The Effects of Music in Advertising on Choice Behavior: A Classical Conditioning Approach Author(s): Gerald J.

Gorn Reviewed work(s): Source: The Journal of Marketing, Vol. 46, No. 1 (Winter, 1982), pp. 94-101 Published by: American Marketing Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1251163 . Accessed: 14/03/2012 10:58
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Fishbein and Ajzen 1975). Advertising On Choice Behavior: A Classical Conditioning Approach OMMERCIALS typically contain both product specific information and background features such as pleasant music. however. the communicator effect may to some extent be due to the association of the attitude object with positive affect attached to the communicator. It is suggested here that a classical conditioning framework could account for the potential impact of background features on product attitudes.. color. Gorn The Effects Music of In Do features like humor. University British to thank Institut the D'administration Entreprises. Blackwell. In marketing. A second experiment examined the relative importance of background features and product information in different situations. author The wouldlike Administration. There is.g. attractive colors. Potentially. Schiffman and Kanuk 1978). is in of and of Columbia. Winter1982 . The impact of product information in a commercial on beliefs and attitudes would typically be interpreted within an information processing framework. des AixUniversity for in assistance formulating pretestand Marseille. France. in fact. 94 / Journalof Marketing. In psychology. classical conditioning could. The limited popularity of classical conditioning may be due to several difficulties associated with typical conditioning experiments. classical conditioning is often mentioned and generally accepted as a process relevant to advertising (e. where classical conditioning has been investigated more extensively. and humor are examples of potential unconditioned stimuli in a commercial. and humor. there is little evidence that attitudes can be classically conditioned (Brewer 1974. explain the effect of many variables in communication-attitude change situations. One experiment was conducted to determine whether background features of a commercial affected product preferences when only minimal product information was presented. Journal of Marketing Vol. its helpful ingthe project. and music in a commercial merely increase our attention to product information in a message. 94-101. This paper examines the impact of the background features on product preferences. conditioning suggests that positive attitudes towards an advertised product (conditioned stimulus) might develop through its association in a commercial with other stimuli that are reacted to positively (unconditioned stimuli). Attractive colors. Classical Gerald Gorn a professor theFaculty Commerce Business J. Engel. or can they directly influence our attitudes? The results of an experiment using a classical conditioning approach suggest that hearing liked or disliked music while being exposed to a product can directly affect product preferences. A second experiment differentiated communication situations where a classical conditioning approach or an information processing approach might be appropriate in explaining product preference. sex. little empirical research on whether preferences for objects can actually be classically conditioned.Gerald J. and Kollat 1978. 46 (Winter 1982). pleasant music. For example.

However. Background features such as sex. A greater knowledge of the product informationcould presumably create more positive product attitudes. Mere Exposure Versus Classical Conditioning Mere exposure effects can be confounded with classical conditioningeffects. and Kollat 1978. and Pilkonis 1970). It is interesting to note that with the Krugmanmodel. of an information processing model. Cognitive bias can result from an at'The Nisbett and Wilson (1977) article is controversial. A rationalanalysis of behavior in a communicationsituation might be biased in favor of informationand. In in analyzing their behavior. In a typical communicationsituation. these attitudeshifts may be simply a function of mere exposure to the advertised product. The following experimentinvestigatingthe impact of the backgroundfeatures of a commercialon product preferences allowed for a test of mere exposure versus classical conditioning effects. with attitude not conceptualized as an intervening variable. Kiesler. therefore.' They suggest that people often speculateabout the potential causes of their own behaviorand select stimuli which they think are probable reasons for their behavior. Nisbett and Wilson (1977) reviewed empiricalevidence casting doubt on people's ability to introspect accuratelyregardingtheir cognitive processes.KroeberRiel (1979) found that ads that were arousing produced better recall of the information in the ad. But awareness of the conditioned stimulus/unconditioned stimulus contingency should not automatically mean that attitudechange is more likely the result of demand characteristics than conditioning. With classical conditioning. exposure leads to behavior. Lack of Awareness The consumer may not always be aware that the unconditioned stimuli in a commercial may affect his/ her product attitudes. there is evidence of attitudeconditioning even where demandtype responses were minimizedthroughelaborate cover stories later verified as believed by subjects (Zanna. While people may develop favorableattitudestowardsproductsadvertisedin the context of unconditionedstimuli.people may purchase a product simply because they have been exposed to it before through a commercial. by minimizing product information in a commercial one can investigate the potential ability of unconditionedstimuli to change consumerattitudes directly. so that if the product(conditioned stimulus) is paired with a negative unconditioned stimulusit would be avoided despite exposure. and humor have typically been treated as arousal stimuli or stimuli that reinforce the information in the commercialratherthanunconditionedstimuli (see Engel. Thus evidence supportingclassical conditioningis unlikely to emerge in self-reports. They may conclude that what they think should be the cause of their behavior is in fact the cause of their behavior (Nisbett and Wilson 1977). the consumer may not be aware of the real forces impacting on both attitudes and behavior. for a discussionof this material). it may be more logical to say that you like the productmore after seeing a commercial. Possible classical conditioning effects might. Arousal In testing for classical conditioning. color of the package. Krugman (1965) suggested that in low involvement situations. because you now believe it has X characteristic. tempt to think well of oneself (Greenwald 1980). people may not realize or accept the impactof unconditionedstimuli on their responses. many in-store features may influence consumers although they may not be easily evoked in post-purchaseexplanationsof buying (amount of shelf space devoted to a product. therefore.In the printmedium. Zajonc (1968) has emphasized that exposure leads to liking. product information in the commercialmust be kept minimal.ratherthan because you liked the music in the commercial. see both Ericson and Simon (1980) and Weitz and Wright (1979) for criticisms. music. Even more generally. the person is not choosing an object simply because it's been seen before. Effectsof Musicin Advertising/ 95 . This awareness may lead subjects to believe that the experimenterwants them to respond positively to a conditioned stimulus if it is paired with a positive unconditionedstimulus.Difficulties With Classical Conditioning Demand Characteristics Fishbeinand Ajzen (1975) suggest that attitudechange in conditioningexperimentsmay be a function of the demand characteristicsof the experimentalsituation. otherwise the unconditioned stimuli in the commercial might merely be arousing interest in product information. people may attemptto convince both themselves and the researcherthat they are strictlyrational. In fact. Blackwell. and so on). His/her affect is also involved. since unconditioned stimuli should not logically be related to behavior. be underestimatedand underreported self-reports. color. They believe that the subject must be consciously aware of the presence of the unconditionedstimulus when the conditioned stimulus is present in order for conditioning to take place. however. For example. For example.

3) conditionDl-Disliked music. A second sample (N=41) of subjects were asked directly whetherthey preferredbeige or light blue pens. with the other half assigned to the disliked music-light blue pen condition (DI). whereas. To minimize the difficulties mentioned earlier in employing a conditioning paradigm. light blue pen. beige pen. In the second class.A pilot on 23 subjects had revealed that 80% felt neutralaboutlight blue and beige pens. The following conditions were structured: con1) dition LI-Liked music. subjects were exposed to a neutral product (conditioned stimulus) in the context of a backgroundfeature (unconditionedstimulus).it was hypothesized that subjects would prefer an unexposed versus exposed product if the exposed product were paired with a negative unconditioned stimulus. The pen was inexpensive looking and cost forty-nine cents. this supported notion.behavioralmeasure of productpreferencewas used insteadof a paper and pencil measure. a number of steps were taken. 3No condition containing both positive and negative music was structured. One minute of classical Indian music (x= 1. To lessen demandcharacteristics. They were told that they would receive either a light blue or beige pen for their help. one-half of the students were randomly assigned to the liked music-beige pen condition (L2). The subjects in each condition heard the music while they watched the slide. a counterbalancing procedure was used to control furtherfor any differences that might have existed between the two sections. allowed Sample 244 undergraduates randomly assigned during registration to two sections of a first year management course at McGill University served as subjects. They would hear some music that was being considered while they watched the slide of the pen which the agency was planningto advertise. Consistent with a conditioning interpretation. music was treated as the unconditioned stimulus since it was not being conditioned in the present experiment. as 22 out of 41 picked the beige 19 the light blue pen. 96 / Journal Marketing. to go over to the left side of the room to pick one up and drop off their question sheet in a box provided. one-half of the first class was randomlyassigned to the liked music-light blue pen condition (LI). 4) condition D--Disliked music. neutralenough so that associating them with liked or disliked music could change color preferences.2 Two different colors of a pen were used as conditioned stimuli. It was expected that if subjects were neutralabout the two colors. with black pens generally liked. subjects would choose the exposed ratherthan unexposed product. The experimenter explained that an advertising agency was trying to select music (unconditionedstimulus) to use in a commercial for a pen (conditioned stimulus) producedby one of its clients. The experimenterheld up each pen briefly and commentedthat if they wanted a light blue one. Design and Procedure The experimentwas carriedout duringclass time. A negative unconditionedstimulus condition was structuredto test for mere exposure versus classical conditioning. 2) condition L2-Liked music. Informationon the conditioned stimuluswas kept as close to zero as possible to demonstratethat the unconditionedstimuluscould directly affect product preference even where product information was minimal. while the other half was assigned to the disliked music-beige pen condition (D2). where the conditioned stimulus was paired with a positive unconditioned stimulus. a group of 10 subjects evaluated 10 different pieces of music on a scale rangingfrom dislike very much (1) to like very much (5). often found in commercials. donated by the company that manufacturesthe pen. Pilot In a pilot. subjects would be more likely to think that we expected them to pick the color of the pen associated with the positive music if both positive and negative music were used in the same condition.an unobtrusive. In contrast. The results of the pilot led to the choice of a one-minute extract of music from the movie "Grease" as the positive unconditioned stimulus (x=4. of Winter 1982 . beige pen. The two conditions in each class were run sequentially with one-half of the class taking a break while the other half participatedin the project. Using two different locations for the boxes (150 pens per box) of beige and blue pens. with question sheet drop-off boxes next to them. If they wanted a beige one. since it was felt the demand characteristics would be too great under such circumstances. then half would choose each.Experiment One Basic Structure and Hypothesis In the present study. yellow pens were generally disliked. They then evaluatedthe music on a scale ranging from dislike very much (1) to like very much (5).5) served as the negative unconditioned stimulus. they were told to go to the right side of the room to pick up the pen and drop off their question sheet.3). for example. Very little information regardingthe pen's attributeswas visible in the slide. light blue pen. light blue and beige. To counterbalancethe music and the color of the pen within each class.3 While subjects had been randomly assigned to the two sections of the course. The results 2Although musical preferences are affected by prior learning. pen.

subjects were handed the following free response question: "Why did you pick the color of the pen you picked rather than the other color? If you have any reasons please list them below. it was predicted that they would pick the color of the pen they saw when they heard the liked music and the alternativecolor when they heard the disliked music. liked music with an upbeat sound might stimulatethe development of beliefs that a particular color of a pen is a fun color or that it is appropriate for an active lifestyle. They respondedno.01 (p < . When a reason was given for choice. there was a very clearcut impact of the music in the expected direction." There was room for thiee answers. the data could also be interpreted within an informationprocessing framework. 'The color of pen did not seem to matter.for a relatively unobtrusiverecordingof choices and linking of these choices to the evaluation of the music. a discussion about the natureof the project was held with 10 students at the end of class one and 10 studentsat the end of class two.4 As a result of the music evaluation ratings. while only 30 out of sociated with the disliked music. As can be seen in Table 1.).5 101 subjects (30%) picked the color of the pen as- When asked for possible reasons for their choice. Finally. the music might have stimulated product-relevant thoughts. They also did not see anyone recording their choices when they picked the pens from the boxes. making comments such as "I have always liked light blue. Discussion The majoraim of the presentstudy was to take a product relevant to the subject sample (studentspurchase and use pens) and to advertise it in a favorable or unfavorable context simply by associating it with liked or disliked music. in part. Of these 126 people. When told that this was in fact the purpose. some wonderedhow we were able to detect their preferences. marilythatthe pen of a particular Effectsof Musicin Advertising/ 97 . or in the disliked music conditions. Similarly. Ellsworth. 38 out of 51 (74%) picked the beige rather than the light blue pen when the beige pen was associated with the liked music (L2). there were very few belief type comments that were elicited when subjects did in fact give reasons for theirchoice. it was pricolor was preferred. Once out of class. Taken togetherwith the fact that only minimal product information was presented. 36 out of 43 people (84%) picked the light blue pen when it was associated with the liked music (L." or with beliefs such as "beige is stylish" (eight people).When time permitted. 17 out of 52 (33%) chose the light blue pen when it was associated with disliked music (D. However. if they did not evaluate the Indianmusic as either dislike very much (1) or dislike somewhat (2).) while 13 out of 49 (26%) picked the beige pen when it was associated with the disliked music (D2). They were eliminated if in the liked music conditions. Not one mentioned that our real purpose was to influence their particularcolor preferences. because it could be recorded unobtrusively. classical conditioning would seem to be at least as plausible an explanationof the results as information processing. 4A behavioral rather than verbal measure of preference was used. It might have suggested potentialattributesof the pen or appropriate contexts in which it could be used. they did not evaluate the music from "Grease" as either like very much (5) or like somewhat (4). In addition. and Aronson 1976).001) <2 = . While only minimal productinformationwas presented.24 20 71 91 94 101 195 Only five said the music had an influence on their choice and none mentionedthat they were simply following a friend. although less prevalent in the literature (Carlsmith.subjects(n=54) who gave color as a reason for choice were pressed furtherand asked if the music had any influence on them. Liked music Disliked music 74 30 104 x2 = 47. 74 out of 94 subjects (79%) picked the color of the pen associated with the liked music. While classical conditioning can parsimoniously explain the results. The results supportedthe notion that the simple association between a product (conditioned stimulus) and another stimulus such as music (unconditioned stimulus) can affect product preferencesas measuredby productchoice. These differences were not statistically significant. For example. Results Comparingthe effect of liked versus disliked music (Li and L2 collapsed versus DI and D2 collapsed). 114 (91%) mentioned color preference as their reason. These beliefs linking the pen to the music might then influence product choice. behavioral measures of attitudes are generally preferred to verbal measures. since they did not put the color of the pen they picked or their names down on the question sheet. ap- TABLE1 Liked Versus Disliked Music and Pen Choices Pen Choice "Advertised" "Non-advertised" pen pen proximately10 subjects were eliminatedfrom each of the four conditions. 126 out of 205 subjects (62%) indicatedthat they did have a particularreason. For the remaining subjects.

and in turn. Zaichkowsky. Zajonc (1980) notes that people tend to develop a positive feeling toward objects they have seen before even if they cannot recall prior exposure. a buyer may see a commercial for car X while thinking of buying a new car. perhaps very interested in the information that commercial might contain about car X. people may have difficulty verbalizing reasons for feelings or describing them. Winter1982 . The six people that did recall something specific. A more formal measure of beliefs regarding the colors of the pens chosen and not chosen could be incorporated in future research. exposure is confounded with a number of other variables (in the case of this experiment. such as music and colors.Very few subjects pointed out that the music had an impact on their choice. An information processing explanation of post-exposure attitudes and behavior might be more appropriate when the person at the time of exposure to the commercial is thinking about making a purchase in the relevant product category. Are the beliefs influencing choice. In such situations the buyer might be regarded as being in a decision making framework and. product specific information. Lutz 1977). For example. most said that they were thinking of very little when listening to the music. Message evoked thoughts related to the product would have favored an informational rather than conditioning interpretation.g. Both classes 98 / Journalof Marketing. they may utilize more rational and more easily verbalized cognitions (e. This format was chosen and the questions presented in a matter of fact way. The causal impact of such information on cognitive structure. the unconditioned stimulus or background features could be more important than the product information where exposure is a nondecision making context. A second experiment was conducted to examine the importance of product information relative to the background features of a commercial. A recent study suggests that in fact. Kassarjian (1978. Zajonc (1980) stresses the primacy of affect and presents a viewpoint consistent with a perspective that people may not always be actively processing information and evaluating situations. recalled pleasant or unpleasant situations from their past. Instead. is the choice influencing the formation of beliefs? Had time permitted in the present study. very little product information is contained in most American and Canadian commercials (Pollay. It is interesting to note that in the post project discussion with 20 subjects (10 per class). Experiment Two Rationale and Hypothesis We are often exposed to a commercial when we are not thinking of even potentially buying the advertised product. Zajonc (1968) has pointed out that in many situations. Probably there are also many communication situations where the individual is not really searching for or evaluating information.. the causal relationship between beliefs and choice might remain unclear. Exposure The results of the present study do not support an interpretation that mere exposure leads to liking. We are not in a decision making mode and are not likely to be seeking information from any source. even if beliefs consistent with choice are obtained. therefore. or general statements of attitude like "beige is my favorite color") when justifying a product preference or purchase to themselves and especially to others.g. which may be true in some cases (Nisbett and Wilson 1977). Zajonc (1980) notes that even when questioned by others. the commercial's impact may often be more related to stimuli that can arouse emotion. However. liked or disliked music) that may be more crucial in attitude formation. However. undergraduate management course. While it may be true that there are reasons for these feelings. The verbal reports were obtained with a free response format. post hoc verbal reports of message evoked thoughts might have shed light on the extent and nature of cognitive activity during exposure. Those who heard disliked music avoided the color of the pen they were exposed to. Product information should be most important where the decision making context is salient at the time of exposure to a commercial. and Fryer 1980). in two different communication situations. its effects on attitudes and behavioral intentions have been demonstrated in carefully controlled research (e. The present study was conducted to test this hypothesis. 1981) and Olshavsky and Granbois (1979) have suggested that there are situations where information search and evaluation are not relevant to purchase behavior. to elicit salient reasons for choice without encouraging the subject to engage in any justification of choice to both him/ herself or to us. than to product information. In such situations. feelings play as important a role in exposure theory as in a classical conditioning theory of communication effects.. This would be particularly true if people are not aware of the forces that influence their behavior. these reasons may come later and perhaps only when questioned by others. While there were no exposure effects in this study. or to justify behavior. Sample The sample consisted of 122 students randomly assigned during registration to two sections of an upper level.

For helping the agency evaluate the programthey would later be given a threepen packet of the companyA or company B pen. that it never smudged. Design and Procedure As a cover story. They then listened to one minute of "liked" music (the "Grease" music used in the first experiment) while they watched the slide of a beige pen. Results In the decision making condition.and subjects in the latter condition. each manufacturedby a different company. it might be very difficult to isolate an in- Effects Music Advertising99 of in / . and could last a long time even with regularuse. advertisedwith music. particularlywhere the individual is not in a decision making mode when exposed to the information. the classicalconditioningof the advertised productthrough its pairingwith the unconditionedstimuli in the commercial appearsto account for subsequentchoice behavior. They were instructedthat at the end of the class (one hour and 10 minutes later). They were shown a slide of company A's pen and told that the company was planning a musically-based ad to sell its pen. In contrast. Three pens were given ratherthan just one because it was thought that informationrelevant to a choice would be more influential if the decision were made somewhat more important.Therefore. there was a significant difference in choices between the two conditions (decision vs. they should drop the answer sheet in the box provided. For example.In a nondecision making mode. subjects in the decision makingcondition (n=59) were told that an advertising agency would like their help in determining whether or not to purchase advertising time in an upcoming major networkTV program.were taught in the middle part of the day and by the same instructor. and pick up their pens. advertised with information. As expected. Therefore. 6The results of experiment one suggested that beige and light blue were both neutral colors for a pen. However. even if such informationis acquired and rememberedfor a short while.with the remaining17 (29%) choosing the beige pen. It was predicted that subjects in the former condition would pick the light blue pen (the one advertisedwith information). The time delay between exposure and choice was included to try to mirror the real life situation where people usually do not make their actual purchases until some time after exposure to a commercial. Subjects were then told that they would be given an idea of the kinds of commercials planned for the program. that informationhas less impact in nondecisionmaking situations. nondecision making conditions: x2(1) = 14.The experimentwas conductedat the beginning of the term so that different class experiences were less likely to be a significant factor. the experimenterpointed to two boxes in different locations where subjects could pick up the packets of beige or light blue pens. This should be particularly true if the individual is in a decision making mode when exposed to that information. as the time lag between exposure and actual choice is increased. In addition. Possibilities for future research include varying the importanceof the decision to be made and/or the time lag between exposure and actual choice. one might not be interested in productinformation. Discussion The results of this second experimentsuggest that an individual in a decision making mode when exposed to a commercialis affected by the informationit contains. were slated to be advertisedon the program. In such situations. One could hypothesize that the importanceof information to the process of selection is a function of the importance of the decision. with time it should be easily forgotten. 42 out of the 59 (71%) subjects chose the light blue pen.72. the beige pen (the one advertisedwith music). it did not seem necessary to incorporate color of pen as a variable in the second experiment.001). Two pens. real commercials usually reflect the use of a numberof techniquesand for may not always be appropriate theory testing. Afterwardsthey were shown a slide of a light blue pen and were told that company B was planning to emphasize in its commercial that the pen wrote very smoothly. At the end of the class. A significant difference in choices between the decision making context condition and the nondecision making context condition was hypothesized. Subjects in the nondecision making condition (n=63) followed exactly the same procedurebut were not told until the end of the class that they would get a threepen packet of the beige or light blue pens.They were told that one of the advertising agency's specializations was producing commercialsfor companies that marketedpens. subjectscircled yes or no on their answer sheets as to whether the ad agency should purchase time slots in the program. the relative impact of informationshould be reduced. There was a strong crossover in the nondecision making condition with 40 out of 63 (63%) choosing the beige pen and the remaining 23 (37%) choosing the light blue pen.6 After seeing the pen slides and viewing the program (entitled "Drugs and Teenagers"). p < . Future research might explore the tentative findings of this experimentin a context where real commercials are utilized.Lengthening the time lag between exposureand choice could also help determine the longevity of classically conditioned preferences.

"The Impact of Television Advertising: Learning Without Involvement. H. Fact or Fiction?" Journal of Consumer Research. with activity in the left hemisphere higher in decision making situations. E. (1981). Carlsmith. "FCB: Day-After Recall Cheats Emotion. F. H. "Regulation Hasn't Changed TV Ads Much!" Journalism Quarterly. 6 (September). Keith Hunt. R. H. however. In watching TV we make decisions about. A. and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Attitude. Granbois (1979). and are interested in. R. M. Lutz. Reading. The situation in which many commercials are viewed may be characterized as nondecision making. Kroeber-Riel.. IL: The Dryden Press. 197-208. Cone." Public Opinion Quarterly. 12-14. Simon (1980). 2. 29 (Autumn). Nisbett.C. The impact of music and other background features is usually neglected (Honomichl 1981). not commercials. D. (1974). Reading. G. Blackwell. 5. J. and J. Hillsdale. was equal to that obtained with good "thinking" commercials. musical. the left hemisphere is the analytical and verbal side (see Kassarjian 1981 for a summary of consumer research in this area). Furthermore. (1981). ed. A recent study by the Foote. J. 349-56. U. "Presidential Address. To further test this interpretation physiological recording could be used in future research. "Consumer Decision Making. Ericson. Werner (1979). "The Totalitarian Ego: Fabrication and Revision of Personal History." in Advances in Consumer Research. J. and D. We may have recently purchased in that category or we may not be interested in the whole product category in the first place. and E. Aronson (1976). P. D.. The commercials we do see are often for brands in product categories we may not be interested in for one reason or another." American Psychologist. created through the skillful use of music and visuals. Wilson (1977). "Activation Research: Psychobiological Approaches in Consumer Research. Fishbein.. activity in the right hemisphere should also be higher in nondecision making contexts where people should not be seeking or analyzing product information from any source. This paper further suggests that the background features of commercials can influence product choice. R. W. Fryer (1980). 231-259. 603-618. 93-100. Engel. The actual choices people made in the nondecision making conditions in these experiments would support a conditioning interpretation. and intuitive side.. programs. Ajzen (1975). eds. Paper No. "Telling More Than We Know: Verbal Reports on Mental Processes. that recall of good "feeling" commercials. W. Kollat (1978)." Working Paper Series. A. (1977). "Verbal Reports as Data. Kanuk (1978). MA: Addison-Wesley.. Even where purchase in a product category is contemplated we may not be attentive to product information in a relevant commercial because the product may be an unimportant one. R.A. J. Greenwald." in W. It is argued that the positive emotions they generate become associated with the advertised product through classical conditioning. 104.L. Cognition and Symbolic Processes. Winter1982 . Pollay. Palermo." Psychological Review. E. Ann Arbor. "There is No Convincing Evidence for Operant and Classical Conditioning in Humans. W. 20). S. This suggests to the advertiser that an audience may be largely comprised of uninvolved potential consumers rather than cognitively active problem solvers. Methods of Research in Social Psychology. Krugman. and C. and Belding ad agency found. Consumer Behav- 100 / Journalof Marketing." Advertising Age. (1980). K. J. Implications and Speculations Measures of the effectiveness of commercials typically stress recall of the basic selling points of the commercial. 35(7). Consumer Behavior. Ellsworth. and H. "Consumer Psychology. Center for Marketing Studies. 215-251. 5 (March). Reaching them through emotionally arousing background features may make the difference between their choosing and not choosing a brand. 87(3). REFERENCES Brewer. and J. and L. Intention. A. 1977: Anthropomorphism and Parsimony. Honomichl. MI: Association for Consumer Research. Hinsdale. R.. 57 (3). (1965). B. NJ: Erlbaum. C.. H. MA: Addison-Wesley. and D. Schiffman." Psychological Review. 3 (March)." Journal of Consumer Research. The results of this study suggest that re- cording of the activity in the two hemispheres during exposure to musically based versus product information based commercials would yield more activity in the right than left hemisphere with the former type of commercial. L. and the reverse with the latter. Olshavsky. J. (1978). "An Experimental Investigation of Causal Relations Among Cognitions Affected and Behavioral Intention. created through the rational presentation of product attributes (Honomichl 1981). Kassarjian. G.formation based commercial totally devoid of such unconditioned stimuli as attractive colors or music." Journal of Consumer Research. 84 (3). L. Weiner and D. 438-446. 52(no. Zaichkowsky. 240-250. The right hemisphere of the brain is the nonverbal. Belief. F.

Wacker Drive. (312) 648-0536. B.. C. "Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need to Inferences. 35. Bibliographies follow each piece. R. mr- %k wiFACEerer with Readings In The Analysis Of Survey Data Robert Ferber. 151-175. Pilkonis (1970). J AMERICAN MARKETING A$OCIATION Effects Music Advertising101 of in / . P. A. Zajonc. American Marketing Association. "Retrospective Self-Insight on Factors Considered in Product Evaluations. L Ferber Readings In Survey Research Robert Ferber. An extensive bibliography is included. 1980 $16/member $24/nonmember Key pieces of the published literature concerning applications of multivariate and related techniques to survey data. Part 2. "Positive and Negative Attitudinal Affect Established by Classical Conditioning.ior. Chicago. to stimulate the researcher to go further in examining the various techniques." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monograph Supplement. 14 (no. IL 60606. TO ORDER call or write Order Department. editor 604 pp. (1968). 9. 4). M. 1-27." Journal of Consumer Research. Wright (1979). Englewood Cliffs. Zanna. and P. NJ: Prentice-Hall. innovative approaches to the analysis of survey data are brought together in this book of previously published articles. editor 249 pp. and P. The articles focus on three aspects of survey research: sampling." American Psychologist." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 321-326. B. 280-294. 250 S. (1980). A. 1978 $1 0/member $13/nonmember A collection of readings which form an extension of the special issue on survey research of the August 1977 issue of Journal of Marketing Research. Emphasis is given to recent material although some of the classics in the field have also been included. 6 (December). questionnaire preparation and data collection. and new. "Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure. Kiesler. Weitz.