear teeth. Wheel Line of action Pinion Figure 14 Cylindrical gear pair under load 1 Driving gear 2 Driven gear a. pinion and wheel body. making the noise generating levels increase in the lower part load range. At low partial load. The runningin wear of case hardened gears amounts to a few micrometers only and cannot compensate the mentioned deviations. however.1 to 1. a high load utilization of the gear units is possible. intentional deviations from the involute (profile correction) and from the theoretical tooth trace (longitudinal correction) are produced in order to attain nearly ideal geometries with uniform load distribution under load again. the local maximum load rise is always lower than the theoretical uniform load distribution under full load. see figure 14. facewidth are achieved. a gradual load increase is achieved on the tooth Siemens MD · 2009 10 98 .2.5 Gear teeth modifications The parameters given in the above subsections 1. b Tooth pair being in engagement c. a multiple of the manufacturing form errors. contact patterns which do not cover the entire tooth depth and Bending Torsion Manufacturing deviation Bearing deformation Housing deformation Runningin wear Effective tooth trace deviation F = fy Load distribution across the facewidth w Figure 15 Deformations and manufacturing deviations on a gear unit shaft In figure 16.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 1. the load causes bending and twisting of pinion and wheel shaft. This leads to meshing interferences at the entering and leaving sides. Nonuniform load carrying occurs along the face width which also has a negative effect on the load carrying capacity and generation of noise. Noticeable deformations of the elastic gear unit components result from it.2. Gear pairs which are only slightly loaded do not require any modification. the carrying portions and thus the contact ratio increase so that the generating levels drop.2. The loadrelated form corrections are calculated and made for one load only as a rule for 70 . as well as settling of bearings. Because of the hightensile gear materials. With increasing load. the flanks on pinion and wheel are relieved at the tips by an amount equal to the length they are protruding at the entering and leaving sides due to the bending deflection of the teeth. This has to be taken into consideration especially in the case of checks of contact patterns carried out under low loads. This results in skewing of the tooth flanks which often amounts considerably higher than the tooth trace deviations caused by manufacture. 100% of the permanently acting nominal load /5. There is a negative effect on the load carrying capacity and generation of noise. is much more expensive. Root relief may be applied instead of tip relief which. and housing deformations.4 refer to nondeviating cylindrical gears. as a rule. In order to restore the high load carrying capacity of case hardened gears and reduce the generation of noise. 6. the contact ratio is reduced under partial load because of incomplete carrying portions. usual profile and longitudinal corrections are illustrated.. however. Thus.
Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears
getting into engagement, and a load reduction on the tooth leaving the engagement. In the case of longitudinal correction, the tooth trace relief often is superposed by a symmetric lonProfile correction gitudinal crowning. With it, uniform load carrying along the facewidth and a reduction in load concentration at the tooth ends during axial displacements is attained. Longitudinal correction
Figure 16 Gear teeth modifications designed for removing local load increases due to deformations under nominal load 1.3 Load carrying capacity of involute gears 1.3.1 Scope of application and purpose The calculation of the load carrying capacity of cylindrical gears is generally carried out in accordance with the calculation method according to DIN 3990 /8/ (identical with ISO 6336) which takes into account pitting, tooth root bending stress and scoring as load carrying limits. Because of the relatively large scope of standards, the calculation in accordance with this method may be carried out only by using EDP programs. As a rule, gear unit manufacturers have such a tool at hand. The standard work is the FVAStirnradprogramm /9/ which includes further calculation methods, for instance, according to Niemann, AGMA, DNV, LRS, and others. In DIN 3990, different methods A, B, C ... are suggested for the determination of individual factors, where method A is more exact than method B, etc. The application standard /10/ according to DIN 3990 is based on simplified methods. Because of its even though limited universal validity it still is relatively timeconsuming. The following calculation method for pitting resistance and tooth strength of casehardened cylindrical gears is a further simplification if compared with the application standard, however, without losing some of its meaning. Certain conditions must be adhered to in order to attain high load carrying capacities which also results in preventing scuffing. Therefore, a calculation of load carrying capacity for scuffing will not be considered in the following.
Siemens MD · 2009
It has to be expressly emphasized that for the load carrying capacity of gear units the exact calculation method compared with the simplified one is always more meaningful and therefore is exclusively decisive in borderline cases. Design, selection of material, manufacture, heat treatment, and operation of industrial gear units are subject to certain rules which lead to a long service life of the cylindrical gears. Those rules are: Gear teeth geometry acc. to DIN 3960; Cylindrical gears out of casehardened steel; Tooth flanks in DIN quality 6 or better, fine machined; Quality of material and heat treatment proved by quality inspections acc. to DIN 3990 /11/; Effective case depth after carburizing according to instructions /12/ with surface hardnesses of 58 ... 62 HRC; Gears with required tooth corrections and without harmful notches in the tooth root; Gear unit designed for fatigue strength, i.e. life factors ZNT = YNT = 1.0; Flank fatigue strength Hlim y 1200 N/mm2; Subcritical operating range, i.e. pitch circle velocity lower than approx. 35 m/s; Sufficient supply of lubricating oil; Use of prescribed gear oils of criteria stage 12 acc. to the gear rig test by the FZGmethod and sufficient grey staining load capacity; Maximum operating temperature 95 C.
10
99
Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears
If these requirements are met, a number of factors can be definitely given for the calculation of the load carrying capacity according to DIN 3990, so that the calculation procedure is partly considerably simplified. Nonobservance of the above requirements, however, does not necessarily mean that the load carrying capacity is reduced. In case of doubt one should, however, carry out the calculation in accordance with the more exact method. 1.3.2 Basic details The calculation of the load carrying capacity is
based on the nominal torque of the driven machine. Alternatively, one can also start from the nominal torque of the prime mover if this corresponds with the torque requirement of the driven machine. In order to be able to carry out the calculation for a cylindrical gear stage, the details listed in table 4 must be given in the units mentioned in the table. The geometric quantities are calculated according to tables 2 and 3. Usually, they are contained in the workshop drawings for cylindrical gears.
Table 4 Basic details Abbreviation P n1 a mn da1 da2 b1 b2 z1 Power rating Pinion speed Centre distance Normal module Tip diameter of the pinion Tip diameter of the wheel Facewidth of the pinion Facewidth of the wheel Number of teeth of the pinion Number of teeth of the wheel Addendum modification coefficient of the pinion Addendum modification coefficient of the wheel Normal pressure angle Reference helix angle
40
Meaning
Unit kW min1 mm mm mm mm mm mm
10
z2 x1 x2
n
Degree Degree mm2 / s m m
Siemens MD · 2009
Kinematic viscosity of lubricating oil at 40 C Peaktovalley height on pinion flank Peaktovalley height on wheel flank
Rz1 Rz2
100
Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears
In the further course of the calculation, the quantities listed in table 5 are required. They are derived from the basic details according to table 4.
Table 5 Derived quantities Designation Gear ratio Reference diameter of the pinion Transverse tangential force at pinion reference circle Transverse tangential force at pitch circle Circumferential speed at reference circle Base helix angle Virtual number of teeth of the pinion Virtual number of teeth of the wheel Transverse module Transverse pressure angle Working transverse pressure angle Transverse pitch Base diameter of the pinion Base diameter of the wheel Length of path of contact Transverse contact ratio Overlap ratio
Siemens MD · 2009
Relation u = z2 / z1 d1 = z1 · mn / cos Ft = 6 · 107 · P d1 · n1
Unit
mm N N m/s Degree
F u = Ft · v =
b
d1 (u + 1) 2·a
· d1 · n1 / 60 000
n
= arc sin (cos
· sin )
zn1 = z1 / (cos · cos2 b) zn2 = z2 / (cos · cos2 b) mt = mn / cos
t
mm
n
= arc tan (tan
/ cos )
t/
Degree (2 · a)] Degree
wt
= arc cos [(z1 + z2) mt · cos · mt · cos
t
10
mm
pet =
db1 = z1 · mt · cos db2 = z2 · mt · cos g = 1 2 da12
t
mm mm u da22 db22 a · sin mm
t
db12 +
IuI
wt
= g / pet = b · tan
b
/ pet
b = min (b1, b2)
101
3. as well as the couplings. additional internal dynamic forces caused in the meshing are taken into consideration.25 1..25 or higher 1. see subsection 1. 60 to 70%.25 1. Under such conditions. the result for surface stress and for tooth root stress according to method B in accordance with /8/ is KH = KF = 1. Exact methods based on comprehensive measurements or calculations or on a combination of both are very expensive. as follows: KH = 1. 1.3 Face load factor The face load factor KH takes into account the increase in the load on the tooth flanks caused by nonuniform load distribution over the facewidth.3 General factors 1.18 (b / d1)2 + 0. If possible.50 1.10 1. b2).5.1.3.3. it is calculated from Kv = 1 + 0. for the face load factors for gears without longitudinal correction the values may lie between 1. he makes longitudinal corrections in order to 1. v and u from tables 4 and 5.85 2.4 Transverse load factors The transverse load factors KH and KF take into account the effect of the nonuniform distribution of load between several pairs of simultaneously contacting gear teeth. the factor KA should be determined by means of a careful measurement or a comprehensive analysis of the system.50 Moderate shock loads 1. the gear unit manufacturer carries out an analysis of the load distribution over the facewidth in accordance with an exact calculation method /13/.0 by approx.3. As a rule.3. the face load factor lies within the range of KH = 1.0003 · b (5) attain uniform load carrying over the facewidth. In the case of slim shafts with gears arranged on one side.3.1 Application factor With the application factor KA. as a consequence of which estimations made to be on the safe side mostly result in higher factors.00 Heavy shock loads 1. however.5 and 2. As a rough rule applies: A sensibly selected crowning symmetrical in length reduces the amount of KH lying above 1.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears 1. the masses and stiffness of the system.3. or in the case of lateral forces or moments acting on the shafts from external sources. Since very often it is not possible to carry out the one or other method without great expenditure. 40 to 50%.75 1.0 (7) 102 Siemens MD · 2009 .2. Table 6 Application factor KA Working mode of prime mover Uniform Moderate shock loads Average shock loads Heavy shock loads Working mode of the driven machine Uniform 1.0 and in extreme cases even at 2. it can be determined by means of different methods. Simple methods.3. and the operating conditions.75 Average shock loads 1.60 1. and a directly made longitudinal correction by approx. Taking z1. are not exact.35 1. If required.15 + 0. It is dependent on the characteristics of the driving and driven machines.. The application factor is determined by the service classification of the individual gear.3.00 1.75 2.5. According to /8/.0003 · z1 · v u2 1 + u2 (4) 10 1. reference values are given in table 6 which equally apply to all gears in a gear unit. For normal cylindrical gear teeth without longitudinal correction. Under the conditions as laid down in subsection 1.25.2 Dynamic factor With the dynamic factor Kv. the face load factor can be calculated according to method D in accordance with /8/ dependent on facewidth b and reference diameter d1 of the pinion.50 1. Face load factor KF for the determination of increased tooth root stress can approximately be deduced from face load factor KH according to the relation KF = (KH (6) with b = min (b1.3.1 . all additional forces acting on the gears from external sources are taken into consideration.00 or higher 2.
H 1. For pinion and wheel the same effective Hertzian pressure H is assumed. to eq (7) ZE Elasticity factor. d1 acc.e. The lubricant factor is computed from the lubricating oil viscosity 40 according to table 4 using the following formula: ZL = 0. to eq (10) Z or (11) With ß according to table 4 applies: Z With Z = and 4 3 = cos (9) according to table 5 applies: (1 )+ for <1 (10) Z = 1 for y1 (11) Figure 17 Zone factor ZH depending on helix angle as well as on the numbers of teeth z1. ZR. x2. to table 5 KA Application factor acc.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears 1. to table 6 Kv Dynamic factor acc.91 + 0.3.4. pinion and wheel and are determined in the following. and addendum modification coefficients x1. z2. and for pinion and wheel is equally derived from the equation = ZE ZH Z Z KA Kv KH KH u+1 Ft u d1 · b (8) H Effective Hertzian pressure in N/mm2 Further: b Common facewidth of pinion and wheel Ft.1 Effective Hertzian pressure The effective Hertzian pressure is dependent on the load.25 10 1.2 Permissible Hertzian pressure The permissible Hertzian pressure is determined by HP = ZL Zv ZX ZR ZW Hlim SH (12) 2 HP permissible Hertzian pressure in N/mm . see table 4. to equation (4) KH Face load factor acc. It is of different size for pinion and wheel if the strengths of materials Hlim are different. to eq (5) KH Transverse load factor acc. i.3.4.3. to figure 17 Helix angle factor acc. ZE = 190 N/mm2 for gears out of steel ZH Zone factor acc. ZW and ZX are the same for (1 + 112 ) 2 40 (13) Siemens MD · 2009 103 . to eq (9) Z Contact ratio factor acc. Zv.4 Tooth flank load carrying capacity The calculation of surface durability against pitting is based on the Hertzian pressure at the pitch circle. It must not exceed the permissible Hertzian pressure HP . u. H x HP . Factors ZL.
Tip factors acc.3. YFS1. to table 4. b2 Facewidths of pinion and wheel acc.3. Hlim 10 SH Endurance strength of the gear material. the work hardening factor is ZW = 1. For gears made out of case hardening steel.e.1. For a gear pair with the same tooth flank hardness on pinion and wheel. to eq (19) Y Helix angle factor acc. F < FP . If the facewidths of pinion and wheel are different.9 x ZX x 1.5. see /11/ Siemens MD · 2009 104 .05 0. Flank hardness HV1 1.1 Effective tooth root stress As a rule.3. the loaddependent tooth root stresses for pinion and wheel are different. see table on page 77. the following applies using the circumferential speed v according to table 5: Zv = 0. from ZR = [ 0. case hardened. For pinion and wheel it shall be shown separately that the effective tooth root stress F does not exceed the permissible tooth root stress FP . to eq (20) The following factors are of different size for pinion and wheel: b1. material quality MQ may be selected for pinion and wheel. to figure 19.005 mn (17) with the restriction 0. depending on the surface hardness HV1 of the tooth flanks and the material quality. to tables 4 and 5 KA Application factor acc.6.3. to equation (4) KF Face load factor acc. see subsection 1.93 + 0. it may be assumed that the load bearing width of the wider facewidth is equal to the smaller facewidth plus such extension of the wider that does not exceed one times the module at each end of the teeth.. 1. to eq (7) Y Contact ratio factor acc.0 (16) The size factor is computed from module mn according to table 4 using the following formula: ZX = 1.157 40 1+ v (14) F sF = KA Kv KF KF · Ft · YFS Y Y b · mn (18) Effective tooth root stress in N/mm2 The roughness factor can be determined as a function of the mean peaktovalley height RZ = (RZ1 + RZ2) / 2 of the gear pair as well as the gear ratio u and the reference diameter d1 of the pinion. case hardened. figure 18 shows a range from 1300 . see tables 4 and 5. Under the conditions as described in subsection 1. They account YFS2 for the complex stress condition inclusive of the notch effect in the root fillet.513 R z 3 (1 + IuI) d1 ] 0. i. Ft acc.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears For the speed factor. They are calculated from the following equation: Figure 18 Allowable stress number for contact stress Hlim of alloyed case hardening steels. 1650 N/mm2 depending on the surface hardness of the tooth flanks and the quality of the material.. to table 6 Kv Dynamic factor acc. Required safety factor against pitting.08 (15) The following factors are of equal size for pinion and wheel: mn. to equation (6) KF Transverse load factor acc.5 Tooth strength The maximum load in the root fillet at the 30degree tangent is the basis for rating the tooth strength. ML modest demands on the material quality MQ normal demands on the material quality ME high demands on the material quality.
Siemens MD · 2009 105 .25 · mn pr0 = 10 degree pr0 = 0.2 · mn n = 20 degree YFS ha0 = 1.3 · mn pr0 10 = 10 degree pr0 = 0.0205 · mn Figure 19 Tip factor YFS for external gears with standard basic rack tooth profile acc.0 and z = 300). The following only approximately applies to internal gears: YFS = YFS ( value for x = 1.4 · mn ra0 = 0.025 · mn n = 20 degree ha0 = 1.4 · mn ra0 = 0.35 · mn ra0 = 0. see tables 4 and 5. to DIN 867 depending on the number of teeth z (or zn in case of helical gears) and addendum modification coefficient x.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears n = 20 degree ha0 = 1.
. pinion and wheel widths b1 = 360 mm and b2 = 350 mm. [(1 . pinion speed n1 = 141 min1.6 Safety factors The minimum required safety factors according to DIN are: against pitting SH = 1. YRrelT and YX may be approximately equal for pinion and wheel. numbers of teeth z1 = 25 and z2 = 47. kinematic viscosity of the lubricating oil 40 = 320 cSt.00 for mn x 8 mm = 0. tip diameter da1 = 615. YST = 2.7 Calculation example An electric motor drives a coal mill via a multistage cylindrical gear unit.625 x Y x 1 Y = 1 with the restriction Y y max. 106 . For gears out of case hardening steel. higher safety factors are usual.96 for mn > 16 mm and for the size factor YX = 1. depending on module mn: Figure 20 Bending stress number Flim of alloyed case hardening steel. ML modest demands on the material quality MQ normal demands on the material quality ME high demands on the material quality. It is not equal for pinion and wheel if the material strengths Flim are not equal. The low speed gear stage is to be calculated. depending on the surface hardness HV1 of the tooth flanks and the material quality. the safety factors are determined about 10 to 20% higher for the expensive final stages. case hardened. normal module mn = 22 mm. In practice.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears With the helix angle acc. (1 /120)]. Siemens MD · 2009 10 YRrelT = 1. helix angle = 10 degree. normal pressure angle n = 20 degree. see /11/ 1. to table 4 and the overlap ratio acc. case hardened. 1.98 for 8 mm < mn x 16 mm (22) = 0. For standard reference test gears. with the restriction 0.3.. Given: Nominal power rating P = 3300 kW.05 0.3.310 and x2 = 0. a range from 310 . is the stress correction factor of the referYST ence test gears for the determination of the bending stress number Flim.0. 1. For multistage gear units. a strength pertaining to quality MQ may be used as a basis for pinion and wheel.3.6. By approximation Y relT = 1. Also for risky applications a higher safety factor is given.25 + 0.3.203. They are case hardened and ground with profile corrections and widthsymmetrical crowning. see subsection 1.8 x YX x 1.3.5 mm and da2 = 1100 mm.0 has been fixed in the standard.3. Under the conditions according to subsection 1.1. addendum modification coefficients x1 = 0.0. Y relT. and in most cases even higher for the cheaper preliminary stages.2 Permissible tooth root stress The permissible tooth root stress for pinion and wheel is determined by FP 18CrNiMo76 15CrNi6 16MnCr5 · 120 _ (20) Flank hardness HV1 = YST Y relT YRrelT YX Flim (SF) (21) 2 FP permissible tooth root stress in N/mm . Factors YST. For the relative surface factor (surface roughness factor of the tooth root fillet) referring to the standard reference test gear the following applies by approximation.01 mn (23) with the restriction 0. The cylindrical gears are made out of the material 18CrNiMo76.75 · cos2 (19) SF Safety factor required against tooth breakage. Y relT is the relative sensitivity factor (notch sensitivity of the material) referring to the standard reference test gear. to table 5 follows: Y = 0. centre distance a = 815 mm.0 against tooth breakage SF = 1.25 ). see table on page 77. mean peaktovalley roughness Rz1 = Rz2 = 4. Flim Bending stress number of the gear material. 520 N/mm2 is shown in figure 20 depending on the surface hardness of the tooth flanks and the material quality.8 m.5.
842 mm.4 Gear unit types 1. transverse contact ratio = 1. length of path of contact g = 98. For common gear units the last or the last and the last but one gear stage usually come to approx. With speeds n1 and n2.18 (for ha0 = 1.0205 mn). KF = 1. however.1 Standard designs In the industrial practice. Siemens MD · 2009 The safety factors against tooth breakage referring to the torque are SF = FP/ F: for the pinion SF1 = 797/537 = 1. Among others. base diameters db1 = 523. The effective tooth root stresses F1 = 537 N/mm2 for the pinion and F2 = 540 N/mm2 for the wheel can be obtained from equation (18). speed factor ZV = 0.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Gear Unit Types Calculation (values partly rounded): Gear ratio u = 1.852 mm and db2 = 984. KH = KF = 1.18. the most economical drive solution.48 and for the wheel SF2 = 797/540 = 1. normal transverse pitch pet = 65. since gear cutting machines can make gears up to a maximum diameter only. dynamic factor Kv = 1. special design gear units are used. among others they are also used in standard design.738. pr0 = 10 degree. standard helical and bevelhelical gear units with fixed transmission ratio and size gradation are applied. this is true for high torques above the range of standard gear units. the transmission ratio can be obtained from the formula i = n1 / n2 (24) 10 107 . But there are also cases where no standard drives are used.879.041 mm.927. 1. Then.485 mm.4 mn.2 Load sharing gear units In principle. Combined with a standard electric motor such gear units are. ra0 = 0. circumferential speed on the reference circle v = 4. Without taking into consideration the safety factor.832.50 (electric motor with uniform mode of operation. first the permissible Hertzian pressure HP = 1470 N/mm2 is determined from equation (12) without taking into account the safety factor. gear units without and with load sharing are shown. the highest output torques of gear units are limited by the manufacturing facilities. shaft 1 each being the HSS and shaft 2 being the LSS. base helix angle b = 9. size factor ZX = 0.28 and YFS2 = 4. tip factors YFS1 = 4. face load factor KH = 1.244 degree. Lubricant factor ZL = 1. coal mill with medium shock load). the Hertzian pressure for pinion and wheel is H = 1251 N/mm2. transverse module mt = 22.88. 1.829 mm.047.284 degree. relative surface factor YRrelT = 0. load sharing gear units playing an important role there.027. zone factor ZH = 2. relative sensitivity factor Y relT = 1. 70 to 80% of the total weight and also of the manufacturing expenditure.0. Load sharing gear units are.123 m/s. virtual numbers of teeth zn1 = 26.342. Application factor KA = 1. The safety factor referring to the torque is SH2 = 1.94. because of symmetrical crowning the calculation may be made with a smaller value .4.4. size factor YX = 0. nominal circumferential force on the reference circle Ft = 800425 N. contact ratio factor Z = 0. overlap ratio = 0. The safety factor against pitting is found by SH = HP/ H = 1470/1251 = 1. working transverse pressure angle wt = 22.391 degree.20 acc. Load carrying capacity of the tooth root: Contact ratio factor Y = 0. With the allowable stress number for contact stress (pitting) Hlim = 1500 N/mm2. singlestage and twostage gear units up to a ratio of i = 16 are examined.0.3 mn.03. In figure 21. 1. Adding further gear stages in order to achieve higher transmission ratios thus does not change anything about the following fundamental description. Preferably. pr0 = 0.489.018.4.83. Load carrying capacity of the tooth flanks: Elasticity factor ZE = 190 N mm 2 .0.08 and zn2 = 49.992. In such cases.38.339 mm. work hardening factor ZW = 1. the output torque can be increased further only by means of load sharing in the gear unit. also widely used for lower torques as they provide certain advantages in spite of the larger number of internal components. the permissible tooth root stresses for pinion and wheel FP1 = FP2 = 797 N/mm2 can be obtained from equation (21) with the bending stress number Flim = 500 N/mm2. These singlestage to fourstage gear units according to the modular construction system cover a wide range of speeds and torques required by the driven machines. to equation (5) follows KH = 1.0. however. as a rule. Some typical features of the one or other type are described in the following.178. Stress correction factor YST = 2.3 Comparisons In the following.48. According to equation (8).326. helix angle factor Y = 0. roughness factor ZR = 1.978. helix angle factor Z = 0. reference diameter of the pinion d1 = 558. transverse pressure angle t = 20. different types of gear units are used.96.
According to /14/. it is possible to compare cylindrical gear units with different ultimate stress values of the gear materials with each other in the following examinations. The idler gears rotate as planets around the central axle.3. and gear units D. double helical teeth and axial movability of the idler gears guarantee equal load distribution between six branches. and G the idler gears of one shaft have been joined to one gear so that they are also considered to be singlestage gear units. In gear unit D the load of the highspeed gear stage is equally shared between three gears which is achieved by the radial movability of the sun gear on shaft 1. F. and in the case of gear units F and G with the housing. Transmission ratio i = 7. planet gears and sun gears out of case hardening steel BL = 2. using the following formula: Figure 21 Diagrammatic view of cylindrical gear unit types without and with load sharing. F. the load value is the tooth peripheral force Fu referred to the pinion pitch diameter dw and the carrying facewidth b. The idler gears in gear units C and D have different diameters. B. and G the sun gear on shaft 1 mostly is radially movable.e. i. Gear unit A has one stage. 1. In the lowspeed gear stage the load is shared six times altogether by means of the double helical teeth and the axial movability of the intermediate shaft. BL 7 · 106 u u+1 2 Hlim 10 KA · SH2 (26) with BL in N/mm2 and allowable stress number for contact stress (pitting) Hlim in N/mm2 as well as gear ratio u. cylindrical gears out of quenched and tempered steel BL = 1 . BL = Fu b · dw (25) The permissible load values of the meshings of the cylindrical gear units can be computed from the pitting resistance by approximation. Gear unit C has double load sharing. Uniform load distribution is achieved in the highspeed gear stage by double helical teeth and the axial movability of shaft 1. The value of the gear ratio u is always greater than 1. The gear units have the same output torques. as shown in /15/ (see section 1..4.5 N/mm2. and is negative for internal gear pairs (see table 3). In gear units E..5 N/mm2. 3.. Size comparison to scale of gear units with the same output torque. F.. F.Cylindrical Gear Units Gear Unit Types The diameter ratios of the gears shown in figure 21 correspond to the transmission ratio i = 7. E. The following applies for practically executed gear units: cylindrical gears out of case hardening steel BL = 4 .0 . planetary gear stages with annulus gears out of quenched and tempered steel. so that in figure 21 a size comparison to scale is illustrated. E.. 1. Siemens MD · 2009 108 . application factor KA and factor of safety from pitting SH. In order to achieve equal load distribution between the three intermediate gears of gear units E. and G with coaxial shaft arrangement. In gear units F and G. 6 N/mm2. and G have two stages and are load sharing. The large internal gear is an annulus gear which in the case of gear unit E is connected with shaft 2. Both gear units are without load sharing.1 Load value By means of load value BL. web and shaft 2 form an integrated whole. Gear units A. Gear units C.3.4). Load value BL is a specific quantity and independent of the size of the cylindrical gear unit. and C are with offset shaft arrangement. gear unit B has two stages. D. In gear unit G..
2 Referred torques In figure 22. and to the generated surface A of the pitch circle cylinders when comparing the gear teeth surfaces. in figure 22.3. referred torques for the gear units shown in figure 21 are represented. dependent on the transmission ratio i. The torque T2 is referred to the construction dimension D when comparing the sizes. The higher a curve.Cylindrical Gear Units Gear Unit Types 1. Explanations are given in table 7 as well as in the text. Siemens MD · 2009 109 . Gear unit weight G and gear teeth surface A (= generated surface) are measures for the manufacturing cost. to the weight of the gear unit G when comparing the weights. Further explanations are given in table 7. Table 7 Referred Torques Comparison criteria Size Weight Gear teeth surface Definition = T2 D3 BL T2 = G BL = T2 A3/2 BL Dimension m mm m mm2 kg mm2 m2 Units of the basic details T2 in Nm BL in N/mm2 D in mm G in kg A in m2 Ratio i a) Torque referred to size Ratio i b) Torque referred to gear unit weight 10 Ratio i c) Torque referred to gear teeth surface Ratio i d) Fullload efficiency Figure 22 Comparisons of cylindrical gear unit types in figure 21 dependent on the transmission ratio i. the better the respective gear unit in comparison with the others.4.
figure 22d. The efficiency as a quantity of energy losses results from the following relation with the input power at shaft 1 and the torques T1 and T2 h+ 1 i T2 T1 (27) All gear units shown in figure 21 are based on the same coefficient of friction of tooth profile z = 0. the construction dimension D. which is a total 40.4. The total efficiency according to figure 22 d is = 0. C. The two planetary gear stages of type F together have a power loss which is by 45% higher than that of the gear unit type D. In addition. however. 1.3. planetary gear units do not have such big advantages if compared to load sharing gear units having external gears only. however. Gear units C and D. The advantage is a better efficiency of = 0. the output torque referred to size and weight is the most favourable for the planetary gear unit. Similar definitions are valid for gear unit height and width. In comparison to a gear unit of type D with the same transmission ratio i = 20 and the same output torque T2 = 3 · 106 Nm. For ratios i < 4. Also the wall thickness of the housing is in a fixed relation to the construction dimension D /15/. At 1 = 30 m mm2/kg and 2 = 45 m mm2/kg according to figure 22 b. the weights of modulartype gear units are usually higher. total transmission ratio i = 20. However.15. For higher transmission ratios. if compared with other gear units. the smaller the transmission ratio in the planetary gear stage. The lossfree coupling performance of planetary gear units F and G results in a further improvement of the efficiency.2 t according to figure 22 with = 11 m mm2/kg and is thus heavier by 67%. 85% of the total power loss for common cylindrical gear units with rolling bearings.Cylindrical Gear Units Gear Unit Types 10 For all gear units explained in figures 21 and 22.3 N/mm2. however. the torque referred to the gear teeth surface is more favourable only in case of small ratios. Referred to size and weight.971. Usually.985 = 0.06. The internal gear pairs in gear units E. load sharing gear units having external gears only are more favourable because with increasing ratio the referred torque decreases only slightly. only the power losses in the meshings are taken into consideration. since the housing dimensions are determined according to different points of view. and this all the more. Space requirement and load carrying capacity of the planet gear bearings decrease considerably. With increasing ratio. C.98. the gear unit weight G. the same prerequisites are valid. and D is lost. and G are lower because the power flow passes two meshings.9 t. which have only external gears.3. the referred torque decreases considerably. Siemens MD · 2009 110 . more planetary gear stages are to be arranged in series so that the advantage of a better efficiency compared to gear units B.5. that internal gears require higher manufacturing expenditure than external gears for the same quality of manufacture. there is not enough space for the rolling bearings of the planet gears in the stage with i = 4.4. With a given torque T2 and with a load value BL computed according to equation (26). so that a comparison is possible.3 Efficiencies When comparing the efficiencies. Thus. planetary gear units F and G have the highest torques at small ratios i. the planet gear bearings are arranged in the planet carrier for ratio i < 4. load value BL = 2. D. and the gear teeth surface A can be determined by approximation by figure 22 for a given transmission ratio i. and G show better efficiencies owing to lower sliding velocities in the meshings compared to gear units B. Furthermore. they come to approx. 1. A minimum of weight is approximately achieved by a transmission ratio division of i = 5 · 4 of the HS and LS stage. F. the construction dimension D is larger than the sum of the pitch diameters by the factor 1. For all gear units. The single stage gear unit A has the best efficiency. The efficiencies of the two stage gear units B. For ratios above i = 8. however. The comparisons show that there is no optimal gear unit available which combines all advantages over the entire transmission ratio range. have the highest torque referred to size and weight for ratios above i 7. With regard to the gear teeth surface. It is to be taken into consideration. Under full load. E. gears without addendum modification and numbers of teeth of the pinion z = 17 are uniformly assumed for all gear units /15/.9 t and for the LS stage approximately 30 t. the weight for the HS stage is approximately 10.4 Example Given: Two planetary gear stages of type F arranged in series. output torque T2 = 3 · 106 Nm. C.986 · 0. the planet gear becomes the pinion instead of the sun gear. For planetary gear units. with a better load value BL = 4 N/mm2 this gear unit has a weight of 68. and D which only have external gear pairs. F. It is therefore higher than that of other comparable load sharing gear units.
The sound power is transmitted from the sources to the outside gear unit surfaces mainly by structureborne noise (material vibrations). Aweighted sound pressure LpA).5.g. In order to take into consideration the different sensitivities of the human ear at different frequencies. For the sound pressure.Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units Level correction (dB) Correction curve A Frequency (Hz) Figure 23 Correction curve according to DIN 45635 /16/ for the Aweighted sound power level or sound pressure level 1. The sound pressure can be determined for a single frequency or as a combination for a frequency range (singlenumber rating). From the gear unit power a very small part is turned into sound power. the physical sound pressure value at the different frequencies is corrected according to rating curve A. For the conversion of the sound power applies (P0 = 1012 W). 10 111 . the threshold of audibility of the human ear at 2 kHz has been taken as reference value (p0 = 2 ·105 Pa). air borne noise is emitted. sound pressure Lp. see figure 23. fan blades. This mainly occurs in the meshings. Aweighted quantities are marked by subscript “A” (e. It is dependent on the distance to the source of sound. or by oil movements. p0 and P0) have been determined in DIN EN ISO 1683.g.1 Definitions Noise emitted by a gear unit like all other noises is composed of tones having different frequencies f. Measure of intensity is the sound pressure p which is the difference between the highest (or lowest) and the mean pressure in a sound wave detected by the human ear. From the outside surfaces. no absolute values are used but amplification or level quantities in bel (B) or decibel (dB). Apart from sound pressures at certain places. In general. but also on bearings.5 Noise emitted by gear units 1. sound powers and sound intensities of a whole system can be determined. Conversion of the absolute values is made for the sound pressure using equation Lp = 20 · log(p/p0) [dB] and for the sound power using equation LW = 10 · log(P/P0) [dB] Siemens MD · 2009 (29) (28) The reference values (e.
sound pressure levels LpA are measured at fixed points surrounding the gear unit and converted into sound power levels LWA. 10 Histograms occur in the onethird octave spectrum and in the octave spectrum. Aweighted) Bandwidth Sound intensity level dB(A) Frequency (Hz) Figure 26 Octave spectrum of a gear unit (sound intensity level. unlike the sound pressure it is a directional quantity. fu = lower band frequency. 10 Hz or 1/12 octaves are termed narrow bands. or fo = fm .12. For a point source of sound it results from the sound power LW divided by the spherical enveloping surface 4 · · r2. fo = upper band frequency. In the onethird octave spectrum (spectrum with 1/3 octaves). see figures 25 and 26.Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units The sound intensity is the flux of sound power through a unit area normal to the direction of propagation. see example in figure 27. the bandwidth results from fo / fu = 3 The total level (resulting from logarithmic addition of individual levels of the recorded frequency range) is a singlenumber rating. 112 . The total level is the common logical value for gear unit noises. the bottom is not taken into consideration.2. see figure 24. Very small frequency ranges. The sound power can be converted to an average sound pressure for a certain place. Bandwidth Frequency (Hz) Figure 25 Onethird octave spectrum of a gear unit (sound intensity level. e.1 Determination via sound pressure DIN 45635 Part 1 and Part 23 describe how to determine the sound power levels of a given gear unit /16/. The sound pressure level is valid for a certain distance. Aweighted) (Frequency) Figure 24 Narrow band frequency spectrum for LpA (Aweighted sound pressure level) at a distance of 1 m from a gear unit. The recording instrument stores the sound pressure or sound intensity over a certain period of time and writes the dB values in frequency ranges (bands) into the spectrum (system of coordinates). In case of octaves. concentrically enveloping the source of sound. fo / fu = 1. fm = mean band frequency. For this purpose. 1. 1.12 and fu = fm / 1. The measurement surface ratio LS is an auxiliary quantity which is dependent on the sum of the measurement surfaces. however. 1.e.g. 1.5. in general 1 m from the housing surface as an ideal parallelepiped. The sound pressure decreases with increasing distance from the source of sound. Siemens MD · 2009 2. i. When the gear unit is placed on a reverberant base. Like the sound pressure. Sound intensity level dB(A) The sound power LWA is the Aweighted sound power emitted from the source of sound and thus a quantity independent of the distance.26. the sound intensity is dependent on the distance to the source of sound.2 Measurements The main noise emission parameter is the sound power level. the upper frequency is twice as big as the lower one.5.41. fo = fm .41 and fu = fm / 1.
The mean of the levels is taken via the specified time.0 + 15.6 + 6. In VDI 2159. Gear unit manufacturers. one can base the calculations on experience.9 . If the background noises are too loud (limit values of correction factors are achieved).2 Determination via sound intensity The gear unit surface is scanned manually all around at a distance of. The results correspond to the values as determined in accordance with DIN 45635. 10 cm. corrections for background noise and environmental influences are to be made.4 . However.g. for instance. resonances in the room) and are used as correction values in the sound power calculation. The sound power can be determined by multiplying the sound intensity by the scanned surface area. log P / kW (dB) 71.Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units Machine enclosing reference box Measurement surface This method has been standardized in DIN EN ISO 96142. Figure 28 exemplary illustrates a characteristic diagram of emissions for cylindrical gear units. Siemens MD · 2009 10 113 . transmitted power. e. too. reference values are given. 1. The VDI guidelines are based on measurements carried out on a large number of industrial gear units. cylindrical gear units with sliding bearings (highspeed gear units).7 + 15. in industrial plants). The sound intensity determined in this way is the average sound energy flow penetrating the scanned surface.9 . information on speed variators can be found in the guidelines. a distinction is made between cylindrical gear units with rolling bearings.5. that 80% of the recorded industrial gear units radiate lower noises. log P / kW (dB) Figure 27 Example of arrangement of measuring points according to DIN 45635 /16/ In order to really detect the noise radiated by the gear unit alone.2. The lines are determined by mathematical equations. by means of a special measuring device containing two opposing microphones. see figure 28. manufacturing quality. 1. They are estimated by measuring background noises (caused by noise radiating machines in the vicinity) and the characteristics of the room (reverberation time.1 + 12. Gear units Cylindrical gear units (rolling bearings) Cylindrical gear units (sliding bearings) Bevel gear and bevelhelical gear units Planetary gear units Worm gear units For restrictions. for example. Similar characteristic diagrams are also available for the other gear unit types mentioned. two minutes.7 + 4. In the VDI guidelines 2159 /17/. for example. Furthermore. log P / kW (dB) 65.4 . As a rule. Main influence parameters for gear unit noises are gear unit type. For the 80%lines.and 80%lines are drawn.3 . log P / kW (dB) 85. mostly have own records. log P / kW (dB) 87.5. The 80%line means. 50%. Within the characteristic diagrams. the equations according to VDI 2159 are: Total sound power level LWA 77. the sound intensity method is more accurate (less measurement uncertainty) because it is less insensitive to noises and can also be used in case of loud background noises (e. see VDI 2159. and worm gear units. planetary gear units.3 Prediction It is not possible to exactly calculate in advance the sound power level of a gear unit to be made.g. bevel gear and bevelhelical gear units. this method can no longer be used because of insufficient accuracy. and speed. Because of the special property of the measuring device to determine the direction of sound incidence it is very easy to eliminate background noises.
is calculated at a distance of 1 m with a measurement surface S = 21 m2 and a measurement surface ratio LS = 13. lubrication and cooling are also important.13.Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units Type: Cylindrical gear units with external teeth mainly (> 80%) having the following characteristic features: Power rating: 0. tolerance 3 dB.2.) Individual levels in a frequency spectrum cannot safely be predicted for gear units because of the multitude of influence parameters. Room and connection influences have not been taken into consideration. connections) to other places from where then airborne noise will be emitted.3 x log P/kW dB (80%line) Certainty rate r2 = 0. In some cases. Sometimes. and it requires more space. circumferential speed: 1 up to 20 ms1 Output torque: 100 up to 200 000 Nm No.1 + 12. If it is agreed that measurements are to be made they will be carried out on the manufacturer’s test stand.” 114 . hardened. in special design and manufacturing expenditure. the only way is to enclose the gear units which makes possible that the total level is reduced by 10 to 25 dB. of gear stages: 1 to 3 Information on gear teeth: HS gear stage with helical teeth (b = 10 up to 30 ). (Error of measurement according to DIN EN ISO 96142 for measurements in the industrial area with accuracy grade 2. with rolling bearings. finemachined. This assumption results in the socalled measurement surface sound pressure level.4 Possibilities of influencing With the selection of other than standard geometries and with special tooth modifications (see section 1. DIN quality 5 to 8 Sound power level LWA Housing: Cast iron housing Bearing arrangement: Rolling bearings Lubrication: Dip lubrication Installation: Rigid on steel or concrete Logarithmic regression LWA = 77.83 Probability 90% Mechanical power rating P Figure 28 Characteristic diagram of emissions for cylindrical gear units (industrial gear units) acc. module reduction) for the same size.2 dB.7 up to 2400 kW Input speed ( = max. It is assumed that the sound energy is uniquely radiated from the object in all directions and can propagate undisturbed (free sound propagation). Housing design. speed): 1000 up to 5000 min1 (mostly 1500 min1) Max.5.5). in any case. of standard quality: “The sound power level. dependent on the conditions. determined in accordance with DIN 45635 (sound pressure measurement) or according to the sound intensity measurement method. log S (dB) (31) S = Sum of the hypothetical surfaces (m2) enveloping the gear unit at a distance of 1 m (ideal parallelepiped) Example of information for P = 100 kW in a twostage cylindrical gear unit of size 200 (centre distance in the 2nd gear stage in mm). however. Siemens MD · 2009 To calculate a sound pressure level from the given sound power values a measuring method is used comparable with that described in DIN 45635. that no structureborne noise is radiated via coupled elements (couplings. A sound screen does not only hinder the propagation of airborne noise but also the heat dissipation of a gear unit. type of rolling bearing. the average sound pressure at a determined distance to the gear unit. 1.2 89 dB (A). a measurement surface sound pressure level of 102 . to VDI 2159 /17/ Note: For this example.g. Attention has to be paid to it. is 102 3 dB (A). The measurement surface sound pressure level LpA at a distance of 1 m is calculated from the total sound power level LpA = LWA Ls (dB) (30) 10 Ls = 10 . gear unit noises can be positively influenced. distribution of masses. such a procedure results in a reduction in the performance (e.
Gear Couplings Universal Gear Couplings. Composite Couplings Miniature Couplings. Flexible Pin and Bush Couplings Allsteel Couplings. Flexible Pin Couplings Flexible Claw Couplings Highly Flexible Ring Couplings. Multiple Disk Clutches Fluid Couplings. Overrunning Clutches. Torque Limiters Highspeed Couplings. Highly Flexible Rubber Tyre Couplings Highly Flexible Rubber Disk Couplings. Torque Limiters Couplings for Pump Drives Coupling Systems for Railway Vehicles Coupling Systems for Wind Power Stations Page 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 11 Siemens MD · 2009 115 .Table of Contents Section 11 Shaft Couplings General Fundamental Principles Torsionally Rigid Couplings.
S Compensating shaft misalignments (radial. angular). Such components are connected by couplings which have the following tasks: S Transmitting motion of rotation and torques. Limiting the torque (torque limiters). rigid Gear couplings Allsteel couplings Universal joint couplings Parallel offset couplings Tors. Shaft couplings 2. flexible Steel spring couplings Pin and bush couplings Claw couplings Flexible element couplings Highly flexible Rubber tyre couplings Rubber disk couplings Rubber ring couplings 11 Figure 29 Overview of possible shaft coupling designs 116 Siemens MD · 2009 . The diversity of possible coupling variants is shown in the overview in figure 29. and driven machine. S Reducing the torsional vibration load.1 General fundamental principles In mechanical equipment.Shaft Couplings General Fundamental Principles Rigid and Torsionally Flexible Couplings 2. gear unit. Electrical insulation. Sound isolation. A distinction is made between the two main groups: couplings and clutches. Interrupting the motion of rotation (clutches). drives are consisting of components like prime mover. influencing and displacing the resonant ranges. Shaft couplings Couplings Clutches Rigid Clamp couplings Flange couplings Radial tooth couplings Flexible Externally operated Clutches Torque controlled Torque limiters Speed controlled Centrifugal clutches Directionofrotation controlled Overriding clutches Overrunning clutches Friction Hydrodynamic couplings Magnetic couplings Friction couplings Positive Tors. shafts. S S S S S Damping torque and speed impulses. axial.
180 000 Nm on request NEUPEX Flexible pin couplings Universally applicable coupling for compensating shaft displacements S maximum operational reliability owing to failsafe device S suitable for plugin assembly and simplified assembly of the design consisting of three parts Nominal torque: 19 .1 BIPEX Flexible claw couplings Failsafe universal coupling S very compact design.1 Siemens MD · 2009 117 .Shaft Couplings Torsionally Rigid Couplings. 21 200 Nm Brochure MD 10... 3 700 Nm 11 Brochure MD 10.. high power capacity S very well suitable for plugin assembly and assembly into bell housing S also with Taper bush for easy assembly and bore adaptation Nominal torque: 13. Flexible Pin Couplings Flexible Claw Couplings Flange couplings Torsionally rigid couplings Connect two shafts ends torsionally rigid and exactly centered to each other S designed for heavily stressed shafts S not subject to wear and require no maintenance S suitable for both directions of rotation Nominal torque: 1 300 .1 NEUPEXDS Flexible pin couplings Disconnecting driving and driven machines upon failure of flexible elements (without failsafe device) S universally applicable since combination with all parts of the NEUPEX product range is possible Nominal torque: 19 ..5 .... 62 000 Nm Brochure MD 10..
1 118 Siemens MD · 2009 .1 ELPEXB Highly flexible rubber tyre couplings Coupling without torsional backlash S compensating very large shaft misalignments S the rubber tyre can be easily replaced without the need to move the coupled machines S easy mounting on the shafts to be connected by means of Taper bushes Nominal torque: 24 . to SAE J620d Nominal torque: 330 ..1 11 RUPEX Flexible pin and bush couplings Failsafe universal coupling for medium up to high torques. 14 500 Nm Brochure MD 10. 90 000 Nm Brochure MD 10. Highly Flexible Rubber Tyre Couplings Highly Flexible Rubber Disk Couplings. Flexible Pin and Bush Couplings ELPEX Highly flexible ring couplings Coupling without torsional backlash S can be used for large shaft misalignments S suitable for high dynamic loads. 1 300 000 Nm Brochure MD 10.Shaft Couplings Highly Flexible Ring Couplings.. 63 000 Nm Brochure MD 10.. absorbing large shaft displacements S compact design.1 ELPEXS Highly flexible rubber disk couplings For connecting machines having a very nonuniform torque characteristic S very easy plugin assembly S replacement of rubber disk element is possible without the need to move the coupled machines S flange with dimensions acc. low weights and mass moments of inertia S suitable for plugin assembly Nominal torque: 200 ..... good damping properties Nominal torque: 1 600 ..
.. 75 000 Nm Brochure MD 10. the torque limiter separates the coupled drive components both during slow and fast rising torques S after the disengagement process the coupling halves are out of contact..ART Highspeed couplings Were designed for the energy and petrochemical industries and marine propulsion drives S are used for all highspeed purposes where reliable power transmission is required even with unavoidable shaft misalignment S meet the requirements of API 671 Nominal torque: 1 000 .1 ARPEX .g. 535 000 Nm Brochure MD 10.. 7 600 Nm Brochure MD 10. extreme light weight coupling for drives with great shaft distances (e. 1 450 000 Nm Brochure MD 10..11 ARPEX .ARS (ARF / ARC / ARW) Allsteel couplings Torsionally rigid coupling without clearance S compensates radial. Composite Couplings ARPEX .AKR Torque limiters On reaching the preset disconnecting torque...5 11 Siemens MD · 2009 119 . cooling tower fan) S up to 6 metres without centre bearing support S easy to handle and to install S maintenancefree and wearfree S reduced coupling vibrations Nominal torque: 1 250 .9 ARPEX . Torque Limiters Highspeed Couplings. angular and axial shaft displacements by means of two flexible disc packs S packs made out of stainless spring steel S easy assembly of coupling due to compact disc packs S modular system: many standard types by combination of standard components Nominal torque: 92 . so that a wearfree running down can be realized Nominal torque: 10 .ARS Composite Composite couplings Corrosionresistant..Shaft Couplings Allsteel Couplings.
printing and packaging machines.1 ZAPEXZI Universal gear couplings Doublejointed gear coupling with hobbed and crowned external gear teeth and low torsional backlash S largest possible bore range with grease lubricated gear teeth S mounting dimensions in metric and inch measures acc.. 30 000 Nm on request 120 Siemens MD · 2009 . can be used for high shock loads S available in many types and variants Nominal torque: 1 300 .... Gear Couplings Universal Gear Couplings.. measuring and registering systems. 7 200 000 Nm Brochure MD 10.1 11 PLANOX Multiple disk clutches Constant torque transmission by means of contact pressure ensured by springs S many applications possible owing to mechanical. pneumatic or hydraulic disengaging devices S protects drives against overloading Nominal torque: 10 . stepping and servomotors.. tacho drives. Multiple Disk Clutches ARPEX . machine tools.10 ZAPEXZW Gear couplings Doublejointed coupling compensating angular. computer technology. test stands Nominal torque: 5 . parallel and axial misalignment of shafts S longterm lubrication is ensured by design measures and by using special seals S small dimensions. 125 000 Nm Brochure MD 10.Shaft Couplings Miniature Couplings..ARM Miniature couplings Designed for applications with very low torques S fields of application: control systems. 25 Nm Brochure MD 10. electrical. to international standards Nominal torque: 850 ..
100 000 Nm Dimensioned drawing M 495 Certified according to directive 94/9/EC (ATEX 95) This coupling is particularly suitable for the use in hazardous locations SECUREX Torque limiters With SECUREX. Overrunning Clutches Torque Limiters FLUDEX Fluid couplings Soft starting without shocks and acceleration of large masses during a loadrelieved start of motor S torque limitation during starting and overload S excellent vibration separation and shock damping S torque transmission without wear Nominal power ratings: 0..000 Nm and benefits from its rich fund of knowledge and experience gained from application. With the modular SECUREX system. With this combination. Siemens has concentrated its experiences gained over decades in the fields of both overload protection and compensation of shaft misalignments in one product line. Brochure K 440 11 Siemens MD · 2009 121 .).. sliding hubs in the wind energy industry. the auxiliary drive then being shut off by overrunning. SECUREX is based on the wide range of FLENDER standard couplings of different basic types and on standardized safety elements.5 .500. shear pin solutions in rolling mills.and productrelated R&D (e. etc.. Siemens has focused on its core competence in the torque range of up to 1. Siemens provides a unique modular system of mechanical torque limiters.1 UZWN Overrunning clutches Overrunning clutches allow to drive shafts and machines first by means of an auxiliary drive at low speed for startup and then by means of the main drive at higher speeds for fullload operation. economical coupling solutions can be realized. Nominal torque: 9 000 . Owing to a variety of possibilities to combine standard components. 2 500 kW Brochure MD 10. With the development of SECUREX.Shaft Couplings Fluid Couplings. the functions Protection from overload as well as Compensation of shaft misalignment can be fulfilled with just one compact unit.. torque limiters in extruder applications.g.
with intermediate sleeve Certified acc. a variant without failsafe device is available especially developed for hazardous locations Types B / BDS .in two parts Types A / ADS .. “NONSPARKING” and certified acc. available worldwide D Complete applicationoriented assortment! In addition to the failsafe standard design. 17 000 Nm 11 Katalog MD 10. reliable.Shaft Couplings Couplings for Pump Drives Couplings for pump drives NEUPEX Flexible pin couplings D Tried and tested drive element in millions of pump drives D Good value for money.1 122 Siemens MD · 2009 .ARP Allsteel couplings Were specially designed for pump drives D Meet the requirements of API 610 D Design according to API 671.1 Type H ARPEX ..in three parts Types H / HDS . to directive 94/9/EC (ATEX 95) Type BDS Type A Katalog MD 10. to directive 94/9/EC (ATEX 95) also available Nominal torque: 100 .
flexible coupling without backlash. nominal torque: 15 000 Nm Max. shaft diameter: 100 mm on request Output side couplings Articulated joint rubber coupling. shaft diameter: 260 mm 11 on request Siemens MD · 2009 123 . nominal torque: 3 425 Nm Max. Type GKG D Doublejointed. Type ZBG D Doublejointed grease lubricated gear coupling between motor and gear unit D Compensating extremely large shaft misalignments D Split spacer with crowned gear teeth Max. nominal torque: 13 440 Nm Max. with low restoring forces Max. Type MBG D Allsteel membrane coupling for the connection of motor and gear unit D Without backlash. compensating relatively small shaft misalignments Max.Shaft Couplings Coupling Systems for Railway Vehicles Coupling systems for railway vehicles Input side couplings Membrane coupling. shaft diameter: 86 mm Gear coupling. between axle drive and driving wheel shaft D Low wear and low maintenance D Compensating extremely large shaft misalignments.
Shaft Couplings Coupling Systems for Wind Power Stations Coupling systems for wind power stations FLUDEX Fluid couplings in combination with other couplings D Fluid coupling with slip between 2 and 3%. Peak torques caused by gusts of wind are compensated D Combination with RUPEX coupling for small shaft misalignments D Combination with articulated joint rubber coupling or ARPEX coupling for large shaft misalignments on request Articulated joint rubber couplings Type GKGW with brake disk D Rubberelastic ball bearings for extremely large shaft misalignments between gear unit and generator D Very low restoring forces D Electrically insulating and structureborne noise absorbing D Wearing parts and coupling can be removed without the need to move the generator D Optional with torquelimiting slip hub on request ARPEX Allsteel couplings D Design with hexagonal or square disc pack for very large shaft misalignments D Optionally with slip hub for limiting the torque load in case of generator shortcircuit D Light spacer out of glassfibre compound material for lightning insulation D Conical bolt connection of disc packs for easy assembly 11 on request 124 Siemens MD · 2009 .
Symbols and Units Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Evaluation of Vibrations 133 127 Page 126 129 129 + 130 130 + 131 131 132 135 135 + 136 12 Siemens MD · 2009 125 .Table of Contents Section 12 Vibrations Symbols and Units General Fundamental Principles Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Terms.
^ rad rad rad 12 ne n1.718 N/m2 Hz m N N N/m2 m4 m4 kgm2 kgm2 Nms/ rad Ns/m m kg Nm Nm Nm 1/min min1 Second axial moment of area Second polar moment of area Mass moment of inertia Reduced mass moment of inertia of a twomass vibration generating system Viscous damping in case of torsional vibrations Viscous damping in case of translational and bending vibrations Length. Ae c c’ d di da D Dm e= E f. natural frequency Deformation Force Timevariable force Shear modulus Transmission ratio Number of windings (coil spring) r . Dynamic / static load ratio Nm/rad N/m m m m Torsional stiffness Translational stiffness. . output speed Influence factor for taking into account the mass of the shaft when calculating the natural bending frequency ö ö ö öh öp ^ öp ^ ö stat . n2 q t rad/s Angular velocity.. distance between bearings Mass Timevariable excitation moment Amplitude of moment Reduced amplitude of moment of a twomass vibration generating system Natural frequency (vibrations per minute) Input speed.Vibrations Symbols and Units a A A AD. bending stiffnes Diameter Inside diameter Outside diameter Attenuation ratio (Lehr’s damping) Mean coil diameter (coil spring) Euler’s number Modulus of elasticity Frequency. Ji J* k k’ l m.14159 kg/m3 rad rad rad/s rad/s2 rad i m m rad rad 1/s rad Displacement coordinate (translational. Siemens MD · 2009 126 . elastic energy T T V V x ^ x s Nm m3 Period of a vibration Torque Volume Magnification factor. mi M (t) M0 M0* m m2 m. natural radian frequency of the damped vibration Natural radian frequency of the undamped vibration Radian frequency of the excitation on vibration w0 rad/s rad/s s Time Note: The unit “rad” ( = radian ) may be replaced with “1”. to DIN 740 /18/ m 2. fe f F F (t) G i iF la lp J. i = 3. bending) Displacement amplitude Phase angle Phase angle with free vibration Damping constant Phase displacement angle with forced vibration Excitation frequency /natural frequency ratio Inherent value factor for ith natural frequency Logarithmic decrement Peripheral /diameter ratio Specific density Angle of rotation Angular amplitude of a vibration Angular velocity (first time derivation of ö) Angular acceleration (second time derivation of ö) Vibratory angle of the free vibration (homogeneous solution) Vibratory angle of the forced vibration (particular solution) Angular amplitude of the forced vibration Angular amplitude of the forced vibration under load (ö = 0) Damping coefficient acc. rad Length of overhanging end Crosssectional area Amplitude of oscillation Damping energy.
electric voltage/ current. a distinction is made between translational (bending) and torsional vibrating systems as well as coupled vibrating systems in which translational and torsional vibrations occur at the same time. see figure 30. temperature. pressure. see figure 31. angle. Amplitude Vibration Period x = A · sin · t A = Amplitude = Radian frequency t = Time x = A · sin ( · t + ) = Phase angle 12 Figure 31 Mathematical description of an undamped vibration with and without phase angle Siemens MD · 2009 127 .e. influencing each other. figure 32 a. Translational vibration generatig system Bending vibration generating system Torsional vibration generating system Figure 30 Different vibrating systems with one degree of freedom Further. Dependent on the mode of motion of the mass. The state of a vibrating system can be described by suitable variables. and vice versa. Vibrations 3. the kinetic energy of the mass and the energy stored in the spring are converted at certain intervals of time. velocity. i. the mass acting as kinetic energy store and the spring as potential energy store. such as displacement.Vibrations General Fundamental Principles 3. The simplest form of a mechanical vibrating system consists of a mass and a spring with fixed ends. and whether the vibration takes place without energy losses (undamped) or with energy losses (damped). cosine) the arguments of which contain natural radian frequency = 2 · · f (f = natural frequency in Hertz) and time. a distinction is made between free vibrations and externally forced vibrations. The vibration variation with time x can be described by the constant amplitude of oscillation A and a harmonic function (sine. A vibration is free and undamped if energy is neither supplied nor removed by internal friction so that the existing energy content of the vibration is maintained. In this case the system carries out steadystate natural Amplitude vibrations the frequency of which is determined only by the characteristics of the spring/mass system (natural frequency).1 General fundamental principles Vibrations are more or less regularly occurring temporary variations of state variables. and the like. a periodic conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy takes place. During vibration.
turbines. unbalance. for instance. All technical vibration generating systems are subject to more or less strong damping effects. in undamped systems the amplitudes of oscillation grow at an unlimited degree. starting shock impulses. With the periodic external excitation force. universaljoint shaft. All these natural frequencies can be excited to vibrate by periodic external or internal forces. unfixed torsional vibration system with n masses.e. a Fourier analysis may often be helpful where periodic excitation processes are resolved into fundamental and harmonic oscillations and thus in comparison with the natural frequencies of a system show possible resonance points. Resonance points may lead to high loads in the components and therefore are to be avoided or to be quickly traversed (example: natural bending frequency in highspeed gear units). drives). the amplitude of oscillation 12 128 . Displacement x a) Undamped vibration ( = 0) b) Damped vibration ( > 0) grows until the energy supplied by the excitation force and the energy converted into heat by the damping energy are in equilibrium. figure 32 b. When analysing vibration processes. For unsteady loaded vibrating Siemens MD · 2009 c) Stimulated vibration ( < 0) Time t Figure 32 Vibration variations with time (A = initial amplitude at time t = 0. A free. i. control actions. piston compressor. this is a forced or stimulated vibration. In technical drive systems. has n1 natural frequencies. alignment error.Vibrations General Fundamental Principles A damped vibration exists. a minimum frequency distance of 15% or larger from a resonance point is required. figure 32 c. The range of the occurring amplitudes of oscillation is divided by the resonance point (natural frequency = excitation frequency. Such systems have as many natural frequencies with the corresponding natural vibration modes as degrees of freedom of motion. If a constant viscous damping (Newton’s friction) exists. Diesel and Otto engines. for technical vibrating systems (e. c) From the output side: Principle of the driven machine. = damping constant) If the vibrating system is excited by a periodic external force F(t) or moment M(t). As a rule. Then. e. where mostly only the lower natural frequencies and especially the basic frequency (first harmonic) are of importance. if during each period of oscillation a certain amount of vibrational energy is removed from the vibration generating system by internal or external friction. In case of simple vibrating systems with one or few (maximum 4) masses. when the applied frequency is at the natural frequency of the system. Resonance exists. propeller.g.g. influences from bearings. the amplitudes of oscillation decrease in accordance with a geometric progression. unsteady processes. Technical vibrating systems often consist of several masses which are connected with each other by spring or damping elements. analytic solutions for the natural frequencies and the vibration variation with time can be given for steady excitation. critical vibrations) into the subcritical and supercritical oscillation range. After a buildingup period. nonuniform. In damped systems. uniform. energy can be supplied to or removed from the vibrating system. a damped vibrating system does no longer vibrate with its natural frequency but with the frequency of the external excitation force. periodic excitation functions can be described by means of sine or cosine functions and the superpositions thereof. vibrations are excited by the following mechanisms: a) From the input side: Starting processes of electric motors. system short circuits. As a rule. b) From transmitting elements: Meshing.
ö . This applies even more to vibrating systems with nonlinear or periodic variable parameters (nonlinear torsional stiffness of couplings. J2 c k M (t) = = = = = mass moment of inertia [kgm2] torsional stiffness [Nm/rad] viscous damping [Nms/rad] external excitation moment [Nm].. ö)k ö )c@ö+ J J J w2 2d 0 ( ( (32) w0 + rad s (37) Twomass vibration generating system with relative coordinate: Natural frequency: ( 2d ( M(t) ö) k @ö) c @ö+ J1 J* J* . J2 J1 + J 2 d + k + damping constant J 0 (40) J* = (35) fe ne = natural radian frequency of the undamped vibration [rad/s] = natural frequency [Hertz] = natural frequency [1/min] Siemens MD · 2009 129 . ( = 1 2 for twomass vibration generating systems as relative angle) = angular velocity [rad/s] (first time derivation of ) = angular acceleration [rad/s2] (second time derivation of ) Natural radian frequency (undamped): 0 ö ö . J1. In this standard. With EDP programmes. nonlinear. timevariable angle of rotation [rad]. loads with steady as well as unsteady excitation can be simulated for complex vibrating systems (linear. however. the drive train having been reduced to a twomass vibration generating system. solutions can be calculated only with the aid of numerical simulation programmes. fe = ne = 0 (33) 2 0 . . figure 33. parameterexcited) and the results be represented in the form of frequency analyses. Drive systems with torsionally flexiFixed onemass vibration generating system ble couplings can be designed dynamically in accordance with DIN 740 /18/. 3.Vibrations General Fundamental Principles Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators systems with one or more masses. . [Hz] 30 [1/min] [1/s] (38) w2 0 (34) (39) 12 with ö + ö 1 * ö 2 J 1 ..2 Solution proposal for simple torsional vibrators Analytic solution for a periodically excited one(fixed) or twomass vibration generating system. Free twomass vibration generating system Figure 33 Torsional vibrators J. Differential equation of motion: Onemass vibration generating system: = c J c@ J1 ) J2 J1 @ J2 [rad/s] (36) M (t) . load as a function of time. periodic meshing stiffnesses). simplified solution proposals for shockloaded and periodically loaded drives are made. and overvoltages of resonance..
e. t ) (45) Reference values for some components: D = 0. = damping energy elastic deformation energy = AD Ae Total solution: ö + öh ) öp (44) a) Free vibration (homogeneous solution öh ) h = A.g.01 D = 0.01. cos ( .0.0..0. allsteel couplings.0. In damped vibrating systems ( > 0) the free component of vibration disappears after a transient period.2) torsionally flexible couplings D = 0.. to FLENDER standard couplings brochure.. to DIN 740 /18/ and/or acc.001. M M0 * = 0 J1 + J2 (49) (50) 12 c) Magnification factor Figure 34 Damping hysteresis of a torsionally flexible component p = M0 * c .04. ing conditions.15 (0.Vibrations Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Damped natural radian frequency: 3..04. V .t .... by ö h = 0 and ö h = 0 (initialvalue problem). b) Forced vibration (particular solution öp ) D = 0.D.c M0 = amplitude of moment [Nm] = exciting circuit frequency [rad/s] (42) = damping coefficient on torsionally flexible coupling. cos ( . determined by a damping hysteresis of a period of oscillation acc. t (51) V+ ^ öp 1 + ^ + M* (52) M0 ö stat (1 * h 2) 2 ) 4D 2 @ h 2 130 Siemens MD · 2009 .. 1 0 Static spring characteristic for one load cycle 2 (47) W h+w (48) Onemass vibration generating system: M0 * + M0 Twomass vibration generating system: J2 . universal joint shafts M* ö p + c0 @ 1 (1 * h 2) 2 ) 4D 2 @ h 2 (46) @ cos (W @ t * Phase angle: tan Frequency ratio: = 2.e .04 gear couplings.08 shafts (material damping of steel) gear teeth in gear units Constants A and are determined by the start.3 Solution of the differential equation of motion (41) w+ w2 * d2 + w0 @ 1 * D2 0 Periodic excitation moment M(t) + M 0 @ cos W @ t (43) Attenuation ratio (Lehr’s damping): D D = 0 = k. 0 = 4 2.
. The magnification factor shows the ratio of the dynamic and static load and is a measure for the additional load caused by vibrations (figure 35). (D13 .G 32 L .L 160 . damped and undamped vibrations at periodic moment excitation (power excitation). 3. Cylinder D Hollow cylinder d L Cone D1 L Hollow cone D1 d1 L Siemens MD · 2009 Mass moment of inertia J= r. D23) (D12 + D1D2 + D22) 12 J= d2 D2 r. Magnification factor V W Frequency ratio + h + w 0 3. Magnification factors V and phase displacement angle . . .L 32 . d23) (d12 + d1d2 + d22) 131 .4 Formulae for the calculation of vibrations For the calculation of natural frequencies and vibrational loads. (D4 d4) c= 32 L .G . D4 Phase displacement angle Figure 35 Magnification factors for forced. D15 D1 d1 d1 5 D25 3.G c= D2 32 L d2 d2 5 . L 32 L . (D4 d4) D2 J= r.G D4 D J= .4. a general vibration generating system has to be converted to a calculable substitute system with point masses.4.L 160 .Vibrations Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations ^ öp ^ = vibration amplitude of forced vibration ö stat = vibration amplitude of forced vibration at a frequency ratio = 0. .1 Mass m = r · V [kg] V = volume [m3] r = specific density [kg/m3] 3.2 Mass moment of inertia J = r 2 dm: general integral formula Torsional stiffness c= . D23) (D12 + D1D2 + D22) (d13 . spring and damping elements without mass. (D13 . . D15 D1 D25 D2 c= 3.L 32 r. .
For D < 1. angle) Amplitude Oscillating velocity Inertia force. the damping force is proportional to velocity and Nms/rad attenuation constant (linear damping). for D 1. Difference between phase angles of two vibration processes with same radian frequency. a damped vibration exists. For a very small attenuation ratio D < 1 becomes d 0. an aperiodic case exists. A ^ ö max. seconds. x c. J@ö c’ c c’ . x. The damping ratio is the relation between two amplitudes. ö. /(2 . A Unit kg kg · m2 m rad *) m rad m/s rad/s Explanation Translatory vibrating mass m. Spring moment Attenuation constant (Damping coefficient). ^ L + In (x n ^ L + In (ö n ^ x n)1) ^ ö n)1) L+2@p@D 1 * D2 t s rad = T = 2. Vibration frequency of the natural vibration (undamped) of the system.f rad s Hz rad/s rad/s rad/s rad/s rad/s 12 Coordinate of running time In case of a positive value. Time during which a single vibration occurs. one cycle apart. Torsional spring rate Spring force. m) = k / (2 . vibrations per sec. 132 .. The d’Alembert’s inertia force or the moment of inertia force acts in the opposite direction of the positive acceleration. Radian frequency is the number of vibrations in 2 . N N·m Nm Linear springs N · m/rad N In case of linear springs. 1/s 1/s The damping factor is the damping coefficient referred to twice the mass. the spring recoil N·m is proportional to deflection. k’ k = k’/ (2 . ) . f = 1/T = = 2.Vibrations Terms. Radian frequency of excitation Resonance exists at = 1. Velocity is the instantaneous value of the velocity of change in the direction of vibration. N · s/m In case of Newton’s friction. Oscillating velocity. timedependent value of vibration amplitude Amplitude is the maximum instantaneous value (peak value) of a vibration. x .. ö m@x . Symbols and Units Table 8 Symbols and units of translational and torsional vibrations Term Mass. Attenuation constant for rotary motion Damping factor (Decay coefficient) Attenuation ratio (Lehr’s damping) Damping ratio Logarithmic damping decrement Time Phase angle Phase displacement angle Period of a vibration Frequency of natural vibration Radian frequency of natural vibration Natural radian frequency (Natural frequency) Natural radian frequency when damped Excitation frequency Radian frequency ratio Quantity m J x ^ x max. it is a lead angle. . Frequency is the reciprocal value to a period of vibrations. Siemens MD · 2009 w0 + c m w0 + c J wd + = w2 * d2 0 / *) The unit “rad” may be replaced with “1”. Torsionally vibrating mass with mass moment of inertia J Instantaneous. J) D= ^ xn ^ ön ^ x n)1 ^ ö n)1 . Mass moment of inertia Instantaneous value of vibration (displacement. Moment of inertia forces Spring rate.
di.E l3 a . N m Shaft: Hollow shaft: Transverse beam (single load in the middle) c’ = F f = = = d4 4 4 F f 64 64 ( da di ) a a = force = deformation at centre of mass under force F = second axial moment of area 48 . a .4. a N m Transverse beam with overhanging end c’ = F f = 3. d4 8 .E .3 Determination of stiffness Table 9 Calculation of stiffness (examples) Example Stiffness Symbols Coil spring c’ = G . (l + a) N m l a = distance between bearings = length of overhanging end 12 1) For steel: E = 21 S 1010 N/m2. a a2 . l p p Nm rad d4 ( da 4 Shaft: Hollow shaft: Tension bar c’ = = = 32 32 di ) 4 = second polar moment of area l = length d.Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations 3. p .1 S 1010 N/m2 Siemens MD · 2009 133 .A l N m E A = modulus of elasticity 1) = crosssectional area Cantilever beam c’ = F f = 3. D3 . G = 8. i m F N m iF = number of windings G = shear modulus 1) d = diameter of wire Dm = mean coil diameter Torsion bar c = G . da = diameters of shafts p E. E l3 .
5 Conversions If drives or shafts with different speeds are combined in one vibration generating system. Translation: c +F N m f F = applied force [N] f = measured deformation [m] Torsion: T c + ö Nm rad T = applied torsion torque [Nm] = measured torsion angle [rad] Measurements of stiffness are furthermore required if the material properties of the spring material are very complex and it is difficult to rate them exactly. (53) frequency of 10 Hz (vibrational amplitude = 25% of the nominal coupling torque). c ges + c 1 ) c 2 ) c 3 ) AAA ) c n (56) 3.4. This applies. 1 1 1 1 1 c ges + c 1 ) c 2 ) c 3 ) AAA ) c n (55) (54) Parallel connection: Rule: The individual springs in a parallel connection are always subject to the same deformation. This is particularly helpful if the geometric structure is very complex and very difficult to acquire. 3. single stiffnesses are to be added where arrangements in series connection or parallel connection are possible. stiffness can be determined by measuring the deformation. Series connection: Rule: The individual springs in a series connection carry the same load. Examples of application are torsionally flexible couplings and resilient buffers for vibration isolation of machines and internal combustion engines. shearing). The dynamic torsional stiffness is greater than the static torsional stiffness. the stiffnesses and masses are to be converted to a reference speed (input or output). and mode of stress (tension.4. These components often have nonlinear progressive stiffness characteristics. as a rule. dependent on the direction of load of the rubber material. however. conversion to the common reference speed has to be carried out first. Natural frequency fe in Hertz (1/s): Siemens MD · 2009 134 . load frequency.6 Natural frequencies a) Formulae for the calculation of the natural frequencies of a fixed onemass vibration generating system and a free twomass vibration generating system. Conversion is carried out as a square of the transmission ratio: Transmission ratio: i = reference speed n1 = n2 speed (57) Slope = static stiffness Conversion of stiffnesses cn2 and masses Jn2 with speed n2 to the respective values cn1 and Jn1 with reference speed n1: c n1 + c n2 i 2 (58) (59) Slope = dynamic stiffness J n1 + J n2 i 2 12 Figure 36 Static and dynamic torsional stiffness For couplings the dynamic stiffness is given.4. 3.Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Measuring the stiffness: In a test. to rubber materials of which the resilient properties are dependent on temperature. compression. for instance. they are subjected to different deformations. which is measured at a vibrational Before combining stiffnesses and masses with different inherent speeds.4 Overlaying of different stiffnesses To determine resulting stiffnesses. load. see figure 36.
. 3.927 7. order of natural bending frequencies. equation (65) is simplified to: f e. etc.13 solid shaft without pulley c) Natural bending frequencies for shafts. velocity and acceleration can be recorded and evaluated in a sum (effective vibration @ IE Hz r@A (65) i = inherent value factor for the ith natural frequency [N/m2] l = length of shaft [m] E = modulus of elasticity = moment of area [m4] r = density [kg/m3] A = crosssectional area [m2] d = diameter of solid shaft [m] Siemens MD · 2009 12 135 . mi = masses [kg] b) Natural bending frequencies of shafts supported at both ends with applied masses with known deformation f due to the dead weight. can be measured directly on the shafts by means of wire strain gauges. l f e. belt drives. general formula for the natural frequency in the order fe.966 3 10. the amplitudes of vibration displacement. taking into account dead weights (continuum).5 Evaluation of vibrations The dynamic load of machines can be determined by means of different measurement methods. however..875 4. for calibration.i + 1 @ i 2p l 2 3. Torsional vibration loads in drives..069 For the solid shaft with free bearing support on both sides. Ji = mass moments of inertia [kgm2] Translation..i + p @ d 8 i l 2 @ E r Hz (66) i = 1st.694 7. 3rd . dependent on mode of fixing Bearing application 1 2 3 1.730 4.Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Evaluation of Vibrations Onemass vibration generating system: Torsion: fe = 1 2 c J (60) Twomass vibration generating system: fe + 1 2p c J1 ) J2 J1 @ J2 (61) c = torsional stiffness [Nm/rad] J.81 m/s2 gravity f = deformation due to dead weight [m] q = factor reflecting the effect of the shaft masses on the applied mass q = 1 shaft mass is neglected compared with the applied mass q = 1. vertical).03 . for example. This requires. in case of dynamic loads. structureborne noise is generated which can be acquired by sensing elements at the bearing points in different directions (axial.855 10. 1. Dependent on the requirements. 2nd. Bending : f e + 1 2p c m (62) fe + 1 2p c m1 ) m2 m1 @ m2 (63) c’ = translational stiffness (bending stiffness) [N/m] m. much time for fixing the strain gauges. fe + q 2p g f [Hz (64) Table 10 values for the first three natural frequencies.853 2 7.09 common values when considering the shaft masses q = 1.210 g = 9.. horizontal. Since torques in shafts are generated via bearing pressure in gear units. signal transmission and evaluation. i.
8 . VDI guideline 2056 1) or DIN ISO 108161 /19. the vibrational state of a machine is judged to be “good”. replacing defective machine parts.. 4. 11 from 11 up 12 T up to 2. see subsection 1. to VDI guideline 2056 1) for four machine groups Range classification acc. 4.. from approx.8 . up to 0. a distinction is made between four machine groups (table 11). Dependent on the machine support structure (resilient or rigid foundation) and power transmitted.. to VDI 2056 (“Effective value of the vibration velocity” in mm/s) Good Acceptable Still Nonpermissible permissible 1. measures to improve the vibrational state of the machine (balancing. 7 7 .8 ... K . For the evaluation of noise. and “nonpermis sible”. as a rule. .1 1. taking into account structureborne noise in the frequency range between 10 and 1.. displacing the resonance) are required...Vibrations Evaluation of Vibrations velocity) or frequencyselective.8 2.8 .8 2.5.1 from 7. 7.7 .5 4. as a rule... 15 up to 75 kW without special foundation.. sound pressure level and sound intensity are measured.... 75 up to 300 kW and installation on highly tuned. 2. up to approx. Dependent on the vibration velocity. rigid or heavy foundations.. alignment errors.5 . 16/. .8 1.000 Hertz. The structureborne noise signal reflects besides the torque load in the shafts also unbalances. verification by calculation).. from approx. Table 11 Boundary limits acc. To evaluate the actual state of a machine.5 from 4.. .1 . Gear unit noises are evaluated according to VDI guideline 2159 or DIN 45635 /17.5 up Machine groups Including gear units and machines with input power ratings of ..1 up G up to 1..8 M . Structureborne noise is emitted from the machine surface in the form of airborne noise and has an impact on the environment by the generated noises. rigid or heavy foundations... 1. 18 from 18 up 1) 08/97 withdrawn without replacement. 20/ is consulted for the effective vibration velocity.. “acceptable”. up to 1..... over 300 kW and installation on highly tuned. If vibration velocities are in the “nonpermissible” range. 15 kW without special foundation. improving the alignment. and possibly developing machine damages. over 75 kW and installation on broadly tuned resilient foundations (especially also steel foundations designed according to lightconstruction guidelines).7 0. bearing noises. see /20/ 136 Siemens MD · 2009 .. “still permissible”. meshing impulses.. or it has to be verified in detail that the vibrational state does not impair the service life of the machine (experience.
Table of Contents Section 13 Page Bibliography of Sections 10. and 12 138 + 139 13 Siemens MD · 2009 137 . 11.
March 1964 edition. 1. FVAForschungsvorhaben Nr. Stirnradgetriebe.16 Hösel. Getriebe allgemein. H. March 1987 edition. Beuth Verlag GmbH. und Winter. Tokyo (1985) Sigg. Part 5: Endurance limits and material qualities. Part 11: Detailed method. Berlin.: Profile and longitudinal corrections on involute gears. Berlin Niemann. Part 3.: Maschinenelemente. Berlin /2/ /3/ /4/ /5/ /6/ /7/ /8/ /9/ /10/ /11/ 13 138 Siemens MD · 2009 . February 1989 edition Part 12: Simplified method. H. Part 1: Introduction and general influence factors Part 2: Calculation of pitting resistance Part 3: Calculation of tooth strength Part 4: Calculation of scuffing load capacity Beuth Verlag GmbH. New York. Heidelberg. Frankfurt am Main DIN 3990: Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears. December 1987 Beuth Verlag GmbH. Berlin DIN 3992: Addendum modification of external spur and helical gears. (1983) Nr. Beuth Verlag GmbH.Bibliography /1/ DIN 3960: Definitions. Berlin DIN 3993: Geometrical design of cylindrical internal involute gear pairs. Berechnungen mit dem FVAProgramm “Ritzelkorrektur”. December 1987 FVAStirnradprogramm: Vergleich und Zusammenfassung von Zahnradberechnungen mit Hilfe von EDVAnlagen (jeweils neuester Programmstand). Beuth Verlag GmbH. Draft May 1987 Beuth Verlag GmbH. Th. G. Paper 109. Berlin DIN 3990: Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears. 12 DIN 3990: Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears. ZahnradgetriebeGrundlagen.: Ermittlung von Tragbild und Flankenrichtungskorrekturen für EvolventenStirnräder. Springer Verlag. August 1981 edition. Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik. Berlin DIN 3994: Addendum modification of spur gears in the 05system. SemiAnnual Meeting of the AGMA 1965. Beuth Verlag GmbH. August 1963 edition. 3rd edition. Application standard for industrial gears. parameters and equations for involute cylindrical gears and gear pairs. Band II. Zeitschrift Antriebstechnik 22.
Part 1: Airborne noise emission. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure. Basic method. 1965 Theissen. Bd. G. Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik. April 1984 edition Part 23: Measurement of airborne noise. divided into 3 grades of accuracy.: Vergleichskriterien für Grossgetriebe mit Leistungsverzweigung. J. VDIVerlag. Heidelberg. VDIHandbuch Schwingungstechnik.mehr Know how für morgen”. New York. FVAForschungsvorhaben Nr.97 withdrawn without replacement) DIN ISO 108161: Mechanical vibration . Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik. Frankfurt am Main Niemann. Getriebegeräusche. SpringerVerlag Berlin. August 1997 edition.. October 1964.Bibliography /12/ FVAArbeitsblatt zum Forschungsvorhaben Nr. Enveloping surface method. July 1978 edition Beuth Verlag GmbH.Evaluation of machine vibration by measurements on nonrotating parts.: Maschinenelemente 2. (08. 1983 DIN 45635: Measurement of noise emitted by machines. Parameters and design principles. Gear transmission. 8: Grundlagenversuche zur Ermittlung der richtigen Härtetiefe bei Wälz. VDIBericht 488 “Zahnradgetriebe 1983 . Stand Dezember 1976. Frankfurt am Main FVARitzelkorrekturprogramm: EDVProgramm zur Ermittlung der Zahnflankenkorrekturen zum Ausgleich der lastbedingten Zahnverformungen (jeweils neuester Programmstand). Beuth Verlag GmbH. Part 2.und Biegebeanspruchung. 30. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure. Berlin VDIRichtlinien 2056: Beurteilungsmaßstäbe für mechanische Schwingungen von Maschinen. Enveloping surface method. August 1986 edition. Beuth Verlag GmbH. Berlin VDIRichtlinien 2159: Emissionskennwerte technischer Schallquellen. July 1985 DIN 740: Flexible shaft couplings. Berlin /13/ /14/ /15/ /16/ /17/ /18/ /19/ /20/ 13 Siemens MD · 2009 139 .
Bocholt 140 Siemens MD · 2009 .TRANSLATION of Technical Handbook 5th Edition 03/2009 Copyright by Siemens AG.
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: E86060T5701A101A17600 Dispo 18500 BU 0309 3.0 Ro Printed in Germany © Siemens AG 2009 . All product designations may be trademarks or product names of Siemens AG or supplier companies whose use by third parties for their own purposes could violate the rights of the owners. Siemens AG Industry Sector Drive Technologies Division Mechanical Drives Postfach 1364 46393 BOCHOLT GERMANY Subject to change without prior notice Order No.0 Ro 148 En Nd 0510 5. An obligation to provide the respective characteristics shall only exist if expressly agreed in the terms of contract.The information provided in this brochure contains merely general descriptions or characteristics of performance which in actual case of use do not always apply as described or which may change as a result of further development of the products.
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