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Murale Kanapathipillai, Ismail Jouny, and Patrick Hamilton

Department of Electrical Engineering Lafayette College Easton, PA 18042
ECG signals are adaptively approximated as weighted linear combination of translated and dilated mother wavelets. An ECG frame is thus represented by a limited number of adaptively estimated parameters indicating translation, scaling, and weights. Also, a neural network classifier that utilizes adaptive wavelet based features is used to discriminate between normal and abnormal beats. The ECG signals used in the experimental phase of this study are extracted from the MIT/BIH arrhythmia database. Keywords: compression, classification, wavelets, neural networks.

An adaptive wavelet based signal representation scheme applied to speech signals is proposed in [l]. It is found in [l]that a frame of about 100 samples of speech can be approximated by about 11 dilated and scaled replica of a mother wavelet. Our investigation is motivated by the similarity between a morlet wavelet and an ECG response. We thus propose to approximate an ECG frame f(t) as a linear sum of N weighted wavelets:

ECG data compression has been the subject of various research activities in the last decade. Such activities have focused on compression techniques involving differential pulse coding schemes, Huffman coding, linear prediction algorithms, wavelets, and subband filtering [2]. Wavelets with adaptively estimated shift and scaling parameters are used in this study to represent normal and abnormal ECG signals. These wavelet based features are then presented to a neural network classifier that is trained to identify abnormal beats. The wavelet used in this study is the Morlet wavelet which does not constitute an orthonormal expansion basis but is better suited for our application where we attempt to minimize an energy function using the least mean square (LMS) algorithm. The morlet wavelet (see Figure 1) is expressed as [l]
$ ( t ) = cos(1.75t)ezp{-t2/2}

where b, and a, represent the translation and dilation parameters. The LMS algorithm is employed to minimize the error energy function 1 1 1

The parameters { a } , { b } and {w} are the elements of a vector V which is adaptively estimated as follows;

K+1 = vi + cYisi(V)where



where the modulation factor cos (1.75t) is introduced to maintain the condition S, $ ( t ) dt x 0. Alternatively, other wavelets such as the Daubechies D4 or D6 wavelets can be used with minimal increase in computational cost.

where gi(V) represents the gradient of the energy function E with respect to V at the ith iteration and {g} denotes the transpose of g, (see [l] for details). The parameter Q controls the adaptation speed and can be chosen to be inversely proportional to signal energy in the ith frame. Figures 2 and 3 show the original and the reconstructed frames of a normal and abnormal ECG signal. About 11 wavelets were needed to adaptively approximate these signals.

0-7803-2050-6/94 $4.00 01994 IEEE



The adaptively computed wavelet representation ftures can be used to identify ECG signals associated with abnormal beats. Such an approach is an attractive ai L ernative to common beat classification techniques because of the inherent robustneas of adaptively computed features and due to the flexibility in training the e classifier with as many frames of ECG signatures r p resenting virtually all subclassea of n o d and abnormal beat situations. The classifier used in thie study is based on a neural network implementation of the wavelet based recognition system that has already been used s u c d u l l y in speech for classification of vowela The neural network classifier examines the response r to an unknown ECG input. An abnormal beat is detected if r 2 .5. The adopted neural network u & s a sigmoidal nonlinearity function where the response r to an unknown input sequence {f (k)} is

beats. Preliminary results indicate that adaptive wavelets are potentially attractive alternatives for ecg analysis.


[l] H. H. Hru, B. Tle,and S. Kadambe, "Neural efr

Network Adaptive Wavelets for Sial Representcc tion and C l d c a t i o n " , Optical Engineering, Vol. 31,NO. 9,pp. 1907-1916,Sep. 1992.

[2] S.L.Bellanger,J. J. Carrault, and G. L.Goatrieux,

"Wavelet Analysis of ECG Signals,'' Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Conference, Vol. 12,No.2, pp. 0811-0812,1990.

[3] Q.Xue, Y.H. Hu, and W. J. Tompkins, '"kaining of ECG Signals in Neural Network Pattern Recogni1990.

PI -

tion," Proceedings of IEEE Engineering a Medicine n and Biology Society, Vol. 12,No. 3,pp. 1465-1466,

and the optimal parameters {a), {b) and { w ) are a d a p tively computed, as in the previous section, to minimize the error function


Figure 1: Morlet wavelet

where dl and rl represent the desired and actual response respectively of the f h training input vector {fl(k))f.l. The parameter L denotes the total number of training vectors used a t each iteration (normally chosen as the total number of classes). The above classifier was trained using 76 vectors of normal and abnormal ecg frames and then tested with 76 ECG signals of both classes. Preliminary results indicated that the above classifier was able to identify the correct class about 70% of the time. A 10% probability of false alarm and a 20% probability of misdiagnmis were recorded. The performance of the above classifier, though relatively comparable with other beat classification techniques [3], can be improved by increasing the number of training vectors and by using a time dependent learning parameter. 4. CONCLUSIONS ECG signals can be approximated by a limited number of weighting, shift and dilation parameters. Such parameters can also be used, in a neural network framework, as features for classification of normal/abnormal

Figures 2 & 3 original beat (dotted) and reconstructed : (solid) using 11 wavelets. Normal beat above and abnormal beat below.