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g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt

a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?nfO{


hf/L ul/Psf]

PsLs[t lgb]{zg @)^(


ldlt @)^()$)! b]lv nfu"
-PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* / ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf kl/kqlgb]{zgdfu{bz{g
;d]tnfO{ ;dfj]z u/L kl/dfh{g ul/Psf]_

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no

a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu

@)^( c;f/

ljifo;"rL
qm=;+=

ljifo

k[i7 ;+Vof

!=

Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if ;DaGwL Joj:yf

@=

shf{;fk6sf] juL{s/0f / shf{ gf]S;fgL ;DaGwL Joj:yf

#%

#=

Psn u|fxs tyf If]qut shf{ ;fk6 / ;'ljwfsf] ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf

$*

$=

n]vf gLlt tyf ljQLo ljj/0fx?sf] 9fFrf ;DaGwL Joj:yf

%&

%=

Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sf/f]jf/df lglxt hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug]{ ;DjGwL] Joj:yf

!)#

^=

;+:yfut ;'zf;g ;DaGwL Joj:yf

!!)

&=

;'kl/j]IfsLo lgb]{zg nfu" ug]{ sfo{ tflnsf ;DaGwL Joj:yf

!@$

*=

nufgL ;DjGwL Joj:yf

!@^

(=

Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf k]z ug'{ kg]{ tYof ljj/0f ;DjGwL Joj:yf

!#)

!)=

;+:yfks z]o/ gfd;f/L jf v/LblaqmL jf xs x:tfGt/0ff ;DaGwL Joj:yf

!^(

!!=

;xljQLos/0f shf{ ;DaGwL Joj:yf

!&*

!@=

shf{ ;"rgf tyf sfnf];"rL ;DaGwL Joj:yf

!*#

!#=

clgjfo{ df}Hbfta}wflgs t/ntf ;DjGwL Joj:yf

@)#

!$=

zfvfsfof{no vf]Ng] ;DaGwL Joj:yf

@!!

!%=

Aofhb/ ;DaGwL Joj:yf

@@!

!^=

ljQLo >f]t ;+sng ;DaGwL Joj:yf

@@#

!&=

ljkGg ju{df k|jfx ug'{ kg]{ shf{ ;DaGwL Joj:yf

@@*

!*=

:t/f]Gglt x'g], sfo{If]q lj:tf/ jf ;+s'rg tyf ufEg]ufleg] ;DaGwL Joj:yf

@#$

!(=

;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL lgjf/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf

@$&

@)=

;xfos sDkgL ;DaGwL Joj:yf

@^^

@!=

On]S6f]lgs dfWodaf6 x'g] a}ls -O{a}ls_ ;]jf ;DaGwL Joj:yf

@^(

@@=

ljljw Joj:yf ;DaGwdf

@&$

********

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= !)^(
laifoM Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if ;DaGwL Joj:yf .
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] sfod ug'{ kg]{ Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if ;DjGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g,
@)%* sf] bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
!=
sfod ug'{ kg]{ Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:Yffn] cfgf] hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQsf] cfwf/df b]xfo jdf]lhd Go"gtd k'FhLsf]ifsf]
cg'kft sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .
hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQsf] cfwf/df sfod /fVg' kg]{ Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if -k|ltzt_
;+:yf
k|fylds k'FhL
k'FhLsf]if
s ju{
^=)
!)=)
v / u ju{
%=%
!!=)
3 ju{
$=)
*=)
@=
k'FhLsf]if
k'FhLsf]if eGgfn] k|fylds k'FhL / k"/s k'FhLsf] of]u ;Demg' kb{5 .
s ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] xsdf k'FhLsf]ifsf] u0fgf o; a}+sf/f hf/L Capital Adequacy
Framework 2007 (Updated July, 2008) cg';"rL !=! df tf]lsP jdf]lhd x'g]5 . ;fy} cfly{s jif{
@)^&^* b]lv /fli6o:t/ sfo{If]q ePsf v ju{sf ljsf; a}+sxn] ;d]t ljBdfg Joj:yfsf
cltl/Qm ;dfgfGt/ -Parallel_ ?kdf k'FhLsf]if kof{Kttf cg'kftsf ljj/0fx? tyf jflif{s ljj/0fx? pQm
cg';"rL !=! df tf]lsP jdf]lhd lgoldt ?kdf ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
#=
k'FhLsf]ifsf] juL{s/0f
kF"hLsf]if u0fgf k|of]hgsf] lgldQ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] k'FhLsf]ifnfO{ b]xfo adf]lhd @ efudf juL{s/0f ug'{
kg]{5 .
!=
k|fylds k'FhL
!=!= b]xfosf zLif{sx?df /x]sf] /sd k|fylds k'FhLdf ;dfj]zu0fgf x'g]5 M
-s_
r'Qmf k'FhL -;fwf/0f z]o/_
-v_
k|:tfljt jf]g; z]o/
-u_
z]o/ lk|ldod
-3_
lkmtf{ gx'g] cu|flwsf/ z]o/ (Irredeemable Preference Share)
-_
;fwf/0f hu]8f sf]if
-r_
;l~rt gfkmfgf]S;fg
-5_
k'FhL lkmtf{ hu]8f sf]if (Capital Redemption Reserve)
-h_
k'FhL ;dfof]hg sf]if
-em_ sN; Og P8\efG;
-`_
cGo :jtGq sf]if
!=@= k|fylds k'FhL u0fgf ubf{ b]xfosf zLif{sx?df /x]sf] /sd 36fpg' kg{]5 M
-s_
Voflt (Goodwill),
-v_
o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] ;LdfeGbf a9L x'g] u/L ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] z]o/ tyf ;'/If0fkqx?df
nufgL u/]sf]] /sd,

-u_

@=

cfgf] ljQLo :jfy{ ePsf ;+ul7t ;+:yfx?sf] z]o/ tyf ;'/If0fkqdf u/]sf] ;Dk"0f{ nufgL
/sd,
-3_
cjf:tljs ;DklQ (Fictitious assets)
o; k|of]hgsf] nflu cg';Gwfg, ljsf; tyf sDKo"6/ ;6j]o/ afx]ssf cGo
cjf:tljs vr{ ;Demg' k5{ .
-_
k|rlnt P]g tyf sfg'gn] k|ltaGw u/]sf JolQm tyf ;d"xnfO{ k|bfg u/]sf] shf{ tyf
;'ljwf .
t/, pko'{Qm JolQm tyf ;d"xnfO{ shf{ tyf ;'ljwf k|bfg ubf{ k|rlnt P]g tyf sfg'gn]
k|ltaGw gu/]sf] cj:yfdf ;f] k|ltaGw nfu]sf] ! jif{ jf shf{sf] e'QmfgL cjlw ;dfKt x'g]
;dodWo] h'g cl3 x'G5 ;f] ;do;Dd of] Joj:yf nfu" x'g] 5}g .
-r_
o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg kfngf gu/L :jMk|of]hgsf nflu 3/hUuf vl/b u/]sf] /sd .
-5_
;LdfeGbf a9L cfjf; ejg lgdf{0f tyf hUuf ljsf;df nufgL u/]sf] /sd .
-h_
tf]lsPsf] ;doleq ljqmL ljt/0f ug{ g;s]sf] z]o/ k|Tofe"lt .
k"/s k'FhL
k|fylds k'FhLeGbf a9L ;dfj]z ug{ gkfOg] u/L k"/s k'FhLdf lgDg zLif{sx? cGtu{t /x]sf
/sdx? ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 M
-s_
;fdfGo shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
o; zLif{s cGt/ut c;n shf{sf] lgldQ Joj:yf ul/Psf] /sd dfq ;dfj]z ug'{
kg]{5 .
c;n ;lxt cGo shf{sf nflu o; a}+saf6 tf]lsPsf] cg'kfteGbf a9L shf{ gf]S;fgL
Joj:yf u/]sf] v08df To:tf] cltl/Qm shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf u/]sf] k"/} /sd /
k'g/;+/rgf / k'g/tflnsLs/0f u/]sf shf{x?df yk u/]sf] shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
/sdnfO{ cltl/Qm shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yfdf ;dfj]z ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
t/, pk/f]Qm zLif{sx?df /x]sf] s'n /sd a}+ssf] s'n hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQsf] !=@%
k|ltzt eGbf a9L x'g] u/L k"/s k'FhLdf ;dfj]z ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-v_
;DklQ k"gd"{Nofg sf]if
k"/s k'FhL u0fgf ubf{ ;DklQ k"gd"{Nofg sf]if jfktsf] /sd ;d]t ;dfj]z u/L
lgl:sPsf] s'n k"/s k'FhLsf] @ k|ltzt;Dd u0fgf ug{ kfOg] 5 . o; sf]ifdf /x]sf]
/sd jf s'n k"/s k'FhLsf] @ k|ltztdWo] h'g sd x'G5 ;f]xL /sd dfq ;dfj]z ug'{
kg]{5 .
-u_
xfOla|8 k'FhL pks/0fx? (Hybrid Capital Instruments)
o; zLif{s cGtu{t b]xfosf pks/0fx? kg]{5g\ .
-!_ ljgf ;'/If0f, k"0f{ r'Qmf x'g], e'QmfgL lbg] k|fyldstf qmddf lgIf]kstf{ /
;fx'x?eGbf k5fl8 dfq e'QmfgL kfpg ;Sg] tyf 3f6fdf ;d]t ;xefuL x'g] jf
;fwf/0f k'FhLdf kl/0ft ug{ ;Sg] jf g;Sg] u/L hf/L u/]sf ;'/If0fkqx? .
-@_ o; a}+sn] :jLs[lt lbPdf afx]s wf/sn] cfgf] OR5f cg'?k e'QmfgL k|fKt ug{
g;Sg] u/L hf/L u/]sf pks/0fx? .
t/, s'g} Ps Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] hf/L u/]sf] xfOla|8 k'FhL pks/0fx? (Hybrid
Capital Instruments_ cGo Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] wf/0f -vl/b_ ug{ kfpg] 5}g .
-3_ ;'/If0f g/flvPsf] ;xfos cfjlws C0f (Subordinated Term Debt)
kfFr jif{eGbf a9L e'QmfgL cjlw ePsf], lgIf]kstf{x?eGbf k5fl8 dfq e'QmfgL kfpg] u/L
s'g} klg ;'/If0f g/fvL hf/L u/]sf] C0fkqx? / ;Lldt e'QmfgL cjlw ePsfcjlw
tf]lsPsf lkmtf{ x'g ;Sg] cu|flwsf/ z]o/x? o; cGtu{t ;dfj]z x'g]5g\ . oL
pks/0fx?sf] 36\bf] d"NonfO{ hgfpg Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] o:tf pks/0fx?sf] d"Nodf
kl5Nnf] kfFr jif{b]lv aL; k|ltztn] 36fpb} n}hfg' kg]{5 . s'g} a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn]
nfdf] cjlwkl5 jf ljleGg r/0fx?df ;fwf/0f z]o/df kl/0ft x'g] jf tf]lsPsf zt{x?
k"/f u/]/ dfq lkmtf{ x'g] zt{df o:tf] pks/0f hf/L u/]sf] cj:yfdf ;fwf/0f z]o/df
kl/0ft ePsf] /sd r'Qmf k'FhLdf / z]o/df kl/0ft gePsf] /sd o; cGt/ut /fvL
k"/s k'FhLdf u0fgf ug{ ;lsg]5 .

$=

%=

t/, o:tf pks/0fx? hf/L ubf{ cfgf] k|fylds k'FhLsf] krf; k|ltzteGbf a9L /sd
p7fpg kfO{g] 5}g .
-_ ;6xL ;dLs/0f sf]if
ljb]zL ljlgdosf] sf/f]jf/ ug]{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] sfod u/]sf] ;6xL ;dLs/0f
sf]ifsf] /sd k"/s k'FhL k|of]hgsf nflu u0fgf ug{ ;lsg]5 .
-r_ nufgL ;dfof]hg sf]if
lgb]{zg g+= * cGtu{t v8f ePsf] nufgL ;dfof]hg sf]ifsf] /sd k"/s k'FhL afkt u0fgf
ug{ ;lsg]5 .
s'n hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQ
k'FhLsf]if u0fgf ug]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu s'n hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ b'O{ ju{df ljefhg
ul/Psf] 5 .
-!_
jf;nftleqsf] hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQ .
-@_
jf;nftaflx/sf] hf]lvd efl/t sf/f]af/ .
jf;nft leqsf ;DklQ tyf jf;nftjflx/sf sf/f]af/x?df hf]lvd ef/
-!_ jf;nft leqsf ;DklQx?df hf]lvd ef/-s ju{ afx]s_M
k'FhLsf]if u0fgf ug]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu af;nft leqsf] ;DklQnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ ljefhg u/L 5'f5'}
hf]lvd ef/ k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 . jf;nftdf b]lvPsf] ;DklQsf] /sdnfO{ ef/ lbOPsf] k|ltztn]
u'0fg u/L s'n hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQsf] of]u lgsfNg' kg]{5 .
jf;nftleqsf zLif{s
gub df}Hbft
;'g df}Hbft -ljlgdo of]Uo_
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf /x]sf] df}Hbft
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;'/If0fkqdf ul/Psf] nufgL
g]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] C0fkqdf u/]sf]] nufgL
cfg} d'2lt /l;bsf] lwtf]df k"0f{ ;'/lIft x'g] u/L k|bfg u/]sf]] d'2lt /l;b lwtf] shf{
;/sf/L ;'/If0fkqsf] lwtf]df k"0f{ ;'/lIft x'g] u/L k|bfg u/]sf]] shf{
;/sf/L ;'/If0fkqsf] kfpg' kg]{ Aofh /sd (Accrued Interest)
ljkGg ju{ shf{ cGtu{t u0fgf x'g] o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foL :j/f]huf/ sf]ifdf v /
u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] hDdf u/]sf] /sd
:jb]zL a}+sljQLo ;+:yfx?df /x]sf] df}Hbftd'2lt /l;bsf] bfjL (Claims)*
cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] d'2lt /l;bsf] lwtf]df k"0f{ ;'/lIft x'g] u/L k|bfg u/]sf]]
d'2lt /l;b lwtf] shf{
ljb]zL a}+sx?df /x]sf] df}Hbft
dfu]sf] avt k|fKt x'g] /sd (Money at Call)
cGt/f{li6o >]0fLs[t (Rated)*/ ljb]zL Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] Uof/]06Ldf uPsf] shf{
cGt/f{li6o >]0fLs[t (Rated)*/ ljb]zL a}+sdf u/]sf] cGo nufgL
cGt/ a}+s ;fk6L
z]o/, l8j]~r/ Pj+ a08df ePsf] nufgL
cGo nufgLx?
shf{, ;fk6 tyf ljN; vl/bl8:sfp06 ;d]t -s'n /sd_**
:yL/ ;DklQx?
kfpg' kg]{ cGo v'b Aofh /sd -s'n kfpg' kg]{ Aofh ;/s./L C0fkq tyf jrt kqsf]
Aofh Aofh d'NtjL_
cGo ;a} ;DklQx? -v'b clu|d s/ bflvnf jfx]s_
;Ldf gf3]sf] l/on :6]6cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{

hf]lvd ef/ -k|ltzt_


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
100
100
100
100
100
100
150

l6Kk0fL
PsxKtfsf] clu|d ;"rgfdf lkmtf{ lng ;lsg] u/L :jb]zL a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf Ohfhtkqk|fKt v,
*
u / 3 ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] /fv]sf] tLg dlxgf jf ;f] eGbf a9L cjlwsf d'2lt lgIf]k . o;
k|of]hgsf] nflu lgIf]k /fVg] ;doeGbf l7s cl3Nnf] qodf;sf] k'FhL kof{Kttf -Capital Adequacy_ sf]
cfwf/df tf]lsPsf] k'FhL kof{Kttf sfod u/]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf /flvPsf] d'2lt lgIf]knfO{ dfq
dfGotf lbOg]5 .

*/

**

-@_

o; k|of]hgsf] lgldQ ;+o'Qm clw/fHo a]nfotsf] n08gaf6 k|sflzt The Banker klqsfn] k|To]s jif{
h'nfO{ dlxgfdf k|sfzg ug]{ Top Thousand World Banks sf] ;"rLdf l7s cl3Nnf] jif{ ;dfj]z ePsf
a}+sx?nfO{ ;Demg' kg]{5 .
pQm Top Thousand World Banks sf] ;"lrdf gk/]sf] v08df zt k|ltzt hf]lvd ef/ sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .
d'2lt /l;b, g]kfn /fi6 a}+s C0fkq / ;/sf/L ;'/If0fkqsf] lwtf]df k|jflxt shf{ / cGt/f{li6o >]l0fs[t
a}+ssf] hdfgtdf k|bfg ul/Psf] shf{ afx]s .

jf;nft aflx/sf] sf/f]jf/df hf]lvd ef/ -s ju{ afx]s_


k'FhLsf]if u0fgf ug]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu jf;nft aflx/sf sf/f]jf/x?nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ ljefhg u/L
5'f5'} hf]lvd ef/ k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 . jf;nft aflx/sf] sf/f]jf/sf] /sdnfO{ hf]lvd ef/n]
u'0fg u/L s'n jf;nft aflx/sf] sf/f]jf/ lgsfNg' kg]{5 .

jf;nft aflx/sf sf/f]jf/x?


laN; sn]S;g
clu|d ljb]zL ljlgdo ;Demf}tf (Forward Foreign Exchange Contract)
^ dlxgfeGbf sd cjlwsf] k|lttkq - dflh{g g36fO{ k"/} /sd _

cGt/f{li6o >]0fLs[t (Rated)*/ ljb]zL Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sfp06/ Uof/]06Ldf hf/L ul/Psf] Uof/]06L

^ dlxgfeGbf a9L cjlwsf] k|lttkq -dflh{g g36fO{ k"/} /sd_


lj8a08, k/km/d]G; j08 / k|Tofe"lt (Underwriting) ;DjGwL k|ltj4tf
k'gM vl/b ug]{ zt{df ljqmL ul/Psf] shf{ -Credit Purchase/Repurchase / Takeover)
clu|d e'QmfgL Uof/]06L (Advance Payment Guarantee)
ljQLo tyf cGo hdfgt (Financial and other Guarantee)
ckl/jTo{ shf{ k|lta4tf (Irrevocable Loan Commitment)
cfos/ jfkt ;Defljt bfloTj
Acceptance ;lxt cGo ;a} k|sf/sf ;Defljt bfloTjx?
k"gM l8:sfpG6 ul/Psf ljnx
r'Qmf jf e'Qmfg x'g af+sL z]o/ nufgL
e'QmfgLsf nflu bfjL k/]sf] hdfgt (Unpaid Guarantee Claims)
;+:yfpk/ bfjL k/]sf] t/ ;+:yfn] bfloTj :jLsf/ gu/]sf] ;Defljt bfloTjx?

hf]lvd ef/ -k|ltzt_


)
!)
@)
@)
%)
%)
%)
!))
!))
!))
!))
!))
!))
!))
@))
@))

l6Kk0fL
*/

^=

o; k|of]hgsf] lgldQ ;+o'Qm clw/fHo a]nfotsf] n08gaf6 k|sflzt The Banker klqsfn] k|To]s jif{ h'nfO{
dlxgfdf k|sfzg ug]{ Top Thousand World Banks sf] ;"rLdf l7s cl3Nnf] jif{ ;dfj]z ePsf a}+sx?nfO{ ;Demg'
kg]{5 .
pQm Top Thousand World Banks sf] ;"rLdf gk/]sf] v08df zt k|ltzt hf]lvd ef/ sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .
k|lttkqsf] cjlw u0fgf ubf{ k|lttkq vf]n]sf] z'?sf] ldltb]lvsf] cjlwnfO{ g} u0fgf ug'{ kg]{5 .

k'FhLsf]if cg'kft lgwf{/0f ;"q


k'FhLsf]if cg'kftsf] lgwf{/0f lgDgfg';f/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
-s_= k|fylds k'FhL cg'kft

-v_= k'FhLsf]if cg'kft


hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQsf] of]u

&=

k|fylds k'FhL
!))
hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQsf] of]u
k|fylds k'FhL k"/s k'FhL

!))
hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQsf] of]u
jf;nftleqsf s'n hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQ jf;nft aflx/sf

s'n hf]lvd efl/t sf/f]af/

k'FhLsf]if ;DaGwdf k7fpg' kg]{ ljj/0fx?


Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+sljQLo ;+:yfx?n] h'g;'s} avt klg tf]lsPsf] cg'kftdf Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if sfod
ug'{ kg]{5 . s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] Capital Adequacy Framework, 2007 (Updated July,
2008) sf] cg';"rL !=! df Joj:yf eP adf]lhd / v, u / 3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn]
k|To]s dlxgfsf] d;fGtsf] ljQLo ljj/0fx?sf] cfwf/df ;+nUg lgb]{zg kmf=g+= !=! / !=@ adf]lhd
k'FhLsf]if ;DaGwL ljj/0fx? tof/ u/L cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIfsaf6 k|dfl0ft u/fO{ o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu tyf ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k|To]s dlxgf ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] Ps
dlxgf leq k7fO{ ;Sg' kg]{5 . sy+sbflrt dfl;s ?kdf cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIf0f u/fP/ k]z ug{ g;s]df

dfl;s ljj/0fdf ;f] Joxf]/f v'nfpg' kg]{5 . t/, qodf;sf] cGTosf] ljj/0f eg] clgjfo{?kdf cfGtl/s
n]vfk/LIfsaf6 k|dfl0ft u/fP/ g} k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
*=

(=

!)=

n]vfk/LIf0f u/fpg ;lsg]


k'FhLsf]if kof{Kt gePsf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] Joj;flos cj:yfaf/] hfgsf/L lng o; a}+sn]
cfjZos 7fg]df d"Nof+sg n]vfk/LIf0f -Due Diligence Audit_ u/fpg ;Sg]5 / ;f] jfkt nfUg] vr{
;DjlGwt ;+:yfn] g} e'StfgL ug'{ kg]{5 .
k'FhLsf]if ;DaGwL lgb]{zgx?sf] kfngf gePdf x'g] sf/jfxL
-s_
s, v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] k'FhLsf]if ;DaGwL lgb]{zgx?sf] kfngf
gu/]df zL3| ;'wf/fTds sf/jfxL ;DaGwL ljlgodfjnL, @)^$ -Prompt Corrective Action,
2007 PCA_ adf]lhdsf] sf/jfxL x'g]5 .
-v_
3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] tf]lsPsf] cg'kftdf k'FhLsf]if sfod ug{ g;s]df ;+rfns
;ldltn] k}+tL; lbgleq k'FhLsf]if sfod /xg g;s]sf] sf/0f tyf k'FhLsf]if kof{Kt agfpg tof/
u/]sf] k'FhL of]hgf jf sfo{qmd ;d]t k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . o;/L k]z ul/Psf] k|:tfljt of]hgf jf
sfo{qmddf o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] cjlwleq k'FhLsf]if sfod ul/;Sg' kg]{ u/L ;DjlGwt
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfnfO{ lgb]{zg lbg ;Sg]5 . k'FhLsf]if kof{Kt gePsf] cj:yfdf nfef+z tyf
jf]g; z]o/ ljt/0f ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-u_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] s'g} cfly{s jif{sf] jLrsf] s'g} cjlwdf tf]lsPsf]
cg'kftdf Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if sfod ug{ g;s]sf] ePtf klg ;f]xL cfly{s jif{sf] cGTodf
tf]lsPsf] cg'kftdf Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if sfod ePsf] cfwf/df gub nfef+z tyf af]g; z]o/
ljt/0f ug{ kfO{g] 5}g . of] Joj:yfn] ;f] cfly{s jif{sf] cGTodf jfx\o n]vfk/LIfsaf6 k|dfl0ft
ljQLo ljj/0faf6 tf]lsPsf] cg'kftdf Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if sfod ePsf] cfwf/df :jLs[t k'FhL
of]hgf cg';f/sf] af]g; z]o/ 3f]if0ffljt/0f ug{ afwf kg]{ 5}g .
-3_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] s'g} cfly{s jif{sf] cGTodf jfx\o n]vfk/LIfsaf6
k|dfl0ft ljQLo ljj/0faf6 tf]lsPsf] cg'kftdf Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if sfod ePtf klg ;f] cfly{s
jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] ldltb]lv jflif{s ;fwf/0f ;efsf] :jLs[lt lng] ldlt;Ddsf] cjlwdf lz3|
;'wf/fTds sf/jfxL sfof{Gjog eO{ ;f] ldlt;Dd km's'jf gePsf] cj:yfdf nfef+z tyf af]g;
z]o/ 3f]if0ffljt/0f ug{ kfO{g] 5}g .
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if ;DaGwL Joj:yf O=k|f lgb]{zg g+= !)^* af6
hf/L ul/Psf] lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u
;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

g]= /f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= !=!

k'FhLsf]if tflnsf - s ju{ afx]s_


ljj/0f
-s_

-v_

-u_
-3_

rfn" cjlw

-?=xhf/df_
ut cjlw

k|fylds
!_
@_
#_
$_
%_
^_
&_
*_
(_
!)_
!!_

k'FhL
r'Qmf k'FhL -;fwf/0f z]o/_
k|:tfljt jf]g; z]o/
z]o/ lk|ldod
lkmtf{ gx'g] cu|flwsf/ z]o/
;fwf/0f hu]8f sf]if
;l~rt gfkmf-gf]S;fg_
jf;nftdf b]vfO{Psf] rfn' cf=j=sf] gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fjsf] /sd
k'FhL lkmtf{ hu]8f sf]if
k'FhL ;dfof]hg sf]if
sN; Og P8efG;
cGo :jtGq sf]ifx?
36fpg] M
Voflt (Goodwill) jfktsf] /sd
;LdfeGbf a9L z]o/,;'/If0fkqdf nufgL ul/Psf] /sd
ljQLo :jfy{ /x]sf] sDkgLsf] lwtf]kqdf nufgL u/]sf] /sd
cjf:tljs ;DklQ
o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg kfngf gu/L :jk|of]hgsf nflu 3/hUuf vl/b
u/]sf] /sd
;LdfeGbf a9L cfjf; ejg lgdf{0f tyf hUuf ljsf;df nufgL
u/]sf] /sd .
tf]lsPsf] ;doleq ljqmL ljt/0f ug{ g;s]sf] z]o/ k|Tofe"lt .
k|rlnt P]g tyf sfg'gn] k|ltaGw u/]sf JolQm tyf ;d"xx?nfO{
k|bfg u/]sf]] shf{ tyf ;'ljwfx?
k"/s k'FhL
!_
c;n shf{sf] nflu u/]sf] shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
@_
cltl/Qm shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
#_
xfOla|8 k'FhL pks/0fx?
$_
;'/If0f g/fv]sf] ;xfos cfjlws C0f
%_
;6xL ;lds/0f sf]if
^_
;DklQ k"gd"{Nofg sf]if
&_
nufgL ;dfof]hg sf]if
hDdf k'FhLsf]if -sv_
hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQsf] cfwf/df sfod ug'{ kg]{ Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if
k'FhLsf]if - ================= k|ltzt_
k|fylds k'FhL -=================== k|ltzt_
k'FhLsf]if -clwsGo"g_
- ================= k|ltztn]_
k|fylds k'FhL -clwsGo"g_ - ================= k|ltztn]_

ldltM
b:tvt

clws[t

g]= /f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= !=@


hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQ ljj/0f tflnsf -s ju{ afx]s_ -=====_
-s_ jf;nft leqsf ;DklQx?(On-Balance-Sheet Assets)
gub df}Hbft
;'g -ljlgdo of]Uo_
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf /x]sf] df}Hbft
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;'/If0fkqdf u/]sf]] nufgL
g]kfn /fi6 a}+s C0fkqdf u/]sf]] nufgL
cfg} d'2lt /l;bsf] lwtf]df k"0f{ ;'/lIft x'g]u/L k|bfg u/]sf]] d'2lt /l;b lwtf] shf{
;/sf/L ;'/If0fkqsf] lwtf]df k"0f{ ;'/lIft x'g] u/L k|bfg u/]sf]] shf{
;/sf/L ;'/If0fkqsf] kfpg' kg]{ Aofh /sd(Accrued Interest)
ljkGg ju{ shf{ cGtu{t u0fgf x'g] o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foL :j/f]huf/ sf]ifdf
v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] hDdf u/]sf] /sd
:jb]zL a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?df /x]sf] df}Hbftd'2lt /l;bsf] bfjL (Claims)

ef/

rfn' cjlw
ut cjlw
hf]lvd efl/t
hf]lvd efl/t
/sd
/sd
;DklQ
;DklQ

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
20

cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] d'2lt /l;bsf] lwtf]df k"0f{ ;'/lIft x'g] u/L k|bfg 20
u/]sf]] d'2lt /l;b lwtf] shf{
20
ljb]zL a}+sx?df /x]sf] df}Hbft
20
dfu]sf] avt k|fKt x'g] /sd(Money at Call)
20
cGt/f{li6o >]0fLs[t(Rated)Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] Uof/]06Ldf uPsf] shf{
20
cGt/f{li6o >]0fLs[t(Rated)a}+sdf u/]sf] cGo nufgL
20
cGt/ a}+s ;fk6L
100
z]o/, l8j]~r/ Pj+ a08df ePsf] nufgL-s'n /sd_
100
cGo nufgLx?
100
shf{, ;fk6 tyf ljN; vl/bl8:sfp06 ;d]t -s'n /sd_
100
:yL/ ;DklQx?-s'n /sd_
100
Kffpg' kg]{ cGo v'b Aofh /sd -Aofh d'NtjL / ;/sf/L C0fkqsf] Aofh afx]s
100
v'b u}/a}+ls ;DklQ
100
cGo ;a} ;DklQx? -v'b cu|Ld s/ bflvnf afx]s_
150
;Ldf gf3]sf] l/on :6]6cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{
-s_ hDdf
-v_ jf;nft aflx/sf sf/f]jf/x? (Off-balance sheet Items)
laN; sn]S;g
)
km/jf8{ PS:r]~h sG6fS6sf] af+sL bfloTjx
!)
^ dlxgfeGbf sd cjlwsf] k|lttkq -k"/} /sd_
@)
cGt//fli6o >]0fLs[t (Rated) ljb]zL Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sfp06/ Uof/]06Ldf hf/L u/]sf] Uof/]06L @)
^ dlxgfeGbf a9L cjlwsf] k|lttkq -k"/} /sd_
%)
lj8a08, k/km/d]G; a08 / k|Tofe"lt (Underwriting) ;DjGwL k|ltj4tf
%)
k'gM vl/b ug]{ zt{df laqmL u/]sf] shf{
%)
clu|d e'QmfgL Uof/]06L (Advance payment Guarantee)
!))
ljQLo tyf cGo hdfgt (Financial and other Guarantee)
!))
ckl/jTo{ shf{ k|lta4tf (Irrevocable Loan Commitment)
!))
cfos/ jfkt ;Defljt bfloTj
!))
Acceptance ;lxt cGo ;j} k|sf/sf ;Defljt bfloTjx?
!))
k"gM l8:sfpG6 ul/Psf ljnx
!))
r'Qmf jf e'Qmfg x'g af+sL z]o/ nufgL
!))
e'QmfgLsf] nflu bfjL k/]sf] hdfgt
@))
;+:yfpk/ bfjL k/]sf] t/ ;+:yfn] bfloTj :jLsf/ gu/]sf] ;Defljt bfloTjx?
@))
-v_ hDdf
s'n hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQ hDdf -s_ + -v_
b|i6JoM !=
@=

pNn]lvt zLif{sx?dWo] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfkm";Fu ;DjlGwt jf cfkm"n] ug{ kfpg] ljQLo sf/f]jf/x?;Fu ;DjlGwt
zLif{sx? dfq k|of]udf Nofpg' kg]{5 .
cGt/f{li6o >]0fLs[t cGtu{tTop Thousand World Bankssf] ;"rLdf gk/]sf] v08df zt k|ltzt hf]lvd ef/ sfod ug'{
kg]{5 .

Capital Adequacy Framework


2007

cg';"rL g+= !=!

(updated July 2008)


1.
1.1

1.2

INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND:
Prior to 1988, there was no uniform international regulatory standard for setting bank capital requirements. In
1988, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS)1 developed the Capital Accord, which is known
as Basel I, to align the capital adequacy requirements applicable especially to banks in G-10 countries. Basel I
introduced two key concepts. First, it defined what banks could hold as capital, as well as designating capital
as Tier 1 or Tier 2 according to its loss-absorbing or creditor-protecting characteristics. The second key
concept introduced in Basel I was that capital should be held by banks in relation to the risks that they face.
The major risks faced by banks relate to the assets held on balance sheet. Thus, Basel I calculated banks
minimum capital requirements as a percentage of assets, which are adjusted in accordance to their riskiness
and assigning risk weights to assets. Higher weights are assigned to riskier assets such as corporate loans, and
lower weights are assigned to less risky assets, such as exposures to government.
The BCBS released the "International Convergence of Capital Measurements and Capital Standards: Revised
Framework", popularly known as Basel II, on June 26, 2004. This framework was updated in November 2005
and a comprehensive version of the framework was issued in June 2006. Basel II builds significantly on Basel
I by increasing the sensitivity of capital to key bank risks. In addition, Basel II recognizes that banks can face
a multitude of risks, ranging from the traditional risks associated with financial intermediation to the day-today risks of operating a business as well as the risks associated with the ups and downs of the local and
international economies. As a result, the new framework more explicitly associates capital requirements with
the particular categories of major risks that banks face.
The new capital framework also recognizes that large, usually internationally active banks have already put in
place sophisticated approaches to risk measurement and management based on statistical inference rather than
judgement alone. Thus, the framework allows banks, under certain conditions, to use their own internal
models and techniques to measure the key risks that they face, the probability of loss, and the capital required
to meet those losses. In developing the new framework, the Basel Committee wanted to incorporate many
elements that help promote a sound and efficient financial system over and above the setting of minimum
capital requirements. With this in mind, the Basel II framework incorporates three complementary pillars
that draw on the range of approaches to help ensure that banks are adequately capitalised in commensurate
with their risk profile.
The Basel Committees on Banking Supervision's (BCBS) recommendations on capital accord are important
guiding framework for the regulatory capital requirement to the banking industry all over the world and Nepal
is no exception. Realizing the significance of capital for ensuring the safety and soundness of the banks and
the banking system, at large, Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB) has developed and enforced capital adequacy
requirement based on international practices with appropriate level of customization based on domestic state
of market developments. The existing regulatory capital is largely based on the Basel committee's 1988
recommendations.
With a view of adopting the international best practices, NRB has already expressed its intention to adopt the
Basel II framework, albeit in a simplified form. In line with the international development and thorough
discussion with the stakeholders, evaluation and assessment of impact studies at various phases, this
framework has been drafted. This framework provides the guidelines for the implementation of Basel II
framework in Nepal. Reminiscent of the International convergence of capital measurements and capital
standards, this framework also builds around three mutually reinforcing pillars, viz. minimum capital
requirements, supervisory review process and disclosure requirements.
OBJECTIVE:
The main objective of this framework is to develop safe and sound financial system by way of sufficient
amount of qualitative capital and risk management practices. This framework is intended to ensure that each
commercial banks maintain a level of capital which,
(i)
is adequate to protect its depositors and creditors.
(ii) is commensurate with the risk associated activities and profile of the commercial bank.

The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision is a committee of banking supervisory authorities that was
established by the central bank governors of the Group of Ten countries in 1975. It consists of senior representatives
of bank supervisory authorities and central banks from Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It usually
meets at the Bank for International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland where its permanent Secretariat is located.

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.
2.1

(iii) promotes public confidence in the banking system.


PRE-REQUISITES:
The effective implementation of this framework is dependent on various factors. Some such pre-requisites
are:
(i)
Implementation of Basel Core Principles for effective Banking Supervision
(ii) Adoption of the sound practices for the management of Operational Risk
(iii) Formulation and adoption of comprehensive risk management policy
(iv) Adherence to high degree of corporate governance
RESPONSIBILITY:
The board of directors of each bank shall be responsible for establishing and maintaining, at all times, an
adequate level of capital. The capital standards herein are the minimum that is acceptable for banks that are
fundamentally sound, well managed, and which have no material financial or operational weaknesses. Thus,
the banks are generally expected to operate above the limits prescribed by this framework.
SCOPE OF APPLICATION:
This framework shall be applicable to all "A" Class financial institutions licensed to conduct banking
business in Nepal under the Bank and Financial Institution Act, 2063.
This capital adequacy framework shall be applicable uniformly to all "A" class financial institutions on a
stand-alone basis and as well as on a consolidated basis, where the bank is member of a consolidated banking
group. For the purpose of capital adequacy, the consolidated bank means a group of financial entities, parent
or holding company of which a bank is a subsidiary. All banking and other relevant financial activities (both
regulated and unregulated) conducted within a group including a bank shall be captured through
consolidation. Thus, majority owned or controlled financial entities should be fully consolidated. If any
majority owned subsidiaries institutions are not consolidated for capital purposes, all equity and other
regulatory capital investments in those entities attributable to the group will be deducted and the assets and
liabilities, as well as third party capital investments in the subsidiary will be removed from the banks balance
sheet for capital adequacy purposes.
APPROACHES TO IMPLEMENTATION:
"International Convergence for Capital Measurements and Capital Standards: Revised Framework" alias
Basel II under Pillar 1, provides three distinct approaches for computing capital requirements for credit risk
and three other approaches for computing capital requirements for operational risk. These approaches for
credit and operational risks are based on increasing risk sensitivity and allow banks to select an approach that
is most appropriate to the stage of development of bank's operations.
The product and services offered by the Nepalese Banks are still largely primitive and conventional, in
comparison to other economies. This coupled with the various inherent limitations of our system like the
absence of credit rating agencies makes the advanced approaches like Internal Ratings Based Approach or
even Standardized Approach impractical and unfeasible. Thus, at this juncture, this framework prescribes
Simplified Standardized Approach (SSA) to measure credit risk while Basic Indicator Approach and an
indigenous Net Open Position Approach for measurement of Operational Risk and Market Risk respectively.
EFFECTIVE DATE:
All banks within the scope of this framework should adopt the prescribed approaches by Mid July 2008
(Fiscal Year 2065/066).
PARALLEL RUN:
In order to ensure a smooth transition to new approach prescribed by this framework, a parallel run for the
whole year from Mid July 2007 (Fiscal Year 2064/065) was conducted. The returns submitted by the banks
during this period was minutely reviewed to identify any anomalies. The identified shortcoming on the
returns was advised to the bank management so that they could be rectified before we move onto full fledged
implementation. Based on the findings of the parallel run, amendments and modifications have been
incorporated in the framework wherever deemed necessary.
IMPLEMENTATION OF ADVANCED APPROACHES:
This framework prescribes the most simplest of the available approaches at the initial phase with a vision to
move onto more complex and risk sensitive approaches as the market gradually gains maturity. However,
banks willing to adopt advanced approaches, even for internal purposes, should obtain prior written approval
from Nepal Rastra Bank on providing evidences that they have the resource and the capability to adopt the
proposed approaches.
A bank will not be allowed to choose to revert to a simpler approach once it has been approved for a more
advanced approach without supervisory approval. However, if a supervisor determines that a bank using a
more advanced approach no longer meets the qualifying criteria for advanced approach, it may allow the bank
to revert to a simpler approach for some or all of its operations, until it meets the conditions specified by the
supervisor for returning to a more advanced approach.
ELIGIBLE CAPITAL FUNDS
DEFINITION OF CAPITAL:

2.2

2.3

Qualifying capital consists of Tier 1 (core) capital and Tier 2 (supplementary) capital elements, net of
required deductions from capital. Thus, for the purpose of calculation of regulatory capital, banks are required
to classify their capital into two parts as follows;
a
Core Capital (Tier 1)
The key element of capital on which the main emphasis should be placed is the Tier 1 (core) capital,
which comprises of equity capital and disclosed reserves. This key element of capital is the basis on
which most market judgments of capital adequacy are made; and it has a crucial bearing on profit
margins and a bank's ability to compete.
The BCBS has therefore concluded that capital, for supervisory purposes, should be defined in two
tiers in a way, which will have the effect of requiring at least 50% of a bank's capital base to consist
of a core element comprised of equity capital and published reserves from post-tax retained earnings.
In order to rank as Tier 1, capital must be fully paid up, have no fixed servicing or dividend costs
attached to it and be freely available to absorb losses ahead of general creditors. Capital also needs to
have a very high degree of permanence if it is to be treated as Tier 1.
b.
Supplementary Capital (Tier 2)
The Supplementary (Tier 2) Capital includes reserves which, though unpublished, have been passed
through the profit and loss account and all other capital instruments eligible and acceptable for capital
purposes. Elements of the Tier 2 capital will be reckoned as capital funds up to a maximum of 100
percent of Tier 1 capital arrived at, after making adjustments referred to in 2.4. In case, where the Tier
1 capital of a bank is negative, the Tier 2 capital for regulatory purposes shall be considered as zero
and hence the capital fund, in such cases, shall be equal to the core capital.
ELEMENTS OF TIER 1 CAPITAL:
a.
Paid up Equity Capital.
b.
Irredeemable non-cumulative preference shares which are fully paid-up and with the capacity to
absorb unexpected losses. These instruments should not contain any clauses whatsoever, which
permit redemption by the holder or issuer upon fulfillment of certain condition. Banks should obtain
prior approval of NRB for this kind of instruments to qualify as a component of core capital.
c.
Share Premium
d.
Proposed Bonus Equity Share
e.
Statutory General Reserve.
f.
Retained Earnings available for distribution to shareholders.
g.
Un-audited current year cumulative profit, after all provisions including staff bonus and taxes.
Where such provisions are not made, this amount shall not qualify as Tier 1 capital.
h.
Capital Redemption Reserves created in lieu of redeemable instruments.
i.
Capital Adjustment reserves created in respect of increasing the capital base of the bank.
j.
Dividend Equalization Reserves.
k.
Any other type of reserves notified by NRB from time to time for inclusion in Tier 1 capital
ELEMENTS OF TIER 2 CAPITAL:
a.
Cumulative and/or redeemable preference shares with maturity of five years and above.
b.
Subordinated term debt fully paid up with a maturity of more than 5 years; unsecured and
subordinated to the claim of other creditors, free of restrictive clauses and not redeemable before
maturity. Since, subordinated term debt is not normally available to participate in the losses; the
amount eligible for inclusion in the capital adequacy calculations is limited to 50% of core capital.
Moreover, to reflect the diminishing value of these instruments as a continuing source of strength, a
cumulative discount (amortization) factor of 20% per annum shall be applied for capital adequacy
computations, during the last 5 years to maturity. The banks should obtain written approval of NRB
for including any subordinated debt instruments (like Debenture/Bonds) in supplementary (Tier-2)
capital.
c.
Hybrid capital instruments. Those instruments which combine certain characteristics of debt and
certain characteristics of equity. Each such instrument has a particular feature, which can be
considered to affect its quality as capital. Where these instruments have close similarities to equity,
in particular when they are able to support losses on an ongoing basis without triggering liquidation,
they may be included in Tier 2 capital with approval from Nepal Rastra Bank.
d.
General loan loss provision limited to a maximum of 1.25% of total Risk Weighted Exposures.
General loan loss provision refers to the provisions created in respect of Pass Loans only and it does
not include provisions of rescheduled/restructured and classified loans. The additional loan loss
provisions created in respect of Personal Guarantee loans and loans in excess of Single Obligor
Limits are specific provisions and hence cannot be included under this category. Such provisions
however can be deducted from the gross exposures while calculating risk weighted exposures for
credit risk.

10

2.4

2.5

2.6

3.
3.1

3.2
2

However, provisions created in excess of the regulatory requirements or provisions which is not
attributable to identifiable losses in any specific loans shall be allowed to be included in the General
Loan Loss Provision and shall be eligible for Tier II capital subject to a maximum of 1.25% of total
risk weighted exposures.
e.
Exchange equalization reserves created by banks as a cushion for unexpected losses arising out of
adverse movements in foreign currencies.
f.
Investment adjustment reserves created as a cushion for adverse price movements in bank's
investments falling under Available for Sale category.
g.
Revaluation reserves often serve as a cushion against unexpected losses but may not be fully
available to absorb unexpected losses due to the subsequent deterioration in market values and tax
consequences of revaluation. Therefore, revaluation reserves will be eligible up to 50% for treatment
as Tier 2 capital and limited to a maximum of 2% of total Tier 2 capital subject to the condition that
the reasonableness of the revalued amount is duly certified by the internal auditor of the bank.
h.
Any other type of reserves notified by NRB from time to time for inclusion in Tier 2 capital
DEDUCTIONS FROM CORE (TIER 1) CAPITAL:
Banks shall be required to deduct the following from the Tier 1 capital for capital adequacy purposes. The
claims that have been deducted from core capital shall be exempt from risk weights for the measurement of
credit risk.

a.
b.

Book value of goodwill.

c.
d.
e.
f.

Investment in equity of financial institutions licensed by Nepal Rastra Bank2.

g.

Reciprocal crossholdings of bank capital artificially designed to inflate the capital position of the
bank.

Miscellaneous expenditure to the extent not written off. e.g. VRS expense, preliminary expense,
share issue expense, deferred revenue expenditure, etc. However, software expenditure or software
development expenditure, research and development expenditure, patents, copyrights, trademarks
and lease hold developments booked as deferred revenue expenditure are subject to 100% risk
weight and may not be deducted from Tier 1 capital.
All Investments in equity of institutions with financial interest.
Investments in equity of institutions in excess of the prescribed limits.
Investments arising out of underwriting commitments that have not been disposed within a year from
the date of commitment.

h.
Any other items as stipulated by Nepal Rastra Bank, from time to time.
CAPITAL FUNDS:
The capital fund is the summation of Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital. The sum total of the different components of
the tier 2 capitals will be limited to the sum total of the various components of the Tier 1 capital net of
deductions as specified in 2.4. In case the Tier 1 capital is negative, Tier 2 capital shall be considered to be
"Nil" for regulatory capital adequacy purposes and hence, in such a situation, the capital fund shall be equal
to the Tier 1 capital.
MINIMUM CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS:
Unless a higher minimum ratio has been set by Nepal Rastra Bank for an individual bank through a review
process, every bank shall maintain at all times, the capital requirement set out below:
a. A Tier 1 (core) capital of not less than 6 per cent of total risk weighted exposure;
b. A total capital fund of not less than 10 per cent of its total risk weighted exposure.
The Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) is calculated by dividing eligible regulatory capital by total risk weighted
exposure. The total risk weighted exposure shall comprise of risk weights calculated in respect of bank's
credit, operational and market risks. The methodologies to calculate RWE for each of these risk categories are
described in detail in subsequent chapters.
CREDIT RISK
GENERAL:
Credit risk is the major risk that banks are exposed to during the normal course of lending and credit
underwriting. Within Basel II, there are two approaches for credit risk measurement: the standardized
approach and the internal ratings based (IRB) approach. Due to various inherent constraints of the Nepalese
banking system, the standardized approach in its simplified form, Simplified Standardized Approach (SSA),
has been prescribed in the initial phase.
SIMPLIFIED STANDARDIZED APPROACH (SSA):
Investment in shares of Rural Development Banks and other institutions, where the waiver has been explicitly
provided by NRB are subject to risk weight of 100% and shall not be deducted from Tier 1 capital.

11

3.3

In comparison to Basel I, SSA aligns regulatory capital requirements more closely with the key elements of
banking risk by introducing a wider differentiation of risk weights and a wider recognition of credit risk
mitigation techniques. The advantage of implementing this approach is twofold. This approach allows
transitional advantage for countries like us by avoiding excessive complexities associated with the advanced
approaches of Basel II while at the same time it will produce capital ratios more in line with the actual
economic risks that banks are facing, compared to the present Accord.
Under this approach commercial banks are required to assign a risk weight to their balance sheet and offbalance sheet exposures. These risk weights are based on a fixed weight that is broadly aligned with the
likelihood of a counterparty default. As a general rule, the claims that have already been deducted from the
core capital shall be exempt from risk weights for the measurement of credit risk.
Claims on foreign government, their central banks as well as foreign corporates shall be generally riskweighed on the basis of the consensus country risk scores of export credit agencies (ECA)3. Wherever there
are claims relating to unrated countries, they shall generally be risk weighed at 100 percent. However, these
claim shall be subject to supervisory review and higher risk weight shall be assigned where the review
process deems appropriate.
All kinds of claims including loans & advances as well as investments shall be risk weighed net of specific
provisions. Generally provision related to any receivable or investment is not defined as general or specific.
In such situation, the total provision against any claim/exposure (other than the loans and advances) shall be
considered as specific provision. However, provisions eligible for the supplementary capital shall not be
allowed for netting while calculating risk weighted exposures.
In case of loans, advances and bills purchased the provisions created in lieu of Pass loans only are classified
as General loan loss provision. All other provisions are components of specific loan loss provision. Hence,
general loan loss provision doesnt comprise provisions created in respect of rescheduled/restructured and
non performing loans. It also doesnt include additional provisions created for personal guarantee loans or
lending in excess of Single Obligor Limits. However, provisions created in excess of the regulatory
requirements and not attributable to identifiable losses in any specific loans shall be allowed to be included in
the General Loan Loss Provision.
In order to be consistent with the Basel-II framework, the credit risk for the regulatory capital purpose
shall be computed by segregating the exposure in the following 11 categories.
a)
Claims on government & central bank
b)
Claims on other official entities
c)
Claims on banks
d)
Claims on corporate & securities firms
e)
Claims on regulatory retail portfolio
f)
Claims secured by residential properties
g)
Claims secured by commercial real state
h)
Past due claims
i)
High risk claims
j)
Other assets
k)
Off balance sheet items
RISK MEASUREMENT AND RISK WEIGHTS:
a.
Claims on government & central bank
1.
All claims on Government of Nepal and Nepal Rastra Bank shall be risk weighed at 0 %.
2.
Claims on foreign government and their central banks shall be risk-weighted on the basis of
the consensus country risk scores as follows:
0-1
2
3
4 to 6
7
ECA risk scores
0%
20%
50%
100%
150%
Risk weights
b.
Claims on other official entities
1.
Claims on the Bank for International Settlements, the International Monetary Fund, the
European Central Bank and the European Community will receive a 0% risk weight.
2.
Following Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) will be eligible for a 0% risk weight.
World Bank Group, comprised of the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (IBRD) and the International Finance Corporation (IFC),
Asian Development Bank (ADB),
African Development Bank (AfDB),

3 The consensus country risk classification is available on the OECDs website (http://www.oecd.org) in the Export
Credit Arrangement web page of the Trade Directorate. Each bank while computing the risk weight in any claim
should use the updated risk score.

12

3.
4.

c.

d.

e.

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD),


Inter-American Development Bank (IADB),
European Investment Bank (EIB),
European Investment Fund (EIF),
Nordic Investment Bank (NIB),
Caribbean Development Bank (CDB),
Islamic Development Bank (IDB), and
Council of Europe Development Bank (CEDB).
The standard risk weight for claims on other Multilateral Development Banks will
be 100%.
Claims on public sector entities (PSEs)4 will be risk-weighed as per the ECA country risk
scores.
ECA risk scores

0-1

3 to 6

Risk weights

20%

50%

100%

150%

Claims on banks
1.
All claims, irrespective of currency, excluding investment in equity shares and other
instruments eligible for capital funds, on domestic banks/financial institutions that fulfill
Capital Adequacy Requirements will be risk weighed at 20% while for the rest, it will be
100%.
Banks should make use of the publicly available information of the immediately preceding
quarter of the respective banks to gauge their status on capital adequacy.
2.
Claims on a foreign bank excluding investment in equity shares and other instruments
eligible for capital funds shall be risk weighed as per the ECA Country risk score subject to
the floor of 20%. The primary basis for applying the ECA Country Risk score shall be the
country of incorporation of the bank. Where the bank is a branch office, the ECA score of
the country where the corporate office is located shall be used while in the case of a
subsidiary the basis shall be the country where the subsidiary is incorporated.
0-1
2
3 to 6
7
ECA risk scores
20%
50%
100%
150%
Risk weights
However, the claims on foreign banks incorporated in the SAARC region and which
operate with a buffer of 1% above their respective regulatory minimum capital
requirements
may be risk weighed at 20%. The banks shall be responsible to submit the
latest capital adequacy position of such banks and demonstrate that they fulfill the
eligibility requirements. Such capital adequacy position submitted by the banks should not
be prior to more than one financial year. Moreover, such claims shall be subject to a
supervisory review and supervisors may require the bank to risk weigh the claims on ECA
country risk scores where the review process deems necessary.
Claims on corporate & securities firms
1.
The risk weight for claims on domestic corporates, including claims on insurance
companies and securities firm will be 100%. The domestic corporates includes all firms and
companies incorporated in Nepal as per prevailing Acts and regulations.
2.
The claims on foreign corporate shall be risk weighed as per the ECA Country risk score
subject to the floor of 20% as follows:
0-1
2
3
4 to 6
7
ECA risk scores
20%
50%
100%
100%
150%
Risk weights
Claims on regulatory retail portfolio
1.
Claims5 that qualify all criteria listed below may be considered as regulatory retail portfolio
and risk weighed at 75%, except for past due loans. Such claims however, have to be in
strict compliance with the Product paper developed by the bank and approved by their
respective board of directors
Criteria:

Public sector entity (PSE) is one, which is owned or controlled by government or any other entity categorized as
PSE by NRB.

Lending against securities (such as equities and bonds) whether listed or not, are specifically excluded from this
category. Likewise credit card receivables are excluded from this category. However, lending against personal
guarantee and fully backed by guaranteed cash flow such as pension etc. that has negligible risk of failure can be
included in this category.

13

f.

g.

h.

i.

6
7
8
9

Orientation criteria :- exposure is to an individual person or persons or to a small


business. Bank should obtain written declaration from the borrower to the effect that
their indebtedness is within the threshold across all banks and FIs..
Product criteria :- The exposure takes the form of any of the following:
Revolving credits and lines of credit, (including overdraft, hypothecation etc.)
Term loans and leases (e.g. hire purchase, auto loans and leases, student and
educational loans6) and,
Small business facilities and commitments,
Deprived sector loans upto a threshold of Rs.10 million (Ten Million only)
Granularity criteria:- NRB must be satisfied that the regulatory retail portfolio is
sufficiently diversified to a degree that reduces the risks in the portfolio, warranting the
75% risk weight. No aggregate exposure7 to one counterpart can exceed 0.5 % of the
overall regulatory retail portfolio.
Low value individual criteria :- The total aggregated exposure to one counterpart8
cannot exceed an absolute threshold of Rs.10 million (Nepalese Rupees Ten Million
only)
2.
Banks which have claims that fulfill all criterion except for granularity may risk weigh
those claims at 100%
Claims secured by residential properties
1.
Lending to individuals meant for acquiring or developing residential property which are
fully secured by mortgages on residential property, that is or will be occupied by the
borrower or that is rented, will be risk-weighed at 60%. However, banks should ensure the
existence of adequate margin of security over the amount of loan based on strict valuation
rules.
Banks have to develop product paper and get it approved from the board of directors to
regulate this kind of lending. The claims in order to be eligible for this category have to be
in strict compliance with this product paper
2.
Where the loan is not fully secured, such claims have to risk weighed at 150%
3.
When claims secured by residential properties are or have been past due9 at any point of
time during the last two years, they shall be risk-weighed at 100%, net of specific
provisions.
Claims secured by commercial real estate
1.
Claims secured by mortgages on commercial real estate, except past due, shall be riskweighed at 100%. Commercial real estate hereby refers to mortgage of Office buildings,
retail space, multi-purpose commercial premises, multi-family residential buildings, multitenanted commercial premises, industrial or warehouse space, hotels, land acquisition,
development and construction etc.
Past due claims
1.
Any loan, except for claim secured by residential property, which is or has been past due at
any point of time during the last two years, will be risk-weighed at 150% net of specific
provision.
High risk claims
1.
150% risk weight shall be applied for venture capital and private equity investments.
2.
Exposures on Personal loan in excess of the threshold of regulatory retail portfolio and
lending against securities (bonds and shares) shall attract a risk weight of 150%. Similarly,
exposures on credit card shall also warrant a risk weight of 150%.
3.
Investments in the equity and other capital instruments of institutions, which are not listed
in the stock exchange and have not been deducted from Tier 1 capital, shall be risk weighed
at 150% net of provisions.
4.
Investments in the equity and other capital instruments of institutions, which are listed in
the stock exchange and have not been deducted from Tier 1 capital, shall be risk weighed at
100% net of provisions.

Personal finance includes overseas employment loan, home loan (to the extent they do not qualify for treatment as
claims secured by residential property), direct deprived sector loan.
Aggregated exposure means gross amount (i.e. not taking any credit risk mitigation into account) of all forms of
credit exposures availed from the bank .
Counterpart refers to one or a group of borrowers defined by the NRB directives as a single obligor.
An exposure is past due if it falls into any other category other than Pass loan as per provisions of NRB directive
on Loan classification.

14

5.

j.

k.

The claims which are not fully secured or are only backed up by personal guarantee shall
attract 150% risk weight.
6.
Where loan cannot be segregated/or identified as regulatory retail portfolio or qualifying
residential mortgage loan or under other categories, it shall be risk weighed at 150%.
Other assets
1.
With regard to other assets, following provisions have been made;
Interest receivable/claim on government securities will be risk-weighed at 0%.
Staff loan given as per Employee By-laws and secured by residential property, that is
or will be occupied by the staff or that is rented, will be risk-weighed at 60%.
However, banks should ensure the existence of adequate margin of security over the
amount of loan based on strict valuation rules.
Investments in equity or regulatory capital instruments issued by securities firms will
be risk-weighed at 100%.
Cash in transit and other cash items in the process of collection will be risk-weighed at
20%. For this purpose, cash items shall include Cheque, Draft, and Travellers Cheques.
Fictitious assets that have not been deducted from Tier 1 capital shall be risk weighed
at 100%.
All Other assets will be risk-weighed at 100% net of specific provision.
Off balance sheet items
1.
Off-balance sheet items under the simplified standardized approach will be converted into
equivalent risk weight exposure using risk weight as follows:

Off Balance Sheet Exposure

Risk Weight

Any commitments those are unconditionally cancelable at any time by the bank without prior
notice, or that effectively provide for automatic cancellation due to deterioration in a borrowers
creditworthiness (for example bills under collection)

0%

Forward exchange contracts.

10%

Short Term Trade-related contingencies


Contingent liabilities arising from trade-related obligations, which are secured against an
underlying shipment of goods for both issuing and confirming bank and are short term in nature.
This includes documentary letters of credit, shipping guarantees issued and any other trade-related
contingencies with an original maturity up to six months.

20%

Undertaking to provide a commitment on an off-balance sheet items

20%

10

10

Unsettled securities and foreign exchange transactions between bank to bank and between bank
and customer

20%

Long Term Trade-related contingencies


Contingent liabilities arising from trade-related obligations, which are secured against an
underlying shipment of goods for both issuing and confirming bank and are long term in nature.
This includes documentary letters of credit, shipping guarantees issued and any other trade-related
contingencies with an original maturity of over six months. In case the usance letter of credit is
discounted, the risk weight shall be calculated on net basis.

50%

Performance-related contingencies
Contingent liabilities, which involve an irrevocable obligation to pay a third party in the event that
counterparty fails to fulfill or perform a contractual non-monetary obligation, such as delivery of
goods by a specified date etc. This includes issue of performance bonds, bid bonds, warranties,
indemnities, underwriting commitments and standby letters of credit in relation to a non-monetary
obligation of counterparty under a particular transaction.

50%

Long term irrevocable Credit Commitments


Any un-drawn portion of committed credit lines sanctioned for a period of more than 1 year. This
shall include all unutilized limits in respect of revolving working capital loans e.g. overdraft, cash
credit, working capital loan etc. except for trade finance exposures.

50%

Short term irrevocable Credit Commitments


Any un-drawn portion of committed credit lines sanctioned for a period of upto 1 year. This shall
include all unutilized limits in respect of revolving working capital loans e.g. overdraft, cash

20%

An unsettled transaction is one where delivery of the instrument is due to take place against receipt of cash, but
which remain unsettled five business days after the due settlement date.

15

credit, working capital loan etc. except for trade finance exposures.
Repurchase agreements, securities lending, securities borrowing, reverse repurchase agreements
and equivalent transactions
This includes sale and repurchase agreements and asset sales with recourse, where the credit risk
remains with the purchasing bank.

100%

Direct credit substitutes


Any irrevocable off-balance sheet obligations which carry the same credit risk as a direct
extension of credit, such as an undertaking to make a payment to a third party in the event that a
counterparty fails to meet a financial obligation or an undertaking to a counterparty to acquire a
potential claim on another party in the event of default by that party, constitutes a direct credit
substitute. This includes potential credit exposures arising from the issue of financial guarantees
and credit derivatives, confirmation of letters of credit (acceptances and endorsements), issue of
standby letters of credit serving as financial guarantees for loans, securities and any other financial
liabilities, and bills endorsed under bill endorsement lines (but which are not accepted by, or have
the prior endorsement of, another bank).

100%

Unpaid portion of partly paid shares and securities

100%

Other Contingent Liabilities

100%

3.4

CREDIT RISK MITIGATION:


Banks may use a number of techniques to mitigate the risks to which they are exposed. The prime objective
of this provision is to encourage the banks to manage credit risk in a prudent and effective manner. As such,
credit risks exposures may be collateralized11 in whole or in part with cash or securities, or a loan exposure
may be guaranteed by a third party. Where these various techniques meet the minimum conditions mentioned
below, banks which take eligible financial collateral are allowed to reduce their credit exposure to
counterparty when calculating their capital requirements to take account of the risk mitigating effect of the
collateral. However, credit risk mitigation is allowed only on an account by account basis, even within
regulatory retail portfolio.
As a general rule, no secured claim should receive a higher capital requirement than an otherwise identical
claim on which there is no collateral. Similarly, the effects of the CRM shall not be double counted and
capital requirement will be applied to banks on either side of the collateralized transaction: for example, both
repos and reverse repos will be subject to capital requirements.
Those portions of claims collateralized by the market value of recognized collateral receive the risk weight
applicable to the collateral instrument. The remainder of the claim should be assigned the risk weight
appropriate to the counter party.
Where the same security has been pledged for both the funded and non funded facilities, banks should clearly
demarcate the value of security held for funded and non funded facility. In cases where the bank has obtained
same security for various forms of facilities; banks are eligible to claim the CRM benefit across all such
exposures upto the eligible value of CRM.
a.
Minimum conditions for eligibility:
In order to obtain capital relief towards credit risk mitigation, there are certain basic condition that
needs to be fulfilled. Supervisors will monitor the extent to which banks satisfy these conditions,
both at the outset of a collateralized transaction and on an on-going basis.
1.
Legal certainty:- Collateral is effective only if the legal mechanism by which collateral is
given is robust and ensures that the lender has clear rights over the collateral to liquidate or
retain it in the event of default. Thus, banks must take all necessary steps to fulfill local
contractual requirements in respect of the enforceability of security interest. The collateral
arrangements must be properly documented, with a clear and robust procedure for the
timely liquidation of collateral. A bank's procedures should ensure that any legal conditions
required for declaring the default of the customer and liquidating the collateral are
observed. Where the collateral is held by a custodian, the bank must seek to ensure that the
custodian ensures adequate segregation of the collateral instruments and the custodian's
own assets. Besides that, banks must obtain legal opinions confirming the enforceability of
the collateral arrangements in all relevant jurisdictions.
2.
Low correlation with exposure:- In order for collateral to provide protection, the credit
quality of the obligor and the value of the collateral must not have a material positive
correlation. For example, securities issued by the collateral provider - or by any related
group entity - would provide little protection and so would be ineligible.

11

A collateralized transaction is one in which: a) banks have a credit exposure or potential credit exposure; and b)
that credit exposures or potential credit exposure is hedged in whole or in part by collateral posted by the counter
party or by a third party on behalf of the counter party.

16

3.

b.

c.

Maturity Mismatch:- The maturity of the underlying exposure and the maturity of the hedge
should both be defined conservatively. The effective maturity of the underlying should be
gauged as the longest possible remaining time before the obligor is scheduled to fulfill its
obligation. The collateral must be pledged for at least the life of the exposure. In case of
mismatches in the maturity of the underlying exposure and the collateral, it shall not be
eligible for CRM benefits.
4.
Currency Mismatch:- Ideally the currency of the underlying exposure and the collateral
should be the same. Where the credit exposure is denominated in a currency that differs
from that in which the underlying exposure is denominated, there is a currency mismatch.
Where mismatches occur, it shall be subject to supervisory haircut of 10%.
5.
Risk Management:- While CRM reduces credit risk, it simultaneously may increase other
risks to which a bank is exposed, such as legal, operational, liquidity and market risks.
Therefore, it is imperative that banks employ robust procedures and processes to control
these risks, including strategy; consideration of the underlying credit; valuation; policies
and procedures; systems; control of roll-off risks; and management of concentration risk
arising from the bank's use of CRM techniques and its effect with the bank's overall credit
profile. In case where these requirements are not fulfilled, NRB may not recognize the
benefit of CRM techniques.
6.
Qualifying criteria for guarantee:- A guarantee (counter guarantee) to be eligible must
represent a direct claim on the protection provider and must be explicitly referenced to
specific exposures or a pool of exposures, so that the extent of the cover is clearly defined
and irrefutable. Other than non-payment by a protection purchaser of money due in respect
of the credit protection contract it must be irrevocable in that there must be no clause in the
contract that would increase the effective cost of cover as a result of deteriorating credit
quality in the hedged exposure. It must also be unconditional in that there should be no
clause in the protection contract outside the control of the bank that could prevent the
protection provider from being obliged to pay out in a timely manner in the event that the
original counter party fails to make the payments due.
On the qualifying default or non-payment of the counter party, the bank may in a timely
manner pursue the guarantor for any monies outstanding under the documentation
governing the transaction. The guarantor may make one lump sum payment of all monies
under such documentation to the bank, or the guarantor may assume the future payment
obligations of the counter party covered by the guarantee. The bank must have the right to
receive any such payments from the guarantor without first having to take legal actions in
order to pursue the counter party payment.
Eligible Collaterals:
1.
Cash deposit (as well as certificates of deposit or fixed deposits or other deposits) with the
bank. The banks may only claim these as CRM only if it has specific authority to recover
the amount from this source in case of default.
2.
Fixed Deposit Receipts/Certificates of deposits/other deposits of other Banks and FIs, who
fulfill the capital adequacy requirements, subject to a 20% supervisory haircut.
3.
Gold.
4.
Securities issued by the Government of Nepal and Nepal Rastra Bank.
5.
Guarantee of the Government of Nepal
6.
Financial guarantee/counter guarantee of domestic banks and FIs who meet the minimum
capital adequacy requirements subject to a haircut of 20%.
7.
Securities/Financial guarantee/Counter guarantee issued by sovereigns.
8.
Securities/Financial guarantee/Counter guarantee issued by MDBs in the list specified in
3.3 b (3 & 4)
9.
Securities/Financial guarantee/Counter guarantee issued by banks with ECA rating 2 or
better. The supervisory haircut shall be 20% and 50% for the banks with ECA rating of 0-1
and 2 respectively.
Methodology for using CRM
Step 1: Identify the accounts eligible for capital relief under credit risk mitigation.
Step 2: Assess the value of the exposure and the eligible collateral. The value of the eligible
collateral is the lower of the face value of the instrument or the outstanding amount of
exposure
Step 3: Adjust the value of the eligible collateral in respect of the supervisory haircut in terms of
currency mismatch and other eligibility requirements.

17

4.
4.1

4.2

Step 4: Compare the adjusted value of the collateral with the outstanding exposure.
Step 5: The value of the eligible CRM is the lower of the adjusted value of the collateral and the
outstanding exposure.
Step 6: Plot the eligible CRM in the appropriate category of credit risk.
The sum total of net amount of eligible CRM as per Form No.4 Exhibit of claims with eligible
credit risk mitigants shall be consistent with the Form No.3 Eligible Credit Risk Mitigants
prescribed in this framework.
OPERATIONAL RISK
GENERAL:
Operational risk is the risk of loss resulting from inadequate internal processes, people, and systems, or from
external events. Operational risk itself is not a new concept, and well run banks have been addressing it in
their internal controls and corporate governance structures. However, applying an explicit regulatory capital
charge against operational risk is a relatively new and evolving idea. Basel II requires banks to hold capital
against the risk of unexpected loss that could arise from the failure of operational systems.
The most important types of operational risk involve breakdowns in internal controls and corporate
governance. Such breakdowns can lead to financial losses through error, fraud, or failure to perform in a
timely manner or cause the interests of the bank to be compromised in some other way, for example, by its
dealers, lending officers or other staff exceeding their authority or conducting business in an unethical or
risky manner. Other aspects of operational risk include major failure of information technology systems or
events such as major fires or other disasters.
BASIC INDICATOR APPROACH:
Under the basic indicator approach, banks must hold capital for operational risk equal to the average over the
previous three years of a fixed percentage (denoted alpha) of positive annual gross income.
The capital charge for operational risk may be expressed as follows:
KBIA = [(GI1..n )]/N

4.3

where:
KBIA = capital charge under the Basic Indicator Approach
GI = annual gross income, where positive, over the previous three years
N = number of the previous three years for which gross income is positive
= 15 percent.
NRB shall review the capital requirement produced by this approach for general credibility, especially in
relation to a bank's peers and in the event that credibility is lacking, appropriate supervisory action under
Review Process shall be considered.
Figures for the year, in which annual gross income is negative or zero, should be excluded from both the
numerator and denominator while calculating the average. In case where the gross income for all of the last
three years is negative, 5% of total credit and investments net of specific provisions shall be considered as the
capital charge for operational risk. For this purpose investments shall comprise of money at call, placements,
investment in government securities and other investments irrespective of currency.
Similarly, in case of new banks who have not completed an year of operation and hence whose average gross
income cannot be measured reliably, they shall also be required to compute their capital charge for
operational risk vide the same approach as prescribed for banks with negative gross income. These banks may
use the gross income approach from second year onwards. But, based on the reasonableness of the so
computed capital charge for Operation Risk, during the first three years of operation, review process may
require additional proportion of capital charge if deemed necessary.
GROSS INCOME:
Gross income is defined as "net Interest Income" plus "non interest income". It is intended that this measure
should:
a.
be gross of any provisions (e.g. for unpaid interest) and write-offs made during the year;
b.
be gross of operating expenses, exclude reversal during the year in respect of provisions and writeoffs made during the previous year(s);
c.
exclude income/gain recognized from the disposal of items of movable and immovable property;
d.
exclude realized profits/losses from the sale of securities in the held to maturity category;
e.
exclude other extraordinary or irregular items of income and expenditure
Thus, for the purpose of capital adequacy requirements, gross income shall be summation of:
a.
Total operating income as disclosed in Profit and Loss account prepared as per NRB directive no.4.
The total operating income comprises of:
1.
Net Interest Income
2.
Commission and Discount Income

18

4.4

5.
5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

3.
Other Operating Income
4.
Exchange Fluctuation Income
b.
Addition/deduction in the Interest Suspense during the period.
Banks shall use the annual audited financials of the last three years for the computation of gross income under
this approach. Hence, the capital requirement for operational risk for a whole financial year shall remain
constant. Until the accounts are finalized for the financial year, banks shall use the provisional figures for the
period, which should be validated by the internal auditor of the bank.
COMPUTATION OF RISK WEIGHT:
Operational risk-weighted assets are determined by multiplying the operational risk capital charge by 10 (i.e.,
the reciprocal of the minimum capital ratio of 10%) and adding together with the risk weighted exposures for
credit risk.
MARKET RISK
DEFINITION OF MARKET RISK:
Market risk is defined as the risk of losses in on-balance sheet and off-balance sheet positions arising from
adverse movements in market prices. The major constituents of market risks are:
a.
The risks pertaining to interest rate related instruments;
b.
Foreign exchange risk (including gold positions) throughout the bank; and
c.
The risks pertaining to investment in equities and commodities.
SEGREGATION OF INVESTMENT PORTFOLIO:
Banks will have to segregate their investment portfolio into any of following three categories:
a.
Held for Trading:
An investment that is made for the purpose of generating a profit from short term fluctuations in
price should be classified under this category. An asset should be classified as held for trading even
if it is a part of a portfolio of similar assets for which there is a pattern of trading for the purpose of
generating a profit from short term fluctuations in price. These investments should be marked to
market on a daily basis and differences reflected in the profit and loss account.
b.
Held to Maturity:
The investments made with positive intent and ability of the bank to hold till maturity should be
classified as held to maturity investments. The bank does not have the positive intent to hold an
investment to maturity, if any of the following conditions are met:
1.
Bank has the intent and the ability to hold the asset for only an undefined period; or
2.
Bank stands ready to sell the asset (other than if a situation arises that is non-recurring and
could not have been reasonably anticipated) in response to changes in market interest rates
or risks, liquidity needs, changes in the availability of and the yield on alternative
investments, changes in financing sources and terms, or changes in foreign currency risk.
The held to maturity investments should be valued at amortised cost i.e. the cost price less any
impairments (if applicable). The impairments should be included in the profit and loss accounts for
the period.
c.
Available for Sale:
All other investments that are neither "held for trading" nor "held to maturity" should be classified
under this category. These investments should be marked to market on a regular basis and the
difference to be adjusted through reserves. Banks are required to maintain Investment Adjustment
Reserve (eligible as Tier 2 capital) to the extent of 2% of available for sale portfolio.
The share investment on Credit Information Centre, Nepal Clearing House Ltd. and National Banking
Training Institute shall receive an exemption in computing 2% of investment value for Investment
Adjustment Reserve .
NET OPEN POSITION APPROACH:
Out of the various components of market risk, foreign exchange risk is the predominant risk in our country.
The effects of other forms of market risk are minimal. Thus, a net open position approach has been devised to
measure the capital requirement for market risk. As evidenced by its name, this approach only addresses the
risk of loss arising out of adverse movements in exchange rates. This approach will be consolidated over time
to incorporate other forms of market risks as they start to gain prominence.
The designated Net Open Position approach requires banks to allocate a fixed proportion of capital in terms
of its net open position. The banks should allocate 5 percentage of their net open positions as capital charge
for market risk.
NET OPEN POSITION:
Net open position is the difference between the assets and the liability in a currency. In other words, it is the
uncovered volume of asset or liability which is exposed to the changes in the exchange rates of currencies.

19

5.5

6.
6.1

6.2

For capital adequacy requirements the net open position includes both net spot positions as well as net
forward positions.
For capital adequacy purposes, banks should calculate their net open position in the following manner:
a.
Calculate the net open position in each of the foreign currencies.
b.
Convert the net open positions in each currency to NPR as per prevalent exchange rates.
c.
Aggregate the converted net open positions of all currencies, without paying attention to long or
short positions.
d.
This aggregate shall be the net open position of the bank.
COMPUTATION OF RISK WEIGHT:
Risk-weighted assets in respect of market risk are determined by multiplying the capital charges by 10 (i.e.,
the reciprocal of the minimum capital ratio of 10%) and adding together with the risk weighted exposures for
credit risk.
REVIEW PROCESS
GENERAL:
The supervisory review process of the framework is intended not only to ensure that banks have adequate
capital to support all the risks in their business, but also to encourage banks to develop and use better risk
management techniques in monitoring and managing their risks. It is the responsibility of the bank
management in developing an internal capital assessment process and setting capital targets that are
commensurate with the banks risk profile and control environment beyond the core minimum requirements.
Nepal Rastra Bank recognizes the significance of the relationship between the amount of capital held by the
bank against its risks and the strength and effectiveness of the banks risk management and internal control
processes. However, increased capital should not be viewed as the only option for addressing increased risks
confronting the bank. Other means for addressing risk, such as strengthening risk management, applying
internal limits, strengthening the level of provisions and reserves, and improving internal controls, must also
be considered. Furthermore, capital should not be regarded as a substitute for addressing fundamentally
inadequate control or risk management processes.
There are three main areas that is particularly suited to treatment under this process: risks considered under
minimum capital requirements which are not fully captured it (e.g. credit concentration risk); those factors not
taken into account by the minimum capital requirements (e.g. business and strategic risk); and factors external
to the bank (e.g. business cycle effects).
In order to achieve the objectives of the supervisory review process, this process has been broadly divided
into three parts:
a.
Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP)
b.
Supervisory Review
c.
Supervisory Response
INTERNAL CAPITAL ADEQUACY ASSESSMENT PROCESS:
The internal capital adequacy assessment process (ICAAP) is a comprehensive process which requires board
and senior management oversight, monitoring, reporting and internal control reviews at regular intervals to
ensure the alignment of regulatory capital requirement with the true risk profile of the bank and thus ensure
long-term safety and soundness of the bank. The key components of an effective ICAAP are discussed below.
a.
Board and senior management oversight
Bank management is responsible for understanding the nature and level of risk being taken by the
bank and how this risk relates to adequate capital levels. It is also responsible for ensuring that the
formality and sophistication of the risk management processes is commensurate with the complexity
of its operations. A sound risk management process, thus, is the foundation for an effective
assessment of the adequacy of a banks capital position.
The board of directors of the bank are responsible for setting the banks tolerance for risks. The
board should also ensure that management establishes a mechanism for assessing various risks;
develops a system to relate these risks to the banks capital level and sets up a method for monitoring
compliance with internal policies. It is equally important that the board instills strong internal
controls and thereby an effective control environment through adoption of written policies and
procedures and ensures that the policies and procedures are effectively communicated throughout the
bank.
The analysis of a banks current and future capital requirements in relation to its strategic objectives
is a vital element of the strategic planning process. The strategic plan should clearly outline the
banks capital needs, anticipated capital expenditures, desirable capital level, and external capital
sources. Senior management and the board should view capital planning as a crucial element in
being able to achieve its desired strategic objectives.
b.
Sound capital assessment

20

c.

Another crucial component of an effective ICAAP is the assessment of capital. In order to be able to
make a sound capital assessment the bank should, at minimum, have the following:

Policies and procedures designed to ensure that the bank identifies, measures, and reports all
material risks;

A process that relates capital to the level of risk;

A process that states capital adequacy goals with respect to risk, taking account of the banks
strategic focus and business plan; and

A process of internal control, reviews and audit to ensure the integrity of the overall
management process.
Comprehensive assessment of risks
All material risks faced by the bank should be addressed in the capital assessment process. Nepal
Rastra Bank recognizes that not all risks can be measured precisely. However, bank should develop
a process to estimate risks with reasonable certainties. In order to make a comprehensive assessment
of risks, the process should, at minimum, address the following forms of risk.
1.
Credit risk: Banks should have methodologies that enable them to assess the credit risk
involved in exposures to individual borrowers or counterparties as well as at the portfolio
level. The credit review assessment of capital adequacy, at a minimum, should cover risk
rating systems, portfolio analysis/aggregation, large exposures and risk concentrations.
Internal risk ratings are an important tool in monitoring credit risk. Internal risk ratings
should be adequate to support the identification and measurement of risk from all credit
exposures, and should be integrated into an institutions overall analysis of credit risk and
capital adequacy. The ratings system should provide detailed ratings for all assets, not only
for problem assets.
2.
Credit concentration risk: Risk concentrations are arguably the single most important
cause of major problems in banks. A risk concentration is any single exposure or group of
exposures with the potential to produce losses large enough (relative to a banks capital,
total assets, or overall risk level) to threaten a banks health or ability to maintain its core
operations.
Lending being the primary activity of most banks, credit risk concentrations are often the
most material risk concentrations within a bank. However, risk concentrations can arise in a
banks assets, liabilities, or off-balance sheet items, through the execution or processing of
transactions (either product or service), or through a combination of exposures across these
broad categories. Credit risk concentrations are based on common or correlated risk factors,
which, in times of stress, have an adverse effect on the creditworthiness of each of the
individual counterparties making up the concentration.
Such credit concentrations are not addressed in the minimum capital requirements for credit
risk. Thus, Banks should have in place effective internal policies, systems and controls to
identify, measure, monitor, and control their credit risk concentrations. Banks should
explicitly consider the extent of their credit risk concentrations in their assessment of
capital adequacy under review process. These policies should cover the different forms of
credit risk concentrations to which a bank may be exposed to. Such concentrations include
but are not limited to:
Significant exposures to an individual counterparty or group of related counterparty.
Banks might also establish an aggregate limit for the management and control of all of
its large exposures as a group;
Credit exposures to counterparties in the same economic sector or geographic region;
Credit exposures to counterparties whose financial performance is dependent on the
same activity or commodity; and
Indirect credit exposures arising from a banks CRM activities (e.g. exposure to a
similar type of collateral or credit protection provided by a single counterparty or same
collateral in cases of multiple banking).
A banks framework for managing credit risk concentrations should be clearly documented
and should include a definition of the credit risk concentrations relevant to the bank and
how these concentrations and their corresponding limits are calculated. Limits should be
defined in relation to a banks capital, total assets or, where adequate measures exist, its
overall risk level. A banks management should conduct periodic stress tests of its major
credit risk concentrations and review the results of those tests to identify and respond to
potential changes in market conditions that could adversely impact the banks performance.
3.
Operational risk: The failure to properly manage operational risk can result in a
misstatement of an institutions risk/return profile and expose the institution to significant

21

d.

e.

losses. Gross income, used in the Basic Indicator Approach is only a proxy for the scale of
operational risk exposure of a bank and can in some cases underestimate the need for
capital. Thus, Banks should develop a framework for managing operational risk and
evaluate the adequacy of capital as prescribed by this framework. The framework should
cover the banks appetite and tolerance for operational risk, as specified through the
policies for managing this risk, including the extent and manner in which operational risk is
transferred outside the bank. It should also include policies outlining the banks approach to
identifying, assessing, monitoring and controlling/mitigating the risk.
4.
Market risk: The prescribed approach for the computation of capital charge for market risk
is very simple and thus may not be directly aligned with the magnitude of risk. Likewise,
the approach only incorporates risks arising out of adverse movements in exchange rates
while ignoring other forms of risks like interest rate risk and equity risks. Thus, banks
should develop a framework that addresses these various forms of risk and at the same time
perform stress tests to evaluate the adequacy of capital.
The use of internal models by the bank for the measurement of market risk is highly
encouraged. Wherever bank's make use of internal models for computation of capital
charge for market risks, the bank management should ensure the adequacy and
completeness of the system regardless of the type and level of complexity of the
measurement system as the quality and reliability of the measurement system is largely
dependent on the quality of the data and various assumptions used in the model.
5.
Liquidity risk: Liquidity is crucial to the ongoing viability of any financial institution. The
capital positions can have a telling effect on institutions ability to obtain liquidity,
especially in a crisis. Each bank must have adequate systems for measuring, monitoring and
controlling liquidity risk. Banks should evaluate the adequacy of capital given their own
liquidity profile and the liquidity of the markets in which they operate. Banks are also
encouraged to make use of stress testing to determine their liquidity needs and the adequacy
of capital.
6.
Other risks: Although the other risks, such as reputational and strategic risk, are not
easily measurable, banks are expected to take these into consideration as well while
deciding on the level of capital.
Monitoring and reporting
The bank should establish an adequate system for monitoring and reporting risk exposures and
assessing how the banks changing risk profile affects the need for capital. The banks senior
management or board of directors should, on a regular basis, receive reports on the banks risk
profile and capital needs. These reports should allow senior management to:
Evaluate the level and trend of material risks and their effect on capital levels;
Evaluate the sensitivity and reasonableness of key assumptions used in the capital assessment
measurement system;
Determine that the bank holds sufficient capital against the various risks and is in compliance
with established capital adequacy goals; and
Assess its future capital requirements based on the banks reported risk profile and make
necessary adjustments to the banks strategic plan accordingly.
Internal control review
The banks internal control structure is essential to a sound capital assessment process. Effective
control of the capital assessment process includes an independent review and, where appropriate, the
involvement of internal or external audits. The banks board of directors has a responsibility to
ensure that management establishes a system for assessing the various risks, develops a system to
relate risk to the banks capital level, and establishes a method for monitoring compliance with
internal policies. The board should regularly verify whether its system of internal controls is
adequate to ensure well-ordered and prudent conduct of business.
The bank should conduct periodic reviews of its risk management process to ensure its integrity,
accuracy, and reasonableness. Key areas that should be reviewed include:
Appropriateness of the banks capital assessment process given the nature, scope and
complexity of its activities;
Identification of large exposures and risk concentrations;
Accuracy and completeness of data inputs into the banks assessment process;
Reasonableness and validity of scenarios used in the assessment process; and
Stress testing and analysis of assumptions and inputs.

22

6.3

SUPERVISORY REVIEW:
Nepal Rastra Bank shall regularly review the process by which a bank assesses its capital adequacy, risk
positions, resulting capital levels, and quality of capital held by a bank. Supervisors shall also evaluate the
degree to which a bank has in place a sound internal process to assess capital adequacy. The emphasis of the
review should be on the quality of the banks risk management and controls and should not result in
supervisors functioning as bank management. The periodic review can involve any or a combination of:
On-site examinations or inspections;
Off-site review;
Discussions with bank management;
Review of work done by external auditors (provided it is adequately focused on the necessary capital
issues); and
Periodic reporting.
Some of the key areas which will be reviewed during the supervisory review process are discussed hereunder
a.
Review of adequacy of risk assessment
NRB shall assess the degree to which internal targets and processes incorporate the full range of
material risks faced by the bank. Supervisors shall also review the adequacy of risk measures used in
assessing internal capital adequacy and the extent to which these risk measures are also used
operationally in setting limits, evaluating business line performance, and evaluating and controlling
risks more generally. Supervisors shall consider the results of sensitivity analyses and stress tests
conducted by the institution and how these results relate to capital plans.
b.
Assessment of capital adequacy
NRB shall review the banks processes to determine that:
Target levels of capital chosen are comprehensive and relevant to the current operating
environment;
These levels are properly monitored and reviewed by senior management; and
The composition of capital is appropriate for the nature and scale of the banks business.
NRB shall also consider the extent to which the bank has provided for unexpected events in setting
its capital levels. This analysis should cover a wide range of external conditions and scenarios, and
the sophistication of techniques and stress tests used should be commensurate with the banks
activities.
c.
Assessment of the control environment
NRB shall consider the quality of the banks management information reporting and systems, the
manner in which business risks and activities are aggregated, and managements record in
responding to emerging or changing risks. In all instances, the capital level at an individual bank
should be determined according to the banks risk profile and adequacy of its risk management
process and internal controls. External factors such as business cycle effects and the macroeconomic
environment should also be considered.
d.
Supervisory review of compliance with minimum standards
In order to obtain relief as per this framework banks are required to observe number of requirements,
including risk management standards and disclosures. In particular, banks will be required to
disclose features of their internal methodologies used in calculating minimum capital requirements.
As part of the supervisory review process, supervisors must ensure that these conditions are being
met on an ongoing basis. Likewise, the supervisors must ensure that qualifying criteria as specified
in the framework are continuously being met as these criteria are developed as benchmarks that are
aligned with bank management expectations for effective risk management and capital allocation.
e.
Significance of risk transfer
Securitization or credit sale agreements with recourse may be carried out for purposes other than
credit risk transfer (e.g. funding). Where this is the case, there might still be a limited transfer of
credit risk. However, for an originating bank to achieve reductions in capital requirements, the risk
transfer arising from a securitization or credit sale has to be deemed significant by the NRB. If the
risk transfer is considered to be insufficient or non existent, NRB can require the application of a
higher capital requirement or, alternatively, may deny a bank from obtaining any capital relief from
the securitization or transfer agreements. Therefore, the capital relief that can be achieved will
correspond to the amount of credit risk that is effectively transferred.
f.
Credit Risk Mitigants
In case when the eligibility requirements are not fulfilled, NRB will not consider Credit Risk
Mitigants in allocating capital. Similarly, CRM may give rise to residual risks, which may render the
overall risk reduction less effective. Where, these risks are not adequately controlled by the bank,
NRB may impose additional capital charges or take other appropriate supervisory actions.

23

g.

6.4

Operational risk and Market Risk


The framework prescribes simple approaches for allocating capital for operational and market risk
which may not be directly aligned with the volume and complexity of risk. Thus, the supervisor shall
consider whether the capital requirements generated by the prescribed approaches gives a consistent
picture of the individual bank's risk exposure in comparison with the peer group and the banking
industry at large. Where NRB is convinced such is not the case, appropriate supervisory response is
warranted.
h.
Market Discipline
The framework requires banks to disclose various key information about their business on a periodic
basis. It is imperative that the banks discharge their obligations under the disclosure requirements in
order to be eligible to claim benefits of CRM. In line with the utmost significance of this
requirement, the supervisor shall review the adequacy of the disclosures. As a part of this process
itself, the supervisor shall regularly review the website of the banks and review the contents of the
site. Wherever the review process identifies any shortcomings or non-compliances, appropriate
supervisory response shall be initiated.
SUPERVISORY RESPONSE:
Nepal Rastra Bank expects banks to operate above the minimum regulatory capital ratios. Wherever, NRB is
not convinced about the risk management practices and the control environment, it has the authority to
require banks to hold capital in excess of the minimum.
a.
Supervisory adjustments in risk weighted assets and capital
Having carried out the review process as described above, supervisors should take appropriate action
if they are not satisfied with the results of the banks own risk assessment and capital allocation. In
such a scenario, NRB shall be empowered to undertake any or combination of the following
adjustments in the banks risk weighted assets and regulatory capital computations.
1.
Shortfall in provisions made by the bank against adversely classified assets shall be
deducted from the Tier 1 capital.
2.
The loans and facilities extended to Directors, Employees (other than loans given under
Employee rules), Shareholders holding more than 1% percent shares and related parties as
well as loans, advances and facilities restricted by the prevailing rules and regulations shall
be deducted from Tier 1 capital.
3.
In case the bank has provided loans and facilities in excess of its Single Obligor Limits,
10% of all such excess exposures shall be added to the risk weighted exposure for credit
risk.
4.
Where the bank has been involved in the sale of credit with recourse facility, 1% of the
contract (sale) value shall be added to the risk weight for credit risk.
5.
Where the banks do not have satisfactory Assets Liability Management policies and
practices to effectively manage the market risks, an additional risk weight of 1% of Net
Interest Income of immediate previous financial year shall be added to the risk weight for
market risk.
6.
Where the bank's net liquid asset to total deposit ratio is less than 20%, a risk weight of 1%
(as given in the table below) of total deposit, for each percent or portion of percent shortfall
in such ratio, is added to total of the Risk Weighted Exposures.
Net liquid asset to total deposit ratio

A risk weight to be added to the Risk Weighted Exposures

19% - less than 20%

1% of total deposit

18% - less than 19%

2% of total deposit

17% - less than 18%

3% of total deposit

16% - less than 17%

4% of total deposit

15% - less than 16%

5% of total deposit and so on.

7.

8.

For this purpose, liquid assets include cash and bank balances, money at call & short notice,
placement upto 90 days and investment in government securities. Borrowings repayable
upto 90 days is deducted from liquid assets to obtain net liquid assets.
Note: Aforesaid Provision shall be effective from Falgun end 2066 BS.
Where the banks do not adopt sound practices for the management of operational risk, an
additional capital charge of 2% of Gross Income of immediate previous financial year shall
be levied for operational risks.
Where the Gross Income determined for computation of capital charge of Operational Risk
for all of the last three years is negative and where the banks themselves have not addressed

24

7.
7.1

7.2

7.3

the capital charge for operational risk, 5% of the total credit and investments net of specific
provisions shall be the capital charge for operational risk.
New banks who have not completed an year of operation and hence whose gross income
cannot be measured reliably and where the banks themselves have not addressed the capital
charge for operational risk, shall also be required to compute their capital charge for
operational risk vide the same approach as prescribed for banks with negative gross income.
These banks may use the gross income approach from second year onwards. But, based on
the reasonableness of the so computed capital charge for Operation Risk, during the first
three years of operation, review process may require additional proportion of capital charge.
9.
During the course of review, where the supervisor is not satisfied with the overall risk
management policies and procedures of the bank, the total risk weighted exposures of the
bank shall be increased up to 5%.
10.
In case the bank has not achieved the desired level of disclosure requirements, the total risk
weighted exposures of the bank shall be increased up to 3%.
11.
Banks that do not meet the eligibility requirements to claim the benefit under credit risk
mitigation techniques shall not be allowed the benefit of CRM.
b.
Corrective Actions for Non-Compliances
1.
The failure on part of the banks to meet the provisions of this framework shall be
considered as a violation of the NRB directives and shall attract stipulated actions. The
nature of the enforcement action largely depends on degree of the capital adequacy of the
bank. The trigger points and the prescribed action in case of non-compliance shall be as per
the provisions of Prompt Corrective Action Byelaw 2064 propounded by Nepal Rastra
Bank.
DISCLOSURE
GENERAL:
The purpose of disclosure requirements is to complement the minimum capital requirements and the review
process by developing a set of disclosure requirements which will allow market participants to assess key
pieces of information on the scope of application, capital, risk exposures, risk assessment processes, and
hence the capital adequacy of the bank. It is believed that providing disclosures that are based on a common
framework is an effective means of informing the market about a banks exposure to those risks and provides
a consistent and comprehensive disclosure framework that enhances comparability. The importance of
disclosure is more pronounced in cases of bank that rely on internal methodologies in assessing capital
requirements.
DISCLOSURE PRINCIPLES:
Banks should have a formal disclosure policy approved by the Board of directors that addresses the banks
approach for determining what disclosures it will make and the internal controls over the disclosure process.
In addition, banks should implement a process for assessing the appropriateness of their disclosures,
including validation and frequency. While deciding on the disclosure policy, the board should pay due
attention to strike a balance between materiality and proprietary and confidential information.
a.
Materiality
Besides the minimum prescribed disclosure requirements, a bank should decide which additional
disclosures are relevant for it based on the materiality concept. Information would be regarded as
material if its omission or misstatement could change or influence the assessment or decision of a
user relying on that information for the purpose of making economic decisions.
b.
Proprietary and confidential information
Proprietary information encompasses information (for example on products or systems), that if
shared with competitors would render a banks investment in these products/systems less valuable,
and hence would undermine its competitive position. Information about customers is often
confidential, in that it is provided under the terms of a legal agreement or counterparty relationship.
This has an impact on what banks should reveal in terms of information about their customer base,
as well as details on their internal arrangements, for instance methodologies used, parameter
estimates, data etc. The disclosure requirements set out below by NRB aims to strike an appropriate
balance between the need for meaningful disclosure and the protection of proprietary and
confidential information.
VALIDATION:
The disclosures of the bank should be subjected to adequate validation. In addition, supplementary material
(such as Managements Discussion and Analysis) that is published should also be subjected to sufficient
scrutiny (e.g. internal control assessments, etc.) to satisfy the validation issue. If material is not published
under a validation regime, for instance in a stand alone report or as a section on a website, then management
should ensure that appropriate verification of the information takes place, in accordance with the general
disclosure principles.

25

7.4

DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS:
Banks should at minimum, disclose the following information at the stipulated time intervals. At the same
time, banks shall be free to disclose any other information they consider important for its stakeholders as and
when they consider necessary, beyond the prescribed requirements.
a.
Banks should provide the following disclosures as at end of each financial year along with the
annual financial statements.
1.
Capital structure and capital adequacy
o Tier 1 capital and a breakdown of its components;
o Tier 2 capital and a breakdown of its components;
o Detailed information about the Subordinated Term Debts with information on the
outstanding amount, maturity, amount raised during the year and amount eligible to be
reckoned as capital funds.
o Deductions from capital;
o Total qualifying capital;
o Capital adequacy ratio;
o Summary of the banks internal approach to assess the adequacy of its capital to
support current and future activities, if applicable; and
o Summary of the terms, conditions and main features of all capital instruments,
especially in case of subordinated term debts including hybrid capital instruments.
2.
Risk exposures
o Risk weighted exposures for Credit Risk, Market Risk and Operational Risk;
o Risk Weighted Exposures under each of 11 categories of Credit Risk;
o Total risk weighted exposure calculation table;
o Amount of NPAs (both Gross and Net)
Restructure/Reschedule Loan
Substandard Loan
Doubtful Loan
Loss Loan
o NPA ratios
Gross NPA to gross advances
Net NPA to net advances
o Movement of Non Performing Assets
o Write off of Loans and Interest Suspense
o Movements in Loan Loss Provisions and Interest Suspense
o Details of additional Loan Loss Provisions
o Segregation of investment portfolio into Held for trading, Held to maturity and
Available for sale category
3.
Risk Management Function
o For each separate risk area (Credit, Market and Operational risk), banks must describe
their risk management objectives and policies, including:
Strategies and processes;
The structure and organization of the relevant risk management function;
The scope and nature of risk reporting and/or measurement systems; and
Policies for hedging and/or mitigating risk and strategies, and processes for
monitoring the continuing effectiveness of hedges/mitigants.
o Types of eligible credit risk mitigants used and the benefits availed under CRM.
b.
All commercial banks should make following disclosures on a quarterly basis on their respective
websites.
o
Tier 1 capital and a breakdown of its components;
o
Tier 2 capital and a breakdown of its components;
o
Detailed information about the Subordinated Term Debts with information on the outstanding
amount, maturity, amount raised during the year and amount eligible to be reckoned as capital
funds.
o
Deductions from capital;
o
Total qualifying capital;
o
Capital adequacy ratio;
o
Risk weighted exposures for Credit Risk, Market Risk and Operational Risk;
o
Risk Weighted Exposures under each of 11 categories of Credit Risk;
o
Total risk weighted exposure calculation table;
o
Amount of NPAs (both Gross and Net)
Restructure/Reschedule Loan
Substandard Loan
Doubtful Loan

26

Loss Loan
NPA ratios
Gross NPA to gross advances
Net NPA to net advances
o
Movement of Non Performing Assets
o
Write off of Loans and Interest Suspense
o
Movements in Loan Loss Provisions and Interest Suspense
o
Details of Additional Loan Loss Provisions
o
Segregation of investment portfolio into Held for trading, Held to maturity and Available for
sale category
o
Summary of the banks internal approach to assess the adequacy of its capital to support
current and future activities, if applicable; and
o
Summary of the terms, conditions and main features of all capital instruments, especially in
case of subordinated term debts including hybrid capital instruments.
Disclosure requirements under this framework should also be published in the respective websites of
the banks. Such disclosures of the banks should also be updated to reflect the capital adequacy
position of the banks after the supervisory adjustments under the review process. Banks that do not
host a website yet are required to make the necessary arrangements to host a website immediately.
Banks are required to report to NRB their capital adequacy computations, according to the format as
specified in Annexure of this framework on a monthly basis within one month after the end of the
month or as required by NRB from time to time. All such returns has to be validated by the internal
auditor of the bank. If the monthly internal audit couldnot be carried out, it should be disclosed on
the monthly returns. But, such returns at the end of the quarter must be submitted with the validation
from the internal auditor of the bank.
Besides the returns specified above, a bank must inform NRB within 30 days of:
1. Any breach of the minimum capital adequacy requirements set out in this framework together
with an explanation of the reasons for the breach and the remedial measures it has taken to
address those breaches.
2. Any concerns it has about its capital adequacy, along with proposed measures to address these
concerns.
Full compliance of these disclosure requirements is a pre-requisite before banks can obtain any
capital relief (i.e., adjustments in the risk weights of collateralized or guaranteed exposures) in
respect of any credit risk mitigation techniques.
o

c.

d.

e.

27

FORM NO. 1 CAPITAL ADEQUACY TABLE


(Rs.In ..)
1. 1 Risk Weighted Exposures
a
Risk Weighted Exposure for Credit Risk
b
Risk Weighted Exposure for Operational Risk
c
Risk Weighted Exposure for Market Risk

Current Period

Previous Period

Current Period

Previous Period

Adjustments under Pillar II


Add: 3% of the total RWE due to non compliance to Disclosure Requirement
(6.4 a 10)
Add: .% of the total deposit due to insufficient Liquid Assets(6.4 a 6)
Total Risk Weighted Exposures (After Bank's adjustments of Pillar II)
1.2 CAPITAL
Core Capital (Tier 1)
a
Paid up Equity Share Capital
b
Irredeemable Non-cumulative preference shares
c
Share Premium
d
Proposed Bonus Equity Shares
e
Statutory General Reserves
f
Retained Earnings
g
Un-audited current year cumulative profit
h
Capital Redemption Reserve
i
Capital Adjustment Reserve
j
Dividend Equalization Reserves
k
Other Free Reserve
l
Less: Goodwill
m
Less: Fictitious Assets
n
Less: Investment in equity in licensed Financial Institutions
o
Less: Investment in equity of institutions with financial interests
p
Less: Investment in equity of institutions in excess of limits
q
Less: Investments arising out of underwriting commitments
r
Less: Reciprocal crossholdings
s
Less: Other Deductions
Adjustments under Pillar II
Less: Shortfall in Provision (6.4 a 1)
Less: Loans and Facilities extended to Related Parties and Restricted lending
(6.4 a 2)
Supplementary Capital (Tier 2)
a
Cumulative and/or Redeemable Preference Share
b
Subordinated Term Debt
c
Hybrid Capital Instruments
d
General loan loss provision
e
Exchange Equalization Reserve
f
Investment Adjustment Reserve
g
Assets Revaluation Reserve
h
Other Reserves
Total Capital Fund (Tier I and Tier II)
1.3 CAPITAL ADEQUACY RATIOS
Tier 1 Capital to Total Risk Weighted Exposures (After Bank's adjustments of
Pillar II)
Tier 1 and Tier 2 Capital to Total Risk Weighted Exposures(After Bank's
adjustments of Pillar II)

28

0
Current Period

0
Previous Period

FORM NO. 2: RISK WEIGHTED EXPOSURE FOR CREDIT RISK


(Rs.In ..)
A. Balance Sheet Exposures

Book
Value

Specific
Provision

Eligible
CRM

Net
Value

Risk
Weight

Risk
Weighted
Exposures
f=d*e

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

d=a-b-c
0
0
0
0
0
0

e
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%

0%

20%

50%

100%

150%

0%

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

100%
20%
50%
100%
150%

0
0
0
0
0

Claims on domestic banks that meet capital adequacy


requirements

20%

Claims on domestic banks that do not meet capital


adequacy requirements

100%

Claims on foreign bank (ECA Rating 0-1)


Claims on foreign bank (ECA Rating 2)
Claims on foreign bank (ECA Rating 3-6)
Claims on foreign bank (ECA Rating 7)

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

20%
50%
100%
150%

0
0
0
0

Claims on foreign bank incorporated in SAARC


region operating with a buffer of 1% above their
respective regulatory capital requirement

20%

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

100%
20%
50%
100%
150%
75%

0
0
0
0
0
0

100%

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

60%
150%
100%
100%

0
0
0
0

Past due claims (except for claim secured by


residential properties)

150%

High Risk claims

150%

Cash Balance
Balance With Nepal Rastra Bank
Investment in Nepalese Government Securities
All Claims on Government of Nepal
Investment in Nepal Rastra Bank securities
All claims on Nepal Rastra Bank
Claims on Foreign Government and Central Bank
(ECA 0-1)
Claims on Foreign Government and Central Bank
(ECA -2)
Claims on Foreign Government and Central Bank
(ECA -3)
Claims on Foreign Government and Central Bank
(ECA-4-6)
Claims on Foreign Government and Central Bank
(ECA -7)
Claims On BIS, IMF, ECB, EC and on Multilateral
Development Banks (MDB's) recognized by the
framework
Claims on Other Multilateral Development Banks
Claims on Public Sector Entity (ECA 0-1)
Claims on Public Sector Entity (ECA 2)
Claims on Public Sector Entity (ECA 3-6)
Claims on Public Sector Entity (ECA 7)

Claims on Domestic Corporates


Claims on Foreign Corporates (ECA 0-1)
Claims on Foreign Corporates (ECA 2)
Claims on Foreign Corporates (ECA 3-6)
Claims on Foreign Corporates (ECA 7)
Regulatory Retail Portfolio (Not Overdue)
Claims fulfilling all criterion of regulatory retail
except granularity
Claims secured by residential properties
Claims not fully secured by residential properties
Claims secured by residential properties (Overdue)
Claims secured by Commercial real estate

29

0
0
0
0
0
0

Investments in equity and other capital instruments of


institutions listed in the stock exchange

100%

Investments in equity and other capital instruments of


institutions not listed in the stock exchange

150%

Staff loan secured by residential property

60%

Interest Receivable/claim on government securities

0%

20%

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

100%

0
0

Cash in transit and other cash items in the process of


collection
Other Assets (as per attachment)
TOTAL

B. Off Balance Sheet Exposures

Gross
Book
Value
a

Specific
Provision
b

Revocable Commitments

Bills Under Collection


Forward Exchange Contract Liabilities
LC Commitments With Original Maturity Upto 6
months
domestic counterparty

0
0

0
0

foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 0-1)


foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 2)
foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 3-6)
foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 7)
LC Commitments With Original Maturity Over 6
months
domestic counterparty
foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 0-1)
foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 2)
foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 3-6)
foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 7)
Bid Bond, Performance Bond and Counter guarantee
domestic counterparty
foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 0-1)
foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 2)
foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 3-6)
foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 7)
Underwriting commitments
Lending of Bank's Securities or Posting of Securities
as collateral
Repurchase Agreements, Assets sale with recourse
Advance Payment Guarantee
Financial Guarantee
Acceptances and Endorsements
Unpaid portion of Partly paid shares and Securities
Irrevocable Credit commitments (short term)
Irrevocable Credit commitments (long term)
Claims on foreign bank incorporated in SAARC
region operating with a buffer of 1% above their
respective regulatory capital requirement
Other Contingent Liabilities
Unpaid Guarantee Claims
TOTAL
Total RWE for credit Risk Before Adjustment
(A) +(B)

Eligible
CRM

Net
Value

Risk
Weight

d=a-b-c

Risk
Weighted
Exposures
f=d*e

0%

0
0

0%
10%

0
0

20%

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

20%
50%
100%
150%

0
0
0
0

50%

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

20%
50%
100%
150%

0
0
0
0

50%

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

20%
50%
100%
150%
50%

0
0
0
0
0

100%

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
20%
50%

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

20%

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

100%
200%

0
0
0

30

Adjustments under Pillar II


Add: 10% of the loan and facilities in excess of
Single Obligor Limits(6.4 a 3)
Add: 1% of the contract(sale) value in case of the sale
of credit with recourse (6.4 a 4)
Total RWE for credit Risk (After Bank's
adjustments of Pillar II)

FORM NO.3 ELIGIBLE CREDIT RISK MITIGANTS


Credit exposures

Deposits Deposits Gold


with Bank with other
banks/FI
(a)

(b)

(c)

Govt.& G'tee of Sec/G'tee G'tee of G'tee of Sec/G'tee Total


NRB Govt. of of Other domestic MDBs of Foreign
Banks
Securities Nepal Sovereign banks
s
(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

Balance Sheet Exposures


Claims on Foreign government and Central Bank
(ECA -2)

Claims on Foreign government and Central Bank


(ECA -3)

Claims on Foreign government and Central Bank


(ECA-4-6)

Claims on Foreign government and Central Bank


(ECA -7)

Claims on Other Multilateral Development Banks

Claims on Public Sector Entity (ECA 0-1)

Claims on Public Sector Entity (ECA 2)

Claims on Public Sector Entity (ECA 3-6)

Claims on Public Sector Entity (ECA 7)

Claims on domestic banks that meet capital


adequacy requirements

Claims on domestic banks that do not meet


capital adequacy requirements

Claims on foreign bank (ECA Rating 0-1)

Claims on foreign bank (ECA Rating 2)

Claims on foreign bank (ECA Rating 3-6)

Claims on foreign bank (ECA Rating 7)

Claims on foreign bank incorporated in SAARC


region operating with a buffer of 1% above their
respective regulatory capital requirement
Claims on Domestic Corporates

Claims on Foreign Corporates (ECA 0-1)

Claims on Foreign Corporates (ECA 2)

Claims on Foreign Corporates (ECA 3-6)

Claims on Foreign Corporates (ECA 7)

Regulatory Retail Portfolio (Not Overdue)

Claims fulfilling all criterion of regulatory retail


except granularity

Claims secured by residential properties

Claims not fully secured by residential properties

Claims secured
(Overdue)

by

residential

properties

Claims secured by Commercial real estate

Past due claims (except for claim secured by


residential properties)

High Risk claims

Investments

in

equity

and

other

capital

31

Credit exposures

Deposits Deposits Gold


with Bank with other
banks/FI
(a)

(b)

(c)

Govt.& G'tee of Sec/G'tee G'tee of G'tee of Sec/G'tee Total


NRB Govt. of of Other domestic MDBs of Foreign
Securities Nepal Sovereign banks
Banks
s
(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

instruments of institutions listed in the stock


exchange
Investments in equity and other capital
instruments of institutions not listed in the stock
exchange

Other Assets (as per attachment)


Total

Off Balance Sheet Exposures


Forward Exchange Contract Liabilities
LC Commitments With Original Maturity Upto 6
months
domestic counterparty

foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 0-1)

foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 2)

foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 3-6)

foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 7)

LC Commitments With Original Maturity Over 6


months
domestic counterparty

foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 0-1)

foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 2)

foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 3-6)

foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 7)

Bid Bond, Performance Bond and Counter


guarantee
domestic counterparty

foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 0-1)

foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 2)

foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 3-6)

foreign counterparty (ECA Rating 7)

Underwriting commitments

Lending of Bank's Securities or Posting of


Securities as collateral

Repurchase
recourse

Agreements, Assets sale with

Advance Payment Guarantee

Financial Guarantee

Acceptances and Endorsements

Unpaid portion of Partly paid shares and


Securities

Irrevocable Credit commitments

Other Contingent Liabilities

Total
Grand Total

32

FORM NO.4 EXHIBIT OF CLAIMS WITH CREDIT RISK MITIGANTS


S.N
.

Counterparty

Category

Facility

(Rs.In .)
Eligible CRM

Outstanding
Nature

Gross Amount

Haircut

Net Amount

FORM NO.5 OTHER ASSETS


S.No.

Assets

Gross Amount

Specific
Provision

Net Balance

Cash and Cash Items in Transit

Miscellaneous Expenditure not written off

Fixed Assets

Interest Receivable on Other Investment

Interest Receivable on Loan

Non Banking Assets

Reconciliation Account

Draft Paid Without Notice

Sundry Debtors

10

Advance payment and Deposits

11

Staff Loan and Advance

12

Stationery

13

Other

0
0

TOTAL

FORM NO. 6: RISK WEIGHTED EXPOSURE FOR OPERATIONAL RISK


Particulars

FY ......

FY ......

FY ......

15%

15%

15%

Net Interest Income


Commission and Discount Income
Other Operating Income
Exchange Fluctuation Income
Addition/Deduction in Interest Suspense during the period
Gross income (a)
Alfa (b)
Fixed Percentage of Gross Income [c=(ab)]
Capital Requirement for operational risk (d) (average of c)
Risk Weight (reciprocal of capital requirement of 10%) in times (e)

10

Equivalent Risk Weight Exposure [f=(de)]


PILLAR-II ADJUSTMENTS
If Gross Income for all the last three years is negative(6.4 a 8)
Total Credit and Investment (net of Specific Provision)
Capital Requirement for operational risk (5%)
Risk Weight (reciprocal of capital requirement of 10%) in times
Equivalent Risk Weight Exposure [g]
Equivalent Risk Weight Exposure [h=f+g)]

33

10

FORM NO.7 RISK WEIGHTED EXPOSURE FOR MARKET RISK


S.No.

Currency

INR

USD

GBP

EURO

THB

CHF

......

.......

.......

Open Position (FCY)

Open Position (NPR)

Relevant Open Position

Total Open Position (a)


5%

Fixed Percentage (b)


Capital Charge for Market Risk [c=(ab)]
Risk Weight (reciprocal of capital requirement of 10%) in times (d)
Equivalent Risk Weight Exposure [e=(cd)]

FORM NO. 8 NET LIQUID ASSETS TO TOTAL DEPOSIT RATIO


(Rs.In ..)
Particulars

Amount

Total Deposit and Borrowing (A)


Total Deposit(as per NRB Ni.Fa. 9.1)
Total Borrowing(as per NRB Ni.Fa. 9.1)
Liquid Assets (B)
Cash(9.1)
Bank Balance(9.1)
Money at call and short notice (9.1)
Investment in government Securities(9.1)
Placement upto 90 days
Borrowings payable upto 90 days ( C )
Net Liquid Assets (D)=(B-C)
Net Liquid Assets to Total Deposit
Shortfall in Ratio
Amount to be added to Risk Weighted Exposures

34

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= @)^(
laifo M shf{;fk6sf] juL{s/0f / shf{ gf]S;fgL ;DaGwL Joj:yf .
o; a}+saf6 ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ug{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ug'{ kg]{ shf{ ;fk6sf] juL{s/0f / ;f]sf]
;+efljt gf]S;fgLdf sfod ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf ;DaGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/
k|of]u u/L b]xfosf]] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
!=
shf{ ;fk6sf] juL{s/0f
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] k|jfx u/]sf] shf{;fk6sf] ;fFjf jf Aofh e'StfgL x'g' kg]{ efsf gf3]sf] cjlwsf
cfwf/df ;Dk"0f{ shf{ ;fk6nfO{ b]xfo jdf]lhd juL{s/0f ug'{ kg]{5 .
-s_
c;n (Pass)
M efsf ggf3]sf / # dlxgf;Dd efsf gf3]sf shf{;fk6 .
-v_
sd;n (Sub-standard) M # dlxgfb]lv a9Ldf ^ dlxgf;Dd efsf gf3]sf shf{;fk6 .
-u_
z+sf:kb (Doubtful)
M ^ dlxgfb]lv a9Ldf ! jif{;Dd efsf gf3]sf shf{;fk6 .
-3_
v/fj (Loss)
M ! jif{eGbf a9L cjlwn] efsf gf3]sf shf{;fk6 .
c;n shf{nfO{ ;ls|o shf{ (Performing Loan) / k'g/tflnsLs/0fk'g/;+/rgf u/]sf, sd;n,
z+sf:kb tyf v/fa shf{nfO{ lgis[o shf{ (Non-performing Loan) egL kl/efiff ul/Psf] 5 .
@=
c;n shf{ ;DaGwL yk Joj:yf
!=
b]xfosf shf{x?nfO{ c;n shf{df ;dfj]z ug{ ;lsg] 5 M
-s_
;'grfFbLsf] lwtf]df uPsf shf{ tyf ;fk6x?,
-v_
d'2lt /l;bsf] lwtf]df uPsf shf{ tyf ;fk6x?,
-u_
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;'/If0fkq tyf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s C0fkqsf] lwtf]df uPsf shf{ tyf
;fk6
t/, cltl/Qm lwtf] ;'/If0f jfkt d'2lt /l;b jf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;'/If0fkq jf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s
C0fkq lwtf] /fvL shf{ k|jfx u/]df To:tf shf{ tyf ;fk6x?nfO{ eg] a'Fbf g+= ! df pNn]lvt
lgb]{zg adf]lhd g} juL{s/0f ug'{ kg]{5 .
@=
a9Ldf Ps jif{;Dd e'StfgL cjlw ePsf] rfn" k'FhL shf{nfO{ dfq gjLs/0f ubf{ c;n shf{df
;dfj]z ug{ ;lsg] 5 . rfn' k'FhL k|s[ltsf shf{x?df k|fKt x'g' kg]{ Aofh lgoldt gePsf]
cj:yfdf To:tf] shf{nfO{ Aofh jSof}tf cjlwsf] cfwf/df juL{s/0f ug'{ kg]{5 .
#=
v/fj shf{ ;DaGwL yk Joj:yf
efsf gf3]sf] jf ggf3]sf] s'g} klg shf{df b]xfosf] s'g} s}lkmot b]lvPdf To:tf] shf{ tyf ;fk6nfO{
v/fj shf{df juL{s/0f ug'{ kg]{5 M
-s_
;'/If0fsf] ahf/ d"Non] shf{sf] ;'/If0f x'g g;Sg] ePdf,
-v_
C0fL 6f6 kN6]df jf 6f6 kN6]sf] 3f]if0ff ePdf,
-u_
C0fL x/fPdf jf ufoj ePdf,
-3_
k|lttkq, hdfgt tyf cGo ;Defljt bfloTjx? kmf];{ nf]g -Force Loan_ sf] ?kdf sf]ifdf
cfwfl/t shf{df kl/0ft ePsf] cj:yfdf To;/L shf{df kl/0ft ePsf] ldltn] gAa] lbg;Dd
c;'nL gePdf,
-_
vl/b jf l8:sfpG6 u/]sf] ljN;sf] e'QmfgL ldlt -due date_ n] gAa] lbg;Dd c;'nL gePdf,
-r_
shf{ b'?kof]u ePdf,
-5_
shf{ c;'n x'g g;sL lnnfdL k|lqmof z'? ePsf] 5 dlxgf gf3]df jf c;'nL k|lqmof cGtu{t
cbfntdf d'2f rln/x]sf] cj:yfdf,
-h_
shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|sf] sfnf];"rLdf /x]sf C0fLnfO{ shf{ k|bfg u/]sf] cj:yfdf,
-em_ kl/of]hgfJoj;fo ;+rfng x'g] cj:yf g/x]df, kl/of]hgf jf Joj;fo ;~rfngdf gePdf,

35

-`_
-6_

$=

%=

^=

&=

shf{ efsf gf3]sf] ldltn] gAa] lbg leq ckn]vg gePdf,


l6=cf/=shf{ (Trust Receipt Loan) e'QmfgL ug]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu cGo shf{ k|jfx ePdf .
l6Kk0fL M of] lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf g+= # -_ sf] k|of]hgsf] nflu b'?kof]u eGgfn] k|of]hg v'nfO{ lnPsf]
shf{ /sd ;DjlGwt k|of]hgdf k|of]u gu/]sf], kl/of]hgf ;~rfngdf g/x]sf], ;DjlGwt
kl/of]hgfJoj;foaf6 cflh{t /sd C0f ltg{df gnufO{ cGo sfo{df k|of]u u/]sf], lg/LIf0f tyf
;'kl/j]If0fsf] qmddf ;'kl/j]Ifs, n]vf k/LIf0fsf] qmddf n]vfk/LIfsaf6 b'?kof]u ePsf] k|dfl0ft ePdf
shf{ tyf ;'ljwfsf] b'?kof]u u/]sf] ;Demg' k5{ .
cfjlws shf{ ;DaGwL yk Joj:yf
-!_ ls:tfaGbLdf k|jfx ul/Psf cfjlws shf{x? (Term Loan) sf] xsdf ;fFjfsf] ls:tfn] efsf gf3]df
;Dk"0f{ jSof}tf shf{ /sdnfO{ g} ls:Tff /sdsf] efsf gf3]sf] cjlwsf] cfwf/df juL{s/0f ug'{
kg]{5 .
t/, clwljsif{ (Overdraft) sf] sf/f]jf/ ug]{ ;'ljwf gkfPsf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] k|bfg u/]sf]
cfjlws shf{sf] xsdf b]xfo adf]lhd shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug'{kg]{ 5 .
-s_ ls:tf /sdn] ! jif{eGbf sd cjlwn] efsf gf3]sf] cj:yfdf To:tf] ls:tf /sdnfO{ dfq v/fj
shf{df juL{s/0f u/L shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug'{kg]{ 5 . t/, Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn]
;Dk"0f{ shf{ /sdnfO{ g} v/fj shf{df juL{s/0f ug{ rfx]df of] Joj:yfn] jfwf k'u]sf] dflgg]
5}g .
-v_ ls:tf /sdn] ! jif{eGbf j9L cjlwn] efsf gf3]sf] cj:yfdf ;Dk"0f{ shf{ /sdnfO{ g} v/fj
shf{df juL{s/0f u/L shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug'{kg]{ 5 .
-@_ hnljB't kl/of]hgf, ljB't k|;f/0f nfOg -Transmission Line_ / s]jnsf/ lgdf{0f kl/of]hgf shf{sf]
xsdf s'g} ls:tfn] efsf gf3]df () lbg;Dd c;n shf{sf] ?kdf ! k|ltzt shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
sfod ug'{ kg]{5 / () lbgeGbf a9Ln] efsf gf3]df To:tf] ls:tf /sdnfO{ v/fj ju{df juL{s/0f
u/L ls:tfsf] ztk|ltzt shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .
l6Kk0fLM o; bkmfsf] k|of]hgsf nflu cfjlws shf{ eGgfn] Ps jif{eGbf a9L e'QmfgL cjlw sfod u/L k|jfx
ul/Psf] shf{ ;fk6nfO{ ;Demg' kb{5 . 3 ju{sf] n3' ljQLo ;+:yfsf] xsdf Ps jif{eGbf sd
cjlwsf] ls:tfjGbLdf r'Qmf ug]{ u/L k|jfx ePsf] shf{nfO{ ;d]t cfjlws shf{sf] ?kdf u0fgf ug{
;lsg] 5 .
;'grfFbL shf{ ;DaGwL yk Joj:yf
s v tyf u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] b]xfosf Joj:yf tyf zt{x? k"/f u/L
;'grfFbL lwtf] /fvL shf{ k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]] 5g\ M
-s_
;+:yfsf] shf{ gLltljlgodfjnLdf ;'grfFbL lwtf] lnO{ shf{ k|bfg ug{] Joj:yf pNn]v ePsf] x'g'
kg]{,
-v_
;+:yfn] ;'grfFbLsf] shf{ sf/f]jf/ ug{' cufj} cfjZos ;'/Iff Joj:yf, ;'/If0fsf] d"Nof\sg
Joj:yf, 9's'6L jLdf tyf hfFrsL ;DjGwL Joj:yf u/]sf] x'g' kg]{,
-u_
ljQLo ;+:yfsf] nflu ;'grfFbL shf{ pkof]uL / d'gfkmfbfos ePgePsf] af/] jflif{s?kdf
cWoog u/L ;~rfns ;ldltaf6 jflif{s cg'udg x'g' kg]{ .
cf]e/8f6 ;Ldf gfg] u/L ;fFjf tyf Aofh c;'npk/ ug{ gkfOg]
cf]e/8f6 ;Ldf gfg] u/L u|fxssf] rNtL vftfaf6 cf]e/8g (Overdrawn) u/L shf{sf] ;fFjf tyf
Aofh c;'npk/ ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
t/, o; Joj:yfn] u|fxssf] vftfdf /x]sf] df}Hbft vr{ u/L ;fFjf tyf Aofh c;'npk/ ug{ aGb]h
nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g . u|fxssf] vftf vr{ u/L ;fFjf tyf Aofh c;'npk/ ubf{ vftf cf]e/8g
(Overdrawn) eO{ lx;fj /fkm;fkm gePsf] v08df o;/L c;'npk/ gePsf shf{x?df cf]e/8g u/]sf]
;fFjf /sd ;d]t aSof}tf shf{ /sddf ;dfj]z u/L To:tf shf{x? h'g ju{df kg]{ xf] ;f] eGbf Ps tx
d'lgsf] ju{df ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 . vftf vr{ ubf{ u|fxsnfO{ k|bfg ul/Psf] ;Ldf g3fP/ cf]e/8g
(Overdrawn) ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
u|]; cjlw ;DaGwL Joj:yf
Ohfhtkq k|fKt ;+:yfx?n] cfjlws shf{ k|bfg ubf{ ;dfGotof Ps jif{eGbf j9L u|]; cjlw /fvL shf{
k|bfg ug{ kfOg] 5}g . ;f] eGbf a9L u|]; cjlw k|bfg ug'{kg]{ ePdf s] slt sf/0fn] / s'g s'g cfwf/df
u|]; cjlw yk ug'{k/]sf] xf] ;f]sf] Joxf]/f v'nfO{ shf{ :jLs[ltsf] ;dodfg} ;f] shf{ :jLs[t ug{ clVtof/
k|fKt :t/ eGbf dflyNnf] :t/af6 :jLs[t u/fpg' kg]{5 . o; k|of]hgsf] nflu ;aeGbf dflyNnf] :t/
;+rfns ;ldlt x'g]5 .
Credit Card

36

:ki6Ls/0fM
*=

(=

u|]; cjlw eGgfn] shf{ k|jfx ldlt b]lv shf{sf] ls:tf e'QmfgL ug{ ;"? x'g] ldlt
a'em\g' kg]{5 .

shf{sf] k'g/tflnsLs/0f / k'g/;+/rgf ;DaGwL Joj:yf


-!_
C0fLn] k]z u/]sf] lnlvt sfo{ of]hgfdf pNn]lvt b]xfosf cfwf/x?df Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf
ljZj:t ePdf shf{x?nfO{ k'g/tflnsLs/0f jf k'g/;+/rgf ug{ ;Sg] 5 . shf{ k'g/tflnsLs/0f
jf k'g/;+/rgf ul/Psf :ki6 cfwf/x? k|To]s shf{ kmfOndf ;+nUg x'g' kg]{5 M
-s_
shf{ ;DaGwL sfuhft tyf ;'/If0fx? kof{Kt ePsf] k|df0f,
-v_
k'g/tflnsLs/0f jf k'g/;+/rgf ePsf shf{ c;'n x'g] ;Defjgfjf/] Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yf ljZj;gLo ePsf] cfwf/x?, /
-u_
shf{nfO{ k'g/tflnsLs/0f jf k'g/;+/rgf ug{ lnlvt sfo{ of]hgf k]z x'g'sf cltl/Qm
To:tf] shf{ k'g/tflnsLs/0f jf k'g/;+/rgf ubf{sf] lbg;Dd kfs]sf] AofhdWo] c;'n
x'g afFsL Aofhsf] slDtdf kRrL; k|ltzt Aofh /sd c;'npk/ ePsf] .
-@_
g]kfn ;/sf/ cGt/ut /x]sf] ?U0f pBf]u k|f/lDes 5fgljg tyf l;kmfl/z ;ldltf/f l;kmfl/z
k|fKt pBf]ux?nfO{ uPsf] shf{ k'g/tflnsLs/0f jf k'g/;+/rgf ug'{ kg]{ cj:yfdf Go"gtd jfx|
k|ltzt Aofh e'QmfgL eO{ cGo k|s[ofx? ;d]t k"/f u/]kl5 shf{ k'g/tflnsLs/0f jf
k'g/;+/rgf ubf{ Go"gtd kRrL; k|ltzt shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 . t/, jfx| k|ltzt
eGbf sd Aofh e'QmfgL eO{ shf{ k'g/tflnsLs/0f jf k'g/;+/rgf ul/Psf] cj:Yffdf ;fljssf]
efsf gf3]sf] cjlwsf] cfwf/df k|rlnt Joj:yf adf]lhd shf{ gf]S;fgLsf] nflu Joj:yf ug'{
kg]{5 .
-#_
pka'Fbf -!_ / -@_ adf]lhd juL{s/0f ul/Psf shf{x?sf] laj/0f 5'} tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
l6Kk0fLM * o; k|of]hgsf] nflu k'g/tflnsLs/0f eGgfn] u|fxsn] lnPsf] shf{;'ljwfsf] e'QmfgL ug]{
cjlw;do a9fpg] k|lqmofnfO{ ;Demg' k5{ .
* k'g/;+/rgf eGgfn] shf{;'ljwfsf] k|s[lt jf zt{df kl/jt{g ug]{, aGb]hx? yk36 ug]{ jf ;do
;Ldfdf x]/km]/ ug]{ k|lqmofnfO{ ;Demg' k5{ .
shf{ gf]S;fgL jfkt sfod ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf
-!_
o; lgb]{zg adf]lhd juL{s/0f ul/Psf shf{ tyf laN; vl/bx?sf] nflu aSof}tf ;fFjf /sdsf]
cfwf/df b]xfo jdf]lhd shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug'{ kg]{5 M
shf{ juL{s/0f
Go"gtd shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
-s_
c;n
! k|ltzt
-v_
sd;n
@% k|ltzt
-u_
z+sf:kb
%) k|ltzt
-3_
v/fjsfnf];"rLdf k/]sf JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t
;+:yfx?nfO{ k|bfg u/]sf] shf{
!)) k|ltzt
t/, jLdf ul/Psf shf{x?sf] xsdf pka'Fbf -!_ df pNn]v ul/Psf] Joj:yfsf] kRrL; k|ltzt
dfq shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod u/] k'Ug] 5 .
-@_
k'g/;+/rgf jf k'g/tflnsLs/0f u/]sf] shf{sf] xsdf ;f] jfkt b]xfo adf]lhd shf{ gf]S;fgL
Joj:yf sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .
-s_
k'g/;+/rgf jf k'g/tflnsLs/0f ug]{ ;dodf c;n ju{df juL{s/0f e}/x]sf shf{x?nfO{
k'g/;+/rgf jf k'g/tflnsLs/0f ubf{ Go"gtd ;fF9] afx| -!@=%_ k|ltzt shf{ gf]S;fgL
Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 . sd;n, z+sf:kb tyf v/fj ju{df juL{s/0f e};s]sf shf{x?nfO{
k'g/;+/rgf jf k'g/tflnsLs/0f ubf{ k"j{jt sfod ul/Psf] shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yfdf a'Fbf
g+= !) -u_ sf] cj:yfdf afx]s s'g} ;dfof]hg ug{ kfO{g] 5}g .
ls:tfaGbL jf ;d dfl;s ls:tf -Equal Monthly Instalment, EMI) df k|bfg ul/Psf
shf{x?sf] xsdf shf{sf] ;fFjf tyf Aofh lgoldt /x]sf] cj:yfdf b]xfosf] To:tf]
shf{sf] nflu k'g/;+/rgf jf k'g/tflnsLs/0f ;/x yk shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod
ug{' kg]{ 5}g .
-c_
shf{sf] ls:tf clu|d e'StfgL ePsf] -Prepayment_ sf/0fn] ls:tfaGbLsf] /sd
Pj+ ls:tf ;+Vof sd ePdf .
-cf_ ahf/sf] cj:yf x]/L Aofhb/ kl/jt{g ul/Psf] sf/0faf6 shf{sf] ;dofjlw

37

-#_

-$_

-%_

-^_

tyf ls:tf /sd kl/jt{g ePdf . o; k|;+udf Aofhb/ a9]/ shf{sf] ;dofjlw
tyf ls:tf ;+Vof ylkg uPdf shf{ :jLs[t ug]{ ;dodf lgwf{/0f ul/Psf
ls:tf /sd 36fpg kfOg] 5}g . To:t}, Aofhb/ sd eO{ shf{sf] ;dofjlw
tyf ls:tf ;+Vof 36\g uPdf klg shf{ :jLs[t ug]{ a]nfdf lgwf{l/t ls:tf
/sd 36fpg kfOg] 5}g .
-v_
k'g/;+/rgf jf k'g/tflnsLs/0f ul/Psf shf{sf] ;fFjf ls:tf tyf Aofhsf] e'QmfgL
nuftf/ b'O{ jif{;Dd lgoldt ePsf] cj:yfdf To:tf shf{x?nfO{ c;n shf{df kl/0ft
ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
-u_
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 shf{ k|jfx ePsf kl/of]hgfx?sf] Aofhdf j[l4, cGo
nfutdf j[l4 jf pTkfbg Ifdtfdf j[l4 eO{ z'?df tf]lsPsf] shf{ e'Qmfg ug]{ cjlw
-Repayment Schedule_ df shf{ r'Qmf ug{ ;Sg] l:ylt g/x]sf C0fLx?dWo] /fli6o
k|fyldstfdf /x]sf xfO{8f]kfj/, s]jnsf/ jf o:t} cGo k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f ;DaGwL
kl/of]hgfx?nfO{ b]xfosf b'j} cj:yf k"/f u/]sf] cj:yfdf ! k|ltzt dfq shf{ gf]S;fgL
Joj:yf sfod ug{ ;Sg] u/L k'g/tflnsLs/0fk'g;{+/rgf ug{ ;lsg] 5 . o;/L
k'g/tflnsLs/0fk'g;{+/rgf ul/Psf shf{x?nfO{ c;n shf{sf] ?kdf juL{s/0f ug{
;lsg] 5 .
-c_
Aofh /sd e'Qmfg u/]sf], /
-cf_ kl/of]hgf lgis[o geO{ lgoldt gub k|jfx ul//x]sf] jf kl/of]hgf
;Gtf]ifhgs /x]sf] .
-3_
z]o/sf] lwtf]df k|bfg u/]sf] shf{x?nfO{ k'g/;+/rgf jf k'g/tflnsLs/0f ug{ kfOg]
5}g .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] k|jfx u/]sf] shf{ lgIf]k tyf shf{ ;'/If0f lgudaf6
;'/If0f u/fPsf] jf jLdf u/fPsf] cj:yfdf To:tf] ;'/If0f u/]sf] shf{sf] nflu ug'{ kg]{ shf{
gf]S;fgL Joj:yf -Loan Loss Provision_ df &% k|ltzt 5'6 lbO{ afFsL @% k|ltzt dfq Joj:yf
u/] k'Ug] 5 .
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] z'? z]o/ lg:sfzg -Initial Public Offering - IPO_ x'Fbfsf] cj:yfdf
z]o/ vl/bsf nflu a'emfOg] cfj]bgsf] cw{s6\6Lsf] ;'/If0fdf o; lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf g+= !% df
ePsf] Joj:yf ljkl/t s'g} lsl;dsf] shf{ k|jfx ug{ kfOg] 5}g . To:tf] shf{ k|afx u/]sf]
xsdf ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] zt k|ltzt shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .
JolQmut;+:yfut hdfgLdf shf{ k|bfg ubf{ C0fLsf] JolQmut hdfgL /sd a/fa/sf] cGo
s;}sf] bfjL gnfUg] ;DklQsf] laj/0f clgjfo{ ?kdf lng' kg]{5 . qm]l86 sf8{ afx]s
JolQmut;+:yfut hdfgLdf dfq} k|jflxt shf{nfO{ klg pk/f]Qmfg';f/ juL{s/0f u/L c;n,
sd;n / z+sf:kb shf{df kg]{ eP ;f] ju{df tf]lsPsf] k|ltztsf] cltl/Qm aL; k|ltzt yk
u/L shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug'{ kg]{5 . cGo ef}lts ;DklQsf] ;'/If0fn] gvfDg] eO{ yk
;'/If0f jfkt JolQmut;+:yfut hdfgt ;d]t lnO{ shf{ k|jfx u/]sf] cj:yfdf ;d]t dfly
pNn]v eP adf]lhd yk shf{sf] nflu Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 . o:tf shf{x?sf] juL{s/0f laj/0f
5'} tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 . t/ O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= # sf] a'Fbf $ sf] v08 -v_ df plNnlvt ;+:yfx?,
g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8 / g]kfn vfB ;+:yfgnfO{ k|bfg u/]sf] shf{ ;fk6Ldf cltl/Qm aL;
k|ltzt shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:Yff sfod ug'{ kg]{ 5}g .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] b]xfosf] cj:yfdf afx]s t];|f] kIfsf] lwtf]df dfq} k|jflxt shf{nfO{ o;
lgb]{zg adf]lhd juL{s/0f u/L c;n, sd;n / z+sf:kb shf{df kg]{ eP ;f] ju{df tf]lsPsf]
k|ltztsf] cltl/Qm aL; k|ltzt yk shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug'{ kg]{5 . C0fLsf] cGo
ef}lts ;DklQsf] ;'/If0fn] gvfDg] eO{ yk ;'/If0f jfkt t];|f] kIfsf] lwtf] ;d]t lnO{ shf{
k|jfx u/]sf] cj:yfdf ;d]t dfly pNn]v eP adf]lhd shf{sf] nflu yk Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
o:tf shf{x?sf] juL{s/0f laj/0f 5'} tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
-c_
C0fL JolQm ePdf lghsf] kl/jf/sf ;b:osf] gfddf ePsf] lwtf] .
-cf_ C0fL kmd{ ePdf ;f] kmd{sf] k|f]k|fO6/, ;fem]bf/ jf lghsf] kl/jf/sf ;b:osf] gfddf
ePsf] lwtf] .
-O_
C0fL sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yf ePdf ;f] sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks, ;+rfns
jf ljQLo :jfy{ ePsf] JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] gfddf ePsf] lwtf] .

38

-&_

-*_
-(_
-!)_

a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] JolQmut hdfgLdf k|jfx eO/x]sf] lzIff shf{ tyf n3' ljQLo ;+:yf
Pj+ ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?nfO{ ljkGg ju{ shf{ cGtu{t nufgL u/]sf] shf{df dfly pka'Fbf -%_
adf]lhd tf]lsPsf] shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yfdf cltl/Qm jL; k|ltzt yk shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
ug'{ kg]{ 5}g .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] rfx]df dflyNnf] ju{sf] shf{ ;fk6x?nfO{ tNnf] ju{df juL{s/0f ug{ s'g}
aGb]h nufOPsf] 5}g . pbfx/0fsf nflu sd;n shf{nfO{ z+sf:kb jf v/fa shf{df /
z+sf:kbnfO{ v/fj shf{df juL{s/0f ug{ kfOg] 5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfgf] shf{sf] l:ylt x]/L o; lgb]{zgdf tf]lsPsf] Go"gtd shf{
gf]S;fgL Joj:yfsf] cltl/Qm yk shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug{ rfx]df To;/L yk shf{
gf]S;fgL ul/Psf shf{ vftfx? :ki6 v'nfpg' kg]{ 5 .
shf{;fk6 eGgfn] ljN; vl/b tyf l8:sfp06 ;d]tnfO{ ;Demg' kg]{ 5 .
l6Kk0fLM ;lqmo shf{sf] nflu ul/Psf] shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yfnfO{ ;fdfGo shf{ gf]S;fgL

Joj:yf (General Loan Loss Provision) / lgl:qmo shf{sf] nflu ul/Psf] shf{ gf]S;fgL
Joj:yfnfO{ ljz]if shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf (Specific Loan Loss Provision) sf] ?kdf lnOg]] 5 .

!)=

!!=

shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yfnfO{ ;dfof]hg ug{ kfpg] cj:yf


shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yfnfO{ b]xfosf] cj:yf afx]s ;dfof]hg ug{ kfOg] 5}g M
-s_
shf{ ckn]vg ePdf,
-v_
shf{sf] e'QmfgL ls:tfjGbL jf cf+lzs ?kdf ePdf shf{ juL{s/0f cg'?ksf] shf{ gf]S;fgL
Joj:yf sfod ubf{ e'QmfgL ePsf] xb;Ddsf] shf{ jfkt ul/Psf] shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yfnfO{
Write back u/L ;dfof]hg ug{ ;lsg], /
-u_
shf{ k'g/tflnsLs/0f jf k'g/;+/rgf u/L shf{ k'g/juL{s/0f ePdf k'g/;+/rgf jf
k'g/tflnsLs/0f ul/Psf shf{sf] ;fFjf tyf Aofhsf] e'QmfgL nuftf/ b'O{ jif{;Dd lgoldt ePdf .
o:tf shf{x?sf] ljj/0f cnUu} tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
u}/ a}+ls ;DklQsf] gf]S;fgL Joj:yf / lnnfd laqmL ;DaGwdf
-!_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] ;sf/ u/]sf] u}/ a}+ls ;DklQdf ;sf/ u/]s} ldltb]lv zt k|ltzt
gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .
-@_
u}/ a}+ls ;DklQ laqmL ePsf] cj:yfdf tTsfn To:tf] ;DklQsf nflu v8f ul/Psf] gf]S;fgL
Joj:yfsf] cfjZos lx;fjldnfg ug{' kg]{5 .
-#_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] lwtf] ;'/If0fnfO{ u}/ a}+ls+ ;DklQsf] ?kdf ;sf/ ubf{ tyf ;sf/ u/]sf] u}/
a}+ls+ ;DklQ lnnfd ljqmL ug]{ ;DaGwdf b]xfo adf]lhd ug'{ kg]{5 M
-s_
?= @% nfveGbf a9L shf{ /sd aSof}tf /x]sf] u|fxssf] ;'/If0f ;DklQnfO{ u}/ a}+ls
;DklQsf] ?kdf ;sf/ ubf{ ;DalGwt kIfnfO{ clgjfo{?kdf sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug'{
kg]{5 .
-v_
cfgf] ;+:yfsf] gfddf /x]sf] u}/ a}+ls ;DklQsf] lnnfd ug'{k"j{ :jtGq d"Nof+sgstf{af6
d"Nof+sg u/fpg' kg]{5 . clwsGo"g d"Nof+sg u/fpg kfOg] 5}g .
-u_
cfly{s k|zf;g ljlgodfjnLdf lwtf] ;'/If0fu}/ a}+ls+ ;DklQ lnnfd ;DaGwdf kf/bzL{ /
:ki6 Joj:yf u/L a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] lxt ;+/If0f x'g] u/L laqmL ug'{ kg]{5 .
-3_
o;/L u}/ a}+ls ;DklQ ;sf/ u/L ln+bf lnnfd x'g g;s]sf] ;'/If0f jfkt /flvPsf] ;Dk"0f{
;DklQnfO{ g} lng' kg]{5, cf+lzs ?kdf dfq lng kfOg] 5}g .
-_
o;/L ;sf/ u/L lnPsf] ;DklQnfO{ oyf;Dej l56f] ljqmL ug'{ kg]{5 . Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfsf] cfg} k|of]hgnfO{ cfjZos ePdf ;f] sf] pkof]usf nflu ;+rfns ;ldltaf6
:jLs[t u/fO{ o; a}+snfO{ ;d]t hfgsf/L u/fpg' kg]{5 .
-r_
u}/ a}+ls+u ;DklQsf] ?kdf a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] ;sf/ u/]sf] ;DklQ lwtf] ;'/If0f wgL -u}/
a}+ls+u ;DklQdf cfpg' cl3sf] wgL_ nfO{ lkmtf{ ubf{ u}/ a}+ls+u ;DklQ n]vf+sg ubf{sf]
d"Nodf g36\g] u/L ;DalGwt ;+:yf / ;DalGwt ;'/If0f wgLaLrsf] cfk;L jftf{f/f
;DalGwt ;'/If0f wgLnfO{ dfq lwtf];'/If0f lkmtf{ ug{ eg] of] lgb]{zgn] jfwf k'/\ofPsf]
dflgg] 5}g .

39

!@=

!#=

tyf Takeover ;DaGwL Joj:yf


!=
o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] k'FhLsf]if kof{Kt gePsf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] o; a}+ssf] k"j{ :jLs[lt
glnO{ cGo s'g} klg a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?af6 s'g} lsl;dsf] C0f, shf{ cflb vl/b u/L
lng, Discount u/L lng tyf Credit Sale/Purchase/Re-purchase / Takeover (CS,CP,RP & TO)
ug{ kfpg] 5}g .
@=
o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] k'FhLsf]if kof{Kt ePsf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] CS, CP, RP & TO ubf{
b]xfosf zt{ aGb]hsf] cwLgdf /xL ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
-s_
a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] CS, CP, RP & TO u/L lng' cl3sf] cj:yfdf ;d]t o; a}+sn]
tf]s]sf] k'FhLsf]if sfod u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
-v_
CS CP, RP & TO u/L lng]lbg] ;DaGwdf a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] cfgf] shf{ gLltdf
:ki6 Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 . cGoyf To:tf] sf/f]af/ ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-u_
cfly{s jif{sf] clGtd dlxgfdf CS, CP, RP & TO ;DaGwL sfo{ ug{ kfO{g] 5}g .
-3_
shf{ vl/b (Credit Purchase) ubf{ ;f] shf{ u|fxsaf6 c;'npk/ ug{ ;Sg] clwsf/ vl/b
ug]{n] lng' kg]{5 . ;f] sfo{sf] nflu ;DalGwt u|fxssf] ;xdlt ;d]t lng' kg]{5 .
-c_
shf{ vl/b u/L lng]n] ;f] vl/b u/]sf] shf{nfO{ cfgf] lx;fadf ;DalGwt
zLif{ssf] shf{ ;fk6 pkzLif{sdf n]vfg ug'{ kg]{5 .
-cf_ shf{sf] zt{ / cj:yfsf] lj:t[t ljj/0f lnP/ dfq shf{ vl/b ug'{ kg]{5 .
-O_
shf{ vl/b u/L lng] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;DalGwt C0fLn] shf{ lnPsf]
ldlt, shf{sf] lsl;d, e'QmfgL cj:yf, ljutsf] shf{ sf/f]jf/sf] cj:yf,
hdfgtstf{sf] x}l;ot, shf{ juL{s/0fsf] l:ylt cflb ljj/0fx? lnlvt ?kdf
lng' kg]{5 .
-O{_
shf{ vl/b ug]{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] shf{ juL{s/0fsf] ljBdfg Joj:yf
tyf shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf adf]lhdsf] shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug'{
kg]{5 .
-p_
shf{ vl/b u/L ln+bf o:tf] shf{ ;'/lIft /x]sf] tyf ;+:yfnfO{ kmfObfhgs
ePgePsf] af/] olsg x'g] cfwf/ v'Ng] sfuhftx? ;DalGwt shf{ kmfOndf
cBfjlws ug'{ kg]{5 .
-pm_ shf{ gLltdf shf{ vl/b ;DaGwL Joj:yf /x]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n]
dfq shf{ vl/b u/L lnglbg ;Sg] 5g\ .
-_
CS, CP, RP & TO sf/f]jf/sf] cw{jflif{s ljj/0f cw{jflif{s cjlw ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn]
!% lbgleq o; a}+ssf] ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
#=
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] o;/L shf{ vl/blaqmL (Purchase and Sale) ubf{ sy+sbflrt
vl/bstf{ ;+:yfn] shf{ p7fpg g;s]df ;f] shf{ k'gM cfkmF}n] vl/b ug]{ (Credit Repurchase) zt{
/x]sf] cj:yfdf laqmLstf{ ;+:yfn] To:tf] shf{ Repurchase gu?~h]n Contingent Liability sf]
?kdf cfgf] jf;nftdf b]vfpg'kg]{ / o:tf] Contingent Liability nfO{ k'FhLsf]if u0fgf ug]{
k|of]hgsf] nflu %) k|ltzt dfq hf]lvd ef/ k|bfg ug'{ kg]{5 .
$=
s'g} a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx? aLr cGt/ a}+s sf/f]jf/ cGt/ut lbPsf] ;fk6L jf csf]{ a}+s jf
ljQLo ;+:yfdf /fv]sf] lgIf]k ;dodf c;'n pk/ x'g g;s]sf] cj:yfdf To:tf] ;fk6L jf
lgIf]ksf] ;fFjf tyf Jofh c;'n pk/ ug]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu ;fk6L jf lgIf]k lng] ;DalGwt a}+s
jf ljQLo ;+:yfn] k|jfx u/]sf] shf{ vl/b ug{ OR5's ;fk6L lbg] jf lgIf]k /fVg] a}+s jf ljQLo
;+:yfn] o; a}+ssf] k"j{ :jLs[lt lnO{ b]xfosf k|s[of cjnDag u/L shf{ v/Lb ug{ ;Sg] 5M
-s_
shf{ v/Lb ubf{ s'n c;'n pk/ ug{ afFsL ;fFjf tyf Jofh /sdsf] bf]Jj/ eGbf sd
gx'g] u/L shf{ v/Lb ug{' kg]{ 5 .
-v_
shf{ vl/b ug]{ / shf{ ljqmL ug]{ ;+:yf aLr cfk;L ;dembf/Ldf oyfl:yltdf shf{
v/Lb tyf ljqmL ug'{ kg]{ 5 .
-u_
shf{ v/Lb ubf{ cf+lzs e'QmfgL ug{] u/L s'g} lsl;dn] shf{ v/Lb ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
ljQLo hdfgtsf] cfwf/df shf{ lbg tyf lgIf]k :jLsf/ ug{ gkfpg] ;DaGwL Joj:yf
:jb]zdf :yfkgf eO{ ;~rfngdf /x]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] hf/L u/]sf] ljQLo hdfgt
(Financial Guarantee) sf cfwf/df s'g} klg a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] shf{/;'lawf lbg tyf lgIf]k
:jLsf/ ug{ kfpg] 5}g .
Credit Sale /Purchase/Re-purchase

40

!$=

!%=

!^=

lgIf]k /fVg tyf shf{sf] sf/f]jf/ ug{] ;DaGwdf


!=
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# afx]s
cGo k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd lgIf]k kl/rfng tyf shf{sf] sf/f]jf/ ul//x]sf ;+:yfx?df lgIf]k
/fVg tyf shf{sf] sf/f]jf/ ug{ kfOg] 5}g . t/, n3'ljQ dfqsf] yf]s sf/f]jf/ ug]{ u/L :yfkgf
ePsf ;+:yfx?sf] xsdf eg] pk/f]Qm Joj:yf nfu" x'g] 5}g .
@=
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# afx]s cGo k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd lgIf]k kl/rfng
tyf shf{sf] sf/f]jf/ ul//x]sf ;+:yfx?n] o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf
lgIf]k /fVg / lgIf]k /l;bsf] lwtf]df shf{ lng pk/f]Qm pka'Fbf ! sf] Joj:yfn] afwf k'Ug]5}g .
t/, o;/L lgIf]k /l;bsf] lwtf]df shf{ lb+bf h'g a}+sljQLo ;+:yfdf lgIf]k /fv]sf] xf] ;f]xL
a}+sljQLo ;+:yfaf6 dfq To:tf] shf{ k|bfg ug'{ kg]{5 . cfgf] lgIf]k /l;b /x]sf] ;+:yf afx]s
cGo a}+sljQLo ;+:yfaf6 o; cl3 k|jflxt shf{sf] xsdf e'QmfgL ldlt -Maturity Date_
kZrft gjLs/0f u/L shf{ k|jfx ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
#=
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] lgIf]k /l;b -Deposit Receipt_ sf] lwtf]df shf{ k|jfx
ubf{ c+lst Aofhb/ -Coupon Rate_ eGbf sd Aofhb/ gx'g] u/L ;+:yfsf] shf{ gLlt lgb]{lzsfsf]
kl/lwleq /x]/ shf{;fk6 pknAw u/fpg ;Sg]5g\ . t/, g]kfn ;/sf/n] hf/L u/]sf]
C0fkq;'/If0fkqsf] lwtf]df shf{ k|jfx ubf{ pNn]lvt Joj:yf nfu" x'g] 5}g .
$=
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] s'g} klg JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL / cGo ;+ul7t ;+3
;+:yfx?af6 s'g} klg k|sf/sf] lgIf]k :jLsf/ ubf{ To:tf] lgIf]kdf lbOg] c+lst Aofhb/ -Coupon
Rate_ afx]s cGo s'g} klg k|sf/sf] z'Nssld;g jf o:t} cGo zLif{saf6 a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfnfO{ Jooef/ kg]{ s'g} k|sf/sf] cfly{s ;'ljwf lbg kfOg] 5}g .
k|fylds z]o/ lgisfzgdf nufgL ug{sf nflu shf{ k|bfg ug]{ ;DaGwdf
klAns lnld6]8 sDkgLn] ;j{;fwf/0fdf k|fylds z]o/ lgisf;g -Initial Public Offering, IPO) sf]]
nflu z]o/ laqmL v'Nnf u/]sf] klxnf]] ;ft sfo{lbg;Dd a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] To:tf] z]o/ vl/b ug]{
k|of]hgsf nflu s'g} klg lsl;dsf] shf{ ;'ljwf k|bfg ug{ kfpg] 5}g . t/, To;/L cfXjfg u/]sf] klxnf]
;ft sfo{lbg ;Dddf klg dfu u/] adf]lhdsf] z]o/sf nflu cfj]bg gk/]df -Fully Subscribe
gePdf_ ;f] sf] cf7f}F sfo{ lbgb]lv b]xfo adf]lhdsf zt{x?sf] cwLgdf /xL IPO sf nflu shf{ k|bfg
ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
s=
IPO sf] sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug{ lgo'Qm ePsf] lgisfzg k|aGws -Issue Manager) o; a}+ssf]
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;xfos sDkgL ePdf ;f] ;+:yfn] s'g} klg JolQmkmd{sDkgLnfO{
IPO sf nflu shf{ k|bfg ug{ kfpg] 5}g .
v=
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] IPO df nufgL ug]{ nufgLstf{x?nfO{ k|bfg ug]{ shf{sf] sDtLdf %)
k|ltzt gub dflh{g /fv]/ dfq shf{ k|bfg ug'{ kg]{5 .
u=
o;/L k|bfg ul/Psf] shf{sf] e'QmfgL cjlw a9Ldf lwtf]kq P]g, lgodfjnL / lwtf]kq;+u
;DalGwt lgod adf]lhd z]o/ afF8kmfF8 u/L /sd lkmtf{ ug]{ cjlw;Dd x'g]5 . o:tf] shf{sf]
k'g/;+/rgf / k'g/tflnsLs/0f ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
3=
o:tf] shf{ k|jfx ubf{ klg cGo shf{ k|bfg ubf{ cjnDag ug'{kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ k|s[of k"/f u/]sf] x'g'
kg]{5 .
=
o:f/L k|jfx ePsf] shf{ c;n shf{df /x]sf] cj:yf afx]s cGo cj:yfdf zt k|ltzt shf{
gf]S;fgL Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
Margin Lending k|s[ltsf] z]o/ ;'/If0f /fvL k|jfx x'g] shf{sf ;DaGwdf
-s_
lwtf]kq ljlgdo ahf/df ;"rLs[t ;+:yfx?sf] z]o/sf] lwtf]df a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 k|jfx
x'g] Margin Lending k|s[ltsf]] shf{sf ;DaGwdf b]xfosf zt{x? kfngf u/]/ dfq ;f] cg';f/sf]
shf{ k|bfg ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
-!_
o;/L k|jfx x'g] shf{sf] xsdf ;'/If0f afkt /flvg] z]o/sf] d"Nofg ubf{ g]kfn lwtf]kq
ljlgdo ahf/ lnld6]8af6 k|sflzt kl5Nnf] !*) sfo{ lbgsf] clGtd d"Nosf] cf};t
d"No jf z]o/sf] k|rlnt ahf/ d"NodWo] h'g sd x'G5 ;f] /sdsf] cfwf/df a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yf cfkm}n] shf{df x'g] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f x'g] u/L cfjZos dflh{g sfod u/]/
dfq z]o/ lwtf] shf{ k|jfx ug{ ;lsg] 5 . Psk6s k|jfx ul/;s]sf] o:tf] shf{sf]

41

-@_

-#_

-$_

-%_
-^_
-&_

-*_
-(_

;'/If0fdf /x]sf] z]o/sf] k'g/d"Nofg u/L ;f]sf] cfwf/df yk shf{ ;Ldf sfod ug{ jf
yk shf{ k|bfg ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
Margin Call ;DaGwL Joj:yf M
-s_
z]o/sf] ahf/ d"Nodf x'g] kl/jt{gsf] sf/0fn] Margin Call ug{' k/]df ;DalGwt
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;f] sf] d"No cg'udg u/L a9Ldf & lbgleqdf
lgb]{lzt ;Ldfleq Nofpg C0fL u|fxsnfO{ ;"lrt u/L Margin Call ug{' kg]{5 .
t/, ;'/If0fdf /flvPsf] z]o/sf] d"Nodf !) k|ltzt;Ddn] 36]sf] cj:yfdf
Margin Call ug{ afWo x'g] 5}g .
-v_
v08 -s_ adf]lhd ;"rgf hf/L u/]kl5 ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn]
Margin Call u/]sf] ldltn] #% lbgleq ;DalGwt C0fLu|fxsaf6 Margin
jfktsf] /sd hDdf u/fO{ ;Sg' kg]{5 .
-u_
v08 -v_ cg'?k gePdf To;kl5sf] & lbg leqdf To;/L ;'/If0f /flvPsf]
z]o/ lwtf]kq ljlgdo ahf/ dfkm{t\ ljqmL u/L shf{ c;'npk/ ul/;Sg' kg]{5 .
-3_
v08 -u_ cg'?k c;'npk/ gePdf To:tf] shf{sf] nflu ztk|ltzt shf{
gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .
o;/L k|jfx ePsf] shf{sf] cjlw Ps jif{eGbf a9L x'g] 5}g . z]o/ lwtf] shf{ -Margin
type Lending_ pkef]u ul//x]sf C0fLn] cfkm"n] lnPsf] shf{sf] ;Dk"0f{ aSof}tf Aofh
e'QmfgL u/L shf{ lgoldt /x]sf] cj:yfdf To:tf] shf{ gjLs/0f ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
t/, cGo k|of]hgsf] nflu k|jfx ePsf] shf{sf] nflu yk ;'/If0f:j?k C0fLn] lbPsf]
z]o/ lwtf]sf] xsdf of] Joj:yf nfu" x'g] 5}g . ;DalGwt a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] shf{
k|of]hgsf ;DaGwdf cfjZos ;"rgf, tYof+s / ljj/0f ;DalGwt shf{ kmfOndf
cBfjlws u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 . ;f] ;DaGwdf yk lwtf] ;'/If0f:j?k lnOg] To:tf] z]o/,
cltl/Qm lwtf]sf] ?kdf dfq /xg] 5 .
b]xfosf cj:yfdf /x]sf ;+:yfx?sf] z]o/sf] lwtf]df shf{ k|bfg ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-s_
o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg adf]lhd k'FhLsf]ifsf] cg'kft sfod gu/]sf a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfx?,
-v_
g]6jy{ C0ffTds ePsf ;+:yfx?,
-u_
g]kfn lwtf]kq ljlgdo jhf/ lnld6]8n] ;"rLs/0faf6 x6fPsf (Delisted)
;+:yfx?,
-3_
cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] Ps jif{ cjlw k"/f x'Fbf ;d]t clGtd n]vfk/LIf0f
gug]{ ;+:yfx?,
lwtf]kq ljlgdo ahf/df ;"lrs[t ;+:yfx?sf] z]o/sf] lwtf]df shf{ k|bfg ug]{ ;DaGwdf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] cfgf] shf{ gLltlgb]{lzsfdf :ki6 Joj:yf eO{ cGo shf{
k|bfg u/] ;/x cjnDag ug'{ kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ k|ls|of k"/f u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
o:f/L k|jfx ePsf] shf{ c;n shf{df /x]sf] cj:yfdf afx]s cGo cj:yfdf zt
k|ltzt shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] j9Ldf cfgf] k|fylds k'FhL (Core Capital) a/fa/sf]
/sd;Dd dfq o; k|s[ltsf] shf{ k|jfx ug{ ;Sg]5 . ;fy}, o;/L shf{ k|bfg ubf{ a}+s
tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] Pp6f ;"rLs[t sDkgLsf] z]o/sf] xsdf cfgf] k|fylds k'FhL (Core
Capital) sf] a9Ldf @% k|ltztdf ggfg] u/L dfq shf{ k|jfx ug'{ kg]{5 .
o; k|of]hgsf] nflu k|fylds k'FhL (Core Capital) eGgfn] l7s cl3Nnf] qodf;sf]
cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIf0f ePsf] ljQLo ljj/0fsf] cfwf/df sfod x'g cfPsf] k|fylds k'FhL
;Demg' kb{5 .
ljutdf cfgf] k|fylds k'FhL (Core Capital) eGbf a9L shf{ k|bfg u/]sf a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfn] lgwf{l/t ;Ldfdf gcfP;Dd o:tf] k|s[ltsf] yk shf{ k|jfx ug{ kfOg]
5}g .
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] o:tf] shf{ k|jfx ubf{ z]o/sf] ;Ssn k|df0fkq lwtf] /fv]/
dfq shf{ k|bfg ug'{ kg]{5 .
t/, a|f]s/n] hdfgt lbg] ;DaGwL k|lqmof af/]df g]kfn lwtf]kq jf]8{ / g]kfn lwtf]kq
ljlgdo ahf/ ln= n] cfjZos Joj:yf u/]sf] cfwf/df z]o/sf] ;Ssn} k|df0fkq k|fKt
gePsf] cj:yfdf klg a|f]s/sf] hdfgt / z]o/ vl/bljqmL /l;bsf cfwf/df cfjZos

42

!&=

!*=

dflh{g sfod u/L a9Ldf Ps jif{sf] nflu shf{ k|bfg ug{ o; Joj:yfn] afwf k'ofPsf]
dflgg] 5}g . o:tf] shf{af6 ;[hgf x'g ;Sg] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] nflu Ohfhtkq k|fKt
;+:yfn] pko'Qm Joj:yf ldnfpg' kg]{5 .
-v_
a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:Yffx?n]] lwtf] ;'/If0f lnPsf z]o/sf ;DaGwdf M
!=
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] lwtf] ;'/If0f lnPsf Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfx?sf] z]o/ ;sf/ u/L shf{ c;'nL ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
@=
o; cl3 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] z]o/ ;sf/ u/L shf{ c;'nL u/]sf]
ePdf ;sf/ ul/Psf z]o/x? clgjfo{ ?kn] laqmL ug{' kg]{5 . ljz]if sf/0fjz laqmL x'g
g;sL afFsL /x]sf z]o/x?sf] xsdf z]o/ ;sf/ u/]sf] d"No a/fa/n] x'g cfpg] /sdsf]
zt k|ltzt gf]S;fgL Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
;+:yfks z]o/ lwtf]aGws /fvL shf{ k|jfx ug{] ;DaGwdf
b]xfosf zt{x? k"/f u/L a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] ;+:yfks z]o/ lwtf]aGws /fvL shf{ k|jfx ug{ ;lsg]
5M
-s_ ;+:yfks z]o/ lwtf] /fvL shf{ k|jfx ubf{ cfO{kg]{ hf]lvd lgoGq0f Pj+ Joj:yfkg ug{] cfjZos
pkfox? cjnDag ug'{ kg]{5 .
-v_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ! k|ltzt eGbf a9L ;+:yfks z]o/ wf/0f u/]sf
;+:yfks;+:yfks ;d"xsf z]o/wgLxn] cfkm"n] wf/0f u/]sf] ;+:yfks z]o/dWo] %) k|ltzt eGbf
a9L z]o/ lwtf] /fvL shf{ lng kfpg] 5}gg\ . o;k"j{ ;f] ;LdfeGbf a9L z]o/ lwtf] /fvL shf{
pkof]u ul//x]sfsf] xsdf pQm shf{sf] e'QmfgL ldlt jf @)^* cfiff9 d;fGtdWo] h'g klxn] x'G5,
;f] ;doleq tf]lsPsf] ;Ldfdf NofO;Sg'' kg]{5 .
-u_ ;+:yfks z]o/sf] lwtf]df shf{ k|jfx ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu ;'/If0f afkt /flvg] z]o/sf] d"Nofg ubf{
;fwf/0f z]o/sf] +kl5Nnf] !*) sfo{ lbgsf] cf};t d"Nosf] a9Ldf %) k|ltzt d"No jf ;+:yfks
z]o/sf] clGtd sf/f]jf/sf] d"NodWo] h'g sd x'G5 ;f] sf] cfwf/df d"No sfod ug'{ kg]{5 . o;/L
sfod ul/Psf] d"Nosf] a9Ldf ^) k|ltzt /sd;Dd dfq shf{ lbg ;lsg] 5 . Psk6s k|jfx
ul/;s]sf] o:tf] shf{sf] ;'/If0fdf /x]sf] z]o/sf] k'g/d"Nofg u/L ;f] sf] cfwf/df yk shf{ ;Ldf
sfod ug{ jf yk shf{ k|bfg ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
t/, ahf/ d"No sd eO{ shf{ c;'/lIft ePsf] cj:yfdf yk ;'/If0fsf] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
-3_ ;+:yfks z]o/ lwtf]aGws /fvL shf{ k|jfx ubf{ To:tf] z]o/nfO{ u}/ a}+ls ;DklQ (Non-Banking
Asset) df n}hfg kfO{g] 5}g / o;/L lwtf]jGws /flvPsf] ;+:yfks z]o/ e'QmfgL cjlw gf3]sf] ^
dlxgfleq k|rlnt sfg'g / o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zgsf] clwgdf /xL ljqmL u/L ;Sg' kg]{5 .
-_ ;+:yfks z]o/ lwtf]aGws /fvL shf{ k|jfx ePsf] cj:yfdf To:tf] shf{sf] e'QmfgL cjlw ls6fg
ug'{ kg]{5 / To:tf] cjlw Ps jif{ eGbf a9L x'g] 5}g .
-r_ ;+:yfks z]o/ lwtf] aGws /fvL shf{ k|jfx ubf{ To:tf] shf{sf] k'g/;+/rgf / k'g/tflnsLs/0f ug{
kfOg] 5}g .
-5_ ;+:yfks z]o/ lwtf]aGws /fvL shf{ k|jfx ubf{ c;n shf{ jfx]s cGo cj:yfdf ztk|ltzt shf{
gf]S;fgL Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
-h_ tf]lsPsf] e'QmfgL cjlwdf shf{ r'Qmf gu/]df ;+:yfks;~rfnsnfO{ @! lbgleq clgjfo{ ?kdf
sfnf];"rL (Black Listing) df /fVg l;kmfl/z ug'{ kg]{5 . ;f] ;DjGwL Joj:Yff C0f k|jfx ubf{ g}
C0fLnfO{ shf{ ;Demf}tf (Loan deed) df pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
-em_ dfly -s_ b]lv -em_ ;Dd plNnlvt Joj:yfx? a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfkm\gf] shf{ gLlt
ljlgoddf :ki6 ?kdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
a}+s hdfgt -Bank Guarantee_ ;DaGwdf
-s_
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] k|ls|of k"/f u/L hf/L u/]sf a}s hdfgt -Bank Guarantee_ afktsf]
/sd s'g} sf/0f k/L Beneficiary nfO{ e'QmfgL lbg' kg]{ cj:yfdf dfu bfjL k/]sf] ;ft lbgleq
e'QmfgL lbg]glbg] ;DaGwdf 6'f] nufO;Sg' kg]{5 .
-v_
o:f/L bfjL k/]sf] ;ft lbgleqdf a}+s hdfgt hf/L ug]{ ;+:yfn] Beneficiary nfO{ e'QmfgL lbg'
kg]{ cj:yfdf kof{Kt cfwf/ lagf e'QmfgL gu/]df ;DalGwt a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:Yffsf] o; a}+sdf
/x]]sf] vftf o; a}+sn] cfb]z lbPsf] a}+ssf] vftfaf6 sf u/L ;DalGwt Beneficiary nfO{

43

e'QmfgL ug{ ;lsg] 5 .


o;/L e'QmfgLsf nflu bfjL k/]sf] hdfgt afktsf] ;Defljt bfloTjnfO{ k'FhLsf]ifsf] cg'kft
u0fgf ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu @)) k|ltztn] hf]lvd ef/ k|bfg ug'{ kg]{5 .
!(=
cGt/a}+s sf/f]jf/;fk6LnufgL ;DaGwdf
-!_ o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf a}s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] Pscfk;df k|bfg ug]{
;fk6LnufgLnfO{ lgoldt shf{ ;fk6 -Regular Credit Facility_ sf] ?kdf geO{ cGt/a}+s
sf/f]jf/;fk6L nufgL -Interbank Transactions/Borrowings/Investment_ sf] ?kdf dfq k|of]u ug{
kfOg]5 . cGt/a}+s ;fk6Lsf] cjlw a9Ldf & lbg;Dd dfq x'g]5 . ;+rfns ;ldltaf6 :jLs[lt u/fO{
a9Ldf #) lbg;Ddsf] nflu o:tf] sf/f]af/ ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
t/ s, v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfkm"nfO{ dfGo x'g] c;n shf{ jf s'g} klg
k|s[ltsf] ;DklQsf] lwtf] ;'/If0f lnO{ a9Ldf 5 dlxgf;Ddsf] nflu b]xfosf zt{sf] clwgdf /xL Ps
cfk;df shf{;fk6L sf/f]jf/ ug{ pQm Joj:yfn] jfwf k'/\ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
-s_
o;/L lng] shf{;fk6L t/ntf Joj:yfkg ug{ tyf lgIf]kstf{nfO{ e'QmfgL lbg dfq pkof]u
ug'{kg]{ 5 .
-v_
o:tf] shf{;fk6L lng] ;+:yfn] ;f] shf{ r'Qmf gu?Gh]n;Dd shf{ k|jfx ug{ kfpg] 5}g .
-u_
o:tf] shf{;fk6Lsf] /sd @)^( ;fn cfiff9 d;fGtleq /fkm;fkm ul/;Sg' kg]{5 .
-@_ cf=j= @)^&.^* df cGt/a}+s nufgL efvfDofb gf3L lgoldt gePsf] cj:yfdf Psk6ssf] nflu
b]xfo adf]lhd ug{ ;lsg] gLltut Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 M
-s_
To:tf] nufgLnfO{ cf=j= @)^*^( leq ztk|ltzt ;+efljt xfgL jfkt Joj:yf ug]{ u/L
@)^* kf}if d;fGtdf nufgLsf] Go"gtd @% k|ltzt, @)^* r}q d;fGtdf nufgLsf] Go"gtd %)
k|ltzt / @)^( cfiff9 d;fGtdf nufgLsf] ztk|ltzt Joj:yf sfod ug'{ kg]{ .
-v_
cf=j= @)^&.^* df gub nfefFz Joj:yf ug]{ ePdf To:tf] nufgL jfkt ;f]xL cfly{s jif{df
nufgLdf ;+efljt xfgL jfkt Joj:yf u/]/ dfq gub nfefFz Joj:yf ug{ ;lsg] . ;fy},
sd{rf/L af]g;sf] xsdf pko'{Qm adf]lhd Joj:yf u/]kl5 dfq ljt/0f ug{ ;lsg] .
@)= :jLs[t ef}uf]lns sfo{If]qleq crn ;DklQ lwtf] /fvL shf{ k|jfx ug]{ ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt /fli6o:t/sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx? afx]s cGo ;+:yfx?n] crn ;DklQ lwtf] /fvL
shf{ k|jfx ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu kl/of]hgf shf{ afx]s cGo k|s[ltsf shf{sf] xsdf :jLs[t lwtf] cfgf]
ef}uf]lns sfo{If]qleqs} x'g'kg]{ 5 . o; ;DaGwL lgb]{zg -ldlt @)^%!!^, kl/kq #!)^%^^_ hf/L
x'g' cufj} tf]lsPsf] cfgf] sfo{If]q eGbf aflx/sf] crn ;DklQ lwtf] lnO{ k|jfx ePsf] kl/of]hgf
afx]ssf shf{sf]] xsdf @)^* kf}if d;fGtleq jf e'StfgL cjlw -Maturity Period_ dWo] h'g cl3 x'G5
To; ;do ;Ldfleq pk/f]Qm cg';f/sf] sf/f]jf/nfO{ ;dfof]hg ul/;Sg' kg]{5 . cGoyf, To:tf] shf{
c;'nL geP;Dd zt k|ltztn] shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .
@!=
l6=cf/=shf{ (Trust Receipt Loan) ;DaGwdf
6i6 l/l;K6 shf{ -TR Loan_ jf To:t} k|s[ltsf cfoft shf{ k|bfg ubf{ clwstd !@) lbg;Ddsf]
cjlwsf] nflu dfq k|jfx ug{ kfOg]] 5 .
@@=
r]ssf] lwtf];'/If0fdf shf{ k|jfx ug{ gkfOg] ;DaGwdf
-!_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] s'g} klg lsl;dsf] r]ssf] lwtf];'/If0fdf shf{ k|jfx ug{ kfOg]
5}g . t/, pka'Fbf -@_ sf] cj:yf afx]s k|rlnt gLltut Joj:yfsf] clwgdf /xL r]s -ljN;_ vl/b tyf
l8:sfpG6 ug{ afwf k'u]sf] dflgg] 5}g .
-@_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] b]xfo adf]lhdsf r]s vl/b ug{ kfpg] 5}g .
-s_ cfkm\gf] ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks;~rfnssd{rf/L tyf gLhx?sf] Psf3/ kl/jf/sf] ;b:osf] r]s jf
-v_ r]s vl/b ug]{ ldlteGbf kl5sf] ldlt pNn]v ePsf] -Post dated_ s'g} klg r]s .
-#_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] vl/b u/]sf] r]s vl/b u/]sf] lbg ;d]t a9Ldf tLg sfo{lbgleq
clgjfo{?kdf r]s sn]S;g jf ;dfzf]wgdf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
@#=
Revolving k|s[ltsf JolQmut shf{sf] ;DaGwdf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] Overdraft nufotsf Revolving k|s[ltsf JolQmut shf{x? k|jfx ubf{ ?=
! s/f]8;Dd dfq k|jfx ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ . t/, of] lgb]{zg hf/L x'g' cl3 ;Ldf eGbf a9L k|jfx ePsf
To:tf shf{x? @)&) cfiff9 d;fGt;Dd gljs/0f ug{ of] Joj:yfn] afwf k'/\ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
-u_

44

@$=

@%=

@^=
@&=

@*=

@(=
#)=
#!=

#@=
##=

Risk taker -;+rfns, k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t jf Joj:yfkg txsf] kbflwsf/L_ nfO{ k|jfx x'g] shf{
;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] csf]{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf ;+rfns, k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t jf Joj:yfkg
txsf] kbflwsf/LnfO{ lzIff shf{, xfo/ kr]{h shf{, 3/ shf{ jf 3/fo;L k|of]hgsf ;fdfu|L shf{ afx]s
cGo s'g} lsl;dsf shf{ k|jfx ug{gjLs/0f ug{ ;Sg] 5}gg\ .
PsfpG6k]oL r]s dfkm{t shf{ /sd lgsf;f ug'{ kg]{ ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] s'g} klg sDkgLkmd{ jf ;+ul7t ;+3;+:yfnfO{ :jLs[t shf{sf]
/sd lgsf;f ubf{ ;DalGwt a}+sljQLo ;+:yfdf g} vftf vf]nL hDdf ug'{ kg]{5 . ;f] afx]ssf] cj:yfdf
C0fL sDkgLkmd{ jf ;+ul7t ;+3;+:yfsf] gfddf PsfpG6k]oL r]s dfkm{t dfq shf{ /sd lgsf;f ug'{
kg]{5 .
kof{j/0fLo k|efjsf] ljZn]if0f u/]/ dfq shf{ k|jfx ug]{ ;DjGwdf
s'g} klg k|s[tLsf pBf]ux?df a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] shf{ nufgL ug'{k"j{ clgafo{ ?kdf kof{j/0fLo
k|efjsf] ljZn]if0f u/L shf{ k|jfx ug'{kg]{ 5 .
e'QmfgL tflnsf ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] k|jfx u/]sf] ls:tf c;'nL ;DaGwL
sfo{tflnsf lgdf{0f ubf{ ls;fgn] pTkfbg ug]{ afnL leq\ofpg] ;do / shf{sf] ls:tf e'QmfgL ug]{ ;do
aLr ;s];Dd tfnd]n ldNg] lsl;dn] To:tf] sfo{ tflnsf lgdf{0f ug'{kg]{ 5 .
hdfgt lbPsf] cj:yfdf hdfgLkqdf pNn]v u/]sf] /sd;Dd dfq lhDd]jf/ x'g]
hdfgt lbPsf] cj:yfdf hdfgLkqdf pNn]v u/]sf] /sdeGbf a9L /sdsf] nflu hdfgL lbg]
JolQmkmd{ sDkgL;+:yfnfO{ s'g} klg cj:yfdf lhDd]jf/ gu/fpg hdfgLkq tof/ ubf{ g} hdfgL
/sd, C0fsf] cjlw, C0fsf] k|of]hg, k|d'v C0fL, ;fIfL, hdfgtstf{sf] gfd, 7]ufgf, ;f] sf] ;gfvt
nufotsf ljifox? :ki6 ?kdf pNn]v x'g' kg]{5 .
clu|d e'QmfgL z'Ns ;DaGwdf
shf{ lnFbfsf] avt tf]lsPsf] zt{ jf Jofhb/ kl/jt{g ePsf] sf/0f C0fLn] cfkm\gf] cfDbfgL jf >f]taf6
shf{ cu|Ld e'QmfgL ug{ rfx]df To:tf] clu|d e'QmfgL u/] jfkt s'g} lsl;dsf] z'Ns lng kfOg] 5}g .
lwtf] km's'jf ;DaGwdf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfk'mn] u/]sf] shf{ nufgL adf]lhd c;'n pk/ ug'{ kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ /sd c;'n eO{
;s]kl5 ;'/If0f jfkt /flvPsf] lwtf] tTsfn k'ms'jfsf] nflu ;DalGwt sfof{nodf n]vL k7fpg' kg]{5 .
shf{ ;fk6sf] juL{s/0f ljj/0f k7fpg] ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfly{s jif{sf] cflZjg, kf}if, r}q / cfiff9 d;fGtdf shf{ juL{s/0f u/L ;+nUg
lgb]{zg kmf=g+= @=!, @=@ / @=# cg';f/sf ljj/0fx? qodf; ;dfKt ePsf] Ps dlxgfleq o; a}+ssf]
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
lgb]{zg kfngf gu/]df x'g ;Sg] sf/jfxL
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] of] lgb]{zg kfngf gu/]df g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf !)) jdf]lhd
sf/jfxL x'g]5 .
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] shf{;fk6sf] juL{s/0f / shf{ gf]S;fgL ;DaGwL Joj:yf O=k|f
lgb]{zg g+= @)^* af6 hf/L ul/Psf] lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd
hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

45

g]=/f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=@=!

shf{, ;fk6 tyf laN; vl/b juL{s/0f / ;f]sf] nflu Joj:yf


- === === === === === d;fGt _
-=bz nfvdf_
shf{ tyf ;fk6
ut
qodf;

ljj/0f

:jb]zL
ljkGg ju{
ljldt
cljldt

cGo

vl/b tyf l8:sfpG6


ul/Psf laN;
ljb]zL hDdf :jb]zL ljb]zL hDdf

!=

;lqmo shf{ ;fk6


c;n shf{
@= lgl:qmo shf{ ;fk6
@=! k'g/;+/rgfk'gtf{lnsLs/0f
@=@ sd;n
@=# z+sf:kb
@=$ v/fa
#= s'n shf{ ;fk6 -! @_
$= shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
$=! c;n
$=@ k'g/;+/rgfk'gtf{lnsLs/0f
$=# sd;n
$=$ z+sf:kb
$=% v/fj
$=^ cltl/St
$=& Psn u|fxs l;df gf3]sf]
$=* JolQmut hdfgLt];|f]kIfsf] lwtf]df
k|jfx ePsf] shf{sf] nflu yk
%= ut qodf;;Ddsf] shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=! c;n
^=@ k'g/;+/rgfk'gtf{lnsLs/0f
^=# sd;n
^=$ z+sf:kb
^=% v/fj
^=^ cltl/St
^=& Psn u|fxs l;df gf3]sf]
$=* JolQmut hdfgLt];|f]kIfsf] lwtf]df
k|jfx ePsf] shf{sf] nflu yk
^= o; qodf;sf] gf]S;fgL Joj:yf lkmtf{
&= o; qodf;sf] yk shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
*= o; qodf;df yklkmtf{
(= s'n shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf -%-^&_
v'b shf{ -#$_
ldlt M

clws[t b:tvt

46

o;
qodf;sf]
hDdf

g]=/f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=@=@

u|fxslkR5] juL{s/0f ul/Psf] shf{x? tyf ;f]sf] gf]S;fgL Joj:yf ;DaGwL ljj/0f
===============;fn ==================d;fGt
zfvf

;d"x
sf]
gfd

C[0fL nufgL
sf] sf/f]jf/
gfd
ldlt

sf]ifdf cfwfl/t shf{

e'QmfgL u}/ sf]ifdf cfwfl/t


ldlt
;'ljwf
-?_

shf{ :jLs[t afFsL afFsL Effvf


k|sf/ ;Ldf ;fFjf Aofh gf3]sf]
-?_
-?_ -?_ ;fFjf -?_

:jLs[t
;Ldf
-?_

shf{ Joj:yf

afFsL AfuL{s/0f Joj:yf


;fFjf
-?_
-?_

ljkGg s}lkmot
ju{
/sd
?=

s'n hDdf M
ldlt

b|i6Jo M !_

@_
#_
$_
%_
^_
&_

clws[tsf] gfd
b:tvt
ls:tfaGbLdf k|bfg ul/Psf cfjlws shf{x? (Term Loan) sf] xsdf klxnf] ls:tfn] efsf gf3]sf] ldlt g}
e'QmfgL ldlt x'g]5 . olb s'g} shf{sf] e'QmfgL ldlt g} gePdf sf]ifdf cfwfl/t shf{ ;'ljwfdf kl/0ft ePsf]
ldlt (Booking date) nfO{ g} e'QmfgL ldlt dfGg' kg]{5 . -h:t}M Uof/]06L e'QmfgL, Forced L/C, rfn' vftf
lagf lnld6 cf]e/8g ePdf cflb_ .
e'QmfgL ldlt lbgdlxgf;fn (day/month/year) cg';f/ /fVg' kg]{5 .
obL shf{x?nfO{ e'QmfgL ldlt eGbf leGg cfwf/df juL{s/0f ul/Pdf, juL{s/0f ul/Psf] sf/0f s}lkmot dxndf
pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . -pbfx/0fsf] nfluM C0fL sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ePdf, Aoa;fo ;~rfng gePdf, shf{
b'?kof]u ePdf cflb_ .
ljkGg ju{ shf{ ;DjlGw ljj/0fx? 5'} ljj/0fsf] ?kdf s'n /sd ;lxt b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
of] shf{ ljj/0fdf Ps} ;d"xsf C0fLx?sf] ljj/0f 5'lg] u/L k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
shf{ auL{s/0fdf c;n, k'g/tflnsLs/0fk'g/;+/rgf, sd;n, z+sf:kb tyf v/fj nfO{ qmdzM !, @, #, $ /
% pNn]v ug'{ kb{5 .
of] ljj/0fsf] OskL dfq k7fpg' kg]{5 . xf8{skL k7fpg'kg]{ 5}g .

g]=/f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=@=#

u}/ a}+ls ;DklQsf] gf]S;fgL Joj:yf ;DjGwL ljj/0f


===============;fn ==================d;fGt
qm=;+=

C0fL jf kf6L{sf]
gfd 7]ufgf

u}/ a}+ls ;DklQ


;sf/ u/]sf] ldlt

s'n u}/ a}+ls


;DklQ /sd ?=

-!_

-@_

-#_

-$_

gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
k|ltzt /sd ?=
-%_

s"n hDdf
ldlt

clws[tsf] gfd
b:tvt

47

-^_

v'b u}/ a}+ls ;DklQ


/sd ?=
-$_-^_

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= #)^(
laifo: Psn u|fxs tyf If]qut shf{ ;fk6 / ;'ljwfsf] ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf .

o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfaf6 Pp6} u|fxs, kmd{, sDkgL jf cfk;L ;DaGw ePsf u|fxsx?sf]
;d"xnfO{ tyf cy{ Joj:yfsf] Ps} If]qdf k|jfx x'g] shf{sf ;DjGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf &( n]
lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
!=
shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwfsf] ;Ldf lgwf{/0f
-!_

-@_
-s_
-v_
-u_

-3_
-_

s, v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] nflu


Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] Pp6} u|fxs, kmd{, sDkgL jf cfk;L ;DaGw ePsf u|fxsx?sf] ;d"xnfO{
sf]ifdf cfwfl/t (Fund Based) / u}/sf]ifdf cfwfl/t (Non-Fund Based) ;'ljwfx? ;d]t u/L
cfgf] k|fylds k'FhLsf] a9Ldf @% k|ltzt;Dd k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]5g\ .
b]zsf] pTkfbg, /f]huf/L nufotsf kIfnfO{ b[li6ut u/L lgof{t If]q, ;fgf tyf demf}nf pBf]u,
cf}ifwL pTkfbg pBf]u, s[lif If]q, ko{6g pBf]u, l;d]G6 pBf]u, kmnfd pBf]u tyf cGo
pTkfbgd"ns pBf]ux?df k|jfx x'g] shf{sf] Psn u|fxs shf{ ;Ldf clwstd #) k|ltzt sfod
ul/Psf] 5 .
o;/L shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwf k|bfg ubf{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] nflu cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIfsn]
k|dfl0ft u/]sf] l7s cl3Nnf] qodf;sf] jf;nftdf b]lvg] k|fylds k'FhLsf] cfwf/df k|ltu|fxs
shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwfsf] ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ug'{ kg]{5 . sf]ifdf cfwfl/t shf{ / u}/ sf]ifdf
cfwfl/t ;'ljwf leGgleGg ljifo ePsf] x'Fbf oL b'j}nfO{ hf]8]/ k|ltu|fxs shf{sf] s'n ;Ldf
u0fgf ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] nflu
ljkGg jf Go"g cfo ePsf JolQmnfO{ ;fd'lxs hdfgLdf n3' Joj;fo ;+rfng ug{ k|lt ;d"x ;b:o
a9Ldf ;fLxhf/ ?k}of;Dd / gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ k|ljlw cGtu{t Solar Home Systems /jf Bio-gas
k|of]hgsf] nflu k|lt kl/jf/ a9Ldf ;fLxhf/ ?k}ofF;Dd n3' shf{ pknJw u/fpg ;lsg] 5 .
n3' pBd ;+rfngsf] nflu :jLsf/of]Uo lwtf]jf ;fd"lxs hdfgLdf ;d"x ;b:onfO{ qmdzM a[l4 u/L
k|lt Joj;fo Ps nfv krf; xhf/ ?k}ofFdf ga9\g] u/L n3'pBd shf{ pknJw u/fpg ;lsg] 5 .
t/, o:tf] n3' pBd shf{ s'n shf{ nufgLsf] a9Ldf klRr; k|ltzt;Dd dfq k|jfx ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
ljut b'O{ jif{b]lv shf{ pkef]u u/L c;n ju{df k/]sf k|lt ;d"x ;b:oJolQmnfO{
;fd"lxsJolQmut hdfgtdf k|jfx ug'{ kg]{ shf{sf] ljBdfg ;Ldf ?= ^) xhf/sf] ;f ?= ()
xhf/ ul/Psf] 5 . o;}u/L n3' pBd shf{sf] ?= ! nfv %) xhf/sf] ;Ldfsf] ;f ?= @ nfv
sfod ul/Psf] 5 . t/, pQm dfkb08 k"/f gu/]sfsf] xsdf ljkGg ju{ shf{ ;Ldf ?= ^) xhf/ /
?= ! nfv %) xhf/ g} x'g]5 .
?= @ nfv;Ddsf] shf{ k|jfx ubf{ s'n shf{sf] ljBdfg @% k|ltztsf] ;Ldfsf] ;f Ps ltxfO{
eGbf a9L x'g gx'g] Joj:yf sfod ul/Psf] 5 .
yf]s sf/f]jf/ ug]{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt 3 ju{sf] ;+:yfn] Pp6} u|fxs, kmd{, sDkgL, ;+:yf jf cfk;L
;DaGw ePsf u|fxsx?sf] ;d"xnfO{ k|bfg ul/g] shf{sf] ;Ldf k|fylds k'FhLsf] a9Ldf @% k|ltzt
sfod ul/Psf] 5 .
:ki6Ls/0f
o; pkbkmfsf] k|of]hgsf] nflu n3' Joj;fo eGgfn] bzhgf eGbf sd JolQm sfddf ;+nUg eO{
;+rflnt x'g] cfod"ns Joj;fo ;Demg' k5{ .

48

@=

hnljB't kl/of]hgf, ljB't k|;f/0f nfOg -Transmission Line_ / s]jnsf/ lgdf{0f kl/of]hgfdf shf{
k|jfx ug]{ ;DaGwdfM
-s_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] hnljB't kl/of]hgf, ljB't k|;f/0f nfOg -Transmission Line_ /
s]jnsf/ lgdf{0f kl/of]hgfdf sf]ifdf cfwfl/t shf{ tyf u}/ sf]ifdf cfwfl/t ;'ljwf k|fylds
k'FhLsf] a9Ldf %) k|ltzt;Dd k|jfx ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
t/, hnljB't kl/of]hgfsf] xsdf k|fylds k'FhLsf] @% k|ltzteGbf a9L shf{ k|jfx ug'{ kg]{
cj:yfdf ;DalGwt lgsfo;Fu clgjfo{ ?kdf ljB't vl/b ;Demf}tf (Power Purchase
Agreement) ePsf] x'g' kg]{5 .
-v_
o:tf kl/of]hgfsf] e'QmfgL tflnsf -Repayment Schedule_ tof/ ubf{ gub k|jfx tyf cGo
k|df0fsf] cfwf/df k'li6 x'g] u/L ug'{ kg]{5 .
-u_
kl/of]hgf ljZn]if0f u/L ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] to u/]sf] Moratorium Period
cyjf To:tf] kl/of]hgfjf6 ljB't pTkfbg x'g] ;dodWo] h'g ;do cufl8 x'G5 ;f]xL ldltaf6
ls:tf c;'n ug'{ kg]{5 .
-3_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ljMz'4 hnljB't kl/of]hgf, ljB't k|zf/0f nfOg
(Transmission Line) / s]jnsf/ lgdf{0f ;DaGwL kl/of]hgfx?df nufgL ubf{ dfq ljBdfg @%
k|ltztsf] Psn u|fxs shf{ ;LdfnfO{ a[l4 u/L sf]ifdf cfwfl/t shf{ tyf u}/ sf]ifdf cfwfl/t
;'ljwf ;d]t u/L hDdf k|fylds k'FhLsf] a9Ldf %) k|ltzt;Dd nufgL ;Ldf sfod ul/Psf]
5 . t/, hnljB't kl/of]hgf, ljB't k|zf/0f nfOg (Transmission Line) / s]jnsf/ lgdf{0f
;DaGwL kl/of]hgf ;DaGwL u|fxsn] u}/ hnljB'tljB't k|zf/0f nfOgs]jnsf/ kl/of]hgfdf
klg nufgL ug{ rfx]df %) k|ltztsf] ;Ldf ggf3\g] u/L sf]ifdf cfwfl/t shf{ tyf u}/ sf]ifdf
cfwfl/t ;'ljwf ;d]t u/L a9Ldf @% k|ltzt;Dd dfq shf{;'ljwf k|jfx ug{ ;lsg] 5 .

-pbfx/0fsf] nflu, M sf]if tyf u}/ sf]ifdf cfwfl/t ;'ljwf ;d]t u/L hDdf k|fylds k'FhLsf] %)
k|ltzt ljz'4 hnljB't kl/of]hgfljB't k|;f/0f nfOgs]jnsf/ kl/of]hgfdf nufgL u/]df
cGodf nufgL ug{ kfOg] 5}g . sf]if tyf u}/ sf]ifdf cfwfl/t ;'ljwf ;d]t u/L hDdf k|fylds
k'FhLsf] $) k|ltzt dfq ljz'4 hnljB't kl/of]hgfljB't k|zf/0f nfOgs]jnsf/
kl/of]hgfdf nufgL u/]df cGodf !) k|ltzt;Dd dfq nufgL ug{ kfOg] 5 . sf]if tyf u}/
sf]ifdf cfwfl/t ;'ljwf ;d]t u/L hDdf k|fylds k'FhLsf] ! k|ltztb]lv @% k|ltzt dfq ljz'4
hnljB't kl/of]hgfljB't k|zf/0f nfOgs]jnsf/ kl/of]hgfdf nufgL u/]df cGodf @%
k|ltzt;Dd dfq nufgL ug{ kfOg] 5 . _

#=

$=

sy+sbflrt, u}/ hnljB'tljB't k|zf/0f nfOg s]jnsf/ kl/of]hgfdf tf]lsPsf] ;Ldf gf3L
shf{ k|jfx u/]df ;Ldf gf3]sf] /sd a/fa/sf] shf{df ztk|ltzt shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod
ug'{ kg]{5 .
;Ldf ;dfof]hg
u|fxsn] jf;nft aflx/sf ;'ljwfx? Ps k6s pkof]u ul/;s] kl5 o:tf] ;'ljwf sf]ifdf cfwfl/t shf{df
kl/0ft ePdf To:tf] u|fxssf] nflu ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ubf{ sf]ifdf cfwfl/t shf{ ;Ldf ;DaGwL lgb]{zg nfu"
x'g]5 .
shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwfsf] ;Ldfdf 5'6
b]xfosf shf{ ;fk6 jf ;'ljwfsf] xsdf a''Fbf g+= ! df pNn]v ul/Psf] ;Ldf nfu" x'g] 5}g M
-s_ d'2lt /l;b, g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;'/If0fkq, g]kfn /fi6 a}+s C0fkqsf] lwtf]df / ljZj a}+s,
Pl;ofnL ljsf; a}+s tyf cGt//fli6o ljQ lgud nufotsf g]kfn ;b:o ePsf] cGt//fli6o
ax'kIfLo (Multilateral) ljQLo ;+:yfx? tyf cGt//fli6o >]0fLs[t (Rated) a}+ssf] lgMzt{
hdfgtdf k|bfg ul/g] shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwfx? .
;fy}, ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 cg'/f]w eO{ cfPdf o; a}+sn] hf/L u/]sf] lgb]{zgdf
pNn]v ePsf] Joj:yf ;d]t sfod /xg] u/L To:tf cGt//fli6o ax'kIfLo ;+:yfn] hf/L ug]{
hdfgt (Guarantee) df cfwfl/t eO{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] k|bfg ug]{ shf{df k'FhLsf]ifsf]
cg'kft u0fgf ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu z"Go hf]lvd ef/ (Zero Risk Weight) k|bfg ug{ ;lsg] 5 .

:ki6Ls/0fM cGt//fli6o >]0fLs[t (Rated) a}+s eGgfn] ;+o'Qm clw/fHo a]nfotsf] n08gaf6
k|sflzt The Banker klqsfn] k|To]s jif{ h'nfO{ dlxgfdf k|sfzg ug]{ Top Thousand World
Banks sf] ;"rLdf l7s cl3Nnf] jif{ ;dfj]z ePsf a}+sx?nfO{ ;Demg' kg]{5 .

49

-v_

%=

^=

&=

*=
(=

b]xfosf ;+:yfx?nfO{ s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfaf6 k|bfg ul/g] shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwfx?
!=
g]kfn cfon lgud ln=
@=
g]kfn vfB ;+:yfg
;+o'Qm nufgLstf{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] Uof/]06L tyf sfp06/ Uof/]06Ldf shf{ tyf ;'ljwf k|bfg ug{]
Joj:yf
;+o'Qm nufgLdf ;~rfngdf cfPsf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] ;+o'Qm nufgLstf{ a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfx?sf] Uof/]06L tyf sfp06/ Uof/]06Ldf shf{ tyf ;'ljwf k|bfg ug{ s'g} afwf kg]{ 5}g . t/, o;/L
k|bfg ul/Psf] shf{df k|ltu|fxs shf{ ;Ldfsf] Joj:yf eg] nfu" x'g]5 . To:tf ;+o'Qm nufgLstf{ a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yf cGt/f{li6o >]0fLs[t (Rated) a}+s ePdf dfly a'Fbf g+ $ sf] -s_ df pNn]v eP adf]lhd s}
Joj:yf nfu" x'g]5 .
cfk;L ;DaGw ePsf u|fxsx?nfO{ Pp6} ;d"x dflgg] Joj:yf
shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwf ;Ldfsf] k|of]hgsf] lgldQ cfk;L ;DaGw ePsf u|fxsx?sf] ;d"xnfO{ b]xfosf
cj:yfdf Pp6} ;d"x dflgg] 5 M
-s_
s'g} sDkgLn] csf]{ sDkgLsf] kRrL; k|ltzt jf ;f]eGbf a9L z]o/ lnPsf] eP To:tf b'j}
sDkgLx?,
-v_
s'g} JolQm, sDkgLsf] ;~rfns, k|fOe]6 lnld6]8 sDkgLsf z]o/wgL, ;fem]bf/L kmd{sf ;fem]bf/,
kmd{sf k|f]k|fO6/ tyf To:tf JolQm, ;~rfns, z]o/wgL, ;fem]bf/ jf k|f]k|fO6/sf Psf3/df a;f]af;
u/L cfPsf jf 5'fleGg ePsf klt jf kTgL, 5f]/f, 5f]/L, wd{k'q, wd{k'qL, afa', cfdf, ;f}t]gL cfdf
/ cfk"mn] kfngkf]if0f ug'{ kg]{ bfh', efO, tyf lbbL, alxgL,
-u_
v08 -v_ df plNnlvt JolQmx?n] PSn} jf ;+o'Qm?kdf csf]{ sDkgLsf] @% k|ltzt jf ;f] eGbf a9L
z]o/ lnPsf] eP To:tf sDkgLx?,
-3_
v08 -v_ df plNnlvt JolQmx?n] PSn} jf ;+o'Qm ?kdf csf]{ sDkgLsf] kRrL; k|ltzt eGbf sd
z]o/ lnPsf] eP tfklg To:tf] sDkgLsf] Joj:yfkgdf b]xfosf lsl;daf6 lgoGq0f ePsf To:tf
sDkgLx?M
-!_
;~rfns ;ldltsf] cWoIf eO{,
-@_
sDkgLsf] sfo{sf/L k|d'v eO{, jf
-#_
sDkgLsf] ;~rfnsx?dWo] @% k|ltzteGbf a9L ;~rfnsx? lgo'Qm u/L .
-_
Ps} ;d"xsf egL cfj4 /x]sf kmd{, sDkgL jf To:tf ;d"xsf ;b:ox?,
-r_
v08 -v_ jdf]lhd Pp6f u|fxs jf sDkgLn] csf]{ u|fxs jf sDkgLnfO{ hdfgt lbPsf] eP To:tf
sDkgLx?,
-5_
Pp6} lwtf]df PseGbf a9L JolQmx?nfO{ shf{ k|jfx u/]sf] eP To:tf JolQmx?,
-h_
Ps cfk;df JolQmut hdfgL lbO{ Cross Guarantee /x]sf] 5 eg] To:tf] hdfgL lbg]lng]
JolQmx?,
-em_ kmd{, sDkgL afx]s cGo ;+:yfx?sf] xsdf ;f] ;+:yf ;+rfng, lgoGq0f jf Joj:yfkgdf k|ToIf
;+nUg JolQm jf lghsf] Psf3/df a;f]af; u/L cfPsf jf 5'fleGg ePsf klt jf kTgL, 5f]/f,
5f]/L, wd{k'q, wd{k'qL, afa', cfdf, ;f}t]gL cfdf / cfk"mn] kfngkf]if0f ug'{ kg]{ bfh', efO, tyf lbbL,
alxgL .
cfk;L ;DaGw ePsf u|fxsx?sf] ljj/0f k7fpg' kg]{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] Pp6f u|fxs jf cfk;L ;DaGw ePsf u|fxsx?sf] clen]v cw{jflif{s ?kdf
tof/ u/L Ps dlxgfleq o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu tyf ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f
ljefudf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
cnu ;d"xsf] ?kdf lnOg] Joj:yf
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] k"0f{ jf krf; k|ltzt eGbf a9L :jfldTj ePsf] ;+ul7t ;+:yf jf sDkgLnfO{ 5'} cnu_ ;d"xsf] ?kdf lnOg] 5 .
clws]lGb|t hf]lvd (Concentration Risk) Go"gLs/0f ug{] Joj:yf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] s'g} Pp6f u|fxs, kmd{, sDkgL jf cfk;L ;DaGw ePsf u|fxsx?sf] ;d"xnfO{
a'Fbf g+= -!_ sf] pka'Fbf -!_ df tf]lsPsf] ;LdfeGbf a9L shf{ ;fk6 jf ;'ljwf k|bfg u/]df To;af6
pTkGg x'g] clws]lGb|t hf]lvd vfDgsf] nflu ;LdfeGbf a9L k|bfg ul/Psf] shf{ ;fk6 jf ;'ljwfsf] zt
k|ltzt yk shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf (Loan Loss Provision) sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .

50

!)=

!!=

7"nf C0fLx?sf] shf{ ljj/0f k]z ug'{ kg]{


o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf a}+sx?df /x]sf 7"nf C0fL -?= % s/f]8 eGbfa9L shf{ pkof]u
ug]{_ sf] shf{nfO{ ;dod} cg'udg ug{ o; a}+saf6 pknAw Big Borrower Software cg';f/ b]xfosf]
ljj/0f k7fpg' kg]{5 .
!=
s ju{sf a}+sx?n] pQm Software df /x]sf ljj/0fx? tyf xfn /x]sf C0fLx?sf] ;d"xsf] gfd
yk ug'{k/]df jf kl/jt{g ug'{ k/]df ;f] ljj/0f cfgf ;j} zfvfx?sf] ;d]t ;dli6ut ?kdf
tof/ u/L qodf; ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] ! dlxgfleq a}+s ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf cfOk'Ug] u/L email jf Compact Disc dfkm{t clgjfo{ ?kdf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
Software df Data Entry ubf{ qodf;nfO{ qmdzM !, @, #, $ / cfly{s jif{nfO{ kl5Nnf @ c+s
@=
pNn]v u/L tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
If]qut shf{ ;DjGwL Joj:yf
-!_
hf]lvd lgoGq0f ug{sf] nflu Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] kof{Kt cfGtl/s gLlt lgodx?sf] Joj:yf
u/L If]qut shf{ ;3gtfsf] cg'udg ug'{ kg]{5 . t/, o; a}+sn] lgb]{zg lbPdf a'Fbf g+= (
adf]lhd yk shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf ug{' kg]{5 . cy{ Joj:yfsf ljleGg If]qx?sf] ;"rL ;+nUg
lgb]{zg kmf=g+= # df pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .
-@_
If]qut ?kdf k|jfx ul/Psf] shf{ tyf ;'ljwfnfO{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] shf{ ;3gtf cg';f/
b]xfo adf]lhd b'O{ txdf 5'6fP/ cg'udg, lgoGq0f tyf ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 M
-kmf=g=+ (=# sf] 9fFrf cg';f/_
-s_
tx ! M k|fylds k'FhLsf] %) - !)) k|ltzt;Dd Pp6} If]qdf k|jflxt shf{ ;fk6 /
;'ljwf . o:tf] shf{sf] dfkg / cg'udgsf] sfo{ljlw tyf ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] Joj:yf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf cfkm}n] u/L slDtdf q}dfl;s ?kdf cg'udg ug'{ kg]{5 .
-v_
tx @ M k|fylds k'FhLsf] zt k|ltzteGbf a9L Pp6} If]qdf k|jflxt shf{ ;fk6 /
;'ljwfsf ;DjGwdf o:tf] shf{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;~rfns ;ldltaf6 ;d]t
cg'df]bg u/fOPsf] x'g' kg]{5 . Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;~rfns ;ldltn] To:tf
shf{x?sf] ;Ldf k|fylds k'FhLsf] zt k|ltzt eGbf a9L sfod /fVg] jf g/fVg] eGg]
;DaGwdf jflif{s ?kdf lg0f{o ug'{ kg]{5 / ;f] lg0f{osf] hfgsf/L o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
-#_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf -s'g} Ps cfly{s If]qdf dfq shf{ k|jfx ug{ :jLs[lt kfPsf
ljQLo ;+:yf jfx]s_ n] s'g} Ps If]qdf cfkm\gf] s'n afFsL shf{ ;fk6sf] a9Ldf $) k|ltzt;Dd
shf{ k|jfx ug{ kfOg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . o;k"j{ $) k|ltzteGbf sd ;Ldf tf]lsPsf If]qxdf
eg] ;f]xL adf]lhd x'g]5 .
-gf]6MM If]qut shf{ ;DaGwL ljj/0f g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= #=! sf] 9fFrfdf ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf
dfl;s ?kdf dlxgf ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] !% lblgleqdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . _

-$_

3/hUuf tyf l/on :6]6 shf{ ;DaGwL Joj:yf M

-s_ 3/hUuf tyf l/on :6]6sf] ;'/If0fdf k|jfx x'g] shf{sf] /sd lwtf] ;'/If0fdf /flvPsf] 3/hUuf
tyf l/on :6]6 ;DklQsf] Fair Market Value sf] ^) k|ltzt ggfg] u/L dfq shf{ k|bfg ug'{
kg]{5 . t/, cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ (Residential Real Estate) sf] xsdf Fair Market Value sf]
b'O{ ltxfO{;Dd shf{ k|jfx ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
-v_ cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{, Joj;flos ejg tyf cfjf;Lo ckf6{d]06 lgdf{0f shf{, lgdf{0f ;DkGg eO{
cfo cfh{g ug{ yfn]sf] Jofkfl/s sDKn]S; shf{{ tyf cGo l/on :6]6 shf{ -hUufhdLg vl/b
tyf Knl6+u shf{ ;d]t_ u/L s'n shf{sf] @% k|ltzteGbf a9L gx'g] u/L shf{ ;Ldf tf]lsPsf]
5 . ;fy}, cGo l/on :6]6 shf{ -hUufhdLg vl/b tyf Knl6+u shf{ ;d]t_ sf] nflu k|jfx x'g]
shf{sf] ;Ldf s'n shf{sf] !) k|ltzt sfod ul/Psf] 5 .
-u_ of] lgb]{zg nfu" x'Fbf pQm ;LdfeGbf a9L shf{ k|jfx eO;s]sf] cj:yfdf To:tf Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfx?n] b]xfo adf]lhdsf] ;dofjlwleq b]xfo adf]lhdsf] ;Ldfleq NofO;Sg' kg]{5 .

51

zLif{s
@)^* cfiff9 d;fGtdf
-c_ cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{
-cf_ Joj;flos ejg tyf cfjf;Lo ckf6{d]06
lgdf{0f shf{
s'n shf{sf] a9Ldf #) k|ltzt
-O_ lgdf{0f ;DkGg eO{ cfo cfh{g ug{ yfn]sf]
Jofkfl/s sDKn]S; shf{
-O{_ cGo l/on :6]6 shf{ -hUufhdLg vl/b
s'n shf{sf] a9Ldf !% k|ltzt
tyf Knl6+u shf{ ;d]t_
s'n shf{sf] a9Ldf #) k|ltzt
hDdf [-c_, -cf_, -O_ / -O{_]

@)&) cfiff9 d;fGtdf

s'n shf{sf] a9Ldf @% k|ltzt


s'n shf{sf] a9Ldf !) k|ltzt
s'n shf{sf] a9Ldf @% k|ltzt

-!_ l/on :6]6 shf{ ;fk6 eGgfn] lgb]{zg g+= ( sf] lgb]{zg kmf= g+= (=# -s_ k|of]hg cg';f/sf]
shf{ ;fk6df plNnlvt k|i6Ls/0fsf] l;=g+= % sf] l/on :6]6 shf{nfO{ a'emfpg] 5 .
-@_ shf{ k|jfx ubf{ tf]lsPsf] ;dofjlw cg';f/sf] ;Ldf gfg]u/L Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] pQm
k|of]hgProduct x?df k|bfg u/]sf] shf{sf] k'g/;+/rgf jf gjLs/0f ug{ kfpg] 5}gg\ .
t/ o; kl/kqsf] ;+/rgf Pj+ efjgfnfO{ k|lts'n c;/ gkfg]{ u/L cGo ;Dk"0f{ Joj:yfnfO{
oyfjt sfod /fvL l/on :6]6 shf{ ;'ljwf pkef]u u/]sf C0fLn] ;Dk"0f{ aSof}tf Jofh e'QmfgL
u/]sf] cj:yfdf @)&) cfiff9 d;fGt;Ddsf] nflu gjLs/0f ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
-#_ ;du| ;Ldf sfod ug]{ l;nl;nfdf s'g} shf{ ljz]ifnfO{ e'QmfgL Dofb cufj} c;'nL ug]{ u/L
snAofs ug{ o; Joj:yfn] afWo u/fPsf] 5}g . Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] k|To]s shf{sf]
ls:tfaGbLsf] cfwf/df sfod /fv]sf] e'QmfgL Dofb;Dd ;f] shf{nfO{ ;f]xL ls:tf adf]lhd shf{
c;'n ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
-$_ of] lgb]{zg k|yd k6s hf/L x'g' -ldlt @)^^)()@_ cufj} pQm k|of]hgProduct
cGtu{tsf] shf{ ;Ldf :jLs[t eO{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] shf{ k|ltatf lbO;s]sf] xsdf ;f]
k|ltatf cGtu{tsf] /sd a/fj/sf] shf{ k|jfx ug{ of] lgb]{zgn] afwf k'ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
-%_ of] lgb]{zg k|yd k6s hf/L eP -ldlt @)^^)()@_ kZrft k|bfg ul/Psf l/on :6]6 shf{
@)^* cfiff9 d;fGt / @)^( cfiff9 d;fGtsf nflu lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] ;Ldfleq gcfPdf of]
lgb]{zgsf] pNn\3g ePsf] dflgg] 5 . o;/L k|bfg ePsf] l/on :6]6 shf{ ;Ldf gf3]df
gf3]hlt /sdsf] nflu s'n hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQsf] u0fgf ubf{ !%) k|ltztsf] hf]lvd ef/
k|bfg ug'{ kg]{5 .
-^_ ax'cfjf;Lo 3/sf nflu Ps dfq a}+sn] shf{ k|jfx ug]{ eP ;f]xL a}+s / ;xljQLos/0f
cGtu{tsf] shf{ eP cu'jf a}+sdf ckf6{d]G6 vl/bstf{x?n] Down Payment jf a'ls v'Nnf
u/]kl5 hDdf u/]sf] /sd clgjfo{?kn] ;DalGwt a}+s jf cu'jf a}+sdf hDdf u/fOPsf] x'g'
kg]{5 .
-3_ JolQmut cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ -Home Loan_ ;DaGwL Joj:yf
-!_ a'Fbf g=+ $ sf] v08 -v_ / -u_ adf]lhd ;Ldf u0fgf ubf{ ?= ! -Ps_ s/f]8 jf ;f] eGbf
sdsf] JolQmut cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{nfO{ ;dfj]z ug{'kg]{ 5}g .
-@_ JolQmut cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ eGgfn] a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] u|fxssf] cfo>f]t x]/L ;f] >f]tn]
kof{Kt wfGg] ls:tf sfod u/L pQm u|fxsn] cfkm}+ k|of]u ug]{ jf ef8fdf nufpg] p2]Zon] 3/
lgdf{0f, 3/ckf6{d]G6 vl/bsf] nflu k|jfx u/]sf] cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ -Home Loan_ nfO{ dfq
a'emfpg]5 .
-#_ of] v08 adf]lhdsf] JolQmut cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ k|jfx ubf{ a}+sljQLo ;+:yf cfkm}+n] Product
Paper tof/ u/L ;DalGwt ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldltn] :jLs[t u/] kZrft dfq o:tf] k|s[ltsf]
shf{ k|jfx ug'{ kg]{5 .
-$_ of] v08 adf]lhdsf] JolQmut cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ Pp6f a}+sljQLo ;+:yfaf6 Pp6f kl/jf/nfO{
Pp6f;Dd dfq k|bfg ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
l6Kk0fLM Pp6} If]qdf k|jflxt shf{ eGgfn] cy{Joj:yfsf] Ps} If]qsf u|fxsx?df k|jflxt shf{ ;fk6 / hdfgt,
arga4tf, k|lttkq h:tf ;'ljwfx? ;Demg' k5{ .

52

!@=

pTkfbgzLn If]q shf{ ;DjGwL Joj:yf


-s_ s[lif, phf{, ko{6g, 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]utkm{M
-!_
pTkfbgzLn / vf;u/L s[lif, phf{, ko{6g, 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]utkm{ kof{Kt nufgL ;'lglZrt
ug{ xfn tf]lsPsf pTkfbgzLn If]qdf sfod Industry Average sf] !) k|ltzt eGbf sd jf
a9L nufgL ug]{ a}+sxn] tLg jif{leq cf};t shf{ nufgL Industry Average sf] @) k|ltzt
k'ofpg' kg]{ Joj:yf cg';f/ tof/ ul/Psf] jflif{s sfo{of]hgfnfO{ cg'udg ug{ ;lsg] u/L x/]s
jif{ cw{jflif{s nIo lgwf{/0f ug'{ kg]{5 .
-@_
pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] cw{jflif{s nIo cg';f/ shf{ nufgL eP gePsf] af/] ;+rfns ;ldltn]
k|To]s ^.^ dlxgfdf ;dLIff ug'{ kg]{5 .
-#_
pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhdsf] ;dLIff ljj/0f lgb]{zg kmf= g+= #=@ adf]lhdsf] 9fFrfdf cw{jflif{s cjlw
;dfKt ePsf] Ps dlxgfleq a}+s ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-v_ s[lif / phf{ If]qtkm{M
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf a}+sx?n] s[lif / phf{ If]qdf s'n shf{ nufgLsf] Go"gtd !)
k|ltzt shf{ nufgL ug'{kg]{ 5 . of] lgb]{zg hf/L x'g' cl3 pQm If]qx?df !) k|ltzt eGbf sd shf{
nufgL /x]sf] ePdf @)&! cfiff9 d;fGt;Dd Go"gtd !) k|ltzt k'ofpg] u/L @)^* cfiff9 d;fGtdf
sfod /x]sf] shf{ nufgL k|ltztnfO{ cfwf/ lnO{ jflif{s @ k|ltzt ljGb'n] j[l4 ug'{ kg]{5 .
:kli6s/0fM -!_ s[lif If]q eGgfn] o; a}+saf6 hf/L g]= /f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= #=! sf] qm=;+= ! / @
adf]lhdsf] If]qx? hgfpg] 5 .
-@_ phf{ If]q eGgfn] o; a}+saf6 hf/L g]= /f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= #=! sf] qm=;+= &=!
adf]lhdsf] If]qx?nfO{ dfq hgfpg] 5 .
!#=
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] Psn u|fxs tyf If]qut shf{ ;fk6 / ;'ljwfsf] ;Ldf lgwf{/0f
;DaGwL Joj:yf O=k|f lgb]{zg g+= #)^* af6 hf/L ul/Psf] lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt
@)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

53

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= #=!


If]qut shf{
-?= bz nfvdf_

qm= ;+=

pBf]uIf]qx?

!
!=!
!=@
!=#
!=$
!=%
!=^
!=&
!=*

s[lif / jg ;DaGwL
afnLafnL ;]jf
lrofskmL
;'lt{
;gkf6
kz'kfngkz'kfng ;]jf kz' awzfnf
ag
l;rfO{
cGo s[lif tyf s[lif hGo ;]jfx?

@
#
#=!
#=@
#=#
#=$
#=%
#=^
#=&
$
$=!
$=@
$=@=!
$=@=@
$=@=#
$=@=$
$=#
$=#=!
$=#=@
%
%=!
%=@
%=#
%=$
%=%
%=^
%=&
%=*
%=(
%=!)
%=!!
%=!@
%=!#
%=!$
%=!%
%=!^
^
^=!
^=@

df5fkfng ;DaGwL
vfgL ;DaGwL
wft' tyf wfp -kmnfd, l;;f OToflb_
sf]Onf
r'g9'f
DofUg];fO6
v/L
t]n tyf Uof; k|zf]rg (Extraction)
vfgL ;DaGwL cGo
s[lif, ag tyf k]okbfy{ pTkfbg ;DaGwL
vfB pTkfbg -Kofs ug]{, k|f];]l; ug]{_
s[lif, jg k}bfjf/ pTkfbg
lrgL
;"lt{ k|zf]wg
lr/fg tyf sfi7 pTkfbgkmlg{r/
cGo
k]o kbfy{ -ljo/, dbL/f, ;f]8f OToflb_
dlb/fhGo
dlb/f/lxt
u}/vfB j:t' pTkfbg ;DaGwL
x:tsnf
a'gfO{ (Textile) pTkfbg Pj+ tof/L kf]zfs
sfuh tyf ;Da4 pTkfbg
5kfO tyf k|sfzg
cf}ifwL
k|zf]lwt t]n tyf sf]Onf pTkfbg
vf]6f] tyf tf/lkg
/a/sf] 6fo/
5fnf
Knfli6s
l;d]06
kTy/, df6f] tyf l;;fsf pTkfbgx?
cGo lgdf{0f ;fdu|L pTkfbg
wft' cfwf/e"t kmnfd tyf l:6n Knf06
wft' cGo KnfG6Hof;n
ljljw pTkfbg
lgdf{0f
cfjf;Lo -3/fo;L k|of]hg_
u}/ cfjf;Lo -Jofkfl/s k|of]hg_

/sd ?=

54

k|fylds k'FhLsf]
k|ltzt

s'n shf{ ;fk6sf]


k|ltzt

^=#
&=
&=!
&=!=!
&=!=@
&=@
&=#
&=$
*
*=!
*=@
*=@=!
*=@=@
*=@=#
*=@=$
*=#
*=$
*=%
*=^
*=&
*=*
*=(
(
(=!
(=@
(=#
(=$
(=%
(=^
(=&
!)
!)=!
!)=@
!)=#
!)=$
!)=%
!)=^
!!
!!=!
!!=@
!!=#
!!=$
!!=%
!!=^
!!=&
!!=*
!!=(
!!=!!
!!=!@
!@
!@=!
!@=@
!@=#

a[xt (Heavy) lgdf{0f -/fhdfu{, k'n OToflb_


ljB't, Uof; / kfgL
phf{
hnljB't
gjLs/0fLo phf{
cGo ljB't ;]jf
UofF; tyf UofF; kfOk nfOg ;]jf
kfgL
wft'sf pTkfbgx?, d]l;g/L tyf On]S6f]lgs cf}hf/ tyf h8fg
h8fg ul/Psf (Fabricated) wft'sf ;fdfgx?
d]lzg cf}hf/
s[lif hGo
d]lzg/L lgdf{0f, t]n If]q, vfgL ;DaGwL
d]lzg/L clkm; Pj+ sDKo'l6 (Computing)
d]lzg/L cGo ;j}
ljB'tLo pks/0f
3/fo;L pks/0f Pj+ cGo vKg] ;fdfg
;+rf/ pks/0f
On]S6f]lgs kf6{k"hf{
lrlsT;f ;DaGwL pks/0f
h]g]/]6/x?
3 (Turbines)
oftfoft , e08f/ / ;+rf/
df]6/uf8L, kf6{k"hf tyf ;xfos ;fdu|Lx?
h]6af]6hn oftfoft
jfo'ofg tyf jfo'ofgsf] kf6{k"hf{
oftfoft ;DaGwL cGo pTkfbgx?
/]ndfu{ tyf ;8s ofqL cf];f/k;f/sf ;fwgx?
6s ;]jf tyf uf]bfd Joj:yf
cGo ;a} ;]jf
yf]s tyf v'b|f ljq]mtf
yf]s Jofkf/ vKg] ;fdfg
yf]s Jofkf/ gvKg] ;fdfg
Automotive Dealer/franchise

cGo v'b|f Jofkf/


cfoft Jofkf/
lgof{t Jofkf/
ljQ, jLdf tyf crn ;DklQ
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
v ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?
k]G;g sf]if tyf jLdf ;+:yfx?
cGo ljQLo ;+:yf
u}/ ljQLo ;/sf/L ;+:yfg
lghL u}/ ljQLo ;+:yfgx?
cGo nufgL ;+:yfx?
crn ;DklQ (Real Estate)
ko{6g ;]jf
6]ls, 6fen Ph]G;L, kj{tf/f]x0f, l/;f]6{, /fl6, SoflDk cflb
xf]6n -cGo ;]jf ;d]t_
dgf]/+hg, l/lqmP;g, rnlrq

55

!#
!#=!
!#=@
!#=#
!#=$
!#=%
!$
!$=!
!$=@
!$=#
!$=$
!$=%
!%
!^

cGo ;]jfx?
lj1fkg ;]jf
Automotive ;]jf
cGo ;j} ;]jf sDkgLx?
c:ktfn, lSnlgs OToflb
lzIff ;]jf
pkef]Uo shf{
;'g, rfFbL
d'2lt /l;b
;'/If0f kq
q]ml86 sf8{
xfo/ kr]{h -JolQmut pkof]u shf{_
:yfgLo ;/sf/
cGo

hDdf
gf]6 M pk/f]Qmfg';f/ plNnlvt zLif{sx?dWo] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:Yffn] cfkm"n] ug{ kfpg] ljQLo sf/f]jf/x?;+u ;DjlGwt
zLif{sx? dfq k|of]udf Nofpg' kg]{5 .
ldlt

clws[t b:tvt

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= #=@

========================================== lnld6]8
pTkfbgzLn -s[lif, phf{, ko{6g, 3/]n' tyf ;fyf pBf]utkm{ _ If]q shf{ nufgL
cw{jflif{s ;dLIff ljj/0f

-?= nfvdf_
qm=
ljj/0f
;+=
!
@
#
$

cfly{s jif{ @)^*^(

cfly{s jif{ @)^(&)

k|yd cw{jflif{s
bf]>f] cw{jflif{s
k|yd cw{jflif{s
bf]>f] cw{jflif{s
nIo pknJwL k|ltzt nIo pknJwL k|ltzt nIo pknJwL k|ltzt nIo pknJwL k|ltzt

s[lif
phf{
ko{6g
3/]n' tyf
;fgf
pBf]u*
hDdf
* 3/]n' pBf]u cGtu{t g]kfn cf}Bf]lus Joj;fo P]g, @)$( sf] cg';"rL ! df pNn]lvt pBf]ux? / ;fgf pBf]u
cGtu{t tLg s/f]8;Dd :yL/ h]yf ePsf pBf]ux? kg]{5g\ .

56

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= $)^(
laifo M n]vf gLlt tyf ljQLo laj/0fx?sf] 9fFrf ;DaGwL Joj:yf .
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] kfngf ug'{ kg]{ n]vfgLlt tyf ljQLo ljj/0fx?sf] 9fFrf ;DaGwdf
g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
-!_
ljQLo laj/0f ;DaGwL dfu{bz{g
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] b]xfo adf]lhdsf] dfu{bz{gleq /xL ljQLo ljj/0fx? tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
s=
cfly{s jif{sf] kl/efiff
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] >fj0f ! ut]b]lv cfiff9 d;fGt;Ddsf] cjlwnfO{ cfly{s jif{sf] ?kdf
dfGg' kg]{5 . t/ ;+:yfkgf ePsf] jif{sf] nflu ;+:yfkgf ePsf] ldltb]lv cfiff9 d;fGt;Ddsf]
cjlwnfO{ cfly{s jif{ dfGg' kg]{5 .
v=
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] tf]s]sf] 9fFrfnfO{ j}wflgs 9fFrf (Statutory Form) sf] ?kdf lng' kg]{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] cfgf] jf;nft / gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fj, gub k|jfx laj/0f / cGo
cg';"rL tyf ljj/0fx? o; a}+sn] tf]lslbPsf] 9fFrf / tl/sf cg';f/ tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 . o;k|sf/
tof/ ul/Psf] laj/0f ;fntdfd ePsf] % -kfFr_ dlxgfleq n]vfk/LIf0f ;DkGg u/fpg' kg]{5 .
u=
k|rlnt n]vf dfkb08sf] cg'z/0f ug'{ kg]{
ljQLo laj/0fx? o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zgdf tf]lsPs]f cj:Yffdf jfx]s g]kfn n]vf dfkb08 (NAS)
cg';f/ tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 . g]kfn n]vf dfkb08n] ;dfj]z gu/]sf If]qx?df cGt/{fli6o n]vf
dfkb08 (IAS/IFRS) nfO{ cfwf/sf] ?kdf lng' kg]{5 .
3=
ljQLo laj/0fx? k|sfzg ug'{ kg]{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] sfg'gL Joj:yf / tf]lsPsf] cjlwleq n]vfk/LIf0f ;DkGg eO;s]kl5
;+nUg 9fFrf adf]lhdsf] jf;nft, gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fj / gub k|jfx laj/0fsf ;fy} oL ljQLo
laj/0fx?;Fu ;DalGwt ;a} cg';"rLx? tyf laj/0fx? jflif{s k|ltj]bg k'l:tsfdf k|sflzt ug{'
kg{]5 . ;fy}, ;j{;fwf/0fsf] hfgsf/Lsf] nflu jf;nft, gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fj, gub k|jfx laj/0f
/ o; lgb]{zgsf] k'FhLsf]if tflnsf -cg';"rL g+=$=#)$=#)-s!__ / k|d'v ;"rsfF -cg';"rL g+=
$=#!_ cg';f/sf] ljj/0f /fli6o:t/sf ;+:yfsf] xsdf /fli6o:t/ / If]qLo:t/sf ;+:yfsf] xsdf
If]qLo jf lhNnf:t/sf klqsfdf clgjfo{?kdf k|sflzt ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fy}, ;Dk"0f{ jflif{s
k|ltj]bgnfO{ cfgf] j]j;fO6df cBfjlws ug'{ kg]{5 .
t/, 3 ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] xsdf jflif{s tyf q}dfl;s ?kdf k|sflzt ug'{ kg]{ pk/f]Qm
ljj/0fx? cfgf] ;"rgf kf6Ldf dfq} 6fF:g klg ;lsg]5 .
o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg adf]lhd o; a}+ssf] ljleGg ljefu tyf sfof{nox?df k]z ug'{ kg]{ ljleGg
tYof kmf/fdx? tyf k|sfzg ug'{ kg]{ u/L tf]lsPsf laj/0f ;DaGwL cGo s'g} klg lgb]{zgnfO{
o; lgb]{zgn] afwf k'ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
-1_

-2_

a}+s tyf laQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;Dk')f{ zfvfx?sf] ;d]t sf/f]af/ ;dfj]z u/L jf:tljs PsLs[t
ljQLo laj/)f nufot k|d"v ljQLo kl/;'rsx? -Major Financial Indicators_ sf] ljj/)f
x/]s qodf;sf] dlxgf Joltt ePsf] ldltn] 35 lbgleq s"g} Ps /fli^o:t/sf] b}lgs
klqsfdf clgjfo{ ?kdf k|sflzt u/L ;f] sf] Ps k|lt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu /
;DalGwt ;"kl/j]If)f ljefunfO{ ;d]t pknAw u/fpg" kg]{% . -;+nUg g]=/f=a}+s cg";'rL
4=c_
a}+s tyf laQLo ;+:yfx?n] q}dfl;s laQLo laj/)f k|sfzg ubf{ clgjfo{ ?kdf cfGtl/s
n]vfk/LIfsaf^ k|dfl)ft u/fP/ dfq k|sfzg ug{" kg]{% .

57

-3_

-4_
-5_

-6_

x/]s cfly{s aif{sf] cGTodf ;DalGwt ;+:yfsf] ckl/is[t ljQLo ljj/)f / n]vfk/LIf)f ePsf]
laQLo laj/)faLr b]lvPsf] cGt/ ;DaGwdf sf/)f v"nfO{ tflnsfs} ?kdf ;+:yfsf] aflif{s
k|ltj]bgsf] cnUu} kfgfdf ;+nUg g]=/f=a}+s cg";'rL 4=35 sf] (f+rfdf k|sflzt ug{" kg{]% .
a}+s tyf laQLo ;+:yfx?n] laQLo laj/)f k|sflzt ubf{ pQm cjlwsf] sd{rf/L af]g;, cfos/
Aoj:yf nufotsf ;Dk')f{ vr{x?nfO{ ;dfj]z u/]/ dfq k|sflzt ug"{ kg{]% .
a}+s tyf laQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;j{;fwf/)fsf] hfgsf/Lsf] nflu ckl/is[t ljQLo ljj/)f k|sfzg
ubf{ ;"kl/j]If)f ug]{ lgsfo tyf jfX\o n]vfk/LIfsn] yk#^ ug{ lgb]{zg lbPdf kl/is[t
ljQLo ljj/)fdf km/s kg{ ;Sg]% eGg] Joxf]/fsf] km"^gf]^ /fvL k|sfzg ug{" kg]{% .
P]g, gLlt, lgod tyf lgb{]zgdf :ki^ ul/Psf laifodf ;d]t a}+s Aoj:yfkgn] ;dod}
;dfof]hg gu/L laQLo laj/)fdf km/s k/]sf] cj:yfdf ;DalGwt ;+:yfnfO{ cfjZos
sf/afxL ul/g]% .

-@_

cfGtl/s k|of]hgsf] lgldQ n]vf /fVg]


o; lgb]{zgn] ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?sf] cfGtl/s k|of]hgsf] lgldQ tof/ ul/g] cGo
n]vf laj/0fx?nfO{ afwf k'ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
r=
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] tf]s]sf] 9fFrf / zLif{sdf s'g} kl/jt{g ug{ gkfOg]
jf;nft tyf gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fjsf] ;fy} cg';"rLx?df tf]lsPsf] s'g} zLif{s cGt/ut /sd
g/x]sf] eP tfklg ;f] zLif{s sfod} /fvL o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] 9fFrfdf s'g} kl/jt{g ug{ kfOg]
5}g . t/, cg';"rLx?df pNn]v ePsf] cGo zLif{sleq /xg] u/L cfjZostfg';f/ c?
zLif{sx? ;dfj]z ug{ ;lsg]5 .
5=
ljQLo ljj/0fx? k]z ug'{ kg]{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;Dk"0f{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfgf] jflif{s lx;fasf] cfwf/df tof/ kf/]sf]
ljQLo ljj/0f afXo n]vfk/LIfsaf6 k|f/lDes n]vfk/LIf0f sfo{ ;dfKt ePkl5 pQm k|f/lDes
k|ltj]bg, ;f] k|ltj]bg pk/ Joj:yfkgsf] hjfkm tyf ;f]sf cfwf/df tof/ kfl/Psf] ljQLo
ljj/0fx? -jf;nft, gfkmf gf]S;fg lx;fa, gub k|jfx ljj/0f tyf o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg
cg';f/sf ;Dk"0f{ cg';"rLx?, shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yfsf] ljj/0f ;d]t_ ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f
ljefudf :jLs[ltsf nflu k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . o; a}+saf6 pQm ljj/0fsf cfwf/df u}/:ynut
;'kl/j]If0f u/L s'g} ;+zf]wg ug'{ kg]{ b]lvPdf ;f]sf] ;dfof]hg cfly{s jif{sf] ljQLo ljj/0fdf
;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{ ul/Psf] 5 . o;/L ;dfof]lht ljQLo ljj/0fx?, n]vfk/LIfssf] clGtd
k|ltj]bg tyf n+ukmd{ cl86 l/kf]6{ (Long Form Audit Report, LFAR) tf]lsPsf] cjlwleq
n]vfk/LIf0f ;DkGg u/fO{ !% lbgleqdf o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu /
;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefux?df k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] jflif{s ;fwf/0f ;efdf :jLs[ltsf] nflu k]z ug]{ k|of]hgfy{ tof/ u/]sf]
jflif{s lx;fa (Annual Accounts) o; a}+ssf] ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0fsf] ;xdlt lnP/ dfq
;fj{hlgs ug'{ kg]{5 .
k|d'v n]vf gLltx?
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] ckgfpg' kg]{ n]vf gLltx?sf] ;DaGwdf b]xfo adf]lhd Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 M
s=
n]vf gLlt k|sflzt ug'{ kg]{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] n]vf gLlt ;fdfGo n]vf l;4fGt / a}+ls Joj;fodf k|rlnt n]vf gLlt
tyf g]kfn n]vf dfkb08 (NAS) tyf cGt//fli6o dfkb08nfO{ ;d]t cfwf/ dfgL tof/ ul/Psf]
x'g' kg]{5 . ljQLo laj/0fx? tof/ ug]{ l;nl;nfdf Joj:yfkgn] ckgfPsf k|d'v n]vf
gLltx?nfO{ cg';"rL $=#@ df ;dfj]z u/L jflif{s k|ltj]bgdf k|sflzt ug'{ kg]{5 .
v= n]vf gLlt cGtu{t v'nfpg tf]lsPsf zLif{sx?sf] ;+lIfKt JofVof
!=
x|f;sf gLlt
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ;fdfGotM :jLsfo{ n]vf l;4fGt (Generally Accepted
Accounting Principles) adf]lhdsf] s'g} klg x|f;sf gLlt ckgfpg ;Sg]5 . t/, h'g
gLlt ckgfOPsf] xf], To;af/] n]vf gLltdf :ki6 hfgsf/L lbg' kg]{5 . k|rlnt sfg'gsf]
clwgdf /xL x|f;sf b/ sfod ug]{ clwsf/ ;DalGwt ;+:yfsf] Joj:yfkgdf /xg]5 .

58

@=

#=

cfos/ Joj:yf gLlt


gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fjdf n]lvPsf] vr{x?dWo] s'g} s'g} vr{ /sdx? cfos/ P]g tyf
lgodfjnL cg';f/ cf+lzs jf k"/} ?kdf 5'6 gkfpg] x'g;Sg], ;fy} s'g} cfodf cfos/
5'6 lbOPsf] x'g ;Sg] cflb sf/0fn] ubf{ gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fjn] b]vfPsf] v'b d'gfkmf /
s/ of]Uo d'gfkmf (Taxable Profit) df km/s kg{ ;Sb5 . t;y{, cfos/ d"Nofgsf]
nflu Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] v'b d'gfkmfdf cfos/ P]g / ;f] P]g cGtu{t ag]sf]
lgodfjnL adf]lhd vr{, cfDbfgLdf cfjZos yk36 u/L cnUu} s/ of]Uo cfDbfgL
lgwf{/0f ug'{ kg]{5 . ;f]xL cg';f/ x'g] /sdsf] cfos/ Joj:yf ug]{ gLlt lnO{ n]vf gLlt
cGtu{t hfgsf/L lbg' kg]{5 .
nufgL ;DaGwL gLlt
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] Jofkfl/s nufgL (Held For Trade), ljqmLsf] nflu pknAw
nufgL (Available for Sale) tyf e'QmfgL ldlt;Dd wf/0f ug]{ nufgL (Held to Maturity)
u/L ltg efudf 5'ofpg' kg]{5 . ;f] cg';f/ 5'f5'} zLif{sdf nufgLnfO{ b]vfpg'
kg]{5 .
-s_
Jofkfl/s nufgL (Held for Trading): cNksfndf d"Nodf x'g] kl/jt{gaf6 gfkmf
cfh{g ug]{ p2]Zon] ul/Psf nufgL tyf nufgL kf]6{kmf]lnof]df /x]sf Ps}
k|s[ltsf ;DklQdf ePsf] nufgL o; ju{df kb{5g\ . o:tf nufgLnfO{ ahf/b/
cg'?k b}lgs?kdf d"Nofg ug]{ (Marked to Market on Daily Basis) / d"Nodf
x'g] leGgtfnfO{ gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fj vftfdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 . o; ;DaGwL
ljj/0f ;+nUg g]=/f=a}+=lgb]{zg kmf=g+= $=!@=! sf] 9fFrfdf tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
-v_
e'QmfgL ldlt;Dd wf/0f ug]{ nufgL (Held to Maturity): e'QmfgL ldlt;Dd wf/0f
ug{] ;sf/fTds dg;fo (Positive Intent) / e'QmfgL ldlt;Dd wf/0f ug{ ;Sg]
Ifdtf (Ability to Hold till Maturity) eO{ ul/Psf] nufgL o; ju{df kb{5 .
b]xfosf cj:yfdf wf/0f ug]{ ;sf/fTds dg;fo ePsf] dflgg] 5}g .
!=
c3f]lift ;do (Undefined Period) ;Dd wf/0f ug]{ dg;fo / Ifdtf
ePdf .
@=
gbf]xf]l/g] / cgk]lIft (Non-recurring and Unanticipated) cj:yfdf
afx]s ahf/ Aofhb/ kl/jt{g jf hf]lvd, t/ntfsf] cfjZostf,
a}slNks nufgLdf k|fKt x'g] cfo (Yield), ljQLo ;|f]t / zt{ jf
ljb]zL d'b|f hf]lvddf x'g] kl/jt{gsf] sf/0fn] ;DklQ laqmL ug{ ;+:yf
tTk/ ePdf .
e'QmfgL ldlt;Dd wf/0f ug]{ nufgL (Held to Maturity) nfO{ ckn]lvt nfut
(Amortised Cost) df d"Nofg ug'{ kb{5 . k/n d"No (Cost Price) af6 Iflt
(Impairments) 36fP/ ckn]lvt nfut u0fgf ug'{ k5{ . IfltnfO{ ;DalGwt
cjlwsf] gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fj vftfdf ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 . o; ;DaGwL
ljj/0f ;+nUg g]=/f=a}+=lgb]{zg kmf=g+= $=!@=@ sf] 9fFrfdf tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
-u_
ljqmLsf] nflu pknAw nufgL (Available for Sale): Jofkfl/s nufgL (Held for
Trading) / e'QmfgL ldlt;Dd wf/0f ug]{ nufgL (Held to Maturity) cGtu{t
gkg]{ ;Dk"0f{ nufgLnfO{ o; ju{df /fVg] . o:tf nufgLnfO{ ahf/b/ cg'?k
lgoldt ?kdf d"Nofg (Marked to Market on Regular Basis) u/L leGgtfnfO{
hu]8f (Reserves) dfkm{t ;dfof]hg (Adjust) ug'{ kb{5 . ;+:yfx?n] ljqmLsf]
nflu pknAw nufgL kf]6{kmf]lnof] (Available for Sale Portfolio) sf] @ ;Ddsf]
/sd k'/s k'FhL (Supplementary or Tier 2 Capital) df u0fgf x'g] nufgL
;dfof]hg sf]if (Investment Adjustment Reserve) v8f u/L /fVg' kg]{5 . o;
;DaGwL ljj/0f ;+nUg g]=/f=a}+=lgb]{zg kmf=g+= $=!@=# sf] 9fFrfdf tof/ ug'{
kg]{5 .
t/ shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb| ln=, Nepal Clearing House Ltd / National Banking Training
Institute sf] z]o/df ul/Psf] nufgLsf xsdf dfly pNn]v eP cg';f/sf] @

59

;Ddsf] /sdn] u0fgf x'g] /sd nufgL ;dfof]hg sf]if v8f u/L /fVg' kg]{
ljBdfg Joj:yfdf 5'6 k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 .
lwtf]kq ljlgdo ahf/df ;"rLs[t gePsf / ;lqmo ahf/ (Active Market) gePsf Jofkfl/s
nufgL (Held for Trading) tyf ljqmLsf] nflu pknAw nufgL (Available for Sale) x?sf] xsdf
nfut d"No (Cost Price) df n]vfg u/L O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= * jdf]lhd nufgL ;dfof]hg sf]ifsf]
Joj:yf u/L ;f] afktsf] v'b nufgL jf;nftdf k|:t't ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fy}, af]g; z]o/ k|fKt ePdf
z]o/ ;+Vof dfq yk ug'{ kg]{5, o;nfO{ cfDbfgL hgfpg kfOg] 5}g .
$
;6xL 36a9 ;dfof]hg gLlt
ljb]zL d'b|f;Fu ;DalGwt ;DklQ, bfloTj tyf ;6xL 36a9 cfDbfgL tyf vr{x?sf]
n]vfg ug]{ tl/sfnfO{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] n]vf gLlt cGtu{t v'nfpg' kg]{5 .
ljb]zL d'b|f sf/f]af/af6 x'g] cfDbfgLdWo] vl/b ljqmLaf6 x'g] gfkmfgf]S;fg (Trading
Profit/Loss) / ljb]zL d'b|fsf] k'g/d"Nofgaf6 x'g] gfkmfgf]S;fg (Revaluation
Gain/Loss) sf] :ki6 b]lvg] u/L 5'f5'} n]vf /fVg' kg]{5 . Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn]
ljb]zL ljlgdo b/df x'g] kl/jt{gsf] cfwf/df sDtLdf k|To]s d;fGtdf ;6xL 36a9
lx;fj nfO{ ;dfof]hg ug'{ kg]{5 / k|To]s ;fntdfddf ;dfof]lht v'b k'g/d"Nofg
gfkmfgf]S;fgsf] olsg ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fntdfddf k'g/d"Nofg gf]S;fg ePdf gfkmf
gf]S;fg lx;fjdf vr{ hgfpg' kg]{5 . olb ;dfof]lht v'b k'g/d"Nofg /sd gfkmf
ePdf ;f]nfO{ gfkmf gf]S;fg lx;fjdf cfDbfgL hgfO{ pQm gfkmfsf] sDtLdf @% k|ltzt
/sd gfkmfgf]S;fg afF8kmfF8 lx;fj dfkm{t\ ;6xL 36a9 sf]if lx;fjdf ljlgof]lht ug'{
kg]{5 .
%
u}/ a}+ls ;DklQsf] n]vfg gLlt
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] s'g} shf{ c;'nL gePdf ;'/If0fdf /x]sf] lwtf] j]rljvg u/L
afFsL ;fFjf / Aofh p7fpg ;Sg]5 . ;+:yfn] shf{ c;'n ug]{ l;nl;nfdf lwtf] lnnfdL
ubf{ lnnfd laqmL gePdf cfkm}n] ;sf/ ug{ ;Sg]5 . ;sf/ ubf{ lwtf]sf] k|rlnt ahf/
d"No jf lwtf] ;sf/ ug{ cl3Nnf] lbg ;Ddsf] ;Dk"0f{ n]gf /sd dWo] h'g sd x'G5
;f]xL d"Nodf d"Nof+sg ug'{ kg]{5 . olb lwtf]sf] jhf/ d"No shf{sf] n]gf /sd eGbf sd
ePdf sd ePhlt /sd ;f]xL cfly{s jif{df gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fjdf vr{ n]vL ;f]xL
Joxf]/f n]vf gLltdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
t/, o;/L d"Nofg ubf{ To:tf] u}/ a}+ls ;+klQ jfktsf] /sd ;Dk"0f{ ?kdf lx;fj
ldnfg geP;Dd n]gf /sddWo]sf] Aofh /sdnfO{ gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fadf cfDbfgL
hgfpg kfOg] 5}g / To:tf] /sdnfO{ u}/ a}+ls ;+klQ jfktsf] gf]S;fgL Joj:yfdf
;fg'{ kg]{5 .
^
k'FhLs[t gul/g] ;DklQx? ;DaGwL n]vfg gLlt
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] Joj:yfkgn] s'g} lglZrt df]n;Dd kg]{ pks/0f, ;fdfgx?
k'FhLs[t gug]{ gLlt lnPsf] 5 eg] ;f] s'/f n]vf gLlt cGtu{t ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
&
cfDbfgLvr{ n]vfg ug]{ gLlt
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] s'g} klg cfovr{nfO{ ;fdfGotof k|f]befjL cfwf/ (Accural
Basis) df cfovr{ hgfpg'kg]{ 5 . t/ shf{;fk6sf] Aofh cfDbfgL hgfpg]
;DjGwdf gub k|fKtLsf] cfwf/df dfq hgfpg] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 . o;/L
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfDbfgLvr{ hgfpg] ;DjGwdf lnPsf] gLltnfO{ cfgf] n]vf
gLltdf :ki6 v'nfpg' kg]{5 .
;fy}, pk/f]Qm Joj:yf adf]lhd kl/of]hgf shf{ sf] u|]; -Moratorium_ cjlw df
kfs]sf] JofhnfO{ k'FhLs/0f u/L cfDbfgL hgfpg kfOg] 5}g . t/, /fli6o k|fyldstf
k|fKt If]qdf nufgL ul/Psf] shf{sf] xsdf o; a}+ssf] k"j{ :jLs[tL lnO{ k"FhLs/0f u/L
cfDbfgL hgfpg afwf k'u]sf] dflgg] 5}g .
*
;Defljt shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf tyf c;'nL x'g g;Sg] shf{x?sf] ckn]vg gLlt
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg cg';f/ ;Defljt shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
sfod /fVg'kg]{] x'Fbf ;f]xL Joxf]/f n]vf gLltdf v'nfpg' kg]{5 . ;fy} c;'n x'g g;Sg]

60

-#_

-$_

shf{x?sf] o; a}+sn] lbPsf] lgb]{zgsf] clwgdf /xL ckn]vg ug]{ / Ohfhtkqk|fKt


;+:yff/f clVtof/ u/]sf] gLlt ;d]t n]vf gLlt cGt/ut v'nfpg' kg]{5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] shf{ ckn]vg ljlgodsf] cfwf/df /xL ckn]vg gLlt th'{df
ug'{ kg]{5 .
(
shf{sf] ;fFjf tyf Aofh c;'n ug]{ Joj:yf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] ;DjlGwt C0fLaf6 /sd c;'npk/ ubf{ To:tf] c;'n /sd
dWo]af6 ;j{k|yd c;'n pk/ ug'{kg]{ Aofh /sd ;Dk"0f{ ?kdf c;'npk/ ePkl5sf]
cj:yfdf dfq afFsL /sd ;fFjfdf cfjZos lx;fj ldnfg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
t/, k'g/;+/rgf / k'g/tflnsLs/0f ul/Psf v/fj shf{x?sf] ;Gbe{df pk/f]Qm Joj:yf
nfu" x'g] 5}g .
!)
cGo gLltx?
pko'{Qm k|d'v n]vf gLltx? afx]s jf;nft / gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fjnfO{ a'em\g /
ljZn]if0f ug{ ;3fp k'Ug]u/L cGo s'g} n]vf gLltsf] hfgsf/L lbg cfjZos b]lvPdf
;f] Joxf]/f ;d]t n]vf gLltdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
n]vf ;DaGwL l6Kk0fLx?
o; cGtu{t sDtLdf lgDg ljifox? ;dfj]z u/L cg';"rL $=## df jflif{s n]vf laj/0fx?;Fu k|sflzt
ug'{ kg]{5 .
!=
jif{el/df k|jfx ePsf] shf{ ;fk6, c;'nL ePsf] / ldgfxf ul/Psf] ;fFjf tyf Aofhsf] laj/0f .
@=
lgIf]k bfloTj cGtu{t k|To]s zLif{sdf jif{el/df kl/jt{g -k|fKtL, e'QmfgL tyf jfFsL_ ePsf]
/sd .
#=
lgIf]k / shf{sf] efl/t cf}ift Aofh b/sf] cGt/ (Weighted Average Interest Rate Spread) .
$=
ckn]vg x'g afFsL vr{sf] laj/0f .
%=
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;DklQ / bfloTj;Fu ;DalGwt sf/f]af/ / jf;nft aflx/sf] sf/f]af/
s'g} Ps JolQm kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yf tyf s'g} Ps If]qdf tf]lsPsf] ;LdfeGbf a9L
clws]lGb|t ePsf] laj/0f .
^=
t/ntf ;DaGwL hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfgf] bfloTj tyf ;DklQnfO{
e'QmfgL cjlw (Maturity Period) sf] cfwf/df ljleGg ;do cGt/fndf juL{s/0f ug'{ kg]{
;DaGwdf o; a}+sn] lbPsf] lgb]{zg cg'?k ;DklQ / bfloTjsf] juL{s/0f ul/Psf] laj/0f .
&=
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ;'/If0fsf ?kdf cfgf] ;DklQ lwtf] /fvL /sd lnPsf] 5 eg] ;f]sf]
ljj/0f .
(=
u}/ a}ls+u ;DklQ ;DalGw ljj/0f -ut jif{sf], o; jif{ :jLsf/ljqmL / v'b jfFsL /sd_ .
!)= r'Qmf k'FhLdWo] clu|d e'QmfgL k|fKt (Paid in Advance), e'QmfgL k|fKt x'g afFsL (Calls in Arrears)
/ hkmt ul/Psf t/ k'gM lgisfzg gul/;s]sf (Forfeited But Not issued) z]o/x? /x]sf] 5 eg]
o; ;DaGwL ljj/0f .
!!=
lnhxf]N8 ;DklQdf ut jif{;Dd / o; jif{ ckn]vg (Amortization) ul/Psf] /sdsf] ljj/0f .
!@=
ljQLo ljj/0fx?nfO{ a'e\mg / ljZn]if0f ug{ ;3fp k'Ug] hfgsf/L lbg cfjZos b]lvPsf cGo
laj/0f .
!#=
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] Ph]G;L df}Hbft cGtu{t cjlw cg';f/sf] -! jif{, !# jif{, # jif{eGbf
a9L_ lx;fa ldnfg x'g afFsL /sdsf] ljj/0f .
jf;nftsf zLif{sx?sf] ;+lIfKt JofVof
k'FhL tyf bfloTjtk{m
!=
z]o/ k'FhL
o; zLif{sdf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] r'Qmf z]o/ k'FhL pNn]v x'g' kg]{5 . ;l~rt d'gfkmf jf
hu]8f /sdaf6 af]g; z]o/ hf/L ePdf o;/L hf/L u/L z]o/ k'FhLdf hDdf u/]sf] /sdnfO{
;d]t cg';"rL $=! df pNn]v (Disclose) ug'{ kg]{5 . z]o/ k'FhL;Fu ;DalGwt laj/0f cg';"rL
$=! adf]lhd x'g' kg]{5 / ;f]xL cg';"rLsf] qmd ;+Vof !=^ sf] s'n /sd jf;nftsf] o;
zLif{sdf hgfpg' kg]{5 .
@=
hu]8f tyf sf]ifx?
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] hu]8f sfod ug]{ l;nl;nfdf gfkmfaf6 afF8kmfF8 e} cfPsf jf cGo s'g}
k|lqmofaf6 ;[hgf ePsf tyf gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fjdf afF8kmfF8 gu/L ;+ro u/L /flvPsf]

61

#=

$=
%=

/sdx?nfO{ o; zLif{s -cg';"rL $=@_ df hgfpg' kg]{5 . o; zLif{sdf ;fdfGotM gfkmfgf]S;fg


afF8kmfF8 lx;fjdf vr{ hgfO{ hDdf ug'{ kg]{ / oL hu]8f k|of]u ubf{ ;DalGwt hu]8f tyf sf]if
lx;fjdf vr{ hgfpg' kg]{5 .
-s_
;fwf/0fj}wflgs hu]8f sf]if
;fwf/0f hu]8f sf]if eg]sf] j}wflgs hu]8f sf]if (Statutory Reserve) xf] . o; cGtu{t
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g cg';f/ v'b d'gfkmf ljlgof]hgaf6 ;fl/Psf] /sd
;dfj]z ug{' kg]{5 . ;fwf/0fj}wflgs hu]8f sf]ifdf /x]sf] /sdaf6 s'g} klg k|sf/sf]
nfef+z -gub jf af]g; z]o/_ ljt/0f ug{ kfOg] 5}g . pQm sf]ifdf /x]sf] /sd k|of]u
ug{ o; a}+ssf] :jLs[lt lng' kg]{5 .
-v_
k'FhLut hu]8f sf]if
k'FhLut hu]8f sf]if cGt{ut b]xfosf zLif{sx? /xg] 5g\ .
-c_
z]o/ lk|ldod
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfgf] z]o/ hf/L ubf{ z]o/sf] c+lst d"No eGbf a9L
b/n] hf/L u/]sf] /x]5 eg] pQm a9L /sd hlt o; lx;fjdf hDdf ug'{ kg]{5 .
o; lx;fjdf /xg] /sd gub nfef+z ljt/0f k|of]hgsf] nflu of]Uo dflgg] 5}g
.
-cf_ k'FhLut hu]8f
o; cGt/ut lgDg /sdx? /fVg' kg]{5 .

r'Qmf gePsf] z]o/sf] afFsL /sd dfu ubf{ e'QmfgL gu/]sf] sf/0fn]
pQm z]o/nfO{ hkmt u/L k|fKt x'g cfPsf] /sd .

kF'hLut cg'bfg jfkt k|fKt x'g cfPsf] lhG;L tyf gub /sd .
-O_
;DklQ k'gd"{Nofg hu]8f (Assets Revaluation Reserve)
sDkgLn] ;DklQsf] k'g/d"Nofg u/L ;[hgf x'g cfPsf] hu]8fnfO{ o; cGtu{t
/fVg' kg]{ 5 .
-O{_ cGo k'FhLut hu]8f
-u_
nfef+z ;dLs/0f sf]]if
nfef+zdf Ps?ktf sfod ug{] p2]Zon] gfkmf ePsf] cj:yfdf gfkmfaf6 o; vftfdf
hDdf ug{;lsGf] 5 . To:tf] cj:yfdf ;+rfns ;ldltsf] k|:tfj / ;fwf/0f ;efsf]
cg'df]bgdf o; vftf vr{ u/L nfef+z lbg ;lsg] 5 .
-3_
;l~rt gfkmfgf]S;fg
o; cGtu{t gfkmfgf]S;fg afF8kmfF8 lx;fjdf b]lvPsf] ;l~rt gfkmf jf ;l~rt
gf]S;fgnfO{ b]vfpg' kg]{ 5 . ;l~rt gf]S;fgnfO{ C0ffTds lrGx lbO{ jf sf]i7 -===_
leq b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
-_
k'FhL ;dfof]hg sf]if
o; a}+saf6 tf]lsPsf] Go"gtd r'Qmf k'FhL k'ofpg k'FhL ;dfof]hg sf]if v8f u/L /fv]sf]
/sd o; zLif{s cGtu{t /fVg' kg]{5 .
-r_
cGo hu]8f sf]if
s'g} vf; p2]Zo lnP/ jf glnO{sg cGo s'g} hu]8f sf]if -dfly pNn]lvt afx]s_ v8f
u/]df zLif{s vf]nL o; cGtu{t /fVg' kg]{5 .
C0fkq tyf j08
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] C0fkq tyf a08 hf/L u/L k'FhL p7fPsf] ePdf pQm /sdnfO{ o;
zLif{s cGtu{t cg';"rL $=# cGtu{t ;DalGwt pks/0fsf] gfd v'nfO{ pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
jf;nftsf] o; zLif{sdf hgfOg] /sd cg';"rL $=# sf] s'n /sd;Fu a/fa/ x'g' kg]{5 .
ltg{ afFsL shf{ -;fk6L_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf cfkm"n] shf{ ;fk6 lnO{ ltg{ afFsL /x]sf] s'n /sdnfO{ o; zLif{sdf
hgfpg' kg]{5 . o; zLif{s ;DjGwL ljj/0f cg';"rL $=$ df pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
e'QmfgL lbg' kg]{ ljnx?
-s_ o; cGtu{t Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfg} zfvfx?af6 Ps csf]{ zfvf pk/ lvlrPsf],
:jb]zL tyf ljb]zL a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?af6 cfkm" pk/ lvr]sf] 8f6, l6=l6=, d]n
6fG;km/ tyf cGo k]c8{/ dWo] e'QmfgL lbg afFsL /sd ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 . cfk"m pk/

62

^=
&=
*=

(=

lvlrPsf] e'QmfgL cfb]zsf] ;"rgf jf ;]8\o'n jf cfb]z k|fKt x'g] ljlQs} ;DalGwt zfvf
lx;fj jf Ph]G;L lx;fj 8]lj6 u/L of] lx;fj q]ml86 ug'{ kg]{5 .
-v_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] l8:sfp06 u/]sf ljnx?nfO{ olb cGo Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf;Fu
k'gM l8:sfp06 u/]df ;f] ;+:yfn] ljn l8:sfp06 lx;fjnfO{ g} q]ml86 u/L l8:sfp06
lx;fj aGb ug{ jf k'gM l8:sfp06 ul/Psf ljn lx;fj egL leGb} vftf vf]nL o;df
q]ml86 ug{ ;Sg]5 . of] lx;fjdf /x]sf] /sdnfO{ klg e'QmfgL lbg' kg]{ ljn cGtu{t g}
Psd'i6 u/L b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
ljn l8:sfp06 lx;fjd} q]ml86 ug]{ eP Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] lx;fj lstfjdf k'gM
l8:sfp06 u/]sf] ;DaGwL s]xL bfloTj gb]lvg] x'G5 . t/, k'gM l8:sfp06 ljn ;DaGwL
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] cb[Zo bfloTj /lx/xg] x'Fbf To:tf] /sdnfO{ jf;nftdf ;Defljt
bfloTj cGtu{t hgfpg' kg]{5 .
lgIf]k bfloTj
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] lgIf]kstf{x?af6 kl/rfng u/]sf] s"n lgIf]k o; zLif{s cGt/ut
b]vfpg' kg]{5 . o; zLif{s ;DjGwL ljj/0f cg';"rL $=% adf]lhd x'g' kg]{5 .
k|:tfljt tyf e'QmfgL lbg afF+sL nfef+z
k|:tfljt tyf ;fwf/0f;efn] kfl/t u/]sf] t/ e'StfgL u/L g;s]sf] nfef+; /sd o; cGtu{t
/fVg' kg]{5 .
cfos/ bfloTj
;+:yfn] o; zLif{s cGtu{t cfos/ P]g adf]lhd e'QmfgL ug'{ kg]{ cfos/ jfktsf] Joj:yf /sd
/fVg' kg]{5 . cu|Ld e'QmfgL ePsf] cfos/ /sd 36fP/ v"b ltg{ afFsL cfos/ eP dfq o;
zLif{s cGtu{t /fVg'' kg]{5 . olb cfos/ bfloTj eGbf clu|d s/ e'QmfgL /sd a9L /x]df v'b
/sd cGo ;DklQdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
cGo bfloTj
;+:yfsf] lx;fadf b]lvPsf dfly pNn]lvt k'FhL tyf bfloTjx? afx]ssf cGo s'g} klg lsl;dsf
bfloTjx? o; zLif{sdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 . o;df lbOPsf] pkzLif{sx? ;Lldt /x]sf] dflgPsf] 5}g
/ ;+:yfn] cfjZostf cg';f/ cGoq k|bz{g ug{ g;lsg] zLif{sx? o;df /fVg ;Sg]5 .
-s_
e'QmfgL lbg aFfsL af]g;
sd{rf/LnfO{ e'QmfgL lbg afFsL] af]g; /sd o; cGtu{t /fVg' kg]{5 .
-v_
lgIf]kdf e'QmfgL lbg afF+sL Aofh
lgIf]kdf e'QmfgL lbg afFsL] Aofh /sd o; cGtu{t /fVg' kg]{5 .
-u_
shf{ tyf ;fk6Ldf e'QmfgL lbg aFfsL Aofh
;+:yfn] shf{ tyf ;fk6Ldf e'QmfgL lbg aFfsL Aofh /sd o; cGtu{t /fVg' kg]{5 .
-3_
kfsL g;s]sf] sldzg
;+:yfn] s'g} ;]jf ul/lbP jfkt kfpg] sldzg b'O{ jf b'O{ eGbf a9L cfly{s jif{sf] nflu
k|bfg ug'{kg]{ ;]jf;Fu ;DalGwt 5 eg] k|bfg ug]{ ;]jfsf] cfwf/df b'O{ jf b'O{ eGbf a9L
cflys jif{df cfDbfgL hgfpg' kg]{5 . cfDbfgL hgfpg aFfsL clu|d?kdf k|fKt sldzg
/sd o; zLif{s cGtu{t /fVg' kg]{5 .
-_
;08L qm]l86;{
;+:yfsf] b}lgs sfd sf/jfxLsf l;nl;nfdf e'QmfgL lbg' kg]{ t/ cGo zLif{s cGtu{t
gkg]{ bfloTjx? o; zLif{s cGtu{t /fVg' kg]{5 .
-r_
n]vfk/LIf0f z'Ns
n]vfk/LIf0f sfo{ u/] afkt n]vfk/LIfsnfO{ e'QmfgL lbg aF+fsL /sd o; zLif{s cGtu{t
/fVg' kg]{5 .
-5_
pkbfg sf]if
;+:yfn] cfgf] sd{rf/L lgodfjnL cg';f/ sd{rf/Lx?k|ltsf] pkbfg jfktsf] bfloTj
/sd o; zLif{s cGtu{t /fVg' kg]{5 .
-h_
sd{rf/L ;+rosf]if
;+:yfn] sd{rf/LnfO{ ;+ros]fif Affkt k|bfg ug{sf] nflu sd{rf/Lsf] dfl;s tnaaf6
sf ul/Psf], ;+:yfn] yk u/]sf] / To; sf]ifn] cfh{g u/]sf] Aofh tyf cfDbfgL
jfktsf] bfloTj /sd o; zLif{s cGtu{t /fVg' kg]{5 .
-em_ zfvf lx;fa

63

;+:yfsf] ljleGg zfvfsf] lx;fa ldnfgubf{ qm]l86 Jofn]G; cfPdf o; zLif{s cGtu{t
k|:t't ug{' kg]{5 .
;DklQtk{mM
!=
gub df}Hbft
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] cfgf] 9's'6Ldf :jb]zL Pj+ ljb]zL d'b|fdf /x]sf] s'n gub df}Hbft /sd
o; zLif{sdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . o; zLif{ssf] lj:t[t ljj/0f cg';"rL $=* df pNn]v ug'{
kg]{5 .
@=
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf /x]sf] df}Hbft
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf Aofh k|fKt gx'g] u/L hDdf u/]sf] s'n /sdnfO{ o;
zLif{sdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
#=
a}+sljQLo ;+:yfdf /x]sf] df}Hbft
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?df Aofh k|fKt gx'g] u/L
hDdf u/]sf] s'n /sdnfO{ o; zLif{sdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 . o; zLif{ssf] /sd cg';"rL $=!) sf]
s'n /sd;Fu a/fa/ x'g' kg]{5 .

$=

%=

:ki6Ls/0fM o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ljsf; a}+s tyf ljQ sDkgLx?n] Ps xKtfsf] clu|d
;"rgfdf lkmtf{ lng ;lsg] u/L :jb]zL a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf Ohfhtkqk|fKt v, u /
3 ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] /fv]sf] ltg dlxgf jf ;f]eGbf a9L cjlwsf d'2lt lgIf]knfO{ ;d]t
cg';"rL $=!) sf] a'Fbf g+= ! v cGtu{t b]vfpg' kg]{5 .

dfu tyf cNk ;"rgfdf k|fKt x'g] /sd


o; zLif{sdf j9Ldf & lbg;Ddsf] e'QmfgL cjlw (Maturity Period) sfod u/L dfu ugf{;fy jf
5f]6f] cjlwsf] ;"rgf -$* 306f_ df e'QmfgL k|fKt x'g] zt{df cGo Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf :jb]zL jf ljb]zL_ df Aofh k|fKt x'g] u/L nufgL ul/Psf] /sd pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . o;
zLif{ssf] /sd cg';"rL $=!! df pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
nufgL
-s_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] Jofkfl/s nufgL (Held For Trade), ljqmLsf] nflu pknAw
nufgL (Available for Sale) tyf e'QmfgL ldlt;Dd wf/0f ug]{ nufgL (Held to Maturity)
u/L ltg efudf 5'ofO b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
-v_
z]o/ nufgLaf6 k|fKt x'g] af]g; z]o/nfO{ z]o/ ;+Vofdf dfq j[l4 u/L k/ndf]ndf s'g}
kl/jt{g gu/L nufgLsf] n]vfg ug'{ kg]{5 .
-u_
;+:yfsf] z]o/ k'FhLdf nufgL ul/Psf] laj/0f cg';"rL $=!@ -s_ sf] z]o/ nufgL
zLif{sdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 . pQm laj/0fdf lgDg s'/fx? :ki6 v'nfpg' kg]{5 .
-!_
sDkgLsf] gfd
-@_
z]o/sf] lsl;d -;fwf/0f jf lk|km/]G;_, lk|km/]G; z]o/df nfef+z b/ ;d]t .
-#_
lnPsf] z]o/ lsQf -af]g; z]o/ kfPsf] eP ;f] ;d]t_ .
-$_
k|lt z]o/ c+lst d"No
-%_
k/n df]n dxndf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] nfut .
-^_
:6s PS;r]Ghdf ;"rLs[t z]o/ eP jf;nftsf] lbgsf] ;"lrs[t d"No .
-&_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] z]o/df nufgL u/]sf] s'g} sDkgLn] ljut # jif{ jf
;f]eGbf a9L ;dob]lv s'g} nfef+z 3f]if0ff u/]sf 5}gg\ eg] ;f] ;d]t v'nfpg'
kg]{ .
-3_
sDkgLx?sf] l8j]Gr/ tyf j08df ul/Psf] nufgLsf] laj/0f cg';"rL $=!@ -s_ sf]
l8j]Gr/ tyf j08 nufgL zLif{sdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
-!_
sDkgLsf] gfd
-@_
Aofhb/
-#_
l8j]Gr/j08sf] lsQf
-$_
l8j]Gr/j08sf] c+lst d"No
-%_
l8j]Gr/j08sf] e'QmfgL x'g] ldlt
-^_
l8j]Gr/j08 vl/bsf] nfut d"No k/n df]n dxndf b]vfpg' kg]{ .
-_
lwtf]kq ljlgdo ahf/df ;"rLs[t z]o/, l8j]Gr/ tyf cGo lwtf]kq k/n d"NoeGbf ahf/
d"No sd ePdf To:tf k|To]s nufgLx?df xfgL gf]S;fgL jfkt Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 . ;f]
Joj:yf ul/Psf] /sd nufgLsf] s'n /sddf 36fO{ v'b nufgL /sd o; zLif{sdf b]vfpg'

64

kg]{5 . ;fy} cg';"rL $=!@ sf] qm=;+= * / ( sf] s'n /sd cg';"rL $=!@ -s_ sf] s'n
nufgLsf] /sd;Fu a/fa/ x'g' kg]{5 .
-r_
cg';"rL $=!@ sf] qm=;+= ! b]lv ( ;Dd pNn]v eP jfx]ssf] nufgLnfO{ cGo nufgL
cGtu{tsf] zLif{sdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
^=
shf{ ;fk6 tyf ljn vl/b
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] k|bfg u/]sf] s'n shf{ ;fk6, vl/b tyf l8isfp06 ul/Psf ljnx?
jfktsf] s'n jSof}tf (Outstanding) /sd Pj+ s'n shf{af6 shf{ gf]S;fgL jfkt Joj:yf u/]sf]
/sd 36fO{ o; zLif{s cGtu{t v'b shf{ ;fk6sf] dxndf b]vfpg' kg]{5 . pQm /sd cg';"rL
$=!# / $=!# -s_ cg';f/ b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sd{rf/LnfO{ sd{rf/L ljlgodfjnL cg';f/ k|bfg ul/g] shf{ ;'ljwfnfO{
o; zLif{sdf gb]vfO{ jf;nftsf] ;DklQ / hfoh]yf tk{msf] cGo ;DklQ zLif{s cGtu{t b]vfpg'
kg]{5 .
&=
:yL/ ;DklQ
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] :jfldTjdf /x]sf] :yfoL k|s[ltsf ;DklQx?sf] n]vfg o; zLif{sdf
u/L ;DklQsf] s'n d"Nodf x|f; sf u/L afFsL /x]sf] /sdnfO{ jf;nftsf] o; zLif{sdf b]vfpg'
kg]{5 . o; zLif{sdf hgfOg] /sd cg';"rL $=!$ df pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
*=
u}/ a}+lsu ;DklQ
o; zLif{s cGtu{t u}/ j}+lsu ;DklQ / ;f] sf] nflu ul/Psf] Joj:yf /sdsf] v'b cj:Yff
b]vfpg' kb{5 . o; zLif{sdf hgfOg] /sd cg';"rL $=!% df pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
(=
cGo ;DklQ
dfly pNn]v ePsf afx]s cGo s'g} klg zLif{sdf /x]sf] ;DklQx? (Tangible or Intangible) o;
zLif{sdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 . o;df /xg] /sdx?df d;nGb df}Hbft, Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf]
sd{rf/LnfO{ sd{rf/L ljlgodfjnL cg';f/ k|bfg ul/g] ;fk6L tyf ;'ljwf, nufgLdf c;'n ug{
afFsL cfDbfgL, shf{df c;'n ug{ afFsL Aofh, ;08L 8]6;{, dfu{:y ;DklQx?, ckn]vg x'g afFsL
vr{ cflb kg]{5g\ . o; zLif{sdf b]vfOg] ;DklQx?df ul/Psf] ;Defljt gf]S;fgL Joj:yf 36fO{
cfpg] v'b /sd dfq cg';"rL $=!^ df pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
shf{df c;'n ug{ jfFsL Aofhdf d'NtjL lx;fjdf ;fl/Psf] /sd 36fO{ cfpg] /sd qm=;+= # df
b]vfpg' kb{5 .
;Defljt bfloTjx?
-s_
;+:yfsf] ;Defljt bfloTjx?nfO{ ljQLo ljj/0fsf] cg';"rL $=!& df tf]lsPsf] 9fFrf cg';f/
laefhg u/L s'n /sd o; zLif{s cGtu{t /fVg' kg]{5 .
-v_
k|lttkq vf]lnP jfkt dflh{g /sd hlt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] c;'n u/L;s]sf] x'Fbf
k|lttkqsf] k"/} /sddf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] bfloTj /x]sf] lgZro klg x'Fb}g . tyflk of]
bfloTj k|lttkq vf]Ng] kIfk|lt geO{ Ph]G;L ;+:yfk|lt /x]sf] x'Fbf k|lttkqsf] k"/} /sd bzf{pg'
k5{ . o; zLif{s cGtu{t k|lttkq sf/f]jf/ jfkt bfloTjsf] k"/} /sd b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
-u_
k'gM l8isfp06 ul/Psf ljnx? o; zLif{s cGtu{t b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
-3_
Dofb gf3L g;s]sf hdfgt jfktsf k"/} /sdx?nfO{ ;Defljt bfloTjdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
-_
z]o/df nufgL u/]sf]df z]o/ jfkt e'QmfgL ug'{ kg]{ k"/} /sd e'QmfgL ePsf] /x]g5 eg]
e'QmfgL lbg afFsL /sd o; zLif{sdf b]vfpg' k5{ .
-r_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] s'g} u|fxs;Fu Forward Exchange Contract u/]sf] 5 eg] Dofb gf3L
g;s]sf] sG6ofS6sf] k"/f /sd o; zLif{sdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
-5_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] d~h'/L tyf ;dy{g (Acceptence & Endorsement), k|Tofe"lt k|ltj4tf
(Underwriting Commitment), shf{ k|ltj4tf (Loan Commitment) u/]sf] 5 eg] To:tf
/sdx?nfO{ ;Defljt bfloTj cGtu{t b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
-h_
dfly pNn]lvt bfloTj afx]s Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] cGo ;Defljt bfloTj 5g\ eg] ;f]
;d]tnfO{ cg';"rL $=!& cGtu{t b]vfpg' kg]{5 .

65

-%_

gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fjsf zLif{sx?sf] ;+lIfKt JofVof


!=
Aofh cfDbfgL
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] k|bfg u/]sf] shf{ ;fk6df k|fKt x'g' kg]{ AofhnfO{ gub k|fKtLsf]
cfwf/df cfDbfgL jfFwL o; zLif{sdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 . ;+:yfsf] Aofh cfDbfgLnfO{ cg';"rL $=!*
adf]lhd pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
@=
Aofh vr{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] :jLsf/ u/]sf] lgIf]kdf tyf lnPsf] ;fk6Ldf pNn]lvt cjlwdf ltg'{ kg]{
Aofh /sdnfO{ Aofh vr{ lx;fj zLif{sdf vr{ n]Vg' kg]{5 . gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fjsf] o;
zLif{sdf hgfO{g] s'n /sd cg';"rL $=!( df pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
#=
sldzg tyf l8isfp06
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfgf] sf/f]jf/sf] l;nl;nfdf plNnlvt cjlwdf cfh{g u/]sf] sldzg,
;]jf z'Ns tyf l8isfp06sf] s'n /sdnfO{ o; zLif{sdf hgfO{ cg';"rL $=@) cg';f/ b]vfpg'
kg]{5 .
$=
cGo ;~rfng cfDbfgL
cfDbfgL zLif{stk{m Joj;fo ;~rfngaf6 dfly pNn]v ul/P jfx]s Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn]
cfh{g u/]sf] cGo s'g} klg cfDbfgLnfO{ o; zLif{sdf hgfO{ cg';"rL $=@! cg';f/ b]vfpg'
kg]{5 .
%=
;6xL 36j9 cfDbfgL
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ljb]zL d'b|f sf/f]jf/ -af jfx]s_ jf6 ePsf] gfkmf tyf ljb]zL d'b|f
;6xL b/df ePsf] kl/jt{gsf] sf/0fn] x'g uPsf] gfkmfgf]S;fgnfO{ 5'f5'} zLif{sdf b]vfpg'
kg]{5 . cg';"rL $=@@ sf] hDdf /sddf gfkmf b]lvPdf dfq ;f] /sd o; zLif{sdf pNn]v ug'{
kg]{5 . cg;"rL $=@@ sf] a'Fbf g+= -s_ ljlgdob/df ePsf] km/saf6 ePsf] s"n cfDbfgLsf]
@%% k|To]s ;fn tdfddf gfkmf gf]S;fg jfF8kmfF8 lx;fj ljlgof]hgaf6 ;6xL 36j9 lx;fjdf
hDdf ug'{ kg]{5 .
^=
sd{rf/L vr{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf sd{rf/Lx?sf] lgldQ eP u/]sf] vr{x?sf] s'n /sd o; zLif{sdf
hgfpg' kg]{5 . o; zLif{sdf ;dfj]z x'g] vr{x?df sd{rf/L tnj, eQf, k]G;g, pkbfg vr{,
;~rosf]if yk, tflnd vr{, kf]zfs vr{, jLdf cflb kg]{5g\ . o; zLif{sdf hgfO{g] /sd
cg';"rL $=@# cg';f/ pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
&=
cGo ;~rfng vr{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfgf] sfof{no ;~rfngsf] l;nl;nfdf ePu/]sf cGo ;Dk"0f{
;~rfng vr{x?sf] s'n /sd of] zLif{sdf hgfpg' kg]{5 . o; zLif{sdf pNn]v ul/g] /sd
cg';"rL $=@$ df pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
*=
;6xL 36j9 gf]S;fg
;6xL 36j9 cfDbfgLgf]S;fg lx;fjdf b]lvPsf] v'b df}Hbft C0ffTds /x]df of] zLif{sdf
b]vfpg' kg]{ 5 .
(=
;Defljt gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
hf]lvdo'Qm ;DklQ (Risk assets) sf] nflu o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg jdf]lhd /fVg'kg]{ Joj:yf
(Provision) gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fjsf] o; zLif{sdf vr{ hgfO{ cg';"rL $=@% cg';f/ pNn]v ug'{
kg]{5 . o:tf] Joj:Yffsf] cg'dfg q}dfl;s ?kdf ug'{ kg]{5 .
!)= u}/ ;~rfng cfDbfgLgf]S;fg
sf/f]jf/sf] l;nl;nfdf k|ToIf ?kn] ;~rfng;+u ;DjlGwt g/x]sf cfDbfgL tyf vr{x? o;
zLif{s cg';f/ pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 . o; zLif{sdf hgfOg] /sd cg';"rL $=@^ cg';f/ pNn]v ug'{
kb{5 .
!!=
;Defljt gf]S;fgL Joj:yfjf6 lkmtf{

66

-^_

hf]lvdo'Qm ;DklQx? (Risk assets) sf] nflu ul/Psf] Joj:yf /sd a9L ePdf a9L ePsf] /sd
lkmtf{ cfDbfgL (Write back) ug'{ kg]{ cj:Yff cfPdf o; zLif{s cGtu{t b]vfO{ cg';"rL $=@&
cg';f/ pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
!@=
c;fdfGo sf/f]jf/x?af6 ePsf] cfDbfgLvr{
c;fdfGo sf/f]jf/x?af6 ePsf] cfDbfgLvr{ cGtu{t dfly plNnlvt cGo zLif{sx? jfx]s v'b
Aofh cfDbfgLsf] % k|ltzteGbf a9L /x]sf ;a} vr{ tyf cfDbfgLsf] nflu cg;"rL $=@*
cg';f/ cnUu} zLif{sdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
!#=
sd{rf/L af]g; Joj:yf
sd{rf/L jf]g;sf] Joj:yf ubf{ gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fjsf] ;Dk"0f{ sf/f]jf/ kl5sf] v'b d'gfkmf jf]g; Joj:yf ;d]t_ nfO{ cfwf/ lng'kg]{ 5 . ljBdfg sfg'g jdf]lhd v'b gfkmfaf6 tf]lsPsf]
k|ltztn] jf]g;sf]nflu 5'6fpg' kg]{ /sdnfO{ o; zLif{s dfkm{t gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fjdf vr{
hgfpg' kg]{5 .
!$= cfo s/ Joj:yf
v'b s/ of]Uo gfkmfdf nfUg] cfo s/ jfktsf] /sd o; zLif{sdf vr{ n]Vg' kg]{5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfo s/ P]g tyf k|rlnt cfly{s sfg'gn]] 5'6 lbPsf / dfGotf
glbOPsf vr{x?sf] lx;fj u/L s/ of]Uo gfkmf sfod ug'{kg]{ 5 / ;f]xL cg'dflgt s/ of]Uo
gfkmfsf] cfwf/df cfo s/ ;DjGwL efjL bfloTj lgwf{/0f u/L o; zLif{s dfk{mt gfkmfgf]S;fg
lx;fjdf vr{ hgfpg' kg]{5 .
!%= v'b gfkmfgf]S;fg
o; zLif{sdf /x]sf] /sdnfO{ ;f]xL jif{sf]cjlwsf] gfkmfgf]S;fg jfF8kmfF8 lx;fj sf] o;
jif{sf] d'gfkmf jf o; jif{sf] gf]S;fg zLif{sdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
gfkmfgf]S;fg jfF8kmfF8 lx;fj ;DaGwL zLif{sx?sf] ;+lIfKt JofVof
vr{ tk{msf] ljj/0f -Debit tkm{_
!=
ut jif{;Ddsf] ;l~rt gf]S;fg
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] lx;fjdf ut cfly{s jif{;Ddsf] ;l~rt 3f6f /x]sf] cj:yfdf o;
zLif{sdf hgfpg' kg]{5 .
@=
;fwf/0f hu]8f sf]if
r'Qmfk'FhLsf] bf]Jj/ geP;Dd k|To]s jif{sf] v'b gfkmfaf6 sDtLdf jL; k|ltzt /sd ;fwf/0f
hu]8f sf]ifdf jfF8kmfF8 ug'{ kg]{5 .
#=
e}kl/ cfpg] hu]8f
cfgf] v'b gfkmfaf6 s]xL c+z 5'6\ofO{ e}k/L cfpg] hu]8f zLif{sdf /fVg] lg0f{o u/]df To:tf]
/sd o; sf]ifdf afF8kmfF8 ug'{ kg]{5 .
$=
;+:yf ljsf; sf]if
cfgf] gfkmfnfO{ ;+:yf ljsf; sf]ifdf hDdf ug]{ u/L jfF8kmFf8 ug]{ lg0f{o u/]df ;f] jdf]lhdsf]
/sd o; zLif{sdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
%=
nfef+z ;lds/0f sf]if
;+:yfsf] gfkmfjf6 s]xL /sd cfufdL jif{x?df nfef+z ;lds/0f ug]{ p2]Zon] jfF8kmfF8 u/L 5'}
/fVg rfx]df To:tf] /sdnfO{ o; zLif{s dfkm{t jfF8kmfF8 lx;fjdf vr{ hgfpg' kg]{5 .
^=
sd{rf/L ;DjGwL hu]8fx?
;+:yfsf] sd{rf/Lx?;+u ;DjlGwt s'g} k|sf/sf sNof0fsf/L sf]if jf cGo s'g} lsl;dsf
sf]ifx?df gfkmfsf] s]xL c+z jfF8kmfF8 ug]{ ePdf o; zLif{s dfk{mt jfF8kmfF8 lx;fjdf vr{
hgfpg' kg]{5 .
&=
k|:tfljt nfef+z
cfgf] gfkmfsf] s]xL c+z nfef+z ljt/0f ug{ k|:tfj u/]sf] ePdf ;f] /sdnfO{ o; zLif{ssf]
afF8kmfF8 lx;fjdf vr{ hgfpg' kg]{5 .
*=
k|:tfljt jf]g; z]o/

67

-&_

-*_

-(_

-!)_

-!!_

-!@_

cfgf] ;l~rt d'gfkmfnfO{ k'FhLs/0f u/L ljBdfg z]o/jfnfx?nfO{ af]g; z]o/ k|bfg ug]{ jf
z]o/s} r'Qmf d"No a9fpg] lg0f{o u/]df ;f] jfktsf] /sddWo] ;l~rt d'gfkmfaf6 hlt k|of]u
x'g] xf] ;f] /sdnfO{ gfkmfgf]S;fg afF8kmfF8 lx;fadf vr{ n]vL o; zLif{sdf hDdf ug'{ kg]{5 .
(=
ljz]if hu]8f sf]if
o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg adf]lhd s'g} klg lsl;dsf] ljz]if hu]8f sf]ifx? v8f ug{ ;l~rt d'gfkmf
k|of]u ug'{kbf{ o; zLif{s dfk{mt afF8kmfF8 lx;fjdf vr{ hgfpg' kg]{5 .
!)= ;6xL 36a9 sf]if
ljb]zL d'b|fsf] k"gd"{Nofgaf6 jif{e/Ldf ePsf] cfDbfgLdWo] ;6xL 36j9 ;DjlGw gLlt jdf]lhd
pQm sf]ifdf ljlgof]hg ug'{ kg]{ /sd o; zLif{sdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
OlSj6Ldf ePsf] kl/jt{g ;DjlGw ljj/0f
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf cfjZos ljj/0fx? v'nfO{ g]kfn n]vf dfkb08 (NAS) sf]
cfwf/df ljQLo ljj/0fsf] cleGg csf] ?kdf OlSj6Ldf ePsf] kl/jt{g ;DjlGw ljj/0f tof/ ug'{
kg]{5 .
gub k|jfx laj/0f
sDkgL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf !)( adf]lhd x/]s sDkgLn] cfgf] jflif{s lx;fa laj/0fx? tof/ ubf{
gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fj tyf jf;nftsf] cnfjf gub k|jfx laj/0f klg tof/ ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
o;y{ sDkgLsf] ?kdf btf{ ePsf ;a} Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] cfgf] jflif{s lx;fj ;+u} gub k|jfx
laj/0f ;d]t tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
;+:yfks z]o/ lwtf] aGws ;DaGwdf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf ;+:yfks z]o/wgLn] lnPsf] z]o/ cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf lwtf] aGws
/fvL shf{ lnPsf] eP ;DalGwt a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] jflif{s k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v -Disclose_ ug'{ kg]{ u/L
cg';"rL $=#$ adf]lhdsf] ljj/0f k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
:yug s/ ;DaGwL Joj:yf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ljQLo ljj/0f k|sfzg ubf{ g]kfn n]vfdfg ( -Nepal Accounting Standard - 9_
cg';f/ :yug s/ -Deferred Tax_ sf] n]vf+sg u/L ;f] ljifo ;d]t v'nfpg' -Disclose_ kg]{ 5 . pQm
zLif{snfO{ ljQLo ljj/0fdf b]xfo adf]lhd x'g] u/L k|sfzg ug'{ kg]{]5 .
!=
gfkmf gf]S;fg lx;fjdf cfos/ Joj:yf zLif{s cGtu{t xfn sfod /x]sf] lgoldt k|s[ltsf] s/ vr{
-Current Tax_ sf] cnfjf o; jif{sf] :yug s/ -Deferred Tax_ zLif{sdf cfDbfgLvr{ n]vf+sg ug{'
kg]{ Joj:yf ldnfO{Psf] 5 .
@=
:yug s/ cfDbfgLvr{ ;f]em} OlSj6Ldf n]vf+sg ug'{ kg]{ ePsf]n] OlSj6Ldf ePsf] kl/jt{g
;DaGwL ljj/0f df z'? df}Hbft zLif{skl5 ;dfof]hg k|of]hgsf nflu :yug s/ pkzLif{s
yk u/L ;dfof]lht z'? df}Hbft b]vfpg' kg]{ Joj:yf ldnfO{Psf] 5 .
#=
jf;nftdf :yug s/ ;DklQ Pj+ bfloTjsf] 5'} zLif{s sfod ug'{kg]{ ePsf]n] o;nfO{
jf;nftsf] cGo bfloTj;DklQ ;DaGwL cg';"rLdf cGo eGbf dfly :yug s/
bfloTj;DklQ pkzLif{s sfod ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf ldnfO{Psf] 5 .
$
jflif{s k|ltj]bgsf] n]vf ;DaGwL l6Kk0fLdf :yug s/ u0fgfsf] nflu ckgfO{Psf] s/sf] b/ / ;f]
ckgfpg'sf] cfwf/, s/of]Uo Pj+ s/ u0fgf ubf{ 36fpg ldNg] c:yfoL km/sx?, u0fgf ul/Psf]
:yug s/ / ;f] jfkt ;[hgf x'g uPsf] ;DklQ tyf bfloTjsf] lj:t[t ljj/0f v'nfpg' kg]{ 5 .
%=
:yug s/ ;DaGwL pk/f]St n]vf+sg lqmofsnfksf sf/0f ;DklQ ;[hgf ePdf ;f] /sd gfkmf
gf]S;fg afF8kmfF8 lx;fjdf vr{ n]vL :yug s/ hu]8f sf]if v8f ug'{ kg]{5 . ;f] sf]ifsf] /sd
:yug s/ afx]s cGo k|of]hgsf nflu k|of]u ug{ kfO{g] 5}g .
5'6 k|bfg ug{ ;lsg]
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt 3 ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?nfO{ sf/f]jf/sf] k|s[lt / cj:yf x]/L tof/ ug'{
kg]{ ljj/0f tyf ;dfj]z ug'{kg]{ ljQLo ljj/0fsf] ;DaGwdf cfjZostf cg';f/ 5'6 k|bfg ug{ ;lsg]
5.
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M

68

-@_

PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] n]vf gLlt tyf ljQLo laj/0fx?sf] 9fFrf ;DaGwL Joj:yf O=k|f
lgb]{zg g+=$)^* af6 hf/L ul/Psf] lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd
hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf] lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;} lgb]{zg
adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

69

=================lnld6]8
@)^=======;fn cfiff9 d;fGtsf]
jf;nft
k'FhL tyf bfloTj

cg;'rL

!= z]o/ kF'hL
@= hu]8f tyf sf]ifx?
#= C0fkq tyf aG8
$= ltg{ afFsL shf{ ;fk6
%= lgIf]k bfloTj
^= e'QmfgL lbg' kg]{ ljnx?
&= k|:tfljt gub nfefFz
*=cfos/ bfloTj
( cGo bfloTj

o; jif{
?

ut jif{
?

o; jif{
?

ut jif{
?

$=!
$=@
$=#
$=$
$=%
$=^
$=&
s'n k'FhL tyf bfloTj
;DklQ

!= gub df}Hbft
@= g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf /x]sf] df}Hbft
#= a}+sljQLo ;+:yfdf /x]sf] df}Hbft
$= dfu tyf cNk ;"rgfdf k|fKt x'g] /sd
%= nufgL
^= shf{ ;fk6 tyf ljn vl/b
&= :yL/ ;DklQ
*= u}/ a}ls ;DklQ
(= cGo ;DklQ

cg;'rL

s'n ;DklQ

;+efljt bfloTj
;~rfnsxsf] #f]if)ff
k'+hLsf]if tflnsf
hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQ ljj/)f tflnsf
k|d"v ;"rsfx
k|d"v n]vf gLltx
n]vf ;DaGwL l^Kk)fLx?

$=*
$=(
$=!)
$=!!
$=!@
$=!#
$=!$
$=!%
$=!^
cg';"rL 4=17
cg';"rL 4=29
cg';"rL 4=30
cg";'rL 4=30-s_
cg';"rL 4=31
cg';"rL 4=32
cg';"rL 4=33

4=1 b]lv 4=17 ;Ddsf cg';"rLx jf;nftsf cleGg c+u x'g\ .

70

=====================lnld6]8
ldlt ==============b]lv================;Dd
gfkmf gf]S;fg lx;fj
ljj/0f

cg';"rL

!= Aofh cfDbfgL
@= Aofh vr{
v'b Aofh cfDbfgL
#= sldzg tyf l8:sfp06
$=cGo ;~rfng cfDbfgL
% ;6xL 36j9 cfDbfgL
s"n ;~rfng cfDbfgL
^=sd{rf/L vr{
&= cGo ;~rfng vr{
*= ;6xL 36j9 gf]S;fg
;Defljt gf]S;fgL Joj:yf cl3sf] ;~rfng d'gfkmf
(=;Defljt gf]S;fgL Joj:yfx?
;~rfng d'gfkmf
!)=u}/ ;~rfng cfDbfgLvr{
!! ;Defljt gf]S;fgL Aoa:yf af6 lkmtf{
lgoldt sf/f]jf/jf6 ePsf] d'gfkmf
!@= c;fdfGo sf/f]jf/x?af6 ePsf] cfDbfgLvr{
;Dk"0f{ sf/f]jf/ ;dfj]z kl5sf] v'b d'gfkmf
!#= sd{rf/L af]g; Aoa:yf
!$ cfos/ Joj:yf
o; jif{sf] s/ Joj:yf
ljut jif{;Ddsf] s/ Joj:yf
o; jif{sf] :yug s/ cfDbfgLvr{
v'b gfkmfgf]S;fg

o; jif{
?

$=!*
$=!(
$=@)
$=@!
$=@@
$=@#
$=@$
$=@@
$=@%
$=@^
$=@&
$=@*

4=18 b]lv 4=28 ;Ddsf cg';"rLx gfkmf gf]S;fg lx;fjsf cleGg c+u x'g\ .

71

ut jif{
?

=================== lnld^]*
gfkmf gf]S;fg af+*kmf+* lx;fa
ldlt ============ b]lv =================;Dd
ljj/0f
cg';"rL

o; jif{

ut jif{ =

cfDbfgL
1=
ut jif{;Ddsf] ;+lrt d"gfkmf
2=
o; jif{sf] d"gfkmf
3=
;^xL #^a( sf]if
hDdf
vr{
1=
2=
3=
4=
5=
6=
7=
8=
9=
10=
11=
12=
13=
14=

ut jif{;Ddsf] ;+lrt gf]S;fg


o; jif{sf] gf]S;fg
;fwf/)f hu]*fsf]if
e}k/L cfpg] hu]*f
;+:yf ljsf; sf]if
nfef+z ;dLs/)f sf]if
sd{rf/L ;DaGwL hu]*fx
k|:tfljt nfef+z
k|:tfljt af]g; z]o/
ljz]if hu]*f sf]if
;^xL #^a( sf]if
k'+hL lkmtf{ hu]*f sf]if
k'+hL ;dfof]hg sf]if
==============================
hDdf

15=

;l~rt d'gfkmf-gf]S;fg_

=================== lnld^]*

OlSj6Ldf ePsf] kl/jt{g ;DjlGw ljj/0f


cf=j= 20==========-?=_

ljj/0f

Z]fo/
k'FhL

;l~rt
Gff=gf]=

;fwf/0f
hu]8f
sf]if

k"Flhut
hu]8f
sf]if

Z'f? df}Hbft
:yug s/
;dfof]lht z'?
df}Hbft
;dfof]hg
========================
=========================
========================
=======================
clGtd df}Hbft

72

z]o/
lk|ldod

;6xL
36a9
sf]if

:yug s/
hu]8f

cGo hu]8f
tyf sf]if

s'n
/sd

==========================lnld6]8
gub k|jfx ljj/0f
ldlt ============ b]lv ========== ;Dd
ljj/)f
-s_
1=
1=1
1=2
1=3
1=4
1=5
2=
2=1
2=2
2=3
2=4
2=5

o; jif{ =

sf/f]af/ ;+rfngaf^ gub k|jfx


gub k|flKt
Aofh cfDbfgL
sldzg tyf l*isfpG^ cfDbfgL
ljb]zL ljlgdo sf/f]jf/af^ cfDbfgL
ckn]lvt shf{sf] c;'nL
cGo cfDbfgL
gub e'QmfgL
Aofh vr{
sd{rf/L vr{
sfof{no ;+rfng vr{
cfos/ e'QmfgL
cGo vr{
sfo{ut k'+hL ultljlw cl#sf] gub k|jfx

-_

;~rfng ;DjGwL rfn" ;DklQdf sdL-j[l$_


dfu tyf cNk ;"rgfdf k|fKt x"g] /sddf sdL-j[l$_
cGo cNksfnLg nufgLdf sdL-j[l$_
shf{ tyf ljN; vl/bdf sdL-j[l$_
cGo ;DklQdf sdL-j[l$_
;~rfng ;DjlGw rfn" bfloTjdf -sdL_j[l$
lgIf]k bfloTjdf -sdL_j[l$
;l^{lkms]^ ckm l*kf]lh^df -sdL_j[l$
cNksfnLg ;fk^Ldf -sdL_ j[l$
cGo bfloTjdf -sdL_ j[l$
nufgL sf/f]jf/df gub k|jfx
bL#{sfnLg nufgLdf sdL-j[l$_
:yL/ ;DklQdf sdL-j[l$_
bL#{sfnLg nufgLdf Aofh cfDbfgL
nfef+z cfDbfgL
cGo
ljQLo >f]t sf/f]jf/af^ gub k|jfx
bL#{sfnLg C)F -j)*, l*j]Gr/ cflb_ df j[l$-sdL_
z]o/ k'+hLdf j[l$-sdL_
cGo bfloTjdf j[l$-sdL_
g]kfn /fi^ a}+saf^ k|FKt ;x'lnotk'g/shf{df j[l$-sdL_
gub tyf a}s df}Hbftsf] ljlgdo b/df ePsf] km/saf^
cfDbfgL vr{
o; jif{sf] ;Dk")f{ ultljlwaf^ gub k|jfx

-r_

gub tyf a}+sdf /x]sf] z'? df}Hbft

-%_

gub tyf a}+sdf /x]sf] clGtd df}Hbft

1=
2=
3=
4=
1=
2=
3=
4=
-v_
1=
2=
3=
4=
5=
-u_
1=
2=
3=
4=
-#_

73

ut jif{ =

=================== lnld^]*
z]o/ k'h
+ L tyf :jfldTj

cg';r
" L 4=1

- === === cfiff( d;fGt_


ljj/)f
1=
1=1

s_
v_
u_

1=2

======= ;fwf/)f z]o/ k|lt z]o/ = ======= n]


====== gg\l/l*d]jn lk|km/]G; z]o/ k|lt z]o/ = ======= n]
======= l/l*d]jn lk|km/]G; z]o/ k|lt z]o/ = ====n]
======= ;fwf/)f z]o/ k|lt z]o/ ================= n]
======= gg\l/l*d]jn lk|km/]G; z]o/ k|lt z]o/ = ======= n]
======= l/l*d]jn lk|km/]G; z]o/ k|lt z]o/ =============n]

r'Qmf k'+hL
s_
v_
u_

1=4
1=5
1=6

ut jif{ =

hf/L k'+hL
s_
v_
u_

1=3

o; jif{ =

z]o/ k'+hL
clws[t k'+hL

========= ;fwf/)f z]o/ k|lt z]o/ ======================== n]


========= gg\l/l*d]jn lk|km/]G; z]o/ k|lt z]o/ ========= n]
===========l/l*d]jn lk|km/]G; z]o/ k|lt z]o/ = ============n]

k|:tfljt af]g; z]o/


sN; Og P*efG;
hDdf /sd -1=3+1=4+1=5_
z]o/ :jfldTj ljj/)f

o; jif{ =
k|ltzt
z]o/ k'+hL

1=

:jb]zL :jfldTj

1=1
1=2
1=3
1=4
1=5
1=6
2=

g]kfn ;/sf/
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx
cGo Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx
cGo ;+:yfx
;j{;fwf/)f
cGo
a}bl] zs :jfldTj

ut jif{ =
z]o/ k'+hL

k|ltzt

hDdf
gf]^Mdfly cg';"rLdf plNnlvt ljj/)f cGtu{t 0=5 k|ltzt jf ;f]eGbf a(L :jfldTj ePsf] JolQm;d"xkmd{sDkgL eP,
lghxsf] gfd, k|ltzt / /sd :ki^ v'nfpg' kg]{% . k|ltzt pNn]v ubf{ z]o/ ;+Vofsf] cfwf/df u)fgf ug'{ kg]{% .

=================== lnld^]*
hu]*f tyf sf]ifx
- === === cfiff( d;fGt _
1=
2=
3=
4=
5=

ljj/)f
;fwf/)fa}wflgs hu]*f sf]if
k'+hLut hu]*f sf]if
k'+hL lkmtf{ hu]*f sf]if -Capital Redemption Reserve)
k'+hL ;dfof]hg sf]if
cGo hu]*f tyf sf]if
5=1=

e}k/L cfpg] hu]*f

5=2=

;+:yf ljsf; sf]if

5=3=

nfef+z ;lds/)f sf]if

5=4= ljz]if hu]*f sf]if


5=5=

;DklQ k'gd"{Nofg sf]if

5=6= :yug s/ hu]*f


5=7=

cGo :jtGq sf]if

5=8= cGo hu]*f sf]if


6=
;l~rt gfkmfgf]S;fg
7=
;^xL #^a( sf]if
8= hDdf

74

cg';"rL 4=2
o; jif{ =

ut jif{ =

cg';"rL 4=3

=================== lnld^]*
C)fkq tyf j)*
- === === cfiff( d;fGt _
ljj/)f

o; jif{ =

ut jif{ =

1 ====== k|ltzt j)*C)fkq k|lt j)*C)fkq ===== = n] ===


ldlt ============== df hf/L ePsf] / ldlt ========df r'Qmf x'g]
-xfn;Ddsf] Redemption Reserve /sd =

=========================_

2 ====== k|ltzt j)*C)fkq k|lt j)*C)fkq ===== = n] ===


ldlt ============== df hf/L ePsf] / ldlt ========df r'Qmf x'g]
-xfn;Ddsf] Redemption Reserve /sd =
3

=======

=======================_+

=========

4= hDdf 1+2+3

gf]^M

;'/If)f /fvL C)fkq tyf j)* hf/L ul/Psf] ePdf ;'/If)fsf] laj/)f v'nfpg' kg]%
{ .

cg';"rL 4=4
=================== lnld^]*
ltg{ af+sL shf{ -;fk^L_
- === === cfiff( d;fGt _
s=

ljj/)f
:jb]zL
1= g]kfn ;/sf/
2= g]kfn /fi^ a}+s
3= l/kf] bfloTj
4= cGt/ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf
5= cGo ;+ul&t ;+:yfx
6= cGo

o; jif{ =

hDdf
v=

ljb]zL
1= a}s
+ x
2=
cGo
hDdf

u= hDdf -sv_

75

ut jif{ =

cg';"rL 4=5
=================== lnld^]*
lgIf]k lx;fa
- === === cfiff( d;fGt _
ljj/)f
1=
s=
1=
1=1
1=2
1=3
1=4
1=5
1=6
2=
2=1
2=2
2=3
2=4
2=5
2=6
v=
1=
2=
3=
u=
1=
1=1
1=2
1=3

Aofh ltg'{ gkg]{ vftfx


rNtL lx;fa
:jb]zL d'b|fdf
g]kfn ;/sf/
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt
cGo Ohfhtkqk|fKt ljQLo
cGo ;+ul&t ;+:yfx
JolQmut
cGo
ljb]zL d'bf| df
g]kfn ;/sf/
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt
cGo Ohfhtkqk|fKt ljQLo
cGo ;+ul&t ;+:yfx
JolQmut
cGo
dflh{g
sd{rf/L hdfgt
hdfgt dflh{g
k|lttkq dflh{g
cGo
:jb]zL d'b|fdf
ljQLo ;+:yfx
cGo ;+ul&t ;+:yfx
JolQmut

2=
2=1
2=2
2=3

ljb]zL d"bf| df
ljQLo ;+:yfx
cGo ;+ul&t ;+:yfx
JolQmut

2=
s=
1=
1=1
1=2
1=3
2=
2=1
2=2
2=3
v=

Aofh ltg'{ kg]{ vftfx


art lx;fa
:jb]zL d'b|fdf
;+# ;+:yfx
JolQmut
cGo
ljb]zL d'bf| df
;+# ;+:yfx
JolQmut
cGo
d'@lt lx;fa

1=
1=1
1=2
1=3
2=
2=1
2=2
2=3
u=

:jb]zL d'b|fdf
;+# ;+:yfx
JolQmut
cGo
ljb]zL d'bf| df
;+# ;+:yfx
JolQmut
cGo
dfu]sf] avt ltg'{ kg]{ lx;fa

o; jif{ =

;+:yfx?
;+:yfx

;+:yfx?
;+:yfx

Aofh ltg'{ gkg]{ vftfxsf] hDdf

76

ut jif{ =

1=

:jb]zL d'b|fdf

1=1
1=2
1=3
1=4
1=5
2=
2=1
2=2
2=3
2=4
2=5
#=
1=
2=
3=

s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?


cGo O=k|f=ljQLo ;+:yfx
cGo ;+ul&t ;+:yfx
JolQmut
cGo
ljb]zL d'bf| df
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
cGo O=k|f= ljQLo ;+:yfx
cGo ;+ul&t ;+:yfx
JolQmut
cGo
;l^{lkms]^ ckm l*kf]lh^
;+ul&t ;+:yf
JolQmut
cGo
Aofh ltg'{ kg]{ vftfxsf] hDdf
-12_ hDdf lgIf]k

cg';"rL 4=6
=================== lnld^]*

e'QmfgL lbg'kg]{ ljnx


- === === cfiff( d;fGt _

1=
2=

ljj/)f
:jb]zL d'bf|
ljb]zL d'b|f

o; jif{ =

ut jif{ =

hDdf

cg';"rL 4=7
=================== lnld^]*
cGo bfloTj
- === === cfiff( d;fGt _
ljj/)f
1=
2=
3=
4=
5=
6=
7=
8=
9=
10=
11=
12=

o; jif{ =

k]G;gpkbfg sf]if
sd{rf/L ;~ro sf]if
sd{rf/L sNof)f sf]if
sd{rf/L jf]g; Joj:yf
lgIf]kdf e'QmfgL lbg af+sL Aofh
;fk^Ldf e'QmfgL lbg af+sL Aofh
kfsL g;s]sf] l*:sfp)^ / sldzg
;)*L q]ml*^;{
zfvf ldnfg lx;fj
:yug s/ bfloTj
e'QmfgL lbg af+sL nfef+z
cGo
hDdf

77

ut jif{ =

cg';"rL 4=8
=================== lnld^]*
gub df}Hbft
- === === cfiff( d;fGt _
ljj/)f
1=
2=

o; jif{ =

ut jif{ =

:jb]zL d'bf| -l;Ssf ;d]t_


ljb]zL d'b|f
hDdf

cg';"rL 4=9
=================== lnld^]*
g]kfn /fi^ a}+sdf /x]sf] df}Hbft
- === === cfiff( d;fGt _
:jb]zL
d'bf|

ljj/)f

ljb]zL d'b|f =df


ef==

1=

kl/jTo{ lj=d'=

s'n =

ut jif{
=

hDdf

g]kfn /fi^ a}+s

s=

rNtL vftf

v=

cGo vftf

cg';"rL 4=10
=================== lnld^]*
a}s
+ ljQLo ;+:yfdf /x]sf] df}Hbft
- === === cfiff( d;fGt _
ljj/)f

ljb]zL d'b|f =df

:jb]zL
d'bf|
ef==

1=
s=
v=
2=
s=
v=

s'n =

kl/jTo{ lj=d'=

ut jif{
=

hDdf

:jb]zL
Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfx?
rNtL vftf
cGo vftf
ljb]zL a}+sx
rNtL vftf
cGo vftf

hDdf
gf]^M

;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx? ;dy{g kq cg';f/sf] s'n df}Hbft = =================

cg';"rL 4=11
=================== lnld^]*
dfu tyf cNk;"rgfdf k|fKt x'g] /sdx
- === === cfiff( d;fGt _
ljj/)f
1=

:jb]zL d'bf| df

2=

ljb]zL d'bf| df

o; jif{ =

ut jif{ =

hDdf

cg';r
" L 4=12

78

=================== lnld^]*
nufgL
- === === cfiff( d;fGt _
k|of]hg
Jofkfl/s
cGo

ljj/)f

!
@
#
$
%
^
&
*
(
!)

o; jif{ =

ut jif{ =

g]kfn ;/sf/sf] 6]h/L ljn


g]kfn ;/sf/sf] art kq
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] cGo C0fkq
g]kfn /fi6 a}s C0f kq
lab]zL C0f kq
:ab]zL Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf
lab]zL a}s
;+ul7t ;+:yfx?sf] z]o/
;+ul7t ;+:yfx?sf] l8j]Gr/ tyf aG8
cGo nufgL
s'n nufgL
Joj:yf
v'b nufgL

cg';r
" L 4=12-s_
z]o/, l*j]Gr/ tyf j)*df nufgL
k/n
df]n
=

ljj/)f

1=
1=1
1=2
1=3
2=
2=1
2=2
2=3
3=
3=1
3=2

ahf/
d'No
cg";f/
?=

Joj:yf
/sd
?=

o;
jif{
?=

z]o/ nufgL
====== sDkgL -k|f=ln=ln=_
====== ;fwf/)f z]o/, k|lt z]o/ ====== n] r"Qmf
====== sDkgL -k|f=ln=ln=_
====== ;fwf/)f z]o/ -dWo]===jf]g; ;d]t_ k|lt z]o/====n] r"Qmf
====== sDkgL -k|f=ln=ln=_
====== k|ltzt ==== lk|km/]G; z]o/ k|lt z]o/ = ===== n] r"Qmf
l*j]Gr/ tyf j)* nufgL
====== sDkgL -k|f=ln=ln=_
====== k|ltzt l*j]Gr/j)* k|lt l*j]Gr/a)* ===== = n] ===
=================
==================
s'n nufgL
hf]lvd ;DaGwL Joj:yf
ut jif{ ;Ddsf] Joj:yf
o; jif{sf] yk#^
s'n Joj:yf
v'b nufgL

gf]^M 3 jif{ eGbfa(L ;dob]lv nfef+z #f]if)ff tyf ljt/)f gu/]sf sDkgLx ePdf To:tf sDkgLxsf] gfd v'nfpg'
kg]{% .

79

ut
jif{
?=

ljj/0f

=================== lnld6]8
Jofkfl/s nufgL -Held for Trading_
- === ===== d;fGt_
k/n kl5Nnf]
xfnsf] o; jif{
d"No ahf/ d"No ahf/
gfkmf
-s_
d"No -v_ -gf]S;fg_
/sd
-vs_

cg';"rL $=!@=!

ut jif{
gfkmf
-gf]S;fg_
/sd

s}lkmot

!= g]kfn ;/sf/sf] 6]h/L ljn


@= g]kfn ;/sf/sf] artkq
#= g]kfn ;/sf/sf] cGo C0fkq
$= g]=/f= a}s C0fkq
%= ljb]zL C0fkq
^= :jb]zL Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] z]o/
&= :jb]zL Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] l8j]Gr/ tyf a08
*= :jb]zL ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] z]o/, l8j]Gr/ tyf a08
(= ljb]zL a}s nufgL -Placement_
!)= Interbank Lending
!!=cGo nufgL
s'n nufgL

ljj/0f

=================== lnld6]8
e'QmfgL ldlt;Dd wf/0f ug]{ nufgL -Held to Maturity_
- === === === d;fGt_
k/n xfn;Ddsf] o;jif{sf] o; jif{
ut jif{
gfkmf
gfkmf
d"No Iflt /sd Iflt
-gf]S;fg_
-gf]S;fg_
-s_ -v_
/sd
/sd
/sd
-u_
-svu_

!= g]kfn ;/sf/sf] 6]h/L ljn


@= g]kfn ;/sf/sf] artkq
#= g]kfn ;/sf/sf] cGo C0fkq
$= g]=/f= a}s C0fkq
%= lab]zL C0fkq
^= :ab]zL Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] z]o/
&= :ab]zL Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf]
l8j]Gr/ tyf a08
*= :ab]zL ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] z]o/,
l8j]Gr/ tyf a08
(= lab]zL a}s nufgL -Placement_
!)=cGo nufgL
s'n nufgL

80

cg';"rL $=!@=@

s}lkmot

cg';"rL $=!@=#

=================== lnld6]8
laqmLsf] nflu pknAw nufgL -Available for Sale_
- === === === d;fGt_
ljj/0f

k/n
d"No

kl5Nnf]
ahf/
d"No -s_

ut jif{
o; jif{
xfnsf]
s}lkmot
ahf/ d"No sf]if ;dfof]hg gfkmf
gf]S;fg_/sd
-v_
/sd -vs_

!= g]kfn ;/sf/sf] 6]h/L ljn


@= g]kfn ;/sf/sf] artkq
#= g]kfn ;/sf/sf] cGo C0fkq
$= g]=/f= a}s C0fkq
%= lab]zL C0fkq
^= :ab]zL Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] z]o/
&= :ab]zL Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] l8j]Gr/ tyf a08
*= :ab]zL ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] z]o/, l8j]Gr/ tyf a08
(= lab]zL a}s nufgL -Placement_
!)=cGo nufgL
s'n nufgL
cg';"rL 4=13
=================== lnld^]*
shf{ ;fk^ tyf lan vl/b juL{s/)f / ;f]sf] nflu Joj:yf
- === === cfiff( d;fGt _
shf{
ljj/)f
:jb]zL
ljkGg ju{
ljldt cljldt
1=

;lqmo shf{ ;fk^ (Performing Loan)

2=

lgl:qmo shf{ ;fk^


(Non Performing Loan)

cGo

ljb]zL

hDdf

vl/b tyf l*isfpG^


ul/Psf lan
:jb]zL

ljb]zL

o; jif{
=

utjif{
=

hDdf

c;n
@=! k'g/;+/rgf k'gtf{lnsLs/0f
2=2 sd;n
2=3 z+sf:kb
2=4 v/fa

-s_ s"n shf{


3=
shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
3=1
3=2
3=3
3=4
3=5

c;n

k'g/;+/rgfk'gtf{lnsLs/0f
sd;n
z+sf:kb
v/fj

-v_ s"n Joj:yf


4= ut jif{;Ddsf] Joj:yf
4=1
4=2
4=3
4=4
4=5

-u_
-#_
-*=_
o;

c;n

k'g/;+/rgf k'gtf{lnsLs/0f
sd;n
z+sf:kb
v/fj

ut jif{;Ddsf] s"n Joj:yf


ut aif{sf] Joj:yfaf^ lkmtf{
o; aif{sf] yk Joj:yf
jif{sf] v'b yk#^
v'b shf{ -sv_

cg';"rL 4=13-s_

81

=================== lnld^]*
shf{, ;fk^ / ljN; vl/bsf] ;'/If)f
- === === cfiff( d;fGt_
ljj/)f

o; jif{ =

ut jif{ =

-s_ ;'/lIft
1= rncrn ;DklQsf] ;'/If)fdf
2=
3=
4=
5=
6=

:jb]zL Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] hdfgtdf


;/sf/L hdfgtdf
cGt/f{li^o >])fLs[t a}s
+ sf] hdfgtdf
lgof{t sfuhft (Export Document) sf] ;'/If)fdf
d'@lt /l;bsf] ;'/If)fdf
-s_
;+:Yffsf] cfkm\g} d'@lt /l;bsf] ;'/If)f
-v_
cGo Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] d'@lt /l;bsf] ;'/If)f
7= ;/sf/L C)fkqsf] ;'/If)fdf
8= sfp)^/ hdfgtdf
9= JolQmut hdfgtdf
10= cGo ;'/If)fdf

-v_ c;'/lIft
hDdf

cg;"rL 4=14

=================== lnld^]*
:yL/ ;DklQ
- === === cfiff( d;fGt _
;DklQ
ljj/)f
1=

2=

3=
4=
5=
6=

ejg

kl/jxg ;fwg

k/ndf]n
-s_ ut jif{sf] df}Hbft
-v_ o; jif{ yk
-u_ o; jif{ k"gd'{Nofgk'gn]{vg
-#_ o; jif{sf] ljqmL
-_ o; jif{sf] ckn]vg
s'n -svu#_ k/ndf]n
x|f; sL
-s_ ut jif{;Ddsf]
-v_ o; jif{sf]
-u_ x|f;sL k'gd"{Nofgk'gn]{vg
-u_
x|f;sL /sd ;dfof]hglkmtf{
s'n x|f;sL
a"s Eofn" (WDV*) -12_
hUuf

k'FhLut lgdf{0f -k'FhLs/0f ul/g' kg]{_


nLh xf]N* ;DklQ

hDdf -3456_
*Written Down Value

82

d]lzg/L

sfof{no
;fdfg

cGo

o; jif{
=

ut jif{
=

cg;"rL 4=15

=================== lnld^]*

u}/ a}+ls ;DklQ


- === === cfiff( d;fGt _

C[0fL jf kf6L{sf]
gfd 7]ufgf

u}/ a}+ls ;DklQ


;sf/ u/]sf] ldlt

s'n u}/ a}+ls


;DklQ /sd ?=

gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
k|ltzt

v'b u}/ j}+lsu


;DklQ =

ut jif{ =

/sd ?=

s"n hDdf
cg;"rL 4=16

=======================lnld^]*
cGo ;DklQ
- === === cfiff( d;fGt _
1=
2=
3=
4=
5=
6=
7=
8=
9=
10=
11=
12=
13=
14=

laa/)F
d;nGb df}Hbft
nufgLdf c;"n ug{ af+sL cfDbfgL
shf{df c;"n ug{ af+sL Aofh
Go"gM Aofh d"NtjL /sd
c;"n ug{ af+sL sldzg
;G*L *]^;{
sd{rf/L ;fk^L / k]ZsL
clu|d e"QmfgL
dfu{:y gub
dfu{:y cGo -r]s ;d]t_
ljgf ;"rgf *fk\m^sf] e"QmfgL
ckn]vg x"g af+sL vr{
zfvf ldnfg lx;fj
:yug s/ ;DklQ
cGo

o; jif{ =

ut jif{ =

hDdf

cg';r
" L 4=16-s_

ljj/)f

1=
2=
3=
4=

=======================lnld^]*
cGo ;DklQ -yk ljj/)f_
- === === cfiff( d;fGt _
o; jif{ =
1
1 jif{b]lv dfly
3 jif{eGbf
jif{;Dd
3 jif{;Dd
dfly

shf{df c;'n ug{ af+sL Aofh


ljgf ;"rgf *fkm\^sf] e'QmfgL
zfvf ldnfg lx;fj
:jb]zL ljbzL Ph]G;L lx;fa

83

hDdf

ut jif{
=

cg';"rL 4=17
=======================lnld^]*
;Defljt bfloTjx
- === === cfiff( d;fGt _
1=
2=

3=
4=

5=
6=
7=
8=
9=
10=
11=
12=
13=
14=
15=

ljj/)f
;+:yf pk/ bfjL k/]sf] t/ ;+:yfn] bfloTj :jLsf/ gu/]sf]
k|lttkqx -dflh{g g#^fO{ k'/f /sd_
-s_
6 dlxgf eGbf sd cjlwsf]
-v_
6 dlxgf eGbf a(L cjlwsf]
k"gM l*:sfpG^ ul/Psf ljnx
Dofb gfl# g;s]sf] Uof/]G^La)*
-s_
la* a)*
-v_
k/km/d]G; a)*
-u_
cGo Uof/])^La)*
r'Qmf jf e'Qmfg x'g af+sL z]o/ nufgL
km/jf*{ PS:r]~h sG^fS^sf] af+sL bfloTjx
sn]S;gdf /x]sf lanx
d~h"/L tyf ;dy{g (Acceptence & Endorsement)
k|Tofe'lt k|ltj$tf (Underwriting Commitment)
ckl/jTo{ shf{ k|ltj$tf (Irrevocable Loan Commitment)
cGt/f{li^o >])fLs[t a}s
+ sf] sfp)^/ Uof/])^Ldf lbPsf] Uof/])^L
clu|d e"QmfgL Uof/])^L (Advance Payment Guarantee)
shf{ k|jfxsf] nflu ljQLo hdfgt (Financial Guarantee)
cfos/ jfkt ;Defljt bfloTj (Contingent Liabilities on Income Tax)
=======================

o; jif{ =

ut jif{ =

cg';"rL 4=18

=======================lnld^]*
Aofh cfDbfgL
ldlt ==============b]lv =================;Dd
s=

v=

5=

u=

#=

ljj/)f
shf{ ;fk^ / clwljsif{df
1=
shf{ ;fk^
2=
clwljsif{
nufgLdf
1=
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;'/If)fkq
-s_ ^]h/L laN;
-v_ ljsf; C)fkq
-u_ /fli^o art kq
2=
ljb]zL C)fkq
-s_
-v_
3=
g]kfn /fi^ a}+ssf] C)fkq
4=
l*j]Gr/ tyf a)*
cGt/ a}+s nufgLdf Aofh
-s_
a}s
+ ljQLo ;+:yfx
-v_
cGo ;+:yfx
Ph]G;L df}Hbftdf
1=
:jb]zL a}+sljQLo ;+:yfx
2=
ljb]zL a}+sx
dfu tyf cNk ;"rgfdf k|fKt x'g] df}Hbftdf
1=
:jb]zL a}+sljQLo ;+:yfx
2=
ljb]zL a}+sx
cGodf
1=
;l^{lkms]^ ckm l*kf]lh^
2=
cGt/ a}+sljQLo ;+:yf shf{
3=
cGo

o; jif{ =

hDdf

84

ut jif{ =

cg';"rL 4=19

=======================lnld^]*
Aofh vr{
ldlt==============b]lv=========== ;Dd
ljj/)f
s=

v=

u=

o; jif{ =

ut jif{ =

lgIf]k bfloTjdf
1=
d'@lt lgIf]k
1=1 :jb]zL d"bf|
1=2 ljb]zL d'bf|
2=
art lgIf]k
2=1 :jb]zL d"bf|
2=2 ljb]zL d'b|f
3=
dfu]sf] avt ltg'{kg]{ lgIf]k
3=1 :jb]zL d'bf|
3=2 ljb]zL d'b|f
4=
;l^{lkms]^ ckm l*kf]lh^\;\
shf{ ;fk^df
1=
C)fkq tyf a)*
2=
g]kfn /fi^ a}+saf^ k|fKt shf{
3=
cGt/ a}+sljQLo ;+:yf shf{
4=
cGo ;+ul&t ;+:yf
5=
cGo shf{
cGodf
1=
=============
2=
==============
hDdf

cg';"rL 4=20

s=

v=

u=

==================lnld^]*
sldzg tyf l*:sfpG^
ldlt =============b]lv ============= ;Dd
ljj/)f
laN; vl/b tyf l*:sfpG^
1=
:jb]zL
2=
ljb]zL
sldzg
1=
k|lttkq
2=
hdfgtkq
3=
sn]S;g kmL
4=
/]ld^]G; kmL
5=
q]ml*^ sf*{
6=
z]o/ k|Tofe'ltlgisfzg
7=
;/sf/L sf/f]af/ jfkt
8=
O=k|f= sldzg jfkt
9=
af cfDbfgL
cGo
hDdf

85

o; jif{ =

ut jif{ =

cg';"rL 4=21

1=
2=
3=
4=
5=
6=
7=

========================lnld^]*
cGo ;~rfng cfDbfgL
ldlt =============b]lv ============= ;Dd
ljj/)f
;]km l*kf]lh^ eN^sf] ef*f
q]ml*^sf*{ lgisfzg tyf gjLs/)f
ATM sf*{ lgisfzg tyf gjLs/)f
^]n]S;l^=l^=
;]jf z"Ns
gjLs/)f z'Ns
cGo
hDdf

o; jif{ =

ut jif{ =

cg';r
" L 4=22

-s_
-v_

==========================lnld^]*
;^xL #^a( cfDbfgLgf]S;fg
ldlt =============b]lv ============= ;Dd
ljj/)f
o; jif{ =
ljlgdo b/df ePsf] km/saf^
ljb]zL d'bf| sf/f]af/af^ -af afx]s_
hDdf cfDbfgL-gf]S;fg_

ut jif{ =

cg';"rL 4=23

=======================lnld^]*
sd{rf/L vr{
ldlt =============b]lv ============= ;Dd
ljj/)f
o; jif{ =
1=
2=
3=
4=
5=
6=
7=
8=
9=

tnj
eQf
;~rosf]ifdf yk
tflnd vr{
kf]zfs
cf}ifwf]krf/
aLdf
k]G;g tyf pkbfg Joj:yf
cGo
hDdf

86

ut jif{ =

cg';"rL 4=24

=======================lnld^]*
cGo ;~rfng vr{
ldlt =============b]lv ============= ;Dd
ljj/)f
o; jif{ =
1=
2=
3=

4=
5=
6=
7=
8=
9=
10=
11=
12=
13=

14=
15=

16=
17=
18=
19=
20=
21=
22=
23=
24=
25=
26=

ut jif{ =

#/ef*f
aQL ljh'nL / kfgL
dd{t tyf ;Def/
-s_
ejg
=============
-v_
;jf/L ;fwg
=============
-u_
cGo
==============
aLdf
kf]i^]h, ^]nS
] ;, ^]lnkmf]g, k\mofS;
sfof{no pks/)f kmlg{r/ / ;Def/
e|d)f eQf / vr{
d;nGb / %kfO{
kqklqsf tyf k':ts
lj!fkg
sfg'gL vr{
rGbf
;~rfns ;ldlt ;DaGwL vr{
-s_
a}&s eQf
=============
-v_
cGo vr{
==============
;fwf/)f ;ef ;DaGwL vr{
n]vf k/LIf)f ;DaGwL
-s_
n]vf k/LIf)f z'Ns ===============
-v_
cGo vr{ ===============
/sd :yfgfGt/)f sldzg
:yL/ ;DklQdf x|f; sL
k"j{ ;~rfng vr{ ckn]vg
z]o/ lgisfzg vr{
k|fljlws ;]jf zf]wegf{
dgf]/~hg vr{
ckn]vg vr{
;'/Iff vr{
shf{ ;'/If)f lk|ldod
sldzg / l*:sfp)^
cGo =====================
hDdf

gf]^M

vr{x hgfp+bf h'g k|of]hgsf] nflu vr{ ePsf] xf] ;f]xL zLif{sdf vr{ hgfpg' k%{ . cGo
;fdfGo zLif{sdf ufEg kfOg] %}g . h:tf] ;+rfns ;ldltsf] a}&ssf] l;nl;nfdf ePsf] oftfoft vr{,
;+rfns ;ldlt ;DaGwL vr{ cGtu{t cGo vr{ df hgfpg' kg]{% .

87

cg';"rL 4=25

1=
2=
3=
4=

======================lnld^]*
;Defljt gf]S;fgL Aoa:yf
ldlt =============b]lv ============= ;Dd
ljj/)f
shf{ gf]S;fgL Aoj:yfdf ePsf] a[l$
nufgL gf]S;fgL Aoj:yfdf ePsf] a[l$
u}/ a}+lsu ;DklQ gf]S;fgL Aoj:yf
cGo ;DklQdf ul/Psf] Joj:yf
hDdf

o; jif{ =

ut jif{ =

cg';"rL 4=26

======================lnld^]*

1=
2=
3=
4=

5=

u}/ ;+rfng cfDbfgLgf]S;fg


ldlt =============b]lv ============= ;Dd
ljj/)f
nufgL laqmLaf^ cfDbfgL-gf]S;fg_
;DklQ laqmLaf^ cfDbfgL-gf]S;fg_
nfef+z
g]kfn /fi^ a}s
+ af^ k|fKt ;x'lnot
s=
tf]lsPsf] zfvfxsf] gf]S;fg jfkt Ifltk"lt{
v=
Aofh Ifltk"lt{
u=
;^xL sfpG^/
cGo
v'b u}/ ;+rfng cfDbfgL-gf]S;fg_

o; jif{ =

ut jif{ =

cg';"rL 4=27

======================lnld^]*
;Defljt gf]S;fgL Aoj:yfaf^ lkmtf{
-cfly{s jif{ =============_
ljj/)f

o; jif{ =

1=
2=
3=

shf{ gf]S;fgL Aoj:yfdf af^ lkmtf{


u}/ a}+lsu ;DklQ gf]S;fgL Aoj:yfaf^ lkmtf{
nufgL Joj:yfjf^ lkmtf{

4=

cGo ;DklQsf] Joj:yfjf^ lkmtf{

ut jif{ =

hDdf
cg';r
" L 4=28

======================lnld^]*

c;fdfGo sf/f]jf/x?af6 ePsf] cfDbfgL/vr{


ldlt =============b]lv ============= ;Dd
ljj/)f
1=
2=
3=
4=
5=

o; jif{ =

ckn]vg ePsf] shf{sf] c;'nL


:j]lR%s cjsfz vr{
c;'nL x'g g;Sg] shf{sf] ckn]vg -4=28 s_
cGo vr{cfDbfgL
=================
hDdf

88

ut jif{ =

cg';r
" L 4=28-s_

======================lnld^]*

ckn]lvt shf{sf] ljj/0f


-cfly{s jif{ =================_

qm=;+=
1=
2
3=
4=
5=

shf{ k|sf/
rfn" k+'hL shf{
kl/of]hgf shf{
:yL/ k'+hL shf{
JolQmut shf{
cGo shf{
s"n shf{

ckn]vg
ul/Psf]
/sd

lwtf]sf]
k|sf/
tyf /sd

lwtf]
d"Nof+sgsf]
cfwf/

shf{ :jLs[t
ug{]
clwsf/Ltx

shf{ c;'nLsf
nflu eP
u/]sf k|of;

s}lkmot

gf]^M cfly{s jif{e/Ldf ckn]vg ul/Psf] shf{sf] ljj/)f dfly pNn]v ug'{ kg]{% .

cg';"rL

4=29

========================lnld^]*

;+rfns, sfo{sf/L k|d'v, ;+:yfks, sd{rf/L] z]o/xf]N8/x?nfO{ uPsf] shf{ ;fk6 ljj/0f
- ====================== cfiff( d;fGt_
vl/b tyf l*:sfpG^ ul/Psf lanx / shf{, ;fk^ tyf clwljsif{df k|jflxt s'n /sddWo] ;~rfns,
sfo{sf/L k|d'v, ;+:yfks, sd{rf/L, z]o/ xf]N*/x? / lghxsf] kl/jf/sf ;b:o jf To:tf JolQm hdfgL
a;]sf] jf Dofg]lh Ph]G^ ePsf] s'g} ;+:yf jf sDkgLnfO{ uPsf] /sdsf] ljj/)f b]xfo adf]lhd % .
o;jif{
;+:yfks;~rfnssfo{sf/L
ut jif{;Ddsf]
o; jif{ c;'nL
cfiff( d;fGt;Dd
yk shf{
af+sL
af+sL
k|d'vsf] gfd
Aofh
Aofh
Aofh
;fjf+
;fjf+
;fjf+
-s_

-v_

-u_

-#_

-_

;~rfns
1=
2=
sfo{sf/L k|d'v
1=
2=
;+:yfks
1=
2=
sd{rf/L
1=
2=
z]o/wgLx?
1=
2=
hDdf

89

cg';"rL

4=30

=======================lnld6]8
k'FhLsf]if tflnsf -s ju{ afx]s_
-======================= cfiff( d;fGt_

ljj/0f
-s_

-v_

-u_
-3_

o; jif{

k|fylds k'FhL
!_ r'Qmf k'FhL -;fwf/0f z]o/_
@_ k|:tfljt jf]g; z]o/
#_ z]o/ lk|ldod
$_ lkmtf{ gx'g] cu|flwsf/ z]o/
%_ ;fwf/0f hu]8f sf]if
^_ ;l~rt gfkmf-gf]S;fg_
&_ jf;nftdf b]vfO{Psf] rfn' cf=j=sf] gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fjsf] /sd
*_ k'FhL lkmtf{ hu]8f sf]if
(_ k'FhL ;dfof]hg sf]if
!)_ sN; Og P8efG;
!!_ cGo :jtGq sf]ifx?
36fpg]M
Voflt (Goodwill) jfktsf] /sd
;LdfeGbf a9L z]o/ , ;'/If0fkqdf nufgL ul/Psf] /sd
ljQLo :jfy{ /x]sf] sDkgLsf] lwtf]kqdf nufgL u/]sf] /sd
cjf:tljs ;DklQ
o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg kfngf gu/L :jk|of]hgsf nflu 3/hUuf vl/b
u/]sf] /sd
;LdfeGbf a9L cfjf; ejg lgdf{0f tyf hUuf ljsf;df nufgL u/]sf]
/sd .
tf]lsPsf] ;doleq ljqmL ljt/0f ug{ g;s]sf] z]o/ k|Tofe"lt .
k|rlnt P]g tyf sfg'gn] k|ltaGw u/]sf JolQm tyf ;d"xx?nfO{ k|bfg
u/]sf]] shf{ tyf ;'ljwfx?
k"/s k'FhL
!_ c;n shf{sf] nflu u/]sf] shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
@_ cltl/Qm shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
#_ xfOla|8 k'FhL pks/0fx?
$_ ;'/If0f g/fv]sf] ;xfos cfjlws C0f
%_ ;6xL ;dLs/0f sf]if
^_ ;DklQ k"gd"{Nofg sf]if
&_ nufgL ;dfof]hg sf]if
hDdf k'FhLsf]if -sv_
hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQsf] cfwf/df sfod ug'{ kg]{ Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if
k'FhLsf]if
- ================= k|ltzt_
k|fylds k'FhL -=================== k|ltzt_
k'FhLsf]if -clwsGo"g_
- ================= k|ltztn]_
k|fylds k'FhL -clwsGo"g_ - ================= k|ltztn]_

90

-?=xhf/df_
ut jif{

cg';"rL $=#) -s_

===========================lnld6]8
hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQ ljj/0f tflnsf -s ju{ afx]s_
- ====================== cfiff( d;fGt_

laa/0f
-s_ jf;nft adf]lhdsf] ;DklQ

ef/

(On-Balance-sheet Assets)

gub df}Hbft
;'g -ljlgdo of]Uo_
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf /x]sf] df}Hbft
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] C0fkqdf u/]sf]] nufgL
g]kfn /fi6 a}+s C0fkqdf u/]sf]] nufgL
;/sf/L C0f kqsf] lwtf]df k"0f{ ;'/lIft x'g] u/L k|bfg u/]sf]] shf{
art kqsf] kfpg' kg]{ Aofh /sd (Accrued Interest)

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

ljkGg ju{ shf{ cGtu{t u0fgf x'g] o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foL :j/f]huf/
sf]ifdf v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] hDdf u/]sf] /sd

cfg} d'2lt /l;bsf] lwtf]df k"0f{ ;'/lIft x'g]u/L k|bfg u/]sf]] d'2lt /l;b lwtf] shf{

:jb]zL a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?df /x]sf] df}Hbftd'2lt /l;bsf] bfjL (Claims)
cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] d'2lt /l;bsf] lwtf]df k"0f{ ;'/lIft x'g] u/L
k|bfg u/]sf]] d'2lt /l;b lwtf] shf{
ljb]zL a}+sx?df /x]sf] df}Hbft
dfu]sf] avt k|fKt x'g] /sd (Money at Call)
cGt/f{li6o >]0fLs[t (Rated) Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] Uof/]06Ldf uPsf] shf{
cGt/f{li6o >]0fLs[t (Rated) a}+sdf u/]sf] cGo nufgL
cGt/ a}+s ;fk6L
z]o/, l8j]~r/ Pj+ a08df ePsf] nufgL
cGo nufgLx?
shf{, ;fk6 tyf ljN; vl/bl8:sfp06 ;d]t -s'n /sd_
:yL/ ;DklQx?
Kffpg' kg]{ cGo v'b Aofh /sd
cGo ;a} ;DklQx? -v'b cu|Ld s/ bflvnf jfx]s_
;Ldf gf3]sf] l/on :6]6cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{
-s_ hDdf
-v_ jf;nft aflx/sf sf/f]jf/x? (Off-balance sheet Items)
laN; sn]S;g
clu|d ljb]zL ljlgdo ;Demf}tf
^ dlxgfeGbf sd cjlwsf] k|lttkq -k"/} /sd_
cGt//fli6o >]0fLs[t (Rated) ljb]zL Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sfp06/
Uof/]06Ldf hf/L u/]sf]] Uof/]06L
^ dlxgfeGbf a9L cjlwsf] k|lttkq -k"/} /sd_
lj8a08, k/km/d]G; a08 / k|Tofe"lt (Underwriting) ;DjGwL k|ltj4tf
k'gM vl/b ug]{ zt{df laqmL u/]sf]] shf{
clu|d e'QmfgL Uof/]06L (Advance payment Guarantee)
ljQLo tyf cGo hdfgt (Financial and other Guarantee)
ckl/jTo{ shf{ k|lta4tf (Irrevocable Loan Commitment)
cfos/ jfkt ;Defljt bfloTj
Acceptance ;lxt cGo ;j} k|sf/sf ;Defljt bfloTjx?
k"gM l8:sfpG6 ul/Psf ljnx
r'Qmf jf e'Qmfg x'g af+sL z]o/ nufgL
e'QmfgLsf nflu bfjL k/]sf] hdfgt (Unpaid Guarantee Claims)
;+:yfpk/ bfjL k/]sf] t/ ;+:yfn] bfloTj :jLsf/ gu/]sf] ;Defljt bfloTjx?
-v_ hDdf
s'n hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQ hDdf -s_ + -v_

91

20
20
20
20
20
20
20
100
100
100
100
100
100
150

)
!)
@)
@)
%)
%)
%)
!))
!))
!))
!))
!))
!))
!))
@))
@))

o; jif{
ut jif{
hf]lvd efl/t
hf]lvd efl/t
/sd
/sd
;DklQ
;DklQ

cg';"rL $=#) -s!_

================================lnld6]8
k'FhLsf]if tflnsf -s ju{sf] nflu_
===================cfiff9
ljj/0f

!=! hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQ


s= shf{ hf]lvd
v= ;+rfng hf]lvd
u= jhf/ hf]lvd
Pillar II cGt/utsf] ;dfof]hg
hf]8M ^=$ -s_ -!)_ cg';f/ kof{Kt ;"rgf k|jfx gu/] afkt hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQsf] # k|ltzt
hf]8M ckof{Kt t/n ;DklQ afkt s'n lgIf]ksf] =====k|ltzt
s'n h.f]lvd efl/t ;DklQ -Pillar II cGt/utsf] ;dfof]hg kl5_
!=@ k'FhL sf]if
k|fylds k'FhL (Tier I)
s= r'Qmf k'FhL
v= Ol/l8d]jn gg\ So'Do'n]l6e lk|km/]G; z]o/
u= z]o/ lk|ldod
3= k|:tfljt jf]g; z]o/
= ;fwf/0f hu]8f sf]if
r= ;+lrt gfkmf-gf]S;fg_ ut cf=j= ;Ddsf]
5= rfn" cf=j=sf] gfkmf-gf]S;fg_
h= k'FhL lkmtf{ ;dfof]hg sf]if
dm= k'FhL ;dfof]hg sf]if
`= nfef+z ;dLs/0f sf]if
6= C0fkq e'QmfgL sf]if
7= cGo :jtGq sf]ifx?
36fpg] M
s= Voflt jfktsf] /sd
v= ckn]vg gul/Psf ljljw ;DklQ
u= Ohfht k|fKt ;+:yfdf ul/Psf] z]o/ nufgL
3= ljQLo :jfy{ /x]sf] sDkgLdf /x]sf] nufgL
= ;LdfeGbf a9L nufgL
r= k|Tofe"lt (Underwriting) cGtu{t ul/Psf] nufgL
5= kf/:kl/s qm; xf]lN8+u
h= cGo
Pillar II cGt/utsf] ;dfof]hg
36fpg]M ^=$ -s_ -!_ cg';f/ ckof{Kt Joj:yf
36fpg]M ^=$ -s_ -@_ cGt/ut ;DalGwt kIfnfO{ tyf lgif]lwt If]qdf k|jflxt shf{ ;'ljwf
k'/s k'FhL (Tier II)
s= So''Do'n]l6e / l/l8d]jn lk|km/]G; z]o/
v= ;'/If0f g/flvPsf] ;xfos cfjlws C0f
u= xfOla|8 k'FhL pks/0fx?
3= c;n shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
= ;6xL ;dLs/0f sf]if
r= nufgL ;dfof]hg sf]if
5= ;DklQ k"gd"{Nofg sf]if
h= cGo sf]if
!=# k'FhLsf]if cg'kft
k|fylds k'FhLs"n hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQ (Tier I)
k'FhL sf]ifs'"n hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQ (Tier I & Tier II)

92

/sd ? xhf/df
@)= cfiff9d;fGt ut cf= a=

cg";'rL 4=30 -v_


============================================================lnld^]*
=================cfiff(sf]
shf{ hf]lvd -s ju{sf] nflu_
/sd ?
xhf/df
20== cfiff( d;fGt
ut cf=a=
u)fgf ug{
hf]lvd
hf]lvd hf]lvd
v'b
v"b
lstfjL ljz]if ;lsg]
efl/t
ef/ efl/t
/sd
d'No Joj:yf CRM
/sd
%
/sd
/sd

;DklQ

jf;nftleqsf] sf/f]jf/

-s_

-v_

-u_

-#_= -s_-v_--u_

-r_= -#_X_

-_

gub df}Hbft

g]kfn /fi^ a}sdf /x]sf] df}Hbft

;"g

g]kfn ;/sf/sf] C)fkqdf nufgL

g]kfn ;/sf/ pk/sf] ;Dk')f{ bfjL

g]kfn /fi^ a}+s C)fkqdf ul/Psf] nufgL

0
0

g]kfn /fi^ a}+s pk/sf] ;Dk')f{ bfjL


ljb]zL ;/sf/ tyf s]Gb|Lo a}+s pk/sf] bfjL

(ECA rating 0-1)

ljb]zL ;/sf/ tyf s]Gb|Lo a}+s pk/sf] bfjL

(ECA Rating -2)

20

ljb]zL ;/sf/ tyf s]Gb|Lo a}+s pk/sf] bfjL

50

(ECA Rating -3)

ljb]zL ;/sf/ tyf s]Gb|Lo a}+s pk/sf] bfjL

(ECA Rating 4-6)

100

ljb]zL ;/sf/ tyf s]Gb|Lo a}+s pk/sf] bfjL

(ECA Rating-7)

150

BIS, IMF, ECB, EC

/ ax"kILfo ljsf; a}+sx? pk/sf] bfjL

100

cGo ax"klIfo ljsf; a}+sx? pk/sf] bfjL


;fj{hlgs ;+:yf pk/sf] bfjL

(ECA Rating 0-1)

20

;fj{hlgs ;+:yf pk/sf] bfjL

(ECA Rating -2)

50

;fj{hlgs ;+:yf pk/sf] bfjL

(ECA Rating 3-6)

100

;fj{hlgs ;+:yf pk/sf] bfjL

(ECA Rating -7)

150
20

tf]lsPsf] k"hLsf]if sfod ug]{ :jb]zL a}+s pk/sf] bfjL

100

tf]lsPsf] k"hLsf]if sfod gug]{ :jb]zL a}+s pk/sf] bfjL


ljb]zL a}+s pk/sf] bfjL

(ECA Rating 0-1)

20

ljb]zL a}+s pk/sf] bfjL

(ECA Rating -2)

50

ljb]zL a}+s pk/sf] bfjL

(ECA Rating 3-6)

100

ljb]zL a}+s pk/sf] bfjL

(ECA Rating -7)

150

tf]lsPsf] k'hLsf]ifdf 1 k|ltzt eGbf a(Ln]


k"hLsf]if sfod ug]{ SAARC If]qleq :yfkgf ePsf ljb]zL
a}+s pk/sf] bfjL

20
100

:jb]zL ;+# ;+:yfx? pk/sf] bfjL


ljb]zL ;+# ;+:yfx? pk/sf] bfjL

(ECA Rating 0-1)

ljb]zL ;+# ;+:yfx? pk/sf] bfjL

(ECA Rating -2)

ljb]zL ;+# ;+:yfx? pk/sf] bfjL

(ECA Rating 3-6)

20
50
100
150

ljb]zL ;+# ;+:yfx? pk/sf] bfjL (ECA Rating -7)


pkef]Uo tyf ;fgf shf{ -Regulatory Retail Portfolio)
-efsf ggf#]sf]]_
u|fg'nfl/^L ;Ldf afx]s cGo zt{ kfngf u/]sf] pkef]Uo
tyf ;fgf shf{

75
100

93

-Regulatory Retail Portfolio except for Granularity)


60

cfjfl;o #/hUufaf^ ;"/lIft bfjL


cfjf;Lo #/hUufaf^ k')f{ ;"/lIft gePsf] bfjL

150

cfjf;Lo #/hUufaf^ ;"/lIft bfjL -efsf gf#]sf]]_

100

Jofkfl/s #/hUufaf^ ;"/lIft bfjL

100

e"QmfgL cjlw ;dfKt eO{;s]sf] bfjL -cfjf;Lo #/hUufaf^


;"/lIft bfjL jfx]s_

150

pRr hf]lvdo"Qm bfjL

150

:^s PS;r]Ghdf ;'rLs[t sDkgLsf] z]o/ / cGo k'hLut


pks/)fdf ePsf] nufgL
:^s PS;r]Ghdf ;'rLs[t gePsf] sDkgLsf] z]o/ / cGo
k"hLut pks/)fdf ePsf] nufgL
cfjfl;o #/hUufaf^ ;"/lIft sd{rf/L shf{
k|fKt x'g'kg]{ Jofhg]kfn ;/sf/sf] lwtf]kqdf bfjL
dfu{:y gub tyf e'QmfgL k|fKtx'g] qmddf /x]sf] cGo gub
;DklQ

100
150
60
0
20
100

cGo ;DklQ
hDdf
jf;nft jflx/sf] sf/f]jf/
h"g;"s} a]nf lkmtf{ lng ;lsg] k|lta$tf

ljN; sn]S;g

clu|d ljlgdo ;Demf}tf

10

6 dlxgfeGbf sd cjlwsf] k|lttkq :jb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf

20
20

ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA 0-1)

50

ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA -2)

100

ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA 3-6)

150

ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA -7)

50

6 dlxgfeGbf a(L cjlwsf] k|lttkq :jb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf

20

ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA 0-1)


ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA -2)

50

ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA 3-6)

100

ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA -7)


lj* j)*, k/km/d]G; j)*, sfp)^/ Uof/])^L :jb]zL sf/f]af/
kIf
ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA 0-1)

150
50
20

ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA -2)

50

ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA 3-6)

100

ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA -7)

150
50

k|Tofe'lt -Underwriting) ;DalGw k|lta$tf


a}+saf^ ;"/If)fsf] ?kdf k|bfg ul/Psf hdfgtx? -Lending of
Bank's Securities or Posting of Securities as collateral)

100

k"gM vl/b ;Demf}tf cGtu{tsf] shf{

100

clu|d e"QmfgL hdfgt

100

ljQLo hdfgt

100
100

:jLsf/ tyf b/lk& Acceptance and Endorsements


e"QmfgL gul/Psf] efu tyf cf+lzs e"QmfgL ul/Psf] z]o/
tyf ;"/If)f -Unpaid portion of Partly paid shares and Securities)
ckl/jTo{ shf{ k|lta$tf %f]^f] cjlw

100
20

94

50

ckl/jTo{ shf{ k|lta$tf nfdf] cjlw

100

cGo ;Defljt bfloTjx?

200

e"QmfgLsf] nflu bfjL k/]sf hdfgt afktsf] ;+efljt bfloTj


hDdf
s'n shf{ hf]lvd
Pillar II cGt/utsf] ;dfof]hg

hf]8M ^=$ -s_ -#_ cGtu{t k|lt u|fxs shf{ tyf ;'ljwf
;LdfeGbf a9L k|jflxt shf{ tyf ;'ljwfsf] !)
k|ltzt
hf]8M ^=$ -s_ -$_ cGtu{t k'g :jLsf/ x'g]u/L ljqmL
ul/Psf shf{x?sf] ! k|ltzt
s'n shf{ hf]lvd - Pillar II

cGt/utsf] ;dfof]hg kl5_

cg";'rL 4=30-u_
============================================================lnld^]*
================cfiff(
Credit Risk Mitigation (CRM) sf] nflu of]Uo /sd

shf{ /sd
jf;nft leqsf]

cfkm\gf]
a}+sdf
/x]sf]
lgIf]k

cGo
a}+sdf
/x]sf]
lgIf]k

-s ju{sf] nflu_

/sd ? xhf/df

lab]zL
;/sf/
lab]zL
cGo
:jb]
z
L
g]
k
fn
a}+ssf]
tyf
b]zsf]
ax"kIfLo
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;/sf/sf] a}+ssf] lasf; a}+sx? hdfgt
;"g /fi^ a}s
Hdfgt
tyf ;"/If)f
+ hdfgt hdfgt hdfgt

jf;nft leqsf] sf/f]jf/


gub df}Hbft
g]kfn /fi^ a}sdf /x]sf] df}Hbft
;"g
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] C)fkqdf nufgL
g]kfn ;/sf/ pk/sf] ;Dk')f{ bfjL
g]kfn /fi^ a}+s C)fkqdf ul/Psf] nufgL
g]kfn /fi^ a}+s pk/sf] ;Dk')f{ bfjL
ljb]zL ;/sf/ tyf s]Gb|Lo a}+s pk/sf] bfjL
(ECA Rating 0-1)

ljb]zL ;/sf/ tyf s]Gb|Lo a}+s pk/sf] bfjL


(ECA Rating -2)

ljb]zL ;/sf/ tyf s]Gb|Lo a}+s pk/sf] bfjL


(ECA Rating -3)

ljb]zL ;/sf/ tyf s]Gb|Lo a}+s pk/sf] bfjL


(ECA Rating 4-6)

ljb]zL ;/sf/ tyf s]Gb|Lo a}+s pk/sf] bfjL


(ECA Rating-7)

BIS, IMF, ECB, EC / ax"klIfo ljsf; a}+sx?


pk/sf] bfjL
cGo ax"klIfo ljsf; a}+sx? pk/sf] bfjL
;fj{hlgs ;+:yf pk/sf] bfjL (ECA Rating 0-1)
;fj{hlgs ;+:yf pk/sf] bfjL (ECA Rating -2)
;fj{hlgs ;+:yf pk/sf] bfjL (ECA Rating 3-6)
;fj{hlgs ;+:yf pk/sf] bfjL (ECA Rating -7)
tf]lsPsf] k+"hLsf]if sfod ug]{ :jb]zL a}+s
pk/sf] bfjL
tf]lsPsf] k'FhLsf]if sfod gug]{ :jb]zL a}+s
pk/sf] bfjL
ljb]zL a}+s pk/sf] bfjL (ECA Rating 0-1)
ljb]zL a}+s pk/sf] bfjL (ECA Rating -2)

95

ljb]zL a}+s pk/sf] bfjL (ECA Rating 3-6)


ljb]zL a}+s pk/sf] bfjL (ECA Rating -7)
tf]lsPsf] k"hLsf]ifdf 1 k|ltzt eGbf a(Ln]
k"hLsf]if sfod ug]{ SAARC If]qleq
:yfkgf ePsf ljb]zL a}+s pk/sf] bfjL
:jb]zL ;+# ;+:yfx? pk/sf] bfjL
ljb]zL ;+# ;+:yfx? pk/sf] bfjL (ECA Rating 0-1)
ljb]zL ;+# ;+:yfx? pk/sf] bfjL (ECA Rating -2)
ljb]zL ;+# ;+:yfx? pk/sf] bfjL (ECA Rating 3-6)
ljb]zL ;+# ;+:yfx? pk/sf] bfjL (ECA Rating -7)
pkef]Uo tyf ;fgf shf{ -Regulatory Retail
Portfolio )-efsf ggf#]sf]]_
pkef]Uo tyf ;fgf shf{ -Regulatory Retail
Portfolio -efsf gf#]sf]]_
u|fg'nfl/^L ;Ldf afx]s cGo zt{ kfngf
u/]sf] pkef]Uo tyf ;fgf shf{ -Regulatory
Retail Portfolio )

cfjfl;o #/hUufaf^ ;"/lIft bfjL


cfjfl;o #/hUufaf^ k')f{ ;"/lIft gePsf] bfjL
cfjfl;o #/hUufaf^ ;"/lIft bfjL -efsf
gf#]sf]]_
Jofkfl/s #/hUufaf^ ;"/lIft bfjL
e"QmfgL cjlw ;dfKt eO{;s]sf] bfjL
-cfjfl;o #/hUufaf^ ;"/lIft bfjL jfx]s_
pRr hf]lvdo'Qm bfjL
:^s PS;r]Ghdf ;"rLs[t sDkgLsf] z]o/ /
cGo k"hLut pks/)fdf ePsf] nufgL
:^s PS;r]Ghdf ;'rLs[t gePsf] sDkgLsf]
z]o/ / cGo k"hLut pks/)fdf ePsf]
nufgL
cGo ;DklQ
hDdf
jf;nft jflx/sf] sf/f]jf/
h"g;'s} a]nf lkmtf{ lng ;lsg] k|lta$tf
ljN; sn]S;g
clu|d ljlgdo ;Demf}tf
6 dlxgf eGbf sd cjlwsf] k|lttkq
:jb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf
ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA 0-1)
ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA -2)
ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA 3-6)
ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA -7)
6 dlxgf eGbf a(L cjlwsf] k|lttkq
:jb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf
ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA 0-1)
ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA -2)
ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA 3-6)
ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA -7)
lj* j)*, k/km/d]G; j)*, sfp)^/ Uof/])^L
:jb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf
ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA 0-1)
ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA -2)

96

ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA 3-6)


ljb]zL sf/f]af/ kIf (counter party) (ECA -7)
bfjL k/]sf] tyf e"QmfgL gul/Psf hdfgt
k|Tofe'lt (Underwriting) ;DalGw k|lta$tf
a}+saf^ ;"/If)fsf] ?kdf k|bfg ul/Psf
hdfgtx? -Lending of Bank's Securities or Posting
of Securities as collateral)

k"g vl/b ;Demf}tf cGtu{tsf] shf{


clu|d e"QmfgL hdfgt
ljQLo hdfgt
:jLsf/ tyf b/lk& -Acceptance and
Endorsements)

e"QmfgL gul/Psf] efu tyf cf+lzs e"QmfgL


ul/Psf] z]o/ tyf ;"/If)f -Unpaid portion of
Partly paid shares and Securities)

ckl/jTo{ shf{ k|lta$tf %f]^f] cjlw


ckl/jTo{ shf{ k|lta$tf nfdf] cjlw
tf]lsPsf] k"hLsf]ifdf 1 k|ltzt eGbf a(Ln]
k"hLsf]if sfod ug]{ SAARC If]qleq
:yfkgf ePsf ljb]zL a}+s pk/sf] bfjL
cGo ;Defljt bfloTjx?
hDdf
s'n shf{ hf]lvd
cg";'rL 4=30 -#_
============================================================lnld^]*
=================cfiff(
;~rfng hf]lvd -s ju{sf] nflu_
/sd ? xhf/df
20== cfiff( d;fGtsf] cl#Nnf aif{x?
cf= j= ======
cf= j= ====== cf= j= ======

ljj/)f
v"b Aofh cfDbfgL
sldzg tyf l*:sfp)^
cGo ;+rfng vr{
;^xL #^a( cfDbfgL
o; jif{sf] yk Aofh d"NtjL lx;fj
s"n cfDbfgL -s_
tf]lsPsf] k|ltzt -v_
tf]lsPsf] k|ltztn] x"g] s"n cfDbfgL -u_ = -s_x-v_
;+rfng hf]lvdsf] nflu cfjZos k'hL -#_ = -u_ sf] cf}ift
hf]lvd ef/ (Reciprocal of capital requirement) -_
;+rfng hf]lvdsf] nflu hf]lvd efl/t /sd -r_= -#_x-_
Pillar II cGtu{tsf] ;dfof]hg

15%

15%

15%

10

^=$ -c_ -*_ cg';f/ ut tLg jif{sf] s'n cfDbfgL C0ffTds ePdf
s"n shf{ tyf nufgL -ljif]z Joj:yfsf] ;dfof]hg kl%_
;+rfng hf]lvdsf] nflu cfjZos k'+hL
hf]lvd ef/ (Reciprocal of capital requirement of 10%) -%_
;+rfng hf]lvdsf] nflu hf]lvd efl/t /sd -h_= -r_+-%_

97

10

20== cfiff(
d;fGt

cg";'rL 4=30 -_
============================================================lnld^]*
========================cfiff(
ahf/ hf]lvd -s ju{sf] nflu_
/sd ? xhf/df

qm= ;+=

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

20== cfiff( d;fGt


20== cfiff(
lab]zL d"b|fsf] lab]zL d"b|fsf] lab]zL d"b|fsf] d;fGt lab]zL
v'b cj:yf v'b cj:yf ;fGble{s v'b d"b|fsf] ;fGble{s
-la=d'=_
-g]=?=_
cj:yf -g]=?=_ v'b cj:yf -g]=?=_

ljj/)f

ef/tLo ?lkof
cd]l/sL *n/
o"/f]
kfpG* :^ln{*
l:j; km|}+s
c:^]lnog *n/
Sofg]l*og *n/
l;+ufk"/ *n/
hfkfgL o]g
lrlgof o"cfg
;fpbL c/a l/ofn
stf/L l/ofn
yfO{ ef^
;+o"Qm c/a Old/]^ lb/fd
dn]l;og l/+lu^
l:jl*; qmf]g/
*]lg; qmf]g/
x*s *n/

-s_
tf]lsPsf] k|ltzt -v_
ahf/ hf]lvdsf] nflu cfjZos k"+hL -u_ = -s_x-v_
hf]lvd ef/ (Reciprocal of capital requirement) -#_
-10010_
ahf/ hf]lvdsf] nflu hf]lvd efl/t /sd -_= -u_x-#_
Total Open Position

98

5%
10

===============lnld6]8
k|d'v ;"rsfF
sDtLdf ljut % jif{sf kl/;"rsx
ljj/0f
;"rsf cf=a=
cf=a=
========== ==========
1=
v'b gfkmfs'n cfDbfgL k|ltzt
k|ltzt
2=
k|lt z]o/ cfDbfgL
=
3=
k|lt z]o/ ahf/ d"No
=
4= d"No cfDbfgL cg'kft (PE Ratio)
cg'kft
5=
z]o/ k'FhLdf nfef+z -jf]g; ;lxt_
k|ltzt
6=
z]o/ k'FhLdf gub nfef+; e'QmfgL
k|ltzt
7=
Aofh cfDbfgLshf{ tyf ;fk6
k|ltzt
8= sd{rf/L vr{s'n ;~rfng vr{
k|ltzt
9=
s'n lgIf]k tyf ;fk6Ldf Aofh vr{
k|ltzt
10= ;6xL 36a6 cfDbfgLs'n cfDbfgL
k|ltzt
11= sd{rf/L af]g;s'n sd{rf/L vr{
k|ltzt
12= v'b gfkmfshf{ ;fk6
k|ltzt
13= v'b gfkmfs'n ;DklQ
cg'kft
14= s'n shf{lgIf]k
k|ltzt
15= s'n ;~rfng vr{s'n ;DklQ
k|ltzt
16= hf]lvd efl/t ;DklQdf k'FhLsf]ifsf] kof{Kttf
-s_ k|fylds k'FhL
k|ltzt
-v_ k"/s k'FhL
k|ltzt
-u_ s'n k'FhL sf]if
k|ltzt
17= t/ntf (CRR)
cg'kft
18= lgis[o shf{s'n shf{
k|ltzt
19= Aofh b/ cGt/ (Weighted Average Interest

cg';"rL $=#!

cf=a=
==========

cf=a=
==========

cf=a=
==========

Rate Spread)

20=
21=
22=
23=

a's g]6jy{
s'n z]o/
s'n sd{rf/L
cGo

=
;+Vof
;+Vof

cg';"rL $=#@
k|d'v n]vf gLltx?
jflif{s n]vf ljj/0fx?;Fu k|sflzt ug'{ kg]{ .

99

cg';"rL $=##
n]vf ;DaGwL l6Kk0fLx?
jflif{s n]vf laj/0fx?;Fu k|sflzt ug'{ kg]{ .

cg";'rL 4=34

============================================== lnld6]8
;+:yfks;+:yfks ;d"xsf z]o/wgLn] cfkm\gf] :jfldTjdf /x]sf] z]o/ cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfdf lwtf] /fvL shf{ lnPsf] ljj/0f
qm=
;+=

;+:yfks;+:yf
ks ;d"x
cGtu{t kg]{
z]o/wgLsf]
gfd

;+:yfkssf] :jfldTjdf
sfod /x]sf] z]o/
s"n
s"n r'Qmf
lsQf
k'FhLsf]
;+Vof
k|ltzt

shf{ ljj/0f
shf{ lnPsf] cGo
a}+s ljQLo ;+:yfsf]
gfd

!
@
=

100

shf{ /sd

lwtf]df /x]sf]
z]o/ lsQf ;+Vof

s}lkmot

cg";'rL 4=35
.......................................... Bank/Financial Institution Ltd.
Comparison of Unaudited and Audited Financial Statement as of FY ...../...
Rs in '000
S.No.
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

1.6
1.7
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

Particulars

As per
Unaudited
Financial
Statement

Total Capital and Liabilities (1.1 to 1.7)


Paid up Capital
Reserve and Surplus
Debenture and Bond
Borrowings
Deposits (a+b)
a. Domestic Currency
b. Foreign Currency
Income Tax Liability
Other Liabilities
Total Assets (2.1 to 2.7)
Cash and Bank Balance
Money at Call and Short Notice
Investments
Loans and Advances (a+b+c+d+e)
a. Real Estate Loan
1. Residential Real Estate Loan (Except
Personal Home Loan upto Rs. 1 crore)
2. Business Complex & Residential
Apartment Construction Loan
3. Income generating Commercial
Complex Loan
4. Other Real Estate Loan (Including Land
purchase & Plotting)
b. Personal Home Loan of Rs. 1 crore or Less
c. Margin Type Loan
d. Term Loan
e. Overdraft Loan/TR Loan/WC Loan
f. Others

Fixed Assets
2.5
Non Banking Assets
2.6
Other Assets
2.7
3
Profit and Loss Account
Interest Income
3.1
Interest Expense
3.2
A. Net Interest Income (3.1 - 3.2)
Fees, Commission and Discount
3.3
Other Operating Income
3.4
Foreign Exchange Gain/Loss (Net)
3.5
B. Total Operating Income (A+3.3+3.4+3.5)
Staff Expenses
3.6
Other Operating Expenses
3.7
C. Operating Profit Before Provision (B -3.6 - 3.7)
Provision for Possible Losses
3.8
D. Operating Profit (C -3.8)
Non Operating Income/Expenses (Net)
3.9
Write Back of Provision for Possible Loss
3.10
E. Profit from Regular Activities (D+3.9+3.10)
Extraordinary Income/Expenses (Net)
3.11
F. Profit before Bonus and Taxes (E +3.11)
Provision for Staff Bonus
3.12
Provision for Tax
3.13
G. Net Profit/Loss (F - 3.12 - 3.13)

101

Variance

As per Audited
In Amount
Financial
Statement

In %

Reasons for
Variance

...................... Limited
Unaudited Financial Results (Quarterly)
As at ........... Quarter (...../...../200...) of the Fiscal Year 200.../200...
S.No.
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

1.6
1.7
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

2.5
2.6
2.7
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.1O
3.11
3.12
3.13

4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

Particulars

This Quater
Ending

cg";'lr $=c

Rs. in '000
Previous Quarter Corresponding Previsous
Ending
Year Quarter Ending

Total Capital and Liabilities (1.1 to 1.7)


Paid up Capital
Reserve and Surplus
Debenture and Bond
Borrowings
Deposits (a+b)
a. Domestic Currency
b. Foreign Currency
Income Tax Liability
Other Liabilities
Total Assets (2.1 to 2.7)
Cash and Bank Balance
Money at Call and Short Notice
Investments
Loans and Advances (a+b+c+d+e)
a. Real Estate Loan
1. Residential Real Estate Loan (Except Personal Home
Loan upto Rs. 1 crore)
2. Business Complex & Residential Apartment
Construction Loan
3. Income generating Commercial Complex Loan
4. Other Real Estate Loan (Including Land purchase &
Plotting)
b. Personal Home Loan of Rs. 1 crore or Less
c. Margin Type Loan
d. Term Loan
e. Overdraft Loan/TR Loan/WC Loan
f. Others
Fixed Assets
Non Banking Assets
Other Assets
Profit and Loss Account

Up to This Quarter

Up to Previous
Quarter

Up to Corresponding
Previous Year Quarter

Interest Income
Interest Expense
A. Net Interest Income (3.1 - 3.2)
Fees, Commission and Discount
Other Operating Income
Foreign Exchange Gain/Loss (Net)
B. Total Operating Income (A+3.3+3.4+3.5)
Staff Expenses
Other Operating Expenses
C. Operating Profit Before Provision (B -3.6 - 3.7)
Provision for Possible Losses
D. Operating Profit (C -3.8)
Non Operating Income/Expenses (Net)
Write Back of Provision for Possible Loss
E. Profit from Regular Activities (D+3.9+3.10)
Extraordinary Income/Expenses (Net)
F. Profit before Bonus and Taxes (E +3.11)
Provision for Staff Bonus
Provision for Tax
G. Net Profit/Loss (F - 3.12 - 3.13)
Ratios

At the End of This


Quarter

At the End of
At the End of
Corresponding Previous
Previous Quarter
Year Quarter

Capital Fund to RWA


Non Performing Loan (NPL) to Total Loan
Total Loan Loss Provision to Total NPL
Cost of Funds
Credit to Deposit Ratio (Calculated as per NRB Directives)

gf]6M 3 ju{sf n3'ljQ ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] xsdf cg';"rL $=#% / cg';"rL $=c kmf/dx?nfO{ g]=/f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf= g+= 3(=%
adf]lhd x'g] u/L kl/dfh{g ug'{kg]{ 5 .

102

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= %)^(
laifo: Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sf/f]jf/df lglxt hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug]{ ;DjGwL Joj:yf .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sf/f]af/df lglxt t/ntf, Aofhb/, ljb]zL ljlgdo tyf shf{ ;DaGwL
hf]lvdnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug]{ ;DjGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L of]
lgb]{zg lbOPsf] 5 .
!=
hf]lvd juL{s/0f
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] cfkm\gf] sf/f]af/;Fu ;DalGwt hf]lvdnfO{ cg'udg ug]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu
hf]lvdnfO{ b]xfo jdf]lhd juL{s/0f ug'{ kg]{5 M
-s_
t/ntf ;DaGwL hf]lvd .
-v_
Aofhb/ ;DaGwL hf]lvd .
-u_
ljb]zL ljlgdo ;DaGwL hf]lvd .
-3_
shf{ tyf nufgL ;DaGwL hf]lvd .
@=
t/ntf ;DaGwL hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf
-!_
t/ntf ;DaGwL hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfgf] ;DklQ tyf bfloTjnfO{
e'QmfgL cjlw (Maturity Period) sf] cfwf/df ljleGg ;do cGt/fn (Time Interval) df
juL{s/0f ug'{ kg]{5 . o; k|of]hgsf] lgldQ ;+nUg lgb]{zg kmf=g+= %=! adf]lhdsf] t/ntf
laj/0f (Liquidity Profile) q}dfl;s ?kdf tof/ u/L qodf; -c;f]h, k';, r}t / c;f/
d;fGt_ ;dfKt ePsf] kGw| lbg leq o; a}+ssf] ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
-@_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ;DklQ tyf bfloTjsf] e'QmfgL cjlwsf] cfwf/df lgDgfg';f/ ;do
cGt/fnsf] juL{s/0f ug'{ kg]{5 .
-s_
gAa] lbg ;Ddsf] e'QmfgL cjlw ePsf ;DklQ tyf bfloTj .
-v_
gAa] lbg eGbf a9L Ps;o c;L lbg;Ddsf] e'QmfgL cjlw ePsf ;DklQ tyf bfloTj .
-u_
Ps;o c;L lbg eGbf a9L b'O{;o ;Q/L lbg;Ddsf] e'QmfgL cjlw ePsf ;DklQ tyf
bfloTj .
-3_
b'O{;o ;Q/L lbg eGbf a9L Ps jif{ ;Ddsf] e'QmfgL cjlw ePsf ;DklQ tyf bfloTj .
-_
Ps jif{ eGbfa9L e'QmfgL cjlw ePsf ;DklQ tyf bfloTj .
-#_
lglZrt e'QmfgL cjlw ePsf ;DklQ tyf bfloTjnfO{ pka'Fbf -@_ adf]lhdsf] ;do cGt/fndf
;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-$_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] lglZrt e'QmfgL cjlw gePsf rNtL tyf art lgIf]k h:tf bfloTj
dWo] k|fylds lgIf]ksf] ?kdf /x]sf / Go"gtd sfod ug'{kg]{ df}Hbftsf] c+z;Ddsf] /sd Ps
jif{ eGbf a9L cjlwsf] ;do cGt/fnleq ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 . rNtL lgIf]ksf] pQm c+zsf]
oyfy{ cg'dfg Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf :jo+n] ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fdfGotM :yfoL ?kdf /lx/xg] rNtL
lgIf]ksf] c+znfO{ k|fylds lgIf]ksf] ?kdf lng' kg]{5 .
-%_
s, v / u ju{sf a}+s tyf laQLo ;+:yfx?sf] t/ntf ;DaGwL hf]lvdnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug]{
p2]Zon] a}+sljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] ;|f]t kl/rfng -:jb]zL d'b|fdf ePsf] lgIf]k tyf k|fylds k'\FhL_
df :jb]zL d'b|fdf k|jfxePsf] shf{ ;fk6sf] c+z *) k|ltzt gf3\g gx'g] u/L ;Ldf tf]lsPsf] 5
. o; cl3 g} pQm cg'kft *) k|ltzt gf3]sf ;+:yfx?n] lgDgfg';f/sf] ;dofjlwdf b]xfosf]
;Ldfleq Nofpg' kg]{5 .

103

#=

@)^* cfiff9 d;fGt


@)^* kf}if d;fGt
*% k|ltzt
*) k|ltzt
s'g} a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] @% d]ufjf6;Ddsf] hnljB't cfof]hgfsf] nflu k'g/shf{ pkof]u
u/]sf] ePdf ;f] cjlw;Dd pkof]u u/]sf] /sd o; k|of]hgsf] nflu shf{ ;fk6af6 36fpg
;Sg]5 .
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ljb]zL d'b|fdf kfFr jif{ jf ;f] eGbf a9L cjlwsf] lb3{sfnLg C0f lnO{
shf{ k|jfx u/]sf] ePdf To:tf] lb3{sfnLg C0f /sdnfO{ o; v08sf] k|of]hgsf] nflu ;|f]t
kl/rfngdf u0fgf ug{ ;lsg]5 .
Aofhb/ hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf
-!_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] Aofhb/af6 pTkGg x'g] hf]lvdnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug{ b]xfo adf]lhdsf
pkfox? cjnDag ug'{ kg]{5 M
-s_
Aofhb/df ePsf] kl/jt{gsf sf/0f k|efljt x'g] ;+klQx? tyf bfloTjx? (Interest
Sensitive Assets and Liabilities) nfO{ dfq ;DklQ tyf bfloTjdf ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-v_
;fdfGotM ;DklQ tyf bfloTjsf] e'QmfgL cjlw ldnfg gx'g] (Maturity Mismatch)
cj:yfsf] cGt/ ljZn]if0f -Gap Analysis_ ubf{ gub df}Hbft (Cash Balance) / Aofh
e'QmfgL lbg' gkg]{ (Non-interest Bearing Account) vftfsf] /sd ;dfj]z ug{ kfOg]
5}g .
-u_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] Aofhb/ hf]lvdnfO{ Jojl:yt tyf Go"gLs/0f ug{ ;+nUg
lgb]{zg kmf=g+=%=@ adf]lhdsf] laj/0f q}dfl;s -c;f]h, k';, r}t / c;f/ d;fGt_ ?kdf
tof/ u/L qodf; ;dfKt ePsf] kGw| lbg leq o; a}+ssf] ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f
ljefudf k]z ug{' kg]{5 .
-@_
Aofhb/ hf]lvdsf] cg'udg ug{ lnOg' kg]{ ;do cGt/fn (Time Interval) sf] juL{s/0f ubf{
bkmf @ cg';f/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
-#_
lglZrt e'QmfgL cjlw (Fixed Maturity Period) gePsf ;DklQ tyf bfloTjnfO{ b]xfo
adf]lhd ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 M
-s_
lglZrt e'QmfgL cjlw gePsf ;DklQx?
-!_
cfjlws ?kdf Aofhb/ ;dfof]hg x'g] u/L k|jfx ul/Psf] shf{ (Floating rate
loan with interest adjusted periodically) nfO{ h'g cjlwdf Aofhb/
;dfof]hg ul/G5, ;f]xL ;do cGt/fn leq ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-@_
s'g} Aofhb/ ljz]if kl/jt{g;Fu ;dfof]hg x'g] -h:t}M 6]h/L ljnsf] Aofhb/_
u/L k|jfx ul/Psf] cfjlws shf{nfO{ ;j}eGbf sd cjlwsf] ;do cGt/fn leq
;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-v_
lglZrt e'QmfgL cjlw gePsf bfloTjx?
Aofhb/df ePsf] kl/jt{gsf sf/0f k|efljt x'g] lglZrt e'QmfgL cjlw gePsf
bfloTjx? (Interest Sensitive, Floating Rate Liabilities) nfO{ dfq h'g cjlwdf
Aofhb/ ;dfof]hg ul/G5, ;f]xL ;do cGt/fnleq ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-$_
cGt/ (Gap) dfkg b]xfo adf]lhd ug'{ kg]{5 M
-s_
ljleGg ;do cGt/fnsf s'n ;DklQaf6 s'n bfloTj 36fP/ ;f] ;do cGt/fnsf]
;DklQ tyf bfloTjsf] cGt/ (Gap) lgwf{/0f ug'{kg]{ 5 . pQm cGt/ (Gap) wgfTds
(Positive) cyjf C0ffTds (Negative) b'j} x'g ;Sg]5 .
-v_
Aofhb/ hf]lvd Go"g ug]{ k|of]hgsf] lgldQ k|To]s ;do cGt/fnsf] ;l~rt cGt/
(Cumulative Gap) ;d]t lgwf{/0f ug'{kg]{ 5 . ;l~rt cGt/ lgwf{/0f ubf{ h'g ;do
cGt/fnsf] ;l~rt cGt/ lgwf{/0f ug'{kg]{ xf] ;f] ;do cGt/fnsf] cGt/ (Gap) ;lxt
;f] eGbf cl3sf ;do cGt/fnsf cGt/nfO{ ;d]t hf]8]/ /fVg' kg]{5 .
-u_
Aofhb/df x'g ;Sg] ;Defljt kl/jt{gnfO{ cg'dfg (Estimate) ug'{kg]{ 5 . ;f] k|of]hgsf]
nflu ;fdfGotof Ps k|ltztn] Aofhb/ kl/jt{gaf6 kg{ hfg] c;/nfO{ x]g{ ;lsg]5 .

104

-3_

$=

kl/jt{g x'g] cg'dfg ul/Psf] Aofhb/ pkv08 -u_ adf]lhd k|To]s ;do cGt/fnsf]
;dofjlw;Fu ;dfof]lht x'g] u/L lgwf{/0f ug'{kg]{ 5 . ;f] k|of]hgsf] lgldQ Aofhb/df
x'g] ;dfof]lht Aofhb/ (IRC) kl/jt{gnfO{ b]xfosf] cg'kftn] u'0fg ug'{ kg]{5 M
;do cGt/fndf /x]sf lbg #^% lbg
h:t} M ! k|ltztn] Aofhb/ kl/jt{g ePdf, () lbgsf] ;do cGt/fn x'Fbf
Interest Rate Change (IRC) = ()#^%)=)!
= )=))@%
-_
Aofhb/df ePsf] kl/jt{gsf sf/0f a}+ssf] gfkmfgf]S;fgdf kg{ uPsf] c;/nfO{ x]g{
ljleGg ;do cGt/fnsf] ;l~rt cGt/fn (Cumulative Gap) nfO{ pkv08 -3_ adf]lhd
lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] Aofhb/n] u'0fg u/L lgwf{/0f ug'{ kg]{5 .
ljb]zL ljlgdo ;DaGwL hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf
-!_
ljb]zL ljlgdo b/df cfpg] ;Defljt kl/jt{gaf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ljQLo cj:yfdf kg{
;Sg] c;/nfO{ cg'udg ug]{ p2]Zon] ;+nUg lgb]{zg kmf=g+=%=# adf]lhdsf] laj/0f ;fKtflxs
?kdf ;Ktfx ljt]sf] ;ft lbg leq o; a}+ssf] ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
-@_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ljb]zL ljlgdo b/df cfpg] kl/jt{gaf6 pTkGg x'g;Sg]] hf]lvdnfO{
Go"gLs/0f ug{ o; a}+sn] hf/L u/]sf] n]vf ;DaGwL gLlt tyf ljQLo laj/0fx?sf] 9fFrf ;DaGwL
lgb]{zg -O=k|f lgb]{zg g+= $_ df pNn]v eP adf]lhdsf] ;6xL 36j9 sf]if sfod /fVg' kg]{5 .
-#_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cNksfnLg tyf bL3{sfnLg e'QmfgL cjlwsf cfwf/df ljb]zL
ljlgdonfO{ d'b|fut ?kdf juL{s/0f u/L b'j} cjlwsf] v'b cj:yf (Net Position) b]vfpg' kg]{5 .

:ki6Ls/0f M o; k|of]hgsf] nflu cNksfnLg cjlw eGgfn] Ps dlxgf jf ;f]eGbf sd


cjlw ;Demg' k5{ .
-$_

%=

^=

&=

Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ljb]zL ljlgdosf] b}lgs v'b cj:yf a9Ldf k|fylds k'FhLsf] lt;
k|ltzt;Dd x'g] u/L ;Ldf sfod ul/Psf] 5 . v'b cj:yf pQm ;Ldf eGbf a9L x'g uPdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf :jo+n] To:tf] cj:yfnfO{ ;Ldf leq Nofpg k|of; ug'{ kg]{5 . Ps
dlxgfleq klg Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] v'b cj:yfnfO{ ;Ldfleq gNofPdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g,
@)%* adf]lhd sf/jfxL x'g]5 . v'b cj:yf u0fgf ubf{ kl/jTo{ ljb]zL d'b|f lgIf]k bfloTj
(Foreign Currency Deposit Liablility) tyf clu|d ljb]zL ljlgdo vl/bljqmL /sd ;d]tnfO{
;dfof]hg u/]sf] x'g' kb{5 .
shf{ tyf nufgL ;DaGwL hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf
o; a}+saf6 hf/L ul/Psf] shf{ ;fk6sf] juL{s/0f / shf{ gf]S;fgL ;DaGwL Joj:yf - O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+=
@ _ / Psn u|fxs tyf If]qut shf{ ;fk6 / ;'ljwfsf] ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf - O=k|f=lgb]{zg
g+= #_ tyf nufgL ;DjGwL Aoj:Yff -O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= *_ nfO{ g} shf{ tyf nufgL ;DaGwL hf]lvd
Go"gLs/0f ug]{ cfwf/sf] ?kdf lng' kg]{5 .
hf]lvd Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL dfu{bz{g
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf jfl0fHo a+}sx?sf] hf]lvd Joj:yfkgnfO{ ;jn agfpg hf]lvd
Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL dfu{bz{g -Risk Management Guidelines_ nfu" ul/Psf]n] tf]lsPsf] dfu{bz{g adf]lhd
hf]lvd Joj:yfkg ug{'u/fpg' kg]{5 .
bjfa k/LIf0f ;DaGwL dfu{bz{g
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf a+}sx?n] @)^* df3b]lv a}+s :jo+n] bjfa k/LIf0f -Stress
Testing_ ug]{ Joj:yf ug{ tf]lsPsf] bjfa k/LIf0f dfu{bz{g -Stress Testing Guidelines_ adf]lhd sfof{Gjog
ug{'u/fpg' kg]{5 . ;fy}, ;f] dfu{bz{g adf]lhd bjfj k/LIf0f ug]{ ;Gbe{df lgDg adf]lhdsf] yk
Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .
-s_
afl0fHo a}+sx?n] q}dfl;s ljQLo ljj/0fsf cfwf/df bjfa k/LIf0f u/L o:tf] k/LIf0fsf]
kl/0ffd af/] ;+rfns ;ldlt tyf pRr Joj:yfkgdf 5nkmn ug'{kg]{ 5 .
-v_
o:tf] bjfa k/LIf0fsf] nflu o; a}+sn] tof/ u/]sf] Spreadsheet o; a}ssf] a}+s ;'kl/j]If0f
ljefu, u}/:ynut dxfzfvfdf ;Dks{ /fvL lng ;lsg]5 .

105

-u_

*=

v08 -v_ adf]lhdsf] Spreadsheet df plNnlvt bjfa k/LIf0f;Fu ;DalGwt tYof+s Pj+
kl/0ffd x/]s qodf; ljt]sf] #) lbg leq a}+s ;'kl/j]If0f ljefusf] u}/:ynut dxfzfvfdf
pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sf/f]jf/df lglxt hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug]{
;DjGwL Joj:yf O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= %)^* adf]lhdsf] lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/
d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

106

g]= /f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= 5=1


Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] gfd M
cjlw M
;+/rgfut t/ntf -Structural Liquidity_ ljj/)f tflnsf

-?= nfvdf_
qm=;=

1 90
lbg

ljj/)f

;DklQ
1=
2=
3=
4=
5=
6=
7=
8=
9=

gub df}Hbft
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf /x]sf] df}Hbft
ljb]zL a}+sdf ul/Psf] nufgL
sn dlg

10=

;/sf/L ;"/If)fkq
g]=/f=a}+s C)fkq
cGt/ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf shf{
shf{ ;fk^
kfpg" kg]{ Aofh
l/e;{ l/kf]

11=
12=
13=

k|lta$tf cGtu{t cGo ;+:yfx?af^ k|fKt x"g]


qm=;= 20, 21 / 22 sf ;"ljwfx?sf] e"QmfgL
cGo

s"n ;DklQ
bfloTj
14=
15=
16=
17=
18=

rNtL lgIf]k
art lgIf]k
d"@lt lgIf]k
C)fkqx?
;fk^L M
dfucNk ;"rgf
cGt/ a}+slj=;+:yf
k"g/shf{
cGo

19=

cGo bfloTj tyf Joj:yfx? M


;)*L qm]l*^;{
e"QmfgL lbg"kg]{ ljn
e"QmfgL lbg"kg]{ Aofh
Joj:yfx?
cGo
k|lta$tf cGtu{t cGo ;+:yfx?nfO{ lbg"kg]{
pkef]u e}g;s]sf] :jLs[t ;"ljwfx?
k|lttkqhdfgt -v"b_
l/kf]
qm=;= 11 cGtu{tsf] ;"ljwfsf] e"QmfgL
cGo

20=
21=
22=
23=
24=
25=

s"n bfloTj
v"b ;DklQ
;+lrt v"b ;DklQ

107

91 180
lbg

181 270
lbg

271 365
lbg

1 jif{
eGbf a(L

s"n
/sd

n]vf zLif{s
;DklQ
kfpg"kg]{ Aofh
l/e;{ l/kf]
k|lta$tf cGtu{t cGo
;+:yfx?af^ k|fKt x"g]
qm=;= 20, 21 / 22 sf
;"ljwfx?sf] e"QmfgL
cGo zLif{sx?
bfloTj
;)*L qm]l*^;{
e"QmfgL lbg"kg]{ ljn
e"QmfgL lbg"kg]{ Aofh
Joj:yfx?*
k|lta$tf cGtu{t cGo
;+:yfx?nfO{ lbg"kg]{
pkef]u e}g;s]sf] :jLs[t
;"ljwfx?
k|lttkqhdfgt -v"b_

l/kf]
qm=;= 11 cGtu{tsf]
;"ljwfsf] e"QmfgL
cGo zLif{sx?

cjlwsf] ljj/)f
h"g ;dodf Aofh k|fKt x"g] xf], ;f]xL ;dosf] ;DjlGwt Bucket df /fVg] .
e"QmfgL cjlw cg";f/sf] ;DjlGwt Bucket df /fVg] .
h"g ;dodf ;"ljwf k|fKt x"g] ck]Iff ul/Psf] % ;f]xL ;dosf] ;DjlGwt Bucket df /fVg] .
hdfgt afx]s cGo ;"lawfx?sf] xsdf e"QmfgL cjlw cg";f/sf] ;DjlGwt Bucket df /
hdfgtsf] xsdf 1 aif{eGbf a(Lsf] Bucket df /fVg] .
Plss[t lgb]{zgsf] lgb]{zg g+ 5 df Joj:yf ul/P jdf]lhd ug]{ .
1 b]lv 90 lbgsf] Bucket df /fVg] .
e"QmfgL cjlw cg";f/sf] ;DjlGwt Bucket df /fVg] .
e"QmfgL cjlw cg";f/sf] ;DjlGwt Bucket df /fVg] .
lglZrt e"QmfgL cjlw ePsf] cj:yfdf ;f]xL adf]lhd / gePsf] cj:yfdf 1 b]lv 90 lbgsf]
Bucket df /fVg] .
lautsf] Trend ljin]if)faf^ dfusf] Pattern cg"dfg u/L ;f]xL cg";f/sf] ;DjlGwt Bucket df
/fVg] .
lautsf] Trend ljin]if)faf^ dfusf] Pattern cg"dfg u/L ;f]xL cg";f/sf] ;DjlGwt Bucket df
/fVg] .
k|lttkqsf] xsdf e"QmfgL cjlw cg";f/sf] ;DjlGwt Bucket df / hdfgtsf] xsdf lautsf]
Trend ljin]if)faf^ Claim Pattern :yflkt u/L cfpg] /sd hdfgtsf] cjlw ;dfKt x"g] Bucket
df /fVg] .
e"QmfgL cjlw cg";f/sf] ;DjlGwt Bucket df /fVg] .
e"QmfgL cjlw cg";f/sf] ;DjlGwt Bucket df /fVg] .
Plss[t lgb]{zgsf] lgb]{zg g+ 5 df Joj:yf ul/P jdf]lhd ug]{ .

;Defljt gf]S;fgL jfkt sfod ul/Psf Joj:yfx? afx]ssf vr{ zLif{s;+u ;DjlGwt Joj:yfx? .

g]=/f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= 5=2

Aofhb/ ;DaGwL hf]lvd cg"udg tflnsf

Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] gfdM


cjlw M
laj/0f
!=
@=
#=
$=
%=
^=

-=nfvdf_
cjlw

! ()
lbg

(! !*)
lbg

!*! @&)
lbg

@&!
#^% lbg

! jif{ eGbf
a9L

s'n
/sd

s'n ;DklQ*
s'n bfloTj**
cGt/fn -! @_
;l~rt cGt/fn
;dfof]lht Aofhb/ (IRC)***
q}dfl;s d'gfkmf l:yltdf k|efj
-;l~rt cGt/fn x IRC)
&=
;l~rt d'gfkmf l:ylt km/s
-qm=;+= ^ sf] hf]8 ub}{ hfg]_
* s'n ;+klQ cGtu{t Aofhb/df ePsf] kl/jt{gsf sf/0f k|efljt x'g] ;DklQ (Interest Sensitive Assets) dfq ;dfj]z ug'{
kg]{5 .
** s'n bfloTj cGtu{t Aofhb/df ePsf] kl/jt{gsf sf/0f k|efljt x'g] bfloTj (Interest Sensitive Liabilities) dfq ;dfj]z
ug'{ kg]{5 .

*** Interest Rate Change

108

ljb]zL ljlgdo ;DaGwL hf]lvd cg'udg tflnsf


Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] gfd M
cjlwM
ljb]zL d'b|f

cNksfnLg
;DklQ

bfloTj

cNksfnLg
v'b cj:yf

bL3{sfnLg
;DklQ

o'= P;= 8n/


:6ln{ kfp08
hfkfgL o]g
o'/f]
cGo d'b|f
ef/tLo ?k}ofF
s'n

109

bfloTj

g]=/f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=%=#

bL3{sfnLg
v'b cj:yf

-=nfvdf_

s'n
v'b
cj:yf

v'b
cj:yf
k|fylds
k'FhL

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= ^)^(
laifoM ;+:yfut ;'zf;g ;DaGwL Joj:yf .
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] kfngf ug'{ kg]{ ;+:yfut ;'zf;g ;DaGwL Joj:yf ;DjGwdf g]kfn
/fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
!=

;~rfnsn] kfngf ug'{ kg]{ cfr/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf


-!_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf ;~rfnsn] Go"gtd :jLsf/of]Uo cfr/0f sfod ug'{ kg]{
-s_
;~rfnsn] o; a}+sn] hf/L u/]sf] cfr/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf kfngf ug]{ arga4tfkqdf
x:tfIf/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
-v_
s'g} JolQm ;+rfnsdf lgo'Qm ePkl5 sfo{ef/ ;DxfNg'eGbf klxn] cfkm\gf] ;+:yf;+u
ljQLo :jfy{ eP gePsf] s'/f ;~rfns ;ldltnfO{ lnlvt ?kdf hfgsf/L u/fpg'
kg]{5 .
-u_
;+rfnsn] a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] Joj:yfkgsf] b}lgs sfdsf/jfxLdf x:tIf]k ug'{
xF'b}g .
-3_
;~rfnsn]] cfkm\gf] clwsf/ If]q gf3L u/]sf] sfdsf/jfxLk|lt ;+rfns :jo+ hjfkmb]xL
x'g' kg]{5 . To:tf] cj:yfdf ;+:yf pQ/bfoL x'g' kg]{ 5}g .
-@_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] lxt ljkl/tsf ultljlwdf ;+nUg x'g gx'g]
-s_
;~rfns k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf ?kdf ;+:yfsf] lxt ljkl/t x'g] s'g} klg lsl;dsf]
ultljlwdf ;+nUg x'b}g .
-v_
;~rfns lghsf] ljQLo :jfy{ /x]sf] u|fxs;Fusf] sf/f]af/df k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf ?kdf
;+nUg x'g' x'Fb}g . s'g} u|fxs;Fu To:tf] ;~rfnssf] s'g} klg lsl;dn] :jfldTj,
;fe]mbf/ jf hdfgtstf{ eO{ C0f lng] jf lbg] ljifodf ljQLo :jfy{ ufFl;Psf] 5 eg]
lgh ;~rfns kbdf axfn /xg of]Uo dflgg] 5}g .
-u_
;~rfns ;ldltn] lghsf] ljQLo :jfy{ ufFl;Psf] 5 egL k|dfl0ft gu/];Dd ;fj{hlgs
?kdf lgisfzg ul/Psf z]o/C0fkqx?sf] sf/f]af/sf] xsdf o; lsl;dsf] k|ltjGw
nfu" x'g] 5}g .
-3_
sfo{sf/L k|d'vn] cfk"m cfj4 ePsf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] Joj;fodf ;+nUg x'g'sf]
cltl/Qm o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt cGo s'g}klg ;+:yf;Fu ;DalGwt Joj;fo ;+rfng
u/]df klg To;nfO{ ;+:yfsf] lxt ljkl/tsf] ultljlwsf] ?kdf lnOg] 5 .
-_
;~rfnssf] Psf3/ kl/jf/sf ;b:on] lwtf]kq Joj;foL -bnfn, ahf/ lgdf{tf cflb_
sf] ?kdf :yflkt ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] bz k|ltzteGbf a9L :jfldTj u|x0f u/L lwtf]kq
sf/f]jf/df ;+nUg x'g kfOg] 5}g .
-r_
;~rfns jf ! k|ltzteGbf a9L z]o/ lnPsf z]o/wgL jf lghsf] kl/jf/sf] :jfldTjdf
/x]sf]ljQLo :jfy{ /x]sf] kmd{, sDkgL;+u 3/ ef8f lnO{ sf/f]]jf/ ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-#_
cf+lzs ?kdf sfd ug{ gx'g]
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf sfo{sf/L k|d'vn] cfk"m sfo{/t ;+:yf afx]s o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt cGo
s'g} klg ;+:yfdf cf+lzs ?kdf sfd ug{' x'Fb}g . t/, o; bkmfn] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] k"j{ :jLs[lt
lnO{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] lxt ljkl/t gx'g] u/L cGo Joj;flos ultljlwdf ;+nUg x'g eg] aGb]h
nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g . ;+:yfsf] lxtdf k|lts"n c;/ gkg]{ ePdf dfq Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] lghnfO{
To:tf] :jLs[lt lbg ;Sg]5 .

110

-$_

-%_

-^_

-&_

-*_

-(_

-!)_

PseGbf a9L Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;~rfns x'g gkfOg]


Pp6f ;+:yfdf ;~rfns /x]sf] JolQm Ps}k6s csf]{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf tyf ;xsf/L P]g,
@)$* cGtu{t ;+rflnt C0f tyf art ;xsf/L ;+:yf ;d]tsf] ;~rfns x'g kfOg] 5}g .
t/, b]xfo cg';f/ x'g o; lgb]{zgn] afwf k'ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
-s_
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] nufgL ePsf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] csf]{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf
nufgL u/]sf] sf/0fn] To:tf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf ;~rfns dgf]gog ug'{ kbf{ g]kfn
;/sf/sf] :jLs[lt lnO{ cfgf] s'g} ;~rfns To:tf] csf]{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf]
;~rfnsdf dgf]gog x'g,
-v_
gfkmf sdfpg] p2]Zo gePsf ;fdflhs ;]jfdf ;+nUg ;+:yfx? h:t}M wfld{s, z}lIfs,
;f+:s[lts, k/f]ksf/L h:tf ;+:yfx?sf] lgodsf] kl/lwleq /xL ;~rfns x'g .
;+/Ifssf] x}l;otdf /xg gx'g]
;~rfnsn] u|fxssf] hdLg tyf hfoh]yf ;DaGwL sf/f]af/df k|zf;s jf ;+/Ifssf] x}l;otn]
;+nUg x'g' x'Fb}g . olb o:tf] sfo{df ;+nUg eO{ u|fxssf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf /x]sf]] vftfdf
x:tfIf/ ug]{ clwsf/ k|fKt u/]df ;~rfns ;ldltaf6 To;sf] lnlvt :jLs[lt lng' kg]{5 .
t/, Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf ;+rfnsx?n] n3'ljQ sf/f]jf/ ug]{ 3 ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfdf ;+/Ifs jf ;Nnfxsf/sf] ?kdf dfq /xg jfwf k'u]sf] dflgg] 5}g .
kbsf] b'?kof]u ug{ gx'g]
;~rfnsn] cfgf] kb / gfd b'?kof]u u/L s'g} klg lsl;dsf] JolQmut kmfObf x'g]
lqmofsnfkdf ;+nUg x'g kfOg] 5}g . Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf ;~rfns / lghsf kl/jf/n]
;d]t lgh axfn /x]sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf;Fu sf/f]af/ ubf{ kfl/jfl/s ;DaGwnfO{ hf]8\g
kfOg] 5}g . kl/jf/sf] ljj/0f v'nfO{ To:tf kl/jf/n] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfaf6 shf{ lng] ePdf
;f] ;DaGwL 5nkmn / lg0f{odf efu lng kfOg] 5}g . ;fy}, ;fdfgx?sf] vl/b ljqmL ubf{ z]o/
nufot cGo k|Tofe"ltx?sf] sf/f]jf/df k|fyldstf kfpg jf lbgsf nflu kbsf] pkof]u ug{
kfOg] 5}g . o;}u/L ;'g, rfFbL, ljb]zL ljlgdo / ljb]zL ;'/If0fkqx?sf] ;fkf ubf{ kbLo
k|efj kfg{ kfOg] 5}g .
clen]v / k|ltj]bg k"0f{ Pj+ b'?:t /fVg' kg]{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] n]vf ;DaGwL clen]v / k|ltj]bg k"0f{ Pj+ b'?:t ?kdf /fv]sf] x'g' kg]{5
. ;~rfnsn] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] cflwsfl/s n]vf ;DaGwL clen]v / sfuhftdf JolQmut
?kdf yk36 ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
uf]klgotf sfod /fVg' kg]{
-s_
;~rfnsn] u|fxssf] ;"rgf / sf/f]af/sf] uf]kgLotf sfod /fVg' kg]{5 . gLh ;~rfns
kbaf6 lgj[Q eO;s] kl5 klg ;+:yfn] s'g} u|fxs;Fu u/]sf] uf]Ko sfo{ -Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfsf] lnlvt :jLs[lt gePsf]df_, k|ltlnlk clwsf/, cGo kqfrf/, n]vf / u|fxs;Fu
ePsf] cGo sf/f]af/sf] laj/0f cfgf] ljQLo :jfy{sf] nflu k|of]u ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-v_
s'g} u|fxssf] Joj;flos jf ljQLo ;"rgf u|fxssf] lnlvt :jLs[lt lnP/ cGo JolQm
jf ;+:yfnfO{ lbg ;lsg] 5 .
t/, k|rlnt sfg'gsf] clwgdf /xL ljQLo sf/f]af/ ;DaGwL laj/0fx? t];|f] kIfnfO{
pknAw u/fpFbf uf]kgLotf e+u ePsf] dflgg] 5}g .
lgikIf / ;dfg Jojxf/ ug'{ kg]{
;~rfnsn] u|fxs;Fusf] ldqtf / ;DaGwaf6 k|efljt geO{ lgikIf Pj+ ;dfgtfsf] cfwf/df
Jofj;flos Jojxf/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
lnlvt ?kdf hfgsf/L lbg' kg]{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] dfly n]lvP adf]lhdsf] cfr/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf :jLsf/ u/L tyf cfjZos
b]v]df cfgf] cfGtl/s sfo{ k|0ffnLsf] nflu yk cfr/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf ;d]t tof/ u/L o;
a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu / ;DjlGWft ;'kl/j]If0f ljefunfO{ lnlvt ?kdf
hfgsf/L lbg' kg]{5 .

111

-!!_

@=

ljj/0f k]z ug'{ kg]{


;~rfnsn] o; lgb]{zgdf tf]lsPsf cfr/0fx? kfngf u/] gu/]sf] laj/0f cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt
ePsf] kGw| lbgleq clgjfo{ ?kdf o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu /
;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k7fpg' kg]{5 . s'g} ;~rfnsn] pQm cfr/0fx?sf] kfngf gu/]df
;f] kfngf gu/]sf] laj/0f / lghdfly ul/Psf] sf/jfxL o; a}+ssf pk/f]Qm ljefux?df t'?Gt
k7fpg' kg]{5 .
-!@_ ;+rfns ;ldltsf] ;b:o ;ldltsf] a}7sdf lgoldt ?kdf pkl:ylt x'g' kg]{ 5 . dgfl;j
dflkmssf] sf/0f tyf k"j{ ;"rgf ljgf nuftf/ # k6seGbf a9L ;ldltsf] a}7sdf cg'kl:yt
ePdf To:tf] ;+rfnssf] kb :jtM l/Qm ePsf] dflgg] 5 .
-!#_ Ps eGbf a9L JolQm Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;~rfnssfo{sf/L k|d'v x'g gkfOg]
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkq k|fKt a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:Yffdf Psf3/ kl/jf/, kmd{, sDkgL, ;+ul7t
;+:yf jf Pp6} ;d"xsf] sDkgLaf6 Ps eGbf a9L JolQm ;+rfns jf sfo{sf/L k|d'v kbdf
dgf]goglgjf{rglgo'Qm x'g ;Sg] 5}g . t/ n3' ljQ ljsf; a}+ssf] sf/f]jf/ ug]{ 3 ju{sf]
ljQLo ;+:yfsf] xsdf pk/f]Qm Joj:yf nfu" x'g] 5}g .
;~rfns;~rfns ;ldltsf] st{Jo / pQ/bfloTj
;j{;fwf/0faf6 lgIf]k ;+sng u/L To;sf] ;+/If0f ug]{ h:tf] dxTjk"0f{ sfo{df ;+nUg Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfsf ;~rfnsx?n] cfgf z]o/wgLx?sf] lxt dfq gx]/L lgIf]kstf{ nufotsf ;/f]sf/jfnf
(Stakeholder) x?sf] lxt ;+/If0f ug{;Sg] u/L Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf ;+rfngdf lqmofzLn x'g' kg]{5 .
;~rfnsx?sf] c;n cfr/0f tyf lqmofsnfkaf6 ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf ;fy} b]zsf] ;du|
ljQLo k|0ffnLdf cg's"n k|efj kg{ hfg] x'Fbf To:tf ;+:yfsf ;~rfnsx?sf] lgo'lQm, lghx?n] kfngf
ug'{ kg]{ st{Jo tyf axg ug'{ kg]{ pQ/bfloTj ;DaGwdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 M
-s_
;+:yfnfO{ bIf, ljj]sk"0f{ Pj+ Jofj;flos ?kdf ;+rfng ug{ pko'Qm lsl;dsf] sd{rf/L k|zf;g
ljlgodfjnL tof/ u/L of]Uo tyf ;Ifd pRr kbflwsf/Lx?sf] 5gf}6 tyf lgo'lQm ug'{ kg]{5 .
-v_
cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIfsaf6 lgoldt ?kdf cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIf0f u/fpg' kg]{5 . cfGtl/s
n]vfk/LIf0fsf] sfo{ Outsource ug]{ ePdf ;DalGwt ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] Ps hgf clws[tnfO{ ;Dks{
clws[tsf] lhDd]jf/L tf]Sg' kg]{ 5 . cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIfsn] slDtdf q}dfl;s ?kdf cfkm\gf]
k|ltj]bg l;w} n]vfk/LIf0f ;ldlt ;dIf k]z ug]{ Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 . pQm k|ltj]bgdf b]xfosf
ljifox? ;d]t ;dfj]z ePsf] x'g' kg]{5M
-c_ cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIf0fdf ;+nUg hgzlQmsf] ljj/0f .
-cf_ ;f] sfo{ ;DkGg ug{ nfu]sf] sfo{ lbg .
-u_
s'g} Pp6f ;+:yfsf] Internal Audit ;DjGwL sfo{ ug{ lhDd]jf/L tf]lsPsf] JolQm jf ;+:yf tyf ;f]
;+:yfsf ;fem]bf/ jf sd{rf/Ln] ;f] ;+:yfsf] Statutory Audit ;DaGwL sfo{df ;+nUg x'g kfpg]
5}g . To;}u/L s'g} Pp6f ;+:yfsf] Statutory Audit ;DaGwL sfo{ ug{ lhDd]jf/L tf]lsPsf] JolQm
jf ;+:yf tyf ;f] ;+:yfsf ;fem]bf/ jf sd{rf/Ln] ;f] ;+:yfsf] Internal Audit ;DjGwL sfo{df
;+nUg x'g gkfpg] Joj:yf ;ldltn] ldnfpg\' kg]{5 .
-3_
;+:yf ;j{;fwf/0fsf] /sd kl/rfng ug]{ ;+:yf ePsf] x'Fbf ;~rfnsx?n] ;+:yfsf] cg'udg tyf
;'kl/j]If0f sfo{ j9L ljj]sk"0f{ / ;Ifd t/Lsfn] ug'{ kg]{5 .
-_
;+:yfsf sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ clVtof/ k|Tofof]hg u/] klg lghx?sf] lqmofsnfksf] clGtd bfloTj
;~rfnsx?n] g} axg ug'{ kg]{ x'Fbf ;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7sdf sd{rf/Lx? dfly ul/Psf
;'kl/j]If0f tyf sf/jfO{ ;DaGwL clen]v /fVg' kg]{5 .
-r_
;+:yfsf] nufgL tyf shf{ gLlt, ;DklQ tyf bfloTj Joj:yfkg, ah]l6, of]hgf / cGo
cfjZos ljifodf lnlvt gLlt tyf of]hgf th'{df u/L sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ kfng ug{ nufpg'
kg]{5 .
-5_
;~rfnsx?n] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] cj:yf Pj+ ultljlw / Joj:yfkgn] clVtof/ u/]sf
gLlt ;DaGwdf lgoldt ?kdf hfgsf/L lnO{ cfjZostf cg';f/ ;'wf/fTds pkfo ckgfpg'
kg]{5 .
-h_
;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7s k|rlnt sfg'gdf Joj:yf eP cg';f/ a:g' kg]{5 .

112

-em_

#=

k|rlnt sfg'g / o; a}+saf6 hf/L ePsf gLlt lgb]{zg tyf lgodgsf] kl/kfngf gePdf
;~rfnsx? cfkm\gf] kbaf6 avf{:t ;d]t x'g;Sg] x'gfn] To:tf sfg'g, gLlt lgb]{zg tyf
lgodg ljifodf ;~rfnsx? k"0f{ hfgsf/ x'g'sf ;fy} Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfaf6 To:tf sfg'g,
gLlt lgb]{zg tyf lgodg kfngf eP gePsf] ;DjGwdf lgoldt cg'udg ug'{ kg]{5 .
-`_
;+:yfsf ;~rfnsx?n] lgIf]kstf{sf] xslxt ljkl/t sfo{ u/]df jf o; a}+sn] dfu u/]sf
sfuhftx? pknAw gu/fPdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf !)) adf]lhd To:tf ;~rfns
tyf kbflwsf/LnfO{ nufOPsf] hl/jfgf JolQmut ?kdf ltg'{ kg]{5 . o;/L JolQmut ?kdf lt/]sf]
hl/jfgf /sdnfO{ ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfgf] lx;fjdf vr{ n]vL e'QmfgL lbg kfpg]
5}g .
-6_
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf Joj;flos ;+rfns jf lghsf] kl/jf/n] ;DalGwt ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks z]o/
wf/0f ug{ x'b}g . t/ o; k"j{ o:tf] z]o/ lnO;s]sf] ePdf of] kl/kq hf/L ePsf] ldltn] a9Ldf Ps
jif{leq lgoldt ul/;Sg' kg]{ 5 .
-7_
k|rlnt sfg'gn] tf]s]sf] cj:yfdf afx]s Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf u}/ sfo{sf/L ;+rfns tyf
cGo ;+rfnsx?n] k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[tsf] cg'kl:yltdf k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[tsf] x}l;otn]
b}lgs sfo{;+rfng ug{ kfOg] 5}g . ;fy}, u}/ sfo{sf/L cWoIf tyf ;+rfnsx?n] cfkm\gf]
;+:yfsf] n]6/Kof8 tyf 5fk k|of]u u/L s'g} klg kqfrf/ ug{ kfOg] 5}g . t/ u}/ sfo{sf/L
cWoIfnfO{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf @$ sf] pkbkmf -^_ adf]lhd
;+rfnsn] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] Joj:yfkgsf] b}lgs sfd sf/jfxLdf x:tIf]k ug'{ x'Fb}g
eGg] Joj:yfsf] clwgdf /xL b}lgs sfo{;+rfng;+u ;DalGwt jfx]ssf ljifodf n]6/Kof8 tyf
5fk k|of]u u/L kqfrf/ ug{ eg] o; Joj:yfn] afwf kg]{ 5}g .
-8_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7sdf ;~rfns afx]ssf
;b:ox?nfO{ cfdGq0f u/L ;~rfns ;/x a}7s eQf tyf cGo ;'ljwf k|bfg ug{ kfOg] 5}g . t/
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;~rfns ;ldltn] cfjZostf dxz'; u/]df vf;vf; ljifodf 7f]; /fo
k/fdz{sf nflu ljQLo :jfy{ gePsf] lj1 JolQmnfO{ ;~rfns ;ldltsf] a}7sdf cfdGq0f u/L
cfjZos /fok/fdz{ k|fKt u/L ;f] jfkt kfl/>lds k|bfg ug{ eg] of] Joj:yfn] jfwf k'ofPsf]
dflgg] 5}g .
-k|i6Ls/0f M o; k|of]hgsf nflu ;+rfns afx]s cGo kbflwsf/Ln] ;+rfns ;+of]hs jf ;b:o /xg] ;ldlt
pk;ldltdf a}7s eQf lng kfpg] 5}gg\ . t/, ;+rfns afx]ssf cGo ;b:o nufot ;lrjfno ;DalGw
sfdsf] nflu 5'6\6} kfl/>lds lbg ;lsg] 5 . _
-9_ a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfdf lgjf{lrtdgf]gog ePsf] k|To]s ;+rfnsn] cfkm" lgjf{lrt jf dgf]lgt ePsf]
ldltn] a9Ldf k}+tL; lbgleq kb tyf uf]klgotfsf] zky lnO ;Sg' kg]{5 . cGoyf, pQm ;+rfnssf]
lgjf{rg dgf]gog :jtM vf/]h x'g]5 .
-0f_
sfo{sf/L k|d'vsf] ;]jf ;'ljwfsf] lgwf{/0f tf]lsPsf] dfu{bz{g cg';f/ ug'{ kg]{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:Yffx?sf] nflu a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# sf]
bkmf *$ df ePsf] Joj:yf ;d]tsf] cfwf/df Joj:yfkg vr{ Pj+ sfo{sf/L k|d'vsf] tnj, eQf
tyf cGo cfly{s ;'ljwfx? lgwf{/0f ug]{ ;DaGwdf o; a}+sf/f hf/L dfu{bz{gdf pNn]lvt
dfkb08 cg';f/ ug'{ kg]{] 5 .
sfo{sf/L k|d'vsf] lgo'lQm ;DaGwL Joj:yf
-!_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+Rffns ;ldltn] k|rlnt sfg'g tyf ;+:yfsf] k|aGwkq / lgodfjnLsf]
cwLgdf /xL sfo{sf/L k|d'vsf] lgo'lQm ug'{ kg]{5 . o;/L sfo{sf/L k|d'vsf] lgo'lQm ubf{ ;+:yfut
;'zf;g tyf cfGtl/s lgoGq0f Pj+ ;Gt'ngsf] b[li6sf]0fn] ;+rfns ;ldltsf] cWoIfnfO{ sfo{sf/L
k|d'vsf] ?kdf lgo'Qm ug{ pko'Qm x'g] 5}g .
-@_
sfo{sf/L k|d'vsf] ?kdf lgo'Qm x'g] JolQmdf k|rlnt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DjGwL sfg'gdf
plNnlvt of]Uotf tyf cg'ejsf cltl/Qm b]xfosf yk of]Uotf, cg'ej tyf u'0fx? plNnlvt
x'g' kg]{5 .
-s_
a}+ls sf/f]af/sf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ Joj;flos cg'ej,
-v_
;+:yfsf] b}lgs sfo{ ;Dkfbgdf cfGtl/s lgoGq0f / k|rlnt sfg'gsf] kl/kfngf ug]{
u/fpg] ;Ifdtf,
-u_
a}+ls jf ljQLo Joj;fosf] pRr txdf sfo{ u/]sf],

113

-3_
-_

$=

6f6 kN6]sf] jf a]OdfgL jf hfn;fhLsf] cf/f]kdf ;hfo gkfPsf],


cfkm\gf] k"j{ sf/f]af/df o; a}+saf6 lgnDag gul/Psf] jf o; a}+saf6 ePsf]
cg';Gwfgdf z+sf:kb sf/f]af/df ;+nUg egL ls6fg gul/Psf] jf To:tf] lgnDjgjf6
km's'jf ePsf] kfFr jif{ k'u]sf] jf To:Tff] z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/sf] ;+nUgtfaf6 ;kmfO kfPsf],
-r_
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z gePsf] jf To:tf] ;"rLaf6 k'ms'jf ePsf] ltg jif{ k'u]sf] .
-#_
;+:yfn] sfo{sf/L k|d'vsf] lgo'lQm ubf{ / ;~rfns ;ldltdf x]/k]m/ x'Fbf o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefunfO{ t'?Gt hfgsf/L lbg' kg]{5 .
-$_
sfo{sf/L k|d'v ;ft lbgeGbf a9L ;do ljbfdf a;]df, b]z aflx/ uPdf jf cfkm\gf] cf]xf]bfsf]
sfo{ ug{ g;Sg] ePdf lghsf] :yfgdf sfd ug]{ JolQmsf] gfd o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yf lgodg ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefunfO{ k"j{ hfgsf/L lbg' kg]{5 .
-%_
;+:yfsf] sfo{;~rfng, sf/f]af/, Jofj;flos of]hgf tyf d'gfkmfl:ylt ;d]tnfO{ b[li6ut u/L
sfo{sf/L k|d'v, cGo kbflwsf/L tyf sd{rf/Lx?sf] tnj tyf ;'ljwf lgwf{/0f ug'{ kg]{5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfaf6 sfo{sf/L k|d'vnfO{ k|bfg ul/g] tnj, eQf, af]g; tyf cGo ;'ljwf
;DaGwL laj/0f / ;f] ;DjGwdf ePsf] s'g} klg kl/jt{gsf] laj/0f o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yf lgodg ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefunfO{ cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] Ps dlxgfleq
pknJw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
-^_
Pp6f Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sfo{sf/L k|d'vn] csf]{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf kbflwsf/Lsf]
?kdf /xL sfo{ ug{ kfpg] 5}g .
-&_
;+:yfsf] r'Qmf k'FhLsf] Ps k|ltzt jf ;f]eGbf a9L z]o/ wf/0f ug]{ z]o/wgL ;f] ;+:yfsf]
;~rfns tyf sfo{sf/L k|d'vsf] kbdf afx]s cGo s'g} txsf] kbdf lgo'Qm x'g of]Uo x'g] 5}g .
-*_
lhNnf:t/df s]Gb|Lo sfof{no jf skf]{/]6 sfof{no /x]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf sfo{sf/L k|d'v
sfof{no sfdsf] l;nl;nfdf afx]s ;f]xL sfof{nodf lgoldt pkl:yt x'g' kg]{ 5 .
sd{rf/Lx?n] kfngf ug'{ kg]{ cfr/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf
-!_
sd{rf/Lx?n] b]xfo adf]lhdsf Go"gtd :jLsf/of]Uo cfr/0fsf] :t/ sfod ug'{ kg]{5 M
-s_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf sd{rf/Lx?n] o; a}+sn] hf/L u/]sf] cfr/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf
kfngf ug]{ arga4tf ;lxt x:tfIf/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
-v_
cfgf] dftxtsf sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ cfr/0fsf] ljifodf lgb]{zg lbg] / hfgsf/L lng]
pQ/bfloTj ljefuLo k|d'vx?sf] x'g]5 . sd{rf/Ln] cg'zf;g jf lgod pNn+3g u/]df
To;sf] k|ltj]bg ;DalGwt ljefuLo k|d'vn] sd{rf/L k|zf;g ljefunfO{ pknAw u/fpg'
kg]{5 / k|zf;g ljefun] pQm k|ltj]bgsf] clen]v ;'kl/j]If0fsf] qmddf o; a}+ssf]
;'kl/j]If0f 6f]nLnfO{ pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
-@_
sd{rf/Lx?n] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] lxt ljkl/tsf b]xfosf ultljlwdf ;+nUg x'g kfOg] 5}g M
-s_
sd{rf/Lx? k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf ?kdf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] lxt ljkl/t x'g] s'g} klg
lsl;dsf] ultljlwdf ;+nUg x'g' x'Fb}g .
-v_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sd{rf/L cfgf] ljQLo :jfy{ /x]sf] u|fxs;Fusf] sf/f]af/df
k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf ?kdf ;+nUg x'g' x'Fb}g .
-u_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf sd{rf/Lsf] cfgf u|fxs;Fu z]o/ :jfldTj, ;fe]mbf/, C0f lng]
jf lbg] cflb s'g} lsl;dsf] ljQLo :jfy{ ufFl;Psf] 5 eg] lghn] cfgf lgs6td
;'kl/j]IfsnfO{ tTsfn} To; s'/fsf] hfgsf/L lbg' kg]{5 .
t/, lgs6td ;'kl/j]Ifsn] lghsf] ljQLo :jfy{ ufFl;Psf] 5 egL k|dfl0ft gu/];Dd
;fj{hlgs ?kdf lgisfzg ul/Psf z]o/C0fkqx?sf] sf/f]af/sf] xsdf o; lsl;dsf]
k|ltjGw nfu" x'g] 5}g .
-3_
cfk"m sfo{/t /x]sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] cltl/Qm cGo s'g} klg :yfgdf k"0f{sfnLg
?kdf Joj;fo ;+rfng ug'{ x'Fb}g .
-#_
cf+lzs ?kdf sfd ug{ :jLs[lt lng' kg]{
sd{rf/Ln] ;f] ;++:yf afx]s cGo s'g} klg ;+:yfdf cf+lzs ?kdf sfd ug{' jf cGo Joj;flos
ultljlwdf ;+nUg x'g'eGbf klxn] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] Joj:yfkgaf6 lnlvt :jLs[lt lng' kg]{5 .

114

-$_

-%_

-^_

-&_

-*_

-(_

-!)_
-!!_

cfkm\gf] ;+:yfsf] lxtdf k|lts"n c;/ gkg]{ ePdf dfq lghnfO{ cf+lzs ?kdf sfd ug{ lnlvt
:jLs[lt lbg ;Sg]5 .
sd{rf/L ;+rfns x'g kfpg] jf gkfpg] ;DaGwL Joj:yf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf jf To:tf] ;+:yfsf] clwsf+z :jfldTj jf lgoGq0fdf /x]sf] ;+:yfsf]
axfnjfnf sd{rf/L s'g} klg Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;~rfns;Nnfxsf/ x'g kfpg] 5}g .
t/, b]xfo adf]lhd x'g o; lgb]{zgn] afwf k'ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g M
-s_
k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] :yfkgf u/]sf] ;xfos sDkgLx?sf]
;~rfns x'g,
-v_
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] nufgL ePsf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] csf]{ s'g} Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfdf nufgL u/]sf] sf/0fn] To:tf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf ;~rfns dgf]gog ug'{
kbf{ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] :jLs[lt lnO{ cfgf] s'g} ;+rfns To:tf] csf]{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfsf] ;+rfnsdf dgf]gog x'g, jf
-u_
gfkmf sdfpg] p2]Zo gePsf ;fdflhs ;]jfdf ;+nUg ;+:yfx? h:t}M wfld{s,
;f+:s[lts, z}lIfs, k/f]ksf/L h:tf ;+:yfx?sf] lgodsf] kl/lwleq /xL ;~rfns x'g .
;+/Ifssf] x}l;otdf /xg gx'g]
sd{rf/Lx?n] u|fxssf] hdLg tyf hfoh]yf ;DaGwL sf/f]af/df k|zf;s jf ;+/Ifssf] x}l;otn]
;+nUg x'g' x'Fb}g . t/ sy+sbflrt o:tf] sfo{df ;+nUg x'g' k/]df sfo{sf/L k|d'vaf6 To;sf] lnlvt
:jLs[lt lng' kg]{5 .
kbsf] b'?kof]u ug{ gx'g]
sd{rf/Ln] cfgf] kb / gfd b'?kof]u u/L s'g} klg lsl;dsf] JolQmut kmfObf x'g] lqmofsnfkdf
;+nUg x'gkfOg] 5}g . sd{rf/L jf lghsf gft]bf/n] ;d]t lghx? axfn /x]sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yf;Fu sf/f]af/ ubf{ kfl/jfl/s ;DaGwsf] k|efj kfg{ kfOg] 5}g . ;fy}, ;fdfgx?sf] vl/b ljqmL
ubf{, z]o/ nufot cGo k||Tofe"lt sf/f]jf/df k|fyldstf kfpg jf lbgsf nflu kbsf] pkof]u ug{
kfOg] 5}g . o;}u/L ;'g, rfFbL, ljb]zL ljlgdo / ljb]zL ;'/If0fkqx?sf] ;fkf ubf{ kbLo k|efj
kfg{ kfOg] 5|}g .
;"rgfsf] b'?kof]u ug{ gx'g]
sd{rf/Ln] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sf/f]af/sf] l;nl;nfdf k|fKt s'g} klg ;"rgfsf] b'?kof]u ug{
tyf s'g} klg ;"rLs[t ePsf] sDkgL jf ;"rLs[t x'g afFsL /x]sf] sDkgLsf] lwtf]kq Joj;foLsf]
?kdf sf/f]af/df ;+nUg x'g kfOg] 5}g . lghx?n]] sfdsf] l;nl;nfdf afx]s cfk"m dftxtsf
sd{rf/LnfO{ ;d]t uf]Ko /fVg' kg]{ ;"rgf tyf clen]vsf] hfgsf/L lbg' x'Fb}g .
clen]v / sf/f]af/sf] k|ltj]bg /fVg' kg]{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] n]vf ;DaGwL clen]v / k|ltj]bg k"0f{ Pj+ b'?:t x'g'kg]{ 5 . sd{rf/Ln]
cgflws[t ?kdf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] n]vf clen]v / sfuhftdf JolQmut ?kdf yk36
ug{ kfOg] 5}g . o:tf] u/]df gLh sd{rf/L k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd ;hfosf] efuLbf/ x'g]5 .
uf]klgotf sfod /fVg' kg]{
-s_
sd{rf/Ln] k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd u|fxssf] ;"rgf / u|fxs;+u ePsf] sf/f]af/sf]
uf]kgLotf sfod /fVg' kg]{5 . lgh ;]jfaf6 lgj[Q eO;s]kl5 klg To:tf] sf/f]jf/sf]
uf]klgotf -k|ltlnlk clwsf/, cGo kqfrf/, n]vf / u|fxs;Fu ePsf] cGo sf/f]af/sf]
laj/0f_ cfgf] jf c? s;}sf] ljQLo :jfy{sf] nflu k|of]u ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-v_
s'g} u|fxssf] Joj;flos jf ljQLo ;"rgf u|fxssf] lnlvt :jLs[lt lnP/ cGo JolQm
jf ;+:yfnfO{ lbg ;lsg] 5 .
t/, k|rlnt sfg'gsf] clwgdf /xL a}+ls sf/f]af/ ;DaGwL laj/0fx? t];|f] kIfnfO{
pknAw u/fpFbf uf]kgLotf e ePsf] dflgg] 5}g .
lgikIf / ;dfg Jojxf/ ug'{ kg]{
sd{rf/Lx?n] u|fxs;Fusf] ldqtf / ;DaGwaf6 k|efljt geO{ lgikIf Pj+ ;dfgtfsf] cfwf/df
Jofj;flos sf/f]af/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
lnlvt ?kdf hfgsf/L lbg' kg]{

115

%=

Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] dfly n]lvP adf]lhdsf] sd{rf/Ln] cfr/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf :jLsf/ u/]sf]
tyf cfjZos b]v]df cfgf] cfGtl/s sfo{ k|0ffnLsf] nflu yk cfr/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf tof/ u/L
;f] :jLsf/ u/]sf] hfgsf/L o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f
ljefunfO{ lnlvt ?kdf hfgsf/L lbg' kg]{5 .
-!@_ cfr/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf kfngf ePgePsf] hfgsf/L lbg' kg]{
sd{rf/Ln] o; lgb]{zgdf tf]lsPsf cfr/0fx? clgjfo{ ?kdf kfngf u/] gu/]sf] laj/0f cfly{s
jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] kGw| lbgleq clgjfo{ ?kdf o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
/ ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k7fpg' kg]{5 . s'g} sd{rf/Ln] pQm cfr/0fx?sf] kfngf
gu/]df ;f] ;DjGwL laj/0f / gLhdfly ul/Psf] sf/jfxL af/]sf] hfgsf/L o; a}+ssf pk/f]Qm
ljefudf t'?Gt k7fpg' kg]{5 .
-!#_ sd{rf/LnfO{ shf{ k|bfg ug]{ ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfgf sd{rf/LnfO{ sd{rf/L ljlgodfjnLdf plNnlvt
;fk6L;'ljwfsf cltl/Qm cfg} jf cGo s'g} a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf /flvPsf] d'2lt /l;b, ;'grfFbL
tyf g]kfn ;/sf/g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] hf/L u/]sf] C0fkqartkqsf] lwtf]df shf{ k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
cfGtl/s ;ldltpk;ldlt ;DaGwL Joj:yf
-!_
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf !$ tyf bkmf !% df ePsf] Joj:yf cg';f/
;+rfns ;ldltn] cfkm\gf] hjfkmb]xLdf b]xfo adf]lhd x'g] u/L ;ldltpk;ldlt u7g u/L
sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ ;d]t tf]Sg' kg]{5M .
-s_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfgf] sfdsf/jfxLnfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf ;+rfng ug{ ;+rfns ;+of]hs
jf ;b:o x'g] u/L b]xfosf ljifo;+u ;DalGwt ;ldlt jf pk;ldlt dfq u7g ug{ ;Sg]5 .
n]vfk/LIf0f
hf]lvd Joj:yfkg
sd{rf/L Joj:yfkg tyf ;]jf ;'ljwf
-v_ v08 -s_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] ePtf klg s'g} vf; k|of]hgsf] nflu ;do tf]sL u}/
sfo{sf/L ;+rfnssf] ;+of]hsTjdf pk;ldlt u7g ug{ eg] jfwf k'u]sf] dfgLg] 5}g .
-u_ ;+rfns ;ldltsf cWoIf ;+rfns ;ldlt afx]s cGo s'g} klg cfGtl/s ;ldlt jf pk
;ldltdf ;dfj]z x'g kfpg] 5}g .
-3_ v08 -s_ adf]lhd u7g x'g] ;ldltdf cfjZostf cg';f/ cfdGq0f ul/g] ljz]if1 JolQm ;lxt
slDtdf # b]lv a9Ldf % hgf;Dd ;b:o x'g ;Sg] 5g\ .
-_ ;DalGwt ;+:yfn] ;a} ;~rfnsx?sf] of]Uotf / cg'ej v'n]sf] Profile tof/ u/L ;f]sf]
cfwf/df ;+rfnsx?nfO{ pko'Qm ;ldltdf /fVg] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{ 5 .
-r_ pk/f]Qm adf]lhd tLg j6f ;ldlt sfod x'g] u/L o; a}+saf6 kl/kq hf/L x'g' eGbf cufl8
ljleGg ljlgodfjnLx?df ePsf] Joj:yf cg';f/ ;+rfnsx?n] k|ltlglwTj ug]{ u/L u7g ePsf
;ldltnfO{ Joj:yfkg cGt/ut u7g ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg' kg]{ 5 .
-5_ ;ldltsf ;b:ox?sf] a}7s eQf ;+rfns ;ldltsf ;b:on] kfpg] a}7s eQf eGbf a9L gx'g]
u/L tf]Sg' kg]{] 5 .
-h_ k|d'v sfo{sf/L eGbf tNnf] txsf sd{rf/Lsf] kbk"lt{ ;DaGwL sfo{ ug{ gfoj sfo{sf/L k|d'vsf]
;+of]hsTjdf kbk"lt{ ;ldlt u7g u/L Joj:yfkgnfO{ clVtof/ k|Tofof]hg ug'{ kg]{ 5 .
-em_ Pp6f ;ldltdf ;+of]hs /x]sf] ;+rfns csf]{ ;ldltdf ;+of]hs x'g kfpg] 5}g .
-`_ cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIf0f ljefusf k|d'v / sd{rf/Lx?sf] sfo{;Dkfbg qmdzM ;+rfns ;ldltn] /
n]vfk/LIf0f ;ldltn] ug]{ u/fpg] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{ .

-@_

n]vfk/LIf0f ;ldlt ;DaGwL Joj:yf


;~rfns ;ldltn] u}/ sfo{sf/L ;~rfnssf] dftxtdf Pp6f n]vfk/LIf0f ;ldlt u7g ug'{
kg]{5 . ;f] ;ldltsf] ;b:o;lrj cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIf0f ljefusf] k|d'v x'g] 5 . ;f] ;ldltn]
;+:yfsf] cfly{s cj:yfsf] ;dLIff, cfGtl/s lgoGq0f, n]vfk/LIf0f ;DaGwL sfo{qmd /
n]vfk/LIf0fsf] kl/0ffd ;DaGwdf lj:t[t 5nkmn u/L Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] Joj:yfkgnfO{
cfjZos lgb]{zg lbg]5 . Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf cfGtl/s / jfx\o n]vfk/LIfsx?n] ;f]
;ldltdf l;w} kx'Fr /fVg ;Sg]5g\ . lghx?n] k]z ug]{ k|ltj]bg / o; ;ldltsf] k|ltj]bg pk/
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;~rfns ;ldltn] lj:t[t 5nkmn ug'{ kg]{5 . Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf

116

u7g x'g] n]vfk/LIf0f ;ldltdf sfo{sf/L k|d'vnfO{ ;b:osf] ?kdf /fVg kfOg] 5}g t/
cfjZostf k/]sf] cj:yfdf cfdlGqt ;b:osf] ?kdf af]nfpg jfwf k'u]sf] dflgg] 5}g .

;ldltsf] k|d'v pQ/bfloTj

^=

-s_ k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;du| ljQLo cj:yf, cfGtl/s lgoGq0f,
n]vfk/LIf0f of]hgf / cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIf0fdf cf}+NofOPsf ljifox?df cfjlws ?kdf ;dLIff
u/L ;f] ;DaGwdf ckgfpg' kg]{ sbd af/] Joj:yfkgnfO{ cfjZos lgb]{zg lbg] / ;f] ;DaGwL
;'emfj ;~rfns ;ldltdf k]z ug]{ .
-v_ afx\o n]vfk/LIfsn] k]z u/]sf] n]vfk/LIf0f k|ltj]bgdf cf}+NofOPsf a'Fbfs}lkmotx? pk/ ;dLIff
u/L ;'wf/fTds sbd rfNg Joj:yfkgnfO{ lgb]{zg lbg] .
-u_ g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 lg/LIf0f tyf ;'kl/j]If0f u/L k|ltj]bgdf cf}NofOPsf a'Fbfs}lkmotx?sf]
sfof{Gjog ePgePsf] ;DaGwdf ;dLIff ug]{ tyf tL ljifox?sf] clen]v u/L ;+rfns
;ldltnfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpg] .
-3_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] jflif{s ljQLo ljj/0fnfO{ ;xL / oyfy{ agfpg Joj:yfkgnfO{ ;xof]u
ug]{ .
-_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sf/f]jf/sf] x/lx;fj ;xL / oyfy{ ePsf] ;DaGwdf ;~rfns
;ldltnfO{ ljZj:t t'Nofpg'sf] ;fy} ;Defljt bfloTj / shf{ juL{s/0f u/L ;f]sf] nflu /fVg'
kg]{ Joj:yf ;DaGwdf lgoldt ?kdf ;dLIff ug]{ .
-r_ k|rlnt sfg'g tyf g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 hf/L ul/Psf lgodg Joj:yfx? kfngf u/]gu/]sf]
;DaGwdf ;ldltn] ;dLIff ug'{sf ;fy} ;f] ;DjGwL Aoxf]/f cfkm\gf] k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{ .
-5_ cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIf0f ;DaGwL lj:t[t sfo{ k|0ffnL tof/ u/L ;f]sf] cfwf/df cfGtl/s
n]vfk/LIf0f u/fpg' kg]{ .
-h_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sfd sf/jfxLdf lgoldttf, ldtJolotf, cf}lrTotf, k|efjsfl/tf h:tf
s'/fx? cjnDjg ePgePsf] jf/] ;dLIff u/L ;+rfns ;ldltnfO{ cfjZos ;'emfj lbg] .
-em_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] q}dfl;s ljQLo ljj/0fsf] ;dLIff u/L ;+rfns ;ldlt ;dIf k|ltj]bg
k]z ug]{ .
-`_ sDkgL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf !^% df pNn]v ePsf sfo{x? ug]{ .
-#_ ;+rfns ;ldltn] sd{rf/L Joj:yfkg / ;]jf ;'ljwf ;ldlt tyf hf]lvd Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] sfo{
ljj/0f o;} lgb]{zgsf] qmdzM cg";'rL ^=! / cg";'rL ^=@ df plNnlvt sfo{ ljj/0fnfO{ cfwf/
dfgL tf]lslbg' kg]{5 .
cfgf ;~rfns, z]o/wgL, sd{rf/L Pj+ lgh;Fu ;DalGwt kmd{nfO{ shf{ k|bfg ug{ aGb]h ;DaGwL
Joj:yf
-s_
b]xfosf cj:yfdf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf ;~rfnsnfO{ shf{ ;fk6Lu}/ sf]ifdf cfwfl/t
;'ljwf k|bfg ug{ aGb]h ul/Psf] 5 M
-!_
;~rfns / lghsf] Psf3/ kl/jf/sf ;b:onfO{,
-@_
;~rfns jf lghsf] Psf3/ kl/jf/sf ;b:o Joj:yfks, ;fe]mbf/, Ph]G6 jf
hdfgtstf{ ePsf] jf lghsf] k|ToIf ljQLo :jfy{ ePsf] JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf
;+:yfnfO{,
-#_
;~rfns jf lghsf Psf3/ kl/jf/sf ;b:on] bz k|ltzteGbf a9L z]o/ lnPsf] kmd{,
sDkgLnfO{ / ;+:yfnfO{,
-$_
;~rfns jf lghsf Psf3/ kl/jf/sf ;b:o hdfgt a;]sf] JolQm, kmd{ sDkgLnfO{ jf
;+:yfnfO{ .
-v_
b]xfosf cj:yfdf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf ;+:yfks, z]o/wgL tyf sd{rf/LnfO{ shf{ tyf
u}/sf]ifdf cfwfl/t ;'ljwf k|bfg ug{ aGb]h ul/Psf] 5 M
-!_
;+:yfks jf ;+:yfks ;d"xsf z]o/wgL jf ljqmL ePsf] s'n z]o/sf] Ps k|ltzteGbf
a9L z]o/ lnPsf z]o/wgL tyf lghsf kl/jf/sf ;b:o / sd{rf/LnfO{,

l6Kk0fLM -c_

-cf_

;+:yfks, Ps k|ltzt jf ;f]eGbf a9L z]o/ lnPsf JolQmkmd{sDkgL;+:yf,


sfo{sf/L k|d'v, axfnjfnf n]vfk/LIfs tyf clws[t:t/sf sd{rf/L jf To:tf
JolQmsf] kl/jf/sf ;b:o jf ;+rfns dgf]lgt jf lgo'lQm ug]{ clwsf/ kfPsf
kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+:yfnfO{ shf{ jf ;'ljwf k|bfg ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
s'n hf/L k'+hLsf] Ps k|ltzt eGbf a9L z]o/ wf/0f u/]sf

117

-O_

JolQmkmd{sDkgL;+:yf, Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf ;+:yfks jf ;+:yfks


;d"xsf z]o/wgLnfO{ o; a}+saf6 o; ;DjGwL lgb]{zg hf/L x'g' cufj} shf{
tyf u}/ sf]ifdf cfwfl/t ;'ljwf k|bfg eO{/x]sf] 5 eg] To:tf shf{ tyf ;'ljwf
;fljss} e'QmfgL tflnsf cg';f/ jf @)^& cfiff9dWo] h'g ldlt cufl8 k5{
;f]xL ldltleq clgjfo{ ?kn] km5\of}{6 ug'{ kg]{5 .
ljutdf s'n hf/L k'+hLsf] Ps k|ltzt eGbf sd z]o/ wf/0f u/]sf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf ;+:yfks jf ;+:yfks ;d"xsf z]o/wgLnfO{ k|bfg
ePsf] shf{ tyf u}/ sf]ifdf cfwfl/t ;'ljwfsf] lj:t[t ljj/0f jfli{fs ljQLo
ljj/0fdf v'nfpg' kg]{5 .

-@_

&=

*=

(=

laqmL ePsf] z]o/sf] Ps k|ltzteGbf a9L z]o/ lnPsf] z]o/wgL / Ohfhtkqk|fKt


;+:yfsf sd{rf/L ;fem]bf/ ePsf] jf hdfgt a;]sf] jf cGo lsl;dsf] ljQLo :jfy{
ePsf] JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+:yfnfO{,
-#_
o; a}+sn] lgb]{zg lbPsf]df afx]s Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf z]o/wgL / sd{rf/Ln] bz
k|ltzteGbf a9L z]o/ lnO{ dtflwsf/ lnPsf] kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+:yfnfO{,
-u_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf ;+:yfks, ;~rfns, sfo{sf/L k|d'v / lghsf] kl/jf/sf ;b:ox?sf]
:jfldTjdf /x]sf] ;DklQsf] lwtf]df ;f]xL ;+:yfaf6 lwtf] /fvL shf{ k|jfx ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
t/, Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] cfg} d'2lt lgIf]k /l;b / ;'g rfFbLsf] lwtf]df shf{ k|bfg ug{,
zt k|ltzt gub dflh{gdf hdfgt hf/L ug{ tyf g]kfn ;/sf/ tyf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s
C0fkqsf] lwtf]df shf{ k|bfg ug{ o; v08df ePsf] s'g} klg Joj:yfn] afwf k'ofpg] 5}g .
-3_
sfo{sf/L k|d'v / Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sd{rf/L
ljlgodfjnL cg';f/ ;'ljwfo'Qm ;fk6L k|bfg ug{ of] lgb]{zgn] afwf k'ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
pk/f]Qm Joj:yfsf cltl/Qm ;/sf/sf] 3f]lift p2]Zo k"/f ug{ :yfkgf ePsf ljsf;d"ns ;+:yf
jf sDkgLnfO{ shf{ k|bfg ug{ o; a}+sn] 5'6 lbg ;Sg]5 .
-_
o; a}+saf6 yf]s shf{ sf/f]af/ dfq ug]{ Ohfhtkq kfPsf 3 ju{sf] n3'ljQ ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfut
;+:yfks z]o/wgLx?nfO{ ;f]xL ;+:yfaf6 shf{ k|jfx ug{ 5'6 k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 . o:tf] C0fL
;+:yfaf6 yf]s shf{ sf/f]af/ ug]{ ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldltdf k|ltlglwTj ePsf] cj:yfdf ;d]t
shf{ k|jfx ug{ jfwf kg]{ 5}g .
-r_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks;~rfnssd{rf/L tyf lghsf] Psf3/
kl/jf/sf] ;b:osf] r]s vl/b ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
cfrf/;+lxtf tyf ;'zf;g ;DaGwL Joj:yf
!=
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] ;d]t ;'zf;g sfod ug]{ sfo{df e"ldsf /x]sf] x'Fbf
;'zf;g P]gsf] efjgf cg';f/ cfcfkm\gf] ;+:yfdf cfrf/;+lxtf lgdf{0f u/L nfu" ug'{ kg]{5 .
@=
cfcfgf] ;+:yfdf ;'zf;g OsfO u7g u/L ;'zf;gsf] l:yltaf/] dfl;s ?kdf cg'udg ub}{
hfg' kg]{5 .
#=
o; a}+ssf] lg/LIf0f k|ltj]bgdf p7fOPsf laifox?nfO{ tbf?stfsf ;fy sfof{Gjog ug'{ kg]{5 .
:j3f]if0ff ;DaGwL Joj:yf
-s_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf ;+rfnsx?n] cfkm\gf] af/]df o;};fy ;+nUg :j3f]if0ff -Self-Declaration_
u/]u/fPsf] ljj/0f -cg';"rL ^=#_ ;lxtsf] hfgsf/L tyf ;DalGwt ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf
;+rfnsx?sf] ;DaGwdf tof/ u/]sf] btf{nut lstfjsf] 9fFrf -cg';"rL ^=$_ ;lxtsf] ljj/0f
o; a}+sdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-v_
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfgf] ;+:yfsf] ;+rfnsn] cfkm" jf cfgf] kl/jf/sf ;b:o tyf cfgf]
jf kl/jf/sf] :jfldTjdf /x]sf] kmd{sDkgLsf] gfddf ljleGg a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?af6
lnPsf] shf{ ;DaGwL :j3f]if0ff ljj/0f jflif{s ?kdf cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] #%
lbgleq ;+rfns ;ldltdf k]z u/L cBfjlws u/L /fVg' kg]{5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:Yffx?n] cfkm\gf] lgodfjnLdf tf]lsP adf]lhd ;+rfns ;ldltsf] cWoIf, ;+rfns,
j}slNks ;+rfns a}7sdf pkl:yt eP afkt kfpg] a}7s eQf, ;+rfns sfo{sf/L eO{ sfo{ u/]df
kfl/>lds ;d]t / 6]lnkmf]g, df]jfOn tyf kqklqsf vr{ Pj+ ;+:yfsf] sfddf :jb]z / ljb]zdf e|d0f
ubf{ nfUg] vr{ h:tf cGo ;'ljwf afx]s u}/sfo{sf/L cWoIf tyf cGo ;+rfnsx?n] JolQmut kmfObf x'g]

118

!)=

!!=

!@=
!#=

cfly{s / u}/ cfly{s s'g} klg k|s[ltsf ;'ljwf lng kfOg] 5}g . o;/L cfly{s / u}/ cfly{s ;'ljwf
lnPsf] v08df a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf @$ sf] pkbkmf -!_ sf] Joj:yf
pNn+3g u/]sf] dflgg]5 . o;/L lnPsf] cfly{s tyf u}/ cfly{s ;'ljwf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL
P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf @! sf] pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhd s;"/ u/]sf] dfgL c;'npk/ ul/g]5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ug]{ qmddf /x]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf k|:tfljt ;+rfnsjf k|jGw ;+rfnsx?n]
ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ug]{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt gu/];Dd s'g} klg k|sf/sf] kfl/>lds, eQf tyf cGo cfly{s
;'ljwfx? lng kfOg] 5}g . k|:tfljt ;+:yfdf sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx?n] k|:tfljt ;+rfns ;ldltn] lg0f{o u/]
adf]lhdsf] kfl/>lds lng eg] afwfkg]{ 5}g . ljQLo sf/f]af/sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt u/L ;s]sf t/
;j{;fwf/0fdf ;fj{hlgs z]o/ lgisfzg gu/]sf ;+:yfsf ;+rfns, k|jGw ;+rfns tyf k|d'v sfo{sf/L
clws[t nufotsf clwsf/Lx?n] k|fKt ug]{ kfl/>lds, eQf tyf cGo cfly{s ;'ljwfx? pQm ;+:yfsf]
;j{;fwf/0f z]o/wgLsf] k|ltlglwTj ePsf] k|yd ;fwf/0f;ef ;DkGg geP;Dd a[l4 ug{ kfO{g] 5}g .
o; a}+sn] k|sflzt ug]{ u/]sf] Joj;flos ljz]if1 tyf n]vfk/LIfssf] ;"rLdf /x]sf JolQm tyf lgh
;xefuL x'g] jf ePsf] ;fem]bf/L kmd{, sDkgL tyf ;+:yfx? ;d]tnfO{ ljkIfL agfO{ clVtof/ k|fKt
lgsfon] d'2f bfo/ u/]df :jtM o; a}+sn] k|sflzt ug]{ ;"rLaf6 x6fOg] 5 . ;kmfO{ kfPsf] v08df
cflwsfl/s kq k|fKt eP kl5 :jtM ;"rLdf ;dfj]z ul/g] 5 . t/, d'2f bfo/ x'g'eGbf cufl8 a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] ;fwf/0f;efaf6 n]vfk/LIfs lgo'lQm ePsf] xsdf eg] sfd ;DkGg ug{ o; Joj:yfn]
s'g} jfwf kg]{ 5}g .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns, k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t jf Joj:yfkg txsf] kbflwsf/Ln] s'g} klg
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfaf6 lzIff shf{, xfo/ kr]{h shf{, 3/ shf{ jf 3/fo;L k|of]hgsf ;fdfu|L shf{
afx]s cGo s'g} klg lsl;dsf shf{ lng kfpg] 5}gg\ .
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] ;+:yfut ;'zf;g ;DaGwL Joj:yf O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= ^)^* adf]lhdsf]
lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{
kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

119

cg";'rL^=!
sd{rf/L Joj:yfkg / ;]jf ;'ljwf ;ldlt ;DaGwL Joj:yf
u7g Joj:yf

;~rfns ;ldltn] Ps hgf u}/ sfo{sf/L ;~rfnssf] ;+of]hsTjdf Pp6f sd{rf/L Joj:yfkg / ;]jf ;'ljwf
;ldlt u7g ug{ ;Sg]5 . ;ldltsf] ;b:ox? dWo] n]vf ;DaGwL ljefusf ljefuLo k|d'v ;b:o, hgzlQm
Joj:yfkg ljefusf ljefuLo k|d'v ;b:o ;lrj x'g]5g\ .

;ldltsf] sfd st{Jo / pQ/bfloTj


-s_

-v_
-u_
-3_
-_
-r_

Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f gLlt th'{df ug{ ;+rfns ;ldltnfO{ cfjZos ;xof]u ug]{
.
;ldltn] ;do ;dodf ;Dk"0f{ sd{rf/Lx?sf] kfl/>lds ;+/rgfsf] cWoog tyf ljZn]if0f ug]{ / ahf/sf]
kfl/>lds ;+/rgfdf cfPsf] kl/jt{gn] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf kfg]{ k|efjsf ;DaGwdf lgoldt ?kn]
cWoog u/L ;+rfns ;ldlt ;dIf k|ltj]bg k]z ug]{ .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f gLlt adf]lhd k|rlnt sfg'g tyf gLlt lgb]{zgdf
plNnlvt Joj:yfx?sf] kfngf x'g] u/L k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t nufot ;Dk"0f{ sd{rf/Lx?sf] kfl/>lds
j[l4 ug'{ kg]{ b]lvPdf ;f]sf] cfwf/x? ;lxt ;+rfns ;ldltdf l;kmfl/z ug]{ .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf sd{rf/Lx?n] ;Dkfbg ug'{ kg]{ sfo{ ljj/0f, nIo / k|ult d"Nof+sgsf
kl/;"rsx? ;d]t ljsf; u/L ;f] adf]lhd lghx?sf] sfo{;Dkfbg d"Nof+sg k|0ffnLsf] k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ .
hgzlQm Joj:Yffkg ;DaGwL sfo{x? egf{, 5gf}6, lgo'lQm, kb:yfkgf, ;?jf, a9'jf, j[lt ljsf;,
sfo{;Dkfbg d"Nof+sg, k'/:sf/ tyf ;hfo / >d ;DaGw ;DaGwL of]hgf, gLlt tyf dfkb08x? tof/
u/L ;+rfns ;ldlt ;dIf k]z ug]{ .
sd{rf/L gLlt tyf sfo{/t sd{rf/L ;+/rgfsf] ;dLIff ug]{ / Succession Planning tof/ u/L
:jLs[ltsf nflu ;+rfns ;ldlt ;dIf l;kmfl/z ug]{ .

120

cg";'rL^=@
hf]lvd Joj:yfkg ;ldlt ;DaGwL Joj:yf
u7g Joj:yf
;~rfns ;ldltn] Ps hgf u}/ sfo{sf/L ;~rfnssf] ;+of]hsTjdf Pp6f hf]lvd Joj:yfkg ;ldlt u7g ug'{
kg]{ 5 . ;ldltsf] ;b:ox? dWo] ;Grfng -ck/];g_ ljefusf ljefuLo k|d'v ;b:o / shf{ ljefusf
ljefuLo k|d'v jf hf]lvd Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL sfo{ ug]{ cnUu} OsfO{ ePdf ;f]sf] k|d'v ;b:o ;lrj x'g]5 .
n]vfk/LIf0f ;ldltsf ;+of]hs hf]lvd Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] kb]g ;b:o x'g]5 . ;ldltsf] a}7s tLg dlxgfdf
slDtdf Ps k6s a:g' kg]{ 5 .

;ldltsf] sfd st{Jo / pQ/bfloTj


-s_
-v_
-u_
-3_
-_
-r_
-5_
-h_
-em_

ljBdfg hf]lvd klxrfg tyf Joj:yfkg k|0ffnLsf] kof{Kttf / pko'Qmtf ;DaGwdf ;+rfns ;ldltnfO{
hfgsf/L u/fpg] / pko'Qm k|0ffnLsf] ljsf;sf nflu ;'emfj lbg] .
Joj;flos ultljlwdf lglxt hf]lvdsf] :t/, hf]lvd axg Ifdtf, hf]lvd Joj:yfkgsf] nflu ljsf;
u/]sf] /0fgLlt, gLltut Joj:yf / dfu{bz{gsf] lgoldt k'g/fjnf]sg u/L ;f]sf] kof{Kttfsf ;DaGwdf
;+rfns ;ldltdf ;'emfj k]z ug]{ .
Joj:yfkgaf6 lgoldt ?kdf hf]lvd Joj:yfkg k|ltj]bg lnO{ hf]lvdsf] cf+sng, d"Nof+sg, lgoGq0f
tyf cg'udg s] s;/L eO/x]sf] 5 ;f] ;DaGwdf 5nkmn ug]{ / ;+rfns ;ldltdf cfjZos ;'emfj k]z
ug]{ .
hf]lvd ;DklQ cg';f/ k'+hLsf] kof{Kttf, cfGtl/s k'+hL ljZn]if0f k4lt -ICAAP_, Joj;flos /0fgLlt
cg'?k gLltut Joj:Yffsf] kof{Kttf, ;+:yfn] lng ;Sg] clwstd hf]lvd ;DaGwdf lgoldt ?kdf
5nkmn tyf ljZn]if0f u/L ;+rfns ;ldltnfO{ cfjZos /fo, ;'emfj lbg] .
hf]lvd Joj:yfkgsf nflu g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 hf/L ul/Psf lgb]{zgdfu{lgb]{zg, ;+:yfn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf
cfGtl/s ;Ldf, pko'Qm k|rng cg'?k cfjZos gLlt Pj\d ;+/rgf ljsf; ug{sf nflu ;+rfns
;ldltnfO{ ;'emfj lbg] .
s ju{sf] a}+s / /fli6o:t/sf] v ju{sf] ljsf; a}+sn] lgoldt ?kdf bjfj k/LIf0f -:6]; 6]li6_
u/L ;f]sf] kl/0ffd dfly 5nkmn u/L o;sf cfwf/df eljiodf ckgfpg'kg]{ cfjZos gLlt lgdf{0f jf
lg0f{o k|lqmofsf nflu ;+rfns ;ldltdf ;'emfj k]z ug]{ .
;+rfns ;ldltaf6 ePsf] clVtof/ k|Tofof]hgsf] ;Ldf tyf cf}lrTotf ljZn]if0f u/L ;+rfns ;ldltdf
cfjZos ;'emfj ;lxtsf] k|ltj]bg k]z ug]{ .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;DklQ ;+/rgf, tL ;DklQx? kl/rfngsf] cj:yf, To;af6 k|fKt ug{ ;lsg]
cfo, ;DklQx?sf] u'0f:t/df x'g] j[l4xf; / ;DklQ bfloTj ;ldlt -ALCO_ af6 ePsf sfo{x?sf]
;DaGwdf q}dfl;s ?kdf ljZn]if0f;ldIff u/L ;Grfns ;ldltdf k|ltj]bg k]z ug]{ .
cy{tGqsf] s'g} If]qdf pTkGg x'g] ;d:of jf kl/jt{gn] ;+:yfsf] ljQLo cj:yfdf kfg{ ;Sg] c;/sf]
;DaGwdf cWoog u/L ;f]sf] lg/fs/0fsf] nflu s] s:tf] gLlt cjnDag ug'{ kg]{ xf] cfjZos ;'emfj
;lxt ;+rfns ;ldltdf k|ltj]bg k]z ug]{ .

121

cg';"rL ^=#
>L ;~rfns ;ldlt,
ldlt M @)^===============
===================a}sljQLo ;+:yf lnld6]8,
=====================================.

laifo M hfgsf/L u/fPsf] af/] .

pk/f]Qm ;DaGwdf d ========================================================n] o; a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;~rfnssf] kbdf


ldlt @)^============af6 jxfn u/]sf]n] a}s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf @@ jdf]lhd b]xfosf
ljifox?sf] af/]df hfgsf/L u/fPsf] 5' .
-!_
o; a}+sljQLo ;+:yf;+u d jf d]/f] kl/jf/sf] s'g} ;b:on] s'g} lsl;dsf] s/f/ u/]sf] jf ug{ nfu]sf] 5}g .
-@_
a}sljQLo ;+:yfsf] sfo{sf/L k|d'v, k|jGw ;+rfns jf sDkgL ;lrj, n]vfk/LIfs tyf dxfk|aGwssf] lgo'lQmsf]
;DaGwdf d]/f] s'g} k|sf/sf] :jfy{ jf ;/f]sf/ 5}g .
-#_
d / d]/f] kl/jf/sf] s'g} ;b:on] o; a+}sljQLo ;+:yfsf] z]o/ ;+Vof===================lnPsf]] 5'5f}+, ;f] afx]s
a}+ssf] cGo z]o/ jf l8aGr/ lnPsf] 5}g .
-$_
d o; afx]s g]kfn /fi6 a}saf6 :jLs[t k|fKt s'g} a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns 5}g .
-%_
d]/f] kl/jf/sf] s'g} klg ;b:on] o; a}sljQLo ;+:yfsf] kbflwsf/Lsd{rf/Lsf] x}l;otn] sfd u/]sf
5g\5}gg\ .
-/x]sf] eP v'nfpg] =========================================================================_
-^_
a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf !*-_ adf]lhd d o; afx]s cGo s'g} klg k|sf/sf] lgIf]k
;DaGwL Aoj;fo ;+rfng ug]{ ;+:yfsf] -k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd jrt tyf C0fsf] sf/f]af/ ug]{ ;xsf/L ;+:yf
;d]tsf]_ ;+rfns, sd{rf/L jf axfnjfnf n]vfk/LIfs jf ;Nnfxfsf/sf] kbdf /x]sf] 5}g . ;fy}, o; ;+:yfsf]
;+rfns /x];Dd d cGo s'g} k|sf/sf] jrt tyf C0f ;DaGwL sf/f]af/ ug]{ ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns x'g] 5}g .
-&_
o; a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks z]o/ lwtf] /fvL shf{ lnPsf] 55}g .
olb 5 eg] ;f]sf] ljj/0f v'nfpg' kg]{ 5 .
-*_
dfly 3f]if0ff ul/Psfk]z ul/Psf laj/0fx? l7s ;f+rf] xf], em'f 7xl/Pdf sfg'g adf]lhd ;x'Fnf a'emfpFnf .
;+rfnssf] b:tvtM
gfd y/
afa'sf] gfdM
afh]sf]kltsf] gfdM
7]ufgfM
gful/stf lnPsf] lhNnf / gful/stf g+=

-b|i6Ao MMM of] laj/0f a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;+rfnssf] kbdf lgjf{lrt jf dgf]lgt ePsf] ldltn] & lbg leq / kl/jt{g
ePdf kl/jt{g ePsf] ldltn] & lbg leq ;DalGwt a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fy}, a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfn] ;+rfnsaf6 of] laj/0f k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] & lbgleq o; a}s ;dIf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . _

122

cg';"rL ^=$

==================a}+sljQLo ;+:yf lnld6]8


;+rfnsx?sf] btf{nut lstfj
s|=;+=

;+rfnssf] gfd

afa'sf] gfd

afh]sf]kltsf]
gfd

tof/ ug]{M
k|dfl0ft ug]{M

123

k]zf,
Joj;fo

;+rfns lgo'Qm
ePsf] ldlt

;+rfnsaf6
x6]sf] ldlt

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= &)^(
laifoM ;'kl/j]IfsLo lgb]{zg nfu" ug]{ sfo{ tflnsf ;DaGwL Joj:yf .
o; a}+sn] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] lg/LIf0f tyf ;'kl/j]If0fsf] qmddf lbOPsf] lgb]{zgx?nfO{ b]xfo
adf]lhd nfu" ug{u/fpg g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L b]xfosf]
lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
!=
lg/LIf0f k|ltj]bg pk/sf] k|lts[of
lg/LIf0f k|ltj]bg pk/sf] k|lts[of :ynut lg/LIf0f k|ltj]bg k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] a9Ldf tL; lbgleq
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;~rfns ;ldltn] pQm k|ltj]bgdf plNnlvt s}lkmotx?sf] ;'wf/ tyf lbPsf
lgb]{zgx?sf] kfngf u/L ;f] lg/LIf0f k|ltj]bgdf p7fOPsf a'Fbfx?sf] ;'wf/sf] l:ylt ;lxtsf] k|ltlqmof
o; a}+ssf] ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k7fpg' kg]{5 . tf]lsPsf] ;doleq cfjZos ;'wf/ u/L
k|ltlqmof k7fpg g;Sg] cj:Yff ePdf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] o; a}+ssf] :jLs[lt lnO{ k|fKt ePsf]
cjlwleq pQm k|ltj]bg o; a}+sdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
@=
shf{ gf]S;fgL] Joj:yf
lg/LIf0f k|ltj]bg dfk{mt yk shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf ug]{ lgb]{zg k|fKt ePdf rfn' q}dfl;s lx;fjdf yk
shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf u/L ;f]sf] hfgsf/L o; a}+sdf lbg' kg]{5 .
#=
Loan Portfolio ;'wf/ of]hgf
lg/LIf0f k|ltj]bg dfk{mt lgb]{zg k|fKt ePsf] tL; lbgleq ;+:yfn] tLg dlxgfn] efsf gf3]sf s
ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] xsdf Ps s/f]8 ?k}ofF jf ;f]eGbf dflysf / cGo ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfsf] xsdf krf; nfv ?k}ofF jf ;f] eGbf dflysf ;a} shf{x?sf] l:ylt ;'wfg]{ of]hgf agfO{ o;
a}+ssf ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . ;f] cjlwleq o; a}+saf6 lg/LIf0f eO{ yk lgb]{zg
k|fKt ePdf juL{s[t shf{x?sf] /sd / juL{s/0fdf cfPsf] kl/jt{g ;dfj]z ePsf] ;+zf]lwt of]hgf lt;
lbgleq o; a}+ssf] ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
$=
k'FhLsf]ifsf] kof{Kttf
lg/LIf0f k|ltj]bg dfk{mt lgb]{zg k|fKt ePsf] a9Ldf k}+lt; lbgleq Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] kof{Kt
k'FhLsf]if sfod /fVgsf] nflu cGo s'/fx?sf] cltl/Qm b]xfosf ljifox? ;d]t ;dfj]z ePsf] lnlvt
k'FhL of]hgf o; a}+ssf] ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 M
-s_
kof{Kt k'FhLsf]if sfod ug{sf nflu xfn / eljiodf cfjZos kg]{ k'FhLsf] laj/0f,
-v_
juL{s[t tyf k'gMjuL{s[t ;DklQsf] laj/0f,
-u_
;l~rt gfkmfsf] cg'dflgt /sd
-3_
o; ;DaGwL lgb]{zgdf Joj:yf eP cg';f/ eljiodf cfjZos kg]{ k'FhL k"/f ug{ Joj:yf
ul/Psf] cltl/Qm ;|f]t / ;do tflnsf .
%=
;DklQbfloTj Joj:yfkg
lg/LIf0f k|ltj]bg dfk{mt lgb]{zg k|fKt ePsf] lt; lbgleq Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] kof{Kt t/ntf sfod
/fVg cfkm\gf] ;DklQbfloTj Joj:yfkg gLlt tyf sfo{ljlwdf cfjZostf cg';f/ ;+zf]wg u/L b]xfosf
ljifox? o; a}+ssf] ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . pQm ;+zf]wgdf cGo ljifox?sf]
cltl/Qm b]xfosf s'/fx?df Wofg k'ofpg' kg]{5 M
-s_
C0f lnOPsf] /sd (Borrowed Funds) sf] nfut tyf pkof]u,
-v_
e}kl/ cfpg] cfjZostf k"/f ug{ rflxg] t/n ;DklQsf] kl/df0f,
-u_
lgIf]ksf] ;Defljt ptf/r9fjsf] nflu kof{Kt t/ntfsf] Joj:yf ug{ cNksfnLg ljQLo
;|f]tsf] Joj:yf,

124

-3_

^=

&=
*=

(=

shf{sf] kl/df0f / jf;nft aflx/sf sf/f]af/x?df nufgL ug{ cfjZos /sd / nufgLsf] ;|f]t
aLrsf] tfnd]n
-_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf]] Joj:yfkgaf6 ;~rfns ;ldlt ;dIf lgoldt ?kdf ;DklQbfloTj
;DaGwL k|ltj]bg k]z ug]{ Joj:yf .
cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIf0f tyf lgoGq0f
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf sd{rf/Lx?n] ljBdfg gLlt, lgod tyf sfg'gL k|fjwfgsf] bfo/fleq sfo{
;Dkfbg u/L cfGtl/s lgoGq0f k|0ffnLdf k|efjsf/Ltf Nofpg ;lsg] u/L sfo{ljlwsf] ljsf; ug'{ kg]{5 .
pQm sfo{ljlw cGtu{t slDtdf b]xfosf ljifox? ;dfj]z ePsf] x'g' kg]{5 M
-s_
;+:yfsf]] oyfy{ cj:yfsf] lrq0f ug]{ tyf ;DklQ ;'/lIft x'g] u/L Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf]]
Joj:yfkg tyf n]vf lgoGq0f k|0ffnLsf] ;dLIff ;DaGwL sfo{ljlw .
-v_
tYofsf] ljZj;lgotf hfFr ug]{ sfo{ljlw .
-u_
shf{ k|jfx, sf]if ;+rfng (Treasury Operation), ljb]zL ljlgdo Joj:yfkg, t/ntf
Joj:yfkg, k'FhLsf]ifsf] kof{Kttf, sd{rf/L, Joj:yfkg ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf ;fy} a}+ls lgod
sfg'gx?sf] kfngf ;DaGwL Jojxf/ hfFra'em ug]{ sfo{ljlw .
-3_
;DklQsf] u'0f:t/ ;dLIff sfo{ljlw .
-_
ljQLo hf]lvd Joj:yfkg -t/ntf, ;DklQbfloTj, ljb]zL d'b|f Joj:yfkg_ sf] ;dLIff ;DaGwL
sfo{ljlw
of]hgf, gLlt tyf sfo{ljlwx?sf] sfof{Gjog
a'Fbf g+= # b]lv ^ ;Dd pNn]v eP adf]lhd lg/LIf0f k|ltj]bgn] dfu u/]sf] of]hgf, gLlt tyf
sfo{ljlwx? ;dLIffsf] nflu o; a}+ssf] ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
k|ult laj/0fsf] cg'udg
o; a}+saf6 a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] sf/f]jf/ / k|ult ljj/0f ;DjGwdf lg/Gt/ ?kdf cg'udg ul/g]
5 . o; a}+sn]] ;DjlGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] k|To]s b'O{ dlxgfdf lqmofsnfk, of]hgf, gLlt tyf o;
a}+sn] lbPsf] lgb]{zg sfof{Gjogsf] cg'udg u/L lbPsf] ;'emfj sfof{Gjog ug'{ u/fpg' kg]{5 . ;fy} o;
a}+sn] lgb]{zg lbPsf] cj:Yffdf q}dfl;s k|ult ljj/0f / lgb]{zgsf] sfof{Gjog l:yltsf] k|ltj]bg ;d]t
tf]lsPsf] cjlwleq pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] lg/LIf0f tyf ;'kl/j]If0fsf] qmddf lbOPsf
lgb]{zgx? nfu" ug]{ sfo{ tflnsf ;DaGwL Joj:yf O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= &)^* adf]lhdsf] lgb]{zg tyf
;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

125

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f= lgb]{zg g+= *)^(
laifo: nufgL ;DjGwL Joj:yf .

!=
@=
#=

o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ljQLo ;|f]tsf] nufgLsf ;DjGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf]
bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
nufgL gLlt tyf sfo{ljlw :jLs[t u/fP/ dfq nfu" ug'{ kg]{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ;/sf/L ;'/If0fkq, g]kfn /fi6 a}+s C0fkq tyf ;+ul7t ;+:Yffx?sf] z]o/ tyf
l8a]~r/df nufgL ug]{ gLlt tyf sfo{ljlw ;~rfns ;ldltaf6 :jLs[t u/fP/ dfq nfu" ug'{ kg]{5 .
;/sf/L ;'/If0fkq / g]kfn /fi6 a}+s C0fkqdf nufgL ;DjGwL Joj:yf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfnfO{ ;/sf/L ;'/If0fkq / g]kfn /fi6 a}+s C0fkqdf nufgL ug{ s'g} aGb]h
nufOPsf] 5}g .
;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] z]o/ tyf l8a]~r/df tyf cGo nufgL ;DjGwL Joj:yf
-!_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ;j{;fwf/0fdf z]o/ ljqmL u/L g]kfn lwtf]kq ljlgdo ahf/df ;"rLs[t
eO;s]sf] ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] z]o/ tyf l8a]~r/df dfq nufgL ug{' kg]{5 .
t/, Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] lwtf]kq ljlgdo ahf/df ;"rLs[t eO{g;s]sf] s'g} ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf]
z]o/ tyf l8a]~r/df nufgL] u/]df nufgL u/]sf] ldltn] Ps jif{leq pQm z]o/ tyf l8a]~r/
;"rLs[t gePsf] v08df nufgL eP a/fa/sf] /sd nufgL ;dfof]hg sf]if v8f u/L ;f] sf]ifdf
hDdf ug'{ kg]{5 . To:tf] sf]ifdf /x]sf] /sd pQm z]o/ tyf l8a]~r/ ;"rLs[t geP;Dd cGo
pkof]u ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
gofF v'n]sf ;+ul7t ;+:yfdf u/]sf]] nufgLsf] xsdf To:tf] sDkgL ;+rfngdf cfPsf] ldltn] @
jif{leq jf nufgL u/]sf] @ jif{ leqdf pQm z]o/ ;"rLs[t gePsf] v08df nufgL eP a/fa/sf]
;Dk"0f{ /sd nufgL ;dfof]hg sf]ifdf hDdf ug'{ kg]{5 .
t/, u|fdL0f ljsf; a}+s, ?/n dfOqmf]kmfOgfG; 8]enkd]06 ;]G6/ -RMDC_, shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb| ln=,
Nepal Clearing House Ltd. / National Banking Training Institute sf] z]o/df nufgL ubf{ dfly
pNn]v eP cg';f/sf] nufgL ;dfof]hg sf]if v8f ug'{ kg]{ ljBdfg Joj:yfdf 5'6 k|bfg ul/Psf]
5.
-@_ v ju{sf] Ohfhhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf $&
sf] pkbkmf -@_ sf] v08 -z_ / u ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] ;f]xL P]gsf] ;f]xL bkmfsf]
pkbkmf -#_ sf] v08 -k_ adf]lhd hUuf ljsf;, cfjf;Lo k|of]hgsf] nflu hUuf vl/b tyf
3/ lgdf{0f h:tf kl/of]hgf ;+rfng ug]{ / To:tf 3/hUufsf] laqmL ljt/0f tyf Joj:yfkg ug]{
u/fpg] ;DaGwL sfo{ ubf{ ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] l7s cl3Nnf] dlxgf sfod k|fylds
k'FhLsf] @% k|ltzt eGbf a9L nufgL ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-#_ pk a'Fbf -@_ df pNn]lvt afx]ssf cGo Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfjf; ejg lgdf{0f tyf
hUuf ljsf; (Housing and Land Development) kl/of]hgfdf nufgL ubf{ l7s cl3Nnf] dlxgf
sfod k|fylds k'FhLsf]] bz k|ltztdf ga9\g] u/L nufgL ug{ kfpg] 5 . t/ ;f] ;LdfeGbf a9L
nufgL u/]sf] kfOPdf a9L nufgL ePsf] /sd j/fj/ k'FhLsf]if u0fgf ubf{ k|fylds k"hLaf6
36fO{ k'FhLsf]if sfod ul/g] 5 . o:tf] nufgL ubf{ klAns ln= sDkgLsf] ?kdf ;+:yfkgf ePsf
cfjf; ejg lgdf{0f tyf hUuf ljsf; sDkgLdf dfq ug'{ kg]{5 .
-$_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] s'g} Ps ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] z]o/ tyf l8a]~r/df nufgL ubf{ l7s
cl3Nnf] qodf;df sfod k|fylds k'FhLsf]] bz k|ltztdf ga9\g] u/L / ;j} ;+ul7t ;+:yfx?sf]
z]o/ tyf l8a]~r/df a9Ldf cfkm\gf] k|fylds k'FhLsf]] lt; k|ltztdf ga9\g] u/L nufgL ug'{
kg]{5 . To;}u/L Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ;+ul7t ;+:yfx?sf] z]o/ tyf l8a]~r/df nufgL ubf{

126

-%_

-^_

$=

z]o/
-!_

nufgL x'g] ;+:yfsf] r'Qmf k'FhLsf] !) k|ltzt;Dd tyf 3 ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yfdf u/]sf]
nufgLsf] xsdf pQm ;+:yfsf] r'Qmf k'FhLsf] @% k|ltzt;Dd dfq nufgL ug'{ kg]{5 . nufgL
ubf{sf] cj:yfdf tf]lsPsf] ;LdfeGbf a9L nufgL u/]sf] kfOPdf o;/L a9L nufgL ePsf] /sd
j/fj/ k'FhLsf]if u0fgf ubf{ k|fylds k'FhLaf6 36fO{ k'FhLsf]if sfod ul/g]5 .
t/, ljQLo :jfy{ ePsf] s+kgLsf] xsdf cfkm\gf] k|fylds k'FhLsf] lj; k|ltzt;Dd nufgL ug{
;Sg]5 . ljQLo :jfy{ ePsf] ;+ul7t ;+:yfx?sf] z]o/ tyf l8a]~r/df u/]sf] s'n nufgL
/sdnfO{ k'FhLsf]if u0fgf ubf{ k|fylds k'FhLaf6 36fO{ k'FhLsf]if sfod ug'{ kg]{]5 .
d'Vo sDkgLsf] ;+rfns ;ldlt jf ;+rfns ;ldltsf cWoIf;b:o ;xfos sDkgLsf] ;+rfns
;ldlt jf ;+rfns ;ldltsf] cWoIf;b:osf] ?kdf /xg kfpg] 5}gg\ . of] lgb]{zg hf/L -ldlt
@)^&.@.!)_ x'g'k"j{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf ;+rfns ;xfos sDkgLsf] klg ;+rfns /x]sfsf]
xsdf d'Vo sDkgLsf] cf;Gg klxnf] ;fwf/0f;ef jf of] kl/kq hf/L ePsf] ldltn] Ps jif{leqdWo]
h'g klxn] x'G5, ;f] cjlwleqdf xl6;Sg' kg]{5 .
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] hnljB't kl/of]hgf, ljB't k|;f/0f nfOg / s]jnsf/ lgdf{0f kl/of]hgf
;+rfng ug{ :yflkt klAns lnld6]8 sDkgLsf] z]o/df nufgL u/]sf] /sd lwtf]kq ljlgdo
ahf/df ;"rLs[t eOg;s]sf To:tf kl/of]hgfx?df nufgL u/]sf] /x]5 eg] To:tf] nufgL u/]sf]
ldltn] tLg jif{leq pQm z]o/ tyf l8a]~r/ ;"rLs[t gePsf] v08df nufgL eP a/fa/sf]
;Dk"0f{ /sd nufgL ;dfof]hg sf]if v8f u/L ;f] sf]ifdf hDdf ug'{ kg]{5 . To:tf] sf]ifdf /x]sf]
/sd pQm z]o/ tyf l8a]~r/ ;"rLs[t geP;Dd cGo s'g} klg k|of]hgsf] nflu pkof]u ug{
kfOg] 5}g .
tyf l8j]~r/ k|Tofe"lt ;DjGwL Joj:yf
s ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfnfO{ ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] z]o/ tyf l8j]Gr/ k|Tofe"lt ug{ s'g}
;Ldf nufO{Psf] 5}g . v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] xsdf b]xfo jdf]lhd
;Ldf;Dd dfq k|Tofe"lt ug{ ;Sg] u/L ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] 5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf
v ju{
u ju{

%=

^=

s'g} Ps ;+ul7t ;+:yf


cfkm\gf] k|fylds k'FhLsf]
lj; k|ltzt;Dd
cfkm\gf] k|fylds k'FhLsf] bz
k|ltzt;Dd

;j} ;+ul7t ;+:yf


cfkm\gf] k|fylds k'FhLsf] zt
k|ltzt;Dd
cfkm\gf] k|fylds k'FhLsf] krf;
k|ltzt;Dd

t/, v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] z]o/ tyf


l8a]Gr/ k|Tofe"lt ug]{ ePdf cfkm\gf] k|fylds k'FhLsf] tf]lsPsf] ;Ldf;Dd dfq k|Tofe"lt ug{
;Sg] Joj:yf clgjfo{ x'g] 5}g .
-@_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd k|Tofe"lt u/]sf] z]o/ ljqmL ljt/0f geO{ cfkm}n]
vl/b ug'{k/]df To;/L vl/b u/]sf] z]o/ z]o/ k|Tofe"lt u/]sf] ldltn] Ps jif{leq ljqmL
ljt/0f u/L ;Sg' kg]{5 . tf]lsPsf] ;doleq ljqmL ljt/0f ug{ g;s]df tf]lsPsf] ;LdfeGbf a9L
nufgL ePsf] /sd k'FhLsf]if u0fgf ubf{ k|fylds k"hLaf6 36fO{ k'FhLsf]if sfod ul/g] 5 .
nufgLsf] k'g/fjnf]sg ;DaGwL Joj:yf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cw{jflif{s?kdf cfkm\gf] nufgLsf] k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{ Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 . o;/L
k'g/fjnf]sg ubf{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIfsaf6 ljBdfg nufgL gLlt tyf o;
lgb]{zg adf]lhd nufgL ul/Psf] Joxf]/f k|dfl0ft u/fO{ cw{jflif{s cjlw ;dfKt ePsf]] Ps dlxgfleq
;+:yfsf] Joj:yfkgjf6 :jLs[t u/fpg' kg]{5 . o;/L ;+:yfsf] Joj:yfkgjf6 :jLs[t u/]sf] lg0f{osf]
k|ltlnlk k|To]s jif{sf] kmfNu'0f !% / efb| !% ut]leq a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu / ;DjlGwt
;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
z]o/ tyf l8a]~r/sf] d"Nofg
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] z]o/ tyf l8a]~r/ sf/f]jf/nfO{ lgb]{zg kmf=g+= *=!, *=@ / *=# adf]lhd k|To]s
sDkgLsf] cnu\ cnu\ 5'6\ofO{ vl/b d"No jf ahf/ d"NodWo] h'g sd x'G5 To;sf] cfwf/df cw{jflif{s
?kdf d"Nofg u/L cfkm\gf] ;DklQdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
t/, s'g} sDkgLsf] z]o/ tyf l8a]~r/sf] vl/b d"NoeGbf ahf/ d"No sd eO{ km/s kg{ cfPsf] /sdnfO{
gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fadf vr{ n]vL nufgLdf ;+efljt xfgL afkt Joj:yf zLif{sdf hDdf ug'{ kg]{5 .

127

&=

*=

(=
!)=

;fy}, nufgLsf] d"Nof+sg ubf{ O{=k|f= lgb]{zg $)^& sf] a'Fbf g+= @ =v=# -nufgL ;DaGwL gLlt_ df
ePsf] Joj:yf adf]lhd g} d"Nof+sg ug]{ / o; ;DaGwL ljj/0f ;+nUg g]=/f=a}+=lgb]{zg kmf=g+= *=@ sf]
9fFrfdf tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
:jk|of]hgsf] nflu crn ;DklQ vl/blgdf{0fsf] ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfgf] k|of]hgsf] lgldQ cfjZos k/]df afx]s crn ;DklQ
vl/b ug{ u/fpg x'Fb}g . of] Joj:yfn] v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkq k|fKt ;+:yfn] a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf $& sf] cwLgdf /xL 3/ hUufsf] vl/b laqmL, ljt/0f tyf
Joj:yfkg ug{ afwf k'u]sf] dflgg] 5}g .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfgf] k|of]hgsf] lgldQ hUuf, ejg jf b'j} cfjZos k/]df
b]xfosf] zt{x?sf] clwgdf /xL vl/b jf lgdf{0f ug{ ;Sg] 5 .
-s_
a}+sljQLo ;+:yf ;+:yfkgf ubf{sf] ;Dk"0f{ k"j{ ;~rfng vr{ (Pre operating expenses)
ckn]vg eO{;s]sf] x'g'kg]{ 5 .
-v_
k|aGwkqlgodfjnLdf pNn]v eP adf]lhdsf] z]o/ ;j{;fwf/0fdf hf/L u/L ;s]kl5sf] klxnf]
;fwf/0f ;ef ;DkGg ePsf] x'g'kg]{ 5 .
-u_
ljut b'O{ jif{b]lv lg/Gt/ v'b d'gfkmfdf ;+rfng ePsf] x'g'kg]{ 5 .
-3_
o; a}+sn] hf/L u/]sf] lgb]{zg adf]lhd k'FhLsf]if kof{Kt /x]sf] x'g'kg]{ 5 .
-_
hUuf, ejg jf b'j} vl/b tyf ejg lgdf{0f ubf{ k|ltk6s cfgf] k|fylds k"FhLsf] !% k|ltztsf]
;Ldf leq /xL ug'{kg]{ 5 .
-r_
v08 -s_ b]lv -_ ;Dd pNn]lvt cj:yf k"/f gu/L hUuf, ejg jf b'j} vl/b jf lgdf{0f u/]df
;f] a/fa/sf] /sd k|fylds k'FhLsf]if u0fgf ubf{ 36fpg' kg]{5 .
-5_
hUuf, ejg jf b'j} vl/b u/]sf] jf ejg lgdf{0f ;DkGg ePsf] ldltaf6 # jif{;Dd cfgf]
k|of]udf gcfPdf ;f] a/fa/sf] /sd k|fylds k'FhLsf]if u0fgf ubf{ 36fpg' kg]{5 .
-h_
To:tf] hUuf, ejg jf b'j} cfgf] k|of]hgdf gcfpg] b]lvPdf ljqmL ug'{kg]{ 5 .
nufgL ;DjGwL yk Joj:yf
-!_
s'g}klg Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf cGo
;+:yfx?f/f hf/L u/]sf z]o/ ;'/If0fkq tyf xfOlj|8 k'FhL pks/0fx?df nufgL ug{ kfO{g] 5}g .
t/, 3 ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf / o; a}+ssf] :jLs[lt lnP/ nufgL u/]sf] ;+:yfsf] z]o/
nufgLsf] xsdf of] Joj:Yff nfu" x'g] 5}g .
-@_
nufgL ;DaGwL lgb]{zgdf pNn]v ul/Psf] k|fylds k'FhL eGgfn] ljz]if pNn]v u/]sf]df afx]s
l7s cl3Nnf] qodf;df sfod k|fylds k'FhLnfO{ a'emfpF5 .
nufgL ;DjGwL lgb]{zgsf] kfngf gu/]df x'g] sf/jfxL
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] nufgL ;DjGwL lgb]{zgsf] kfngf gu/]df g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf
(( jf bkmf !)) df plNnlvt s'g} klg sf/jfxL ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] nufgL ;DjGwL Joj:yf O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= *)^* adf]lhdsf]
lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{
kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

128

g]=/f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= *=!


;/sf/L C0fkq / g]kfn /fi6 a}s C0fkqdf ePsf] nufgL ljj/0f -dfl;s_
@) ======;fn ============dlxgf
-?=xhf/df_

qm=;+=

ljj/0f

/sd -?=_

s'n
ldlt

clws[t b:tvt

sDkgLsf] z]o/k"hLdf ePsf] nufgL ljj/0f -dfl;s_


@) ======;fn ============dlxgf
qm=;+= sDkgLsf] gfd

Z]fo/ ;+Vof

k/n d"No

ahf/ d"No

g]=/f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= *=@


-?=xhf/df_

gfkmf-gf]S;fg_ jf sf]if
;dfof]hg /sd

s'n

ldlt

clws[t b:tvt
g]=/f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= *=#
;+ul7t ;+:yfx?sf] l8j]~r/df ePsf] nufgL ljj/0f -dfl;s_
@) ======;fn ============dlxgf
-?=xhf/df_

qm=;+=

sDkgLsf] gfd

nufgL ldlt

/sd ?=

s'n
ldlt

clws[t b:tvt

129

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= ()^(
laifoM Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf k]z ug'{ kg]{ tYof ljj/0f ;DjGwL Joj:yf .
b]zsf] cfly{s, df}lb|s l:ylt Pj+ ljQLo ultljlwsf] d"Nofg Pj+ ljZn]if0f ug'{sf ;fy} Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfsf] u}/ :ynut ;'k/Lj]If0f ug]{ ;Gbe{df a}+ls tyf ljQLo tYofsf] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf /xg] x'Fbf ;dod}
To:tf tYof ljj/0fx? ;xL Pj+ z'4 ?kdf pknAw u/fpg g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf &( n] lbPsf]
clwsf/ k|of]u u/L g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf k]z ug'{ kg]{ tYof ;DaGwL Joj:yf ;DaGwdf b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L
ul/Psf] 5 M
!=
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf ;+:yfx?n] cfkm\gf zfvfx?sf] ;d]t ;dli6ut -Consolidated)
?kdf tof/ u/L PsLs[t ?kdf lgb]{zg kmf=g+= (=!, (=@, (=#, (=# -s_, (=$, (=&, (=*, (=(, (=!%,
(=!^, (=!& / (=!* cg';f/sf ljj/0fx? dfl;s ?kdf, (=%, (=^, (=^=!, (=!), (=!! / (=!@
adf]lhdsf ljj/0fx? q}dfl;s ?kdf sf/f]jf/ ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq / (=!$ cg';f/sf]
ljj/0f q}dfl;s ?kdf sf/f]jf/ ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] #%| lbgleq o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf
lgodg ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
@=
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf a}+s / /fli6o:t/sf v ju{sf ljsf; a}+sx?n] cGt/ a}+s
sf/f]jf/ -Interbank transaction_ ;DaGwL lgb]{zg kmf=g+= (=!# adf]lhdsf] k|To]s lbgsf] sf/f]jf/
ljj/0f ;f]xL lbg sfof{no ;doleq o; ljefusf] Od]n 7]ufgf nrbkibor@nrb.org.np df k7fpg'
kg]{5 . sf/f]af/ gePdf ;d]t ;f]xL Joxf]/f pNn]v u/L k7fpg' kg]{5 .
#=
o; lgb]{zgdf pNn]v ul/Psf] ljj/0f afx]s o; a}+ssf] ;DalGwt zfvf sfof{nodf k7fpg' kg]{ ljj/0fx?
lgoldt ?kdf k7fpg' kg]{5 . ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfk"mn] k|of]u gug]{ k|s[ltsf sf/f]jf/x? ePdf ;+nUg
kmf/ddf sf/f]jf/ gePsf] egL pNn]v u/L k7fpg' kg]{5 .
$=
Ohfhtkqk|fKt 3 ju{sf n3'ljQ ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfkm\gf zfvfx?sf] ;d]t ;dli6ut
-Consolidated) ?kdf tof/ u/L PsLs[t ?kdf lgb]{zg kmf=g+= 3(=!, 3(=@ / 3(=& cg';f/sf
ljj/0fx? dfl;s ?kdf sf/f]jf/ ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] !% lbgleq, 3(=#, 3(=$, 3(=^, 3(=* / 3(=(
cg';f/sf ljj/0fx? q}dfl;s ?kdf sf/f]jf/ ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] ! dlxgfleq / 3(=% cg';f/sf]
ljj/0f q}dfl;s ?kdf sf/f]jf/ ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] #% lbgleq o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf
lgodg ljefu / n3'ljQ k|j4{g tyf ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
%=
o; lgb]{zg cg'?k Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] pNn]lvt ;dodf tYof gk7fPdf jf unt tYof
k7fPdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* / a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DjGwL k|rlnt sfg'g jdf]lhd
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] juL{s/0fsf] cfwf/df bzxhf/ ?k}ofFb]lv krf;xhf/ ?k}ofF;Dd hl/jfgf / cGo
sf/jfxL x'g]5 .
^=
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] o; a}+sdf tYof k7fpg] k|of]hgsf] nflu Pp6f 5'} kbflwsf/L tf]Sg' kg]{5 .
tYof ljj/0f k7fp+bf tf]lsPsf] kbflwsf/Lx?sf] gfd, kmf]g g+= / Od]n 7]ufgf ;d]t pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
tf]lsPsf ljj/0fx? oyf;dodf k|fKt gePdf ;DjlGwt kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{ pQ/bfoL agfO{ o; a}+sn] lbPsf]
lgb]{zg jdf]lhd sf/jfxL ug'{ kg]{5 .
&=
pk/f]Qm tYof+sx? o; a}+ssf]] lgDgfg';f/sf] Od]n 7]ufgfdf ;d]t On]S6f]lgs dfWodaf6 k7fpg' kg]{5 .
s ju{sf] nflu

ljefu
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
a}+s ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu
cg';Gwfg ljefu
v ju{sf] nflu
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu

Od]n 7]ufgf
bfistata@nrb.org.np
bsdoffsite@nrb.org.np
researchreportcb@nrb.org.np
bfistatb@nrb.org.np

130

fsidreportsdb@nrb.org.np

ljQLo ;+:yf ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu


cg';Gwfg ljefu
u ju{sf] nflu
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
ljQLo ;+:yf ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu
cg';Gwfg ljefu
3 ju{sf] nflu
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
n3'ljQ k|j4{g tyf ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu

researchreportdb@nrb.org.np
bfistatc@nrb.org.np
fsidreportsfc@nrb.org.np
researchreportfc@nrb.org.np
bfistatd@nrb.org.np
nrbmfd@nrb.org.np

;fy}, o; lgb]{zgdf pNn]v ePb]lv afx]s o; a}+ssf] cGo ljefusfof{nodf k7fpg' kg]{ ljj/0fx?
lgoldt ?kdf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
*=
pk/f]Qm tYof+sx? On]S6f]lgs dfWodaf6 k7fpFbf PS;]n l;6 dfkm{t k7fpg' kg]{5 . o; k|of]hgsf] nflu
o; a}+ssf] j]j;fO6df /flvPsf] PS;]n l;6 Reporting Format df ePsf kmf/dx? e/L ;f]xL adf]lhd
k7fpg' kg]{5 / gePsf kmf/fdx? 5'} PS;]n l;6df agfO{ k7fpg' kg]{5 . lgwf{l/t 9fFrfdf cfk"mv';L
s'g} yk36 ug{ kfOg] 5}g . tYof ljj/0f s, v / u ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] clgjfo{
?kdf ?= bz nfvdf (Rs. in million) / 3 ju{sf n3'ljQ ljsf; a}+sx?n] ?= xhf/df pNn]v u/L
k7fpg' kg]{5 . tYof ljj/0f g]kfnL efiffdf k7fpFbf clgjfo{ ?kdf bishall km06af6 k7fpg' kg]{5 .
o:tf] km06 o; a}+ssf] j]j;fO6 www.nrg.org.np af6 ;d]t 8fpgnf]8 ug{ ;lsg]5 .
(= n3' ljQ;xsf/Lu}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfsf] ;'kl/j]If0f ;DjGWfdf
o; a}+sjf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt 3 ju{sf n3'ljQ ;+:yfx?, ;Lldt a}ls sf/f]jf/ ug]{ ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?,
ljQLo dWo:ytf ;DjGwL sfo{ ug]{ u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?sf] lg/LIf0f tyf ;'kl/j]If0f sfo{ @)^& >fj0f !
b]lv n3' ljQ k|j4{g tyf ;'kl/j]If0f ljefun] ug]{ u/L tf]lsPsf] x'Fbf pQm ;+:yfx?n] ;DalGwt
;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k]z ug'{ kg]{ egL tf]lsPsf ljj/0fx? pQm ljefudf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
!)= vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;:yfx?n] g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf k]z ug'{ kg]{ tYof
ljj/0f ;DjGwL Joj:yf O=k|f= lgb]{zg g+= ()^* af6 hf/L ul/Psf] lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft
ldlt @)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_ pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

131

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=(=!


======================== lnld6]8
;DklQ / bfloTjsf] uf]Zjf/f lx;fj -dfl;s_
@) ===== ;fn =========== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f

-?=======_
!=
!=!
!=!=!
!=!=@
!=!=#=
!=!=$
!=@
!=#
!=$
!=%
!=^
!=&
!=&=!
!=&=@
!=&=#
!=&=$
!=&=%
!=&=^
!=&=&
!=*
!=(
!=!)
!=!!
@=
@=!
@=!=!
@=!=@
@=!=#
@=@
@=@=!
@=@=!=!
@=@=!=@
@=@=!=#
@=@=@
@=@=@=!
@=#
@=#=!
@=#=!=!
@=#=!=@
@=#=!=#
@=#=!=$
@=#=@
@=#=@=!
@=#=@=@
@=#=@=@
@=$
@=%
@=^
@=&
@=*

k'FhL tyf bfloTj


k'FhL tyf hu]8f sf]ifx?
r'Qmf k'FhL
;fwf/0f z]o/
gg\l/l8d]jn lk|km/]G; z]o/
l/l8d]jn lk|km/]G; z]o/
sGel6{jn lk|km/]G; z]o/
sn Og P8\efG;
k|:tfljt af]g; z]o/
;fwf/0f hu]8f
z]o/ lk|ldod
;+lrt gfkmfgf]S;fg (Retained Earning)
cGo hu]8f tyf sf]ifx?*
e}k/L cfpg] hu]8f
;DklQ k'gd"{Nofg sf]if
k'FhLut hu]8f sf]if
;+:yf ljsf; sf]if
ljz]if hu]8f sf]if
nfef+z ;dLs/0f sf]if
cGo :jtGq sf]if
k'FhL lkmtf{ hu]8f sf]if
;6xL 36a9 sf]if
nufgL ;dfof]hg sf]if
cGo sf]if
;fk6L
g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 ;fk6L
k'g/shf{
l/kf]] shf{
g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 k|fKt cGo ;fk6L
cGt/a}+s ;fk6L
:jb]zL d'b|f
s ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt;+:yfaf6
v ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfaf6
u ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfaf6
ljb]zL d'b|f
s ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt;+:yfaf6
cGo ;fk6L
:jb]zL d'b|f
s ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt;+:yfaf6
v ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfaf6
u ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfaf6
cGo ljQLo ;+:yf
ljb]zL d'b|f
s ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt;+:yfaf6
ljb]zL a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf
cGo ljQLo ;+:yf
C0fkq tyf a08
o'jf:j/f]huf/ sf]if
ul/aL lgjf/0f sf]if
u|fdL0f :jfjnDag sf]if
cGo sf]if

lgIf]k

#=!
#=!=!
#=!=!=!
#=!=!=!=!

rNtL
:jb]zL d'b|fdf
;+:yfut
s ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?

/sd

;DklQ
!=
!=!
!=@
!=@=!
!=@=@
@=
@=!
@=!=!
@=!=@
@=!=#
@=!=$
@=!=%
@=@
@=@=!
@=@=@
@=@=#
@=@=$
@=@=%
@=@=^
@=@=^=!
@=@=^=@
#=
#=!
#=!=!
#=!=@
#=!=#
#=!=$
#=@
#=@=!
#=@=@
#=@=#
#=@=$
#=@=%
#=@=^
#=@=^=!
#=@=^=@
$=
$=!
$=!=!
$=!=@
$=!=#
$=!=$
$=!=%
$=@
$=#
$=$
$=%
$=^
%=
%=!
%=!=!
%=!=@
%=!=#
%=!=$
%=!=%

132

gub df}Hbft
:jb]zL d'b|f -l;Ssf ;d]t_
ljb]zL d'b|f
ef/tLo d'b|f
cGo ljb]zL d'b|f
a}+s df}Hbft
:jb]zL d'b|f
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf
s ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
v ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
u ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
cGo ljQLo ;+:yfdf
ljb]zL d'b|f
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf
s ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
v ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
u ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
cGo ljQLo ;+:yfdf
ljb]zL a}+sdf
ef/tdf
cGo ljb]zL d'n'sdf
dfu]sf avt k|fKt x'g] /sd
:jb]zL d'b|f
s ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
v ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
u ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
cGo ljQLo ;+:yfdf
ljb]zL d'b|f
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf
s ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
v ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
u ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
cGo ljQLo ;+:yfdf
ljb]zL a}+sdf
ef/tdf
cGo ljb]zL d'n'sdf
C0fkqdf nufgL
g]kfn ;/sf/
6]h/L ljn
ljsf; C0fkq
/fli6o art kq
ljz]if C0f kq
l/e;{ l/kf]
g]=/f=a}+s C0f kq
3 ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfsf] C0fkq
;/sf/L u}/ ljQLo ;+:yf
cGo u}/ ljQLo ;+:yf
u}/ cfjf;Lo If]q (Non-Resident)
z]o/ tyf cGo nufgL
z]o/df nufgL
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
v ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?

/sd

#=!=!=!=@
#=!=!=!=#
#=!=!=!=$
#=!=!=!=%
#=!=!=!=^
#=!=!=!=&
#=!=!=!=*
#=!=!=!=(
#=!=!=!=!)
#=!=!=!=!!
#=!=!=!=!@
#=!=!=!=!#
#=!=!=!=!$
#=!=!=!=!%
#=!=!=!=!^
#=!=!=!=!&
#=!=!=!=!*
#=!=!=!=!(
#=!=!=!=@)
#=!=!=!=@!
#=!=!=!=@@
#=!=!=@
#=!=!=@=!
#=!=!=@=@
#=!=@
#=!=@=!
#=!=@=!=!
#=!=@=!=@
#=!=@=!=#
#=!=@=!=$
#=!=@=!=%
#=!=@=!=^
#=!=@=!=&
#=!=@=!=*
#=!=@=@
#=!=@=@=!
#=!=@=@=@
#=@
#=@=!
#=@=!=!
#=@=!=!=!
#=@=!=!=@
#=@=!=!=#
#=@=!=!=$
#=@=!=!=%
#=@=!=!=^
#=@=!=!=&
#=@=!=!=*
#=@=!=!=(
#=@=!=!=!)
#=@=!=!=!!
#=@=!=!=!@
#=@=!=!=!#
#=@=!=!=!$
#=@=!=!=!%
#=@=!=!=!^
#=@=!=!=!&
#=@=!=!=!*
#=@=!=!=!(
#=@=!=!=@)
#=@=!=!=@!
#=@=!=!=@@

v ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?
u ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?
3 ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?
art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?
u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?
sd{rf/L ;+ro sf]if
gful/s nufgL sf]if
k]G;g sf]if tyf aLdf sDkgLx?
cGo ljQLo ;+:yfx?
g]kfnL ;]gf
g]kfn k|x/L
;z:q k|x/L an
:yfgLo ;/sf/
cGo ;/sf/L lgsfo
u}/ ljQLo ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?
u}/ ljQLo lghL ;+:yfx?
cGo ;+:yfx?
ljb]zL a}+sx?
ljb]zL ;+:yfx?
cGo cfjf;Lo If]q
u}/cfjf;Lo If]q
JolQmut
cfjf;Lo
u}/cfjf;Lo
ljb]zL d'b|fdf
;+:yfut
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
v ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
cGo ;+:yfx?
ljb]zL a}+sx?
ljb]zL ;+:yfx?
cGo cfjf;Lo If]q
u}/cfjf;Lo If]q
JolQmut
cfjf;Lo
u}/cfjf;Lo
art
:jb]zL d'b|fdf
;+:yfut
s ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?
v ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?
u ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?
3 ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?
art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?
u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?
sd{rf/L ;+ro sf]if
gful/s nufgL sf]if
k]G;g sf]if tyf aLdf sDkgLx?
cGo ljQLo ;+:yfx?
g]kfnL ;]gf
g]kfn k|x/L
;z:q k|x/L an
:yfgLo ;/sf/
cGo ;/sf/L lgsfo
u}/ ljQLo ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?
u}/ ljQLo lghL ;+:yfx?
cGo ;+:yfx?
ljb]zL a}+sx?
ljb]zL ;+:yfx?
cGo cfjf;Lo If]q
u}/cfjf;Lo If]q

%=!=^
%=!=&
%=!=*
%=!=(
%=!=!)
%=!=!!
%=@
%=@=!
%=@=!=!
%=@=!=@
%=@=!=#
%=@=!=$
%=@=@
%=@=@=!
%=@=@=@
%=@=@=#
%=@=@=$
%=#
%=$
%=%
%=%=!
%=%=!=!
%=%=!=@
%=%=!=#
%=%=!=$
%=%=!=%
%=%=!=^
%=%=!=&
%=%=!=*
%=%=!=(
%=%=!=!)
%=%=@
%=%=@=!
%=%=@=@
%=%=@=#
%=%=@=$
%=%=@=%
%=%=@=^
%=%=@=&
%=%=@=*
%=%=@=(
%=%=@=!)
%=^
%=^=!
%=^=@
^=
^=!
^=!=!
^=!=!=!
^=!=!=@
^=!=!=#
^=!=!=$
^=!=!=%
^=!=!=^
^=!=!=&
^=!=!=*
^=!=!=(
^=!=!=!)
^=!=!=!!
^=!=@
^=!=@=!
^=@=!=@

133

k]G;g sf]if tyf jLdf ;+:yfx?


cGo ljQLo ;+:yfx?
u}/ ljQLo ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?
lghL u}/ ljQLo ;+:yfx?
hUuf tyf cfjf; ljsf; sDkgLx?
u}/ cfjf;Lo If]q
cGt/a}+s nufgL
:jb]zL d'b|fdf
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
v ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
ljb]zL d'b|fdf
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
v ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
d'2lt lgIf]kdf u/]sf] nufgL
;'g -ljlgdo of]Uo_
cGo nufgL
:jb]zL d'b|fdf
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
v ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?
k]G;g sf]if tyf jLdf ;+:yfx?
cGo ljQLo ;+:yfx?
u}/ ljQLo ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?
lghL u}/ ljQLo ;+:yfx?
u}/ cfjf;Lo If]q
ljb]zL d'b|fdf
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
v ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?
k]G;g sf]if tyf jLdf ;+:yfx?
cGo ljQLo ;+:yfx?
u}/ ljQLo ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?
lghL u}/ ljQLo ;+:yfx?
u}/ cfjf;Lo If]q
hUuf tyf cfjf; ljsf;
hUuf vl/b tyf ljsf;
cfjf; lgdf{0f
shf{ tyf ;fk6
;+:yfut
:jb]zL d'b|fdf
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
v ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
art tyf C0f ;xsf/L
k]G;g sf]if tyf aLdf sDkgLx?
cGo ljQLo ;+:yfx?
s]Gb|Lo ;/sf/
:yfgLo ;/sf/
u}/ ljQLo ;/sf/L ;+:yfgx?
lghL u}/ljQLo ;+:yf?
ljb]zL d'b|fdf
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
v ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?

#=@=!=@
#=@=!=@=!
#=@=!=@=@
#=@=@
#=@=@=!
#=@=@=!=!
#=@=@=!=@
#=@=@=!=#
#=@=@=!=$
#=@=@=!=%
#=@=@=!=^
#=@=@=!=&
#=@=@=!=*
#=@=@=@
#=@=@=@=!
#=@=@=@=@
#=#
#=#=!
#=#=!=!
#=#=!=!=!
#=#=!=!=@
#=#=!=!=#
#=#=!=!=$
#=#=!=!=%
#=#=!=!=^
#=#=!=!=&
#=#=!=!=*
#=#=!=!=(
#=#=!=!=!)
#=#=!=!=!!
#=#=!=!=!@
#=#=!=!=!#
#=#=!=!=!$
#=#=!=!=!%
#=#=!=!=!^
#=#=!=!=!&
#=#=!=!=!*
#=#=!=!=!(
#=#=!=!=@)
#=#=!=!=@!
#=#=!=!=@@
#=#=!=@
#=#=!=@=!
#=#=!=@=@
#=#=@
#=#=@=!
#=#=@=!=!
#=#=@=!=@
#=#=@=!=#
#=#=@=!=$
#=#=@=!=%
#=#=@=!=^
#=#=@=!=&
#=#=@=!=*
#=#=@=@
#=#=@=@=!
#=#=@=@=@
#=$
#=$=!
#=$=!=!
#=$=!=!=!
#=$=!=!=@

JolQmut
cfjf;Lo
u}/cfjf;Lo
ljb]zL d'b|fdf
;+:yfut
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
v ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
cGo ;+:yfx?
ljb]zL a}+sx?
ljb]zL ;+:yfx?
cGo cfjf;Lo If]q
u}/cfjf;Lo If]q
JolQmut
cfjf;Lo
u}/cfjf;Lo
d'2tL
:jb]zL d'b|fdf
;+:yfut
s ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?
v ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?
u ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?
3 ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?
art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?
u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?
sd{rf/L ;+ro sf]if
gful/s nufgL sf]if
k]G;g sf]if tyf aLdf sDkgLx?
cGo ljQLo ;+:yfx?
g]kfnL ;]gf
g]kfn k|x/L
;z:q k|x/L an
:yfgLo ;/sf/
cGo ;/sf/L lgsfo
u}/ ljQLo ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?
u}/ ljQLo lghL ;+:yfx?
cGo ;+:yfx?
ljb]zL a}+sx?
ljb]zL ;+:yfx?
cGo cfjf;Lo If]q
u}/cfjf;Lo If]q
JolQmut
cfjf;Lo
u}/cfjf;Lo
ljb]zL d'b|fdf
;+:yfut
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
v ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
cGo ;+:yfx?
ljb]zL a}+sx?
ljb]zL ;+:yfx?
cGo cfjf;Lo If]q
u}/cfjf;Lo If]q
JolQmut
cfjf;Lo
u}/cfjf;Lo
dfu]sf] avt lbg'kg]{ /sd
:jb]zL d'b|fdf
;+:yfut
s ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?
v ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?

^=@=!=#
u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
^=@=!=$
cGo ljQLo ;+:yfx?
^=@=!=%
u}/ljQLo ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?
^=@=!=%
lghL u}/ljQLo ;+:yfx?
^=@
JolQmut
^=@=!
:jb]zL d'b|f
^=@=@
ljb]zL d'b|f
^=#
u}/ cfjf;Lo If]q
^=#=!
:jb]zL d'b|f
^=#=@
ljb]zL d'b|f
^=$
o'jf :j/f]huf/ sf]if
&=
ljn vl/b
&=!
:jb]zL ljn vl/b
&=!=!
;+:yfut
&=!=@
JolQmut
&=@
ljb]zL ljn vl/b
&=@=!
ef/tdf e'QmfgL x'g]
&=!=!
;+:yfut
&=!=@
JolQmut
&=@=@
cGo d'n'sdf e'QmfgL x'g]
&=!=!
;+:yfut
&=!=@
JolQmut
&=#
cfoft ljn vl/b
*=
sn]S;gdf lnOPsf ljnx?df ;fk6
*=!
:jb]zL ljnsf] lwtf]df
*=@
ljb]zL ljnsf] lwtf]df
(=
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(=!
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c;'n ug{ afFsL Aofh
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nufgLdf
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!)=!=!=@=! :jb]zL d'b|fdf
!)=!=!=@=@
ljb]zL d'b|fdf
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shf{ ;fk6df
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;+:yfut
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:jb]zL d'b|fdf
!)=!=#=!=!=! 3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
!)=!=#=!=!=@ cGo ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
!)=!=#=!=!=% art tyf C0f ;xsf/L
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!)=!=#=!=!=!! lghL u}/ljQLo ;+:yf?
!)=!=#=!=@
ljb]zL d'b|fdf
!)=!=#=!=@=! Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
!)=!=#=!=@=@ cGo ljQLo ;+:yfx?
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!)=!=#=@
JolQmut
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:jb]zL d'b|f
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!)=!=#=#=!
:jb]zL d'b|f

134

#=$=!=!=# u ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?


#=$=!=!=$ 3 ju{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt;+:yfx?
#=$=!=!=% art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?
#=$=!=!=^ u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?
#=$=!=!=& sd{rf/L ;+ro sf]if
#=$=!=!=* gful/s nufgL sf]if
#=$=!=!=( k]G;g sf]if tyf aLdf sDkgLx?
#=$=!=!=!) cGo ljQLo ;+:yfx?
#=$=!=!=!! g]kfnL ;]gf
#=$=!=!=!@ g]kfn k|x/L
#=$=!=!=!# ;z:q k|x/L an
#=$=!=!=!$ :yfgLo ;/sf/
#=$=!=!=!% cGo ;/sf/L lgsfo
#=$=!=!=!^ u}/ ljQLo ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?
#=$=!=!=!& u}/ ljQLo lghL ;+:yfx?
#=$=!=!=!* cGo ;+:yfx?
#=$=!=!=!( ljb]zL a}+sx?
#=$=!=!=@) ljb]zL ;+:yfx?
#=$=!=!=@! cGo cfjf;Lo If]q
#=$=!=!=@@ u}/cfjf;Lo If]q
#=$=!=@
JolQmut
#=$=!=@=! cfjf;Lo
#=$=!=@=@ u}/cfjf;Lo
#=$=@
ljb]zL d'b|fdf
#=$=@=!
;+:yfut
#=$=@=!=! s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
#=$=@=!=@ v ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
#=$=@=!=# u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
#=$=@=!=$ cGo ;+:yfx?
#=$=@=!=% ljb]zL a}+sx?
#=$=@=!=^ ljb]zL ;+:yfx?
#=$=@=!=& cGo cfjf;Lo If]q
#=$=@=!=* u}/cfjf;Lo If]q
#=$=@=@
JolQmut
#=$=@=@=! cfjf;Lo
#=$=@=@=@ u}/cfjf;Lo
#=%=
;l6{lkms]6 ckm l8kf]lh6
#=%=!
;+:yfut
#=%=!=!
cfjf;Lo
#=%=!=@
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#=%=@
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dflh{g lx;fa
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#=^=@
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vhfGrLsf] hdfgt
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e'StfgL Dofb gf3]sf] d'2tL lgIf]k
#=(
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8f6
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e'QmfgL cfb]z (Pay order)
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u}/ cfj;Lo If]q
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ljb]zL d'b|f
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8f6

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ljb]zL d'b|f
o'jf :j/f]huf/ sf]if
cGo
d;nGb df}Hbft
sd{rf/L ;fk6Lk]ZsL
;08L 8]6;{
clu|d e'QmfgL
lSnol/ r]s
:jb]zL d'b|f
ljb]zL d'b|f
dfu{:y gub (Cash in Transit)
ljgf ;"rgf e'QmfgL lbOPsf 8f6
clu|d s/ e'QmfgL
Voflt
cGo
ckn]vg x'g afFsL vr{
k"j{ ;~rfng vr{
dh{/ vr{
cGo
u}/ a}+ls ;DklQ
lx;fj ldnfg
s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
zfvf sfof{no
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:jb]zL d'b|f
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cfjf;Lo
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!$=!=@
ljb]zL d'b|f
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!$=!=@=@ u}/ cfjf;Lo
!%=
gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fj
!%=!
ut dlxgf;Dds]f
!%=@
o; dlxgfsf]

135

$=@=!=!
$=@=!=@
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%=#
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%=(
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cfjf;Lo If]q
u}/ cfj;Lo If]q
e'QmfgL cfb]z
cfjf;Lo If]q
u}/ cfj;Lo If]q
cGo bfloTj tyf Joj:yfx?
;08L q]ml86;{
k]G;g tyf pkbfg sf]if
sd{rf/L ;+rosf]if
sd{rf/L sNof0fsf]if
sd{rf/L tflndsf]if
sd{rf/L af]g; Joj:yf
k|:tfljt tyf e'QmfgL lbg afFsL nfef+z
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shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
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ljz]if shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
k'g/;+/rgfk'g/tflnlss/0f shf{
sd;n shf{
z+sf:kb shf{
v/fa shf{
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%=!@
cGo ;DklQ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
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Aofh d'NtjL lx;fj
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kfls g;s]sf] cfDbfgL
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*=
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kmf/fdsf pkzLif{sx?df ePsf sf/f]jf/x? lglb{i6 :yfgdf clgjfo{ ?kdf b]vfO{ To;sf] hf]8 k|To]s pkzLif{s x'b} d"n zLif{s;Dd ug'{ kg]{5 .
jf;nft aflx/sf sf/f]af/ -;+efljt bfloTjx?_ M

!= sn]S;gdf /x]sf lanx?M

136

s= :jb]zL d'b|f
v= ljb]zL d'b|f
@= km/jf8{ PS:r]~h sG6fS6sf] af+sL bfloTjx
#= k|lttkqx? -dflh{g g36fO{ k"/f /sd_M
s= ^ dlxgfeGbf sd cjlwsf]
v= ^ dlxgfeGbf a9L cjlwsf]
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%= Dofb gfl3g;s]sf] Uof/]06L a08M
s= la8 a08
v= k/km/d]G; a08
^= k|Tofe"lt ;DjGwL k|ltj4tf (Underwriting commitment)
&= k'gM vl/b ug]{ zt{df laqmL u/]sf] shf{
*= clu|d e'QmfgL Uof/]06L (Advance Payment Guarantee)
(= ljQLo tyf cGo hdfgt (Financial and other Guarantee)
!)= ckl/jTo{ shf{ k|lta4tf (Irrevocable Loan Commitment)
!!cfos/ jfkt ;Defljt bfloTj (Contingent Liabilities on Income Tax)
!@= Acceptance, Endorsement ;lxt cGo ;j} k|sf/sf ;Defljt bfloTjx?
!#= k"gM l8:sfpG6 ul/Psf ljnx
!$= r'Qmf jf e'Qmfg x'g af+sL z]o/ nufgL
!%= e'QmfgLsf] nflu bfjL k/]sf] hdfgt
!^= ;+:yfpk/ bfjL k/]sf] t/ ;+:yfn] bfloTj :jLsf/ gu/]sf] ;Defljt bfloTjx?
--------------------------------------------------*
cGo hu]8f tyf sf]ifx? cGtu{t nufgLdf /x]sf] /sdnfO{ ;d]t v'nfpg' (Disclose) kg]{5 .
**
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?sf] gfd v'nfpg' kg]{5 . o;sf] nflu 5'} kmf/d k|of]u ug{ ;lsg]5 .
ljj/0f tof/ ug]{sf]
gfd
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ljj/0f k]z ug]{ clws[tsf]


gfd
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137

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=(=@

========================================== lnld6]8
gfkmf gf]S;fg lx;fj
@) ====== b]lv @) ========= ;Dd -dfl;s_

vr{

o; dlxgf ut dlxgf
;Ddsf] = ;Ddsf] =
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!=#
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Aofh cfDbfgL
shf{ ;fk6df
nufgLdf
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;'/If0fkq
ljb]zL C0fkq
g]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] C0fkq
l8a]~r/ tyf a08
Ph]G;L df}Hbftdf
dfu tyf cNk ;"rgfdf k|fKt x'g]
df}Hbftdf
!=% cGodf
@=
sld;g tyf l8isfp06
@=! ljn vl/b tyf l8isfp06
@=@ sldzg
@=# cGo
#=
;6xL 36a9 cfDbfgL
#=! ljlgdob/df ePsf] km/saf6
#=@ ljb]zL d'b|f sf/f]af/af6 -af afx]s_
$=
cGo ;~rfng cfDbfgL
%=
u}/ ;~rfng cfDbfgL
^=
hf]lvd ;DaGwL Joj:yfaf6 lkmtf{ cfDbfgL_
^=! ;fdfGo shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=@ ljz]if shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=@=! k'g/;+/rgfk'g/tflnlss/0f shf{
gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
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^=@=# z+sf:kb shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=@=$ v/fa shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=@=% Psn u|fxs ;Ldf gf3]sf] shf{sf]
gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=@=^ JolQmtu hdfgLt];|f]kIfsf] lwtf]df
k|jfx ePsf] shf{sf] yk gf]S;fgL
Joj:yf
^=# cltl/Qm shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
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^=^ nufgL ;dfof]hg sf]if lkmtf{
^=& cGo ;DklQsf] gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
&=
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c;fdfGo sf/f]jf/x?af6 ePsf]
cfDbfgL
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v'b gf]S;fg

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Aofh vr{
!=! lgIf]k bfloTjdf
!=!=! artdf
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!=!=@=# ^ dlxgfb]lv ! jif{;Ddsf] d'2ltdf
!=!=@=$ ! jif{eGbf dflysf] d'2ltdf
!=!=# dfu]sf] avt ltg'{kg]{ lgIf]kdf
!=!=$ ;l6{lkms]6 ckm l8kf]lh6df
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;+rfng vr{
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$=# d;nGb
$=$ O+wg
$=% cGo ;+rfng vr{
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;6xL 36a9 gf]S;fgL
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%=@ ljb]zL d'b|f sf/f]af/af6 -af afx]s_
^=
u}/ ;+rfng vr{
&=
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&=!=@=! k'g/;+/rgfk'g/tflnlss/0f shf{
gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
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&=!=@=$ v/fa shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
&=!=@=% Psn u|fxs ;Ldf gf3]sf] shf{sf] gf]S;fgL
Joj:yf
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ePsf] shf{sf] yk gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
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&=# nufgLdf ;Defljt gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
&=$ nufgL ;dfof]hg sf]if
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*=
c;'nL x'g g;Sg] shf{sf] ckn]vg
(=
c;fdfGo sf/f]jf/x?af6 ePsf] vr{
!)= sd{rf/L af]g; Joj:yf
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!@= v'b gfkmf

hDdf

hDdf

ljj/0f tof/ ug]{


b:tvt
M
gfd
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bhf{
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ldlt
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gf]6 M

-?=bz nfvdf_
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;Ddsf] = ;Ddsf] =

cfDbfgL

ljj/0f k]z ug]{ clws[t


b:tvt M
gfd
M
bhf{
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!_
@_

dfl;s ?kdf x|f; sL vr{ / cGo vr{ ;DjlGwt vr{ zLif{s cGtu{t ;dfj]z x'g' kg]{5 .
x/]s qodf; cGtsf] gfkmf gf]S;fg lx;fj tof/ ubf{ clgjfo{ ?kn] shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf nufot cGo gf]S;fgL
Joj:yfdf ePsf] yk jf 36 /sd oyfy{ lrq0f x'g] u/L n]vfg ug'{ kg]{5 .
#_ sd{rf/L jf]g; / cfos/sf] nflu pko'{Qm cg'dfg u/L a}+s Joj:yfkgn] ;DjlGwt cjlwx?df Joj:yf ug]{ tyf
n]vf+sg ug{' kg]{5 .

138

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=(=#


========================================== lnld6]8
If]qut -k|of]hg_ cg';f/sf] shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] ljj/0f -dfl;s_
@) ======== ;fn =============== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f

-?= bz nfvdf_
ut d;fGt;Ddsf] o; dlxgfdf o; dlxgfdf
afFsL
ljtl/t
c;"nL
;+Vof
;fFjf ;+Vof ;fFjf ;+Vof ;fFjf

qm;+=
!
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pBf]uIf]qx?
s[lif / jg ;DaGwL
cGgafnL
t/sf/L afnL
lrofskmL
;'lt{
;gkf6
cGo gub] afnL
kmnkm"n tyf k'ik v]tL
zLt e08f/0f
dnvfb tyf ls6gfzs
kz'kfngkz' awzfnf
k+IfL kfng
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cGo s[lif tyf s[lif hGo ;]jfx?
l;rfO{
ag
df5fkfng ;DaGwL
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wft' tyf wfp -kmnfd, l;;f OToflb_
sf]Onf
r'g9'f
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v/L
t]n tyf Uof; k|zf]rg (Extraction)
vfgL ;DaGwL cGo
s[lif, ag tyf k]okbfy{ pTkfbg ;DaGwL
vfB pTkfbg -Kofs ug]{, k|f];]l; ug]{_
s[lif, jg k}bfjf/ pTkfbg
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cGo
k]o kbfy{ -ljo/, dbL/f, ;f]8f OToflb_
dlb/fhGo
dlb/f/lxt
u}/vfB j:t' pTkfbg ;DaGwL
x:tsnf
a'gfO{ (Textile) pTkfbg Pj+ tof/L kf]zfs
sfuh tyf ;Da4 pTkfbg
5kfO tyf k|sfzg
cf}ifwL
k|zf]lwt t]n tyf sf]Onf pTkfbg
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5fnf
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cGo lgdf{0f ;fdu|L pTkfbg
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wft' cGo KnfG6Hof;n
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lgdf{0f
cfjf;Lo -3/fo;L k|of]hg_
u}/ cfjf;Lo -Jofkfl/s k|of]hg_
a[xt (Heavy) lgdf{0f -/fhdfu{, k'n OToflb_
ljB't, Uof; / kfgL
phf{
hnljB't

139

d;fGt;Dddf p7fpg
afFsL
;+Vof ;fFjf Aofh

efsf gf3]sf]
;+Vof ;fFjf Aofh

&=!=@
&=@
&=#
&=$
*
*=!
*=@
*=@=!
*=@=@
*=@=#
*=@=$
*=#
*=$
*=%
*=^
*=&
*=*
*=(
(
(=!
(=@
(=#
(=$
(=%
(=^
(=&
!)
!)=!
!)=@
!)=#
!)=$
!)=%
!)=^
!!
!!=!
!!=@
!!=#
!!=$
!!=%
!!=^
!!=&
!!=*
!!=(
!!=!!
!!=!@
!@
!@=!
!@=@
!@=#
!#
!#=!
!#=@
!#=#
!#=$
!#=%
!$
!$=!
!$=@
!$=#
!$=$
!$=%
!%
!^

gjLs/0fLo phf{
cGo ljB't ;]jf
UofF; tyf UofF; kfOk nfOg ;]jf
kfgL
wft'sf pTkfbgx?, d]l;g/L tyf On]S6f]lgs cf}hf/
tyf h8fg
h8fg ul/Psf (Fabricated) wft'sf ;fdfgx?
d]lzg cf}hf/
s[lif hGo
d]lzg/L lgdf{0f, t]n If]q, vfgL ;DaGwL
d]lzg/L clkm; Pj+ sDKo'l6 (Computing)
d]lzg/L cGo ;j}
ljB'tLo pks/0f
3/fo;L pks/0f Pj+ cGo vKg] ;fdfg
;+rf/ pks/0f
On]S6f]lgs kf6{k"hf{
lrlsT;f ;DaGwL pks/0f
h]g]/]6/x?
3 (Turbines)
oftfoft , e08f/ / ;+rf/
df]6/uf8L, kf6{k"hf tyf ;xfos ;fdu|Lx?
h]6af]6hn oftfoft
jfo'ofg tyf jfo'ofgsf] kf6{k"hf{
oftfoft ;DaGwL cGo pTkfbgx?
/]ndfu{ tyf ;8s ofqL cf];f/k;f/sf ;fwgx?
6s ;]jf tyf uf]bfd Joj:yf
cGo ;a} ;]jf
yf]s tyf v'b|f ljq]mtf
yf]s Jofkf/ vKg] ;fdfg
yf]s Jofkf/ gvKg] ;fdfg
Automotive Dealer/franchise

cGo v'b|f Jofkf/


cfoft Jofkf/
lgof{t Jofkf/
ljQ, jLdf tyf crn ;DklQ
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
v ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
art tyf C0f ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?
k]G;g sf]if tyf jLdf ;+:yfx?
cGo ljQLo ;+:yf
u}/ ljQLo ;/sf/L ;+:yfg
lghL u}/ ljQLo ;+:yfgx?
cGo nufgL ;+:yfx?
crn ;DklQ (Real Estate)
ko{6g ;]jf
6]ls, 6fen Ph]G;L, kj{tf/f]x0f, l/;f]6{, /fl6,
SoflDk cflb
xf]6n -cGo ;]jf ;d]t_
dgf]/+hg, l/lqmP;g, rnlrq
cGo ;]jfx?
lj1fkg ;]jf
Automotive ;]jf
cGo ;j} ;]jf sDkgLx?
c:ktfn, lSnlgs OToflb
lzIff ;]jf
pkef]Uo shf{
;'g, rfFbL
d'2lt /l;b
;'/If0f kq
q]ml86 sf8{
xfo/ kr]{h -JolQmut pkof]u shf{_
:yfgLo ;/sf/
cGo
hDdf

140

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=(=# -s_

============================================== a}+sljQLo ;+:yf


k|of]hg cg';f/sf] Productwise shf{ ;fk6sf] ljj/0f
@)==============dlxgf -dfl;s_
ut dlxgfsf]
km08]8
ggkm08]8
!=

@=

#=

$=

%=
^=

cfjlws shf{
-s_ cf}Bf]lus ;+:yf
-v_ Jofkfl/s ;+:yf
-u_ ;]jf Joj;fo ;+:yf
-3_ cGo
cf]e/8f6
-s_ cf}Bf]lus ;+:yf
-v_ Jofkfl/s ;+:yf
-u_ ;]jf Joj;fo ;+:yf
-3_ cGo
6i6 l/l;K6 shf{cfoft shf{
-s_ cf}Bf]lus ;+:yf
-v_ Jofkfl/s ;+:yf
-u_ ;]jf Joj;fo ;+:yf
-3_ cGo
l8df08 tyf cGo rfn" k'FhL shf{
-s_ cf}Bf]lus ;+:yf
-v_ Jofkfl/s ;+:yf
-u_ ;]jf Joj;fo ;+:yf
-3_ cGo
JolQmut cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ -?= ! s/f]8;Ddsf]_
l/on :6]6 shf{ ;fk6
-c_ cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ -?= ! s/f]8;Ddsf]
JolQmut cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ afx]s_
-cf_ Joj;flos ejg tyf cfjf;Lo ckf6{d]06
lgdf{0f shf{
-O_ lgdf{0f ;DkGg eO{ cfo cfh{g ug{ yfn]sf]
Jofkfl/s sDKn]S; shf{
-O{_ cGo l/on :6]6 shf{ -hUufhdLg vl/b tyf
Knl6+u shf{ ;d]t_
!= hUufhdLg vl/b tyf Knl6 shf{
@= s'g} k|of]hg gv'nfO{ hUuf, hldg lwtf] /fvL
k|jfx ePsf ?=%) nfv jf ;f] eGbf j9L /sdsf

Personal Loan, Mortgage Loan, Flexi


Loan k|s[ltsf shf{

&=

*=
(=
!)=
!!=

#= cGo
Dfflh{g k|s[ltsf] shf{
-s_ ! s/f]8eGbf j9L /sdsf] shf{
-v_ ?=%) nfvb]lv ?=! s/f]8;Ddsf shf{
-u_ ?=@% nfvb]lv ?=%) nfv;Ddsf] shf{
-3_ ?=@% nfveGbf sd /sdsf] shf{
xfo/kr{]h shf{
-s_ Jofkfl/s k|of]hg
-v_ JolQmut k|of]hg
ljkGg ju{ shf{
ljN; vl/b
cGo k|f]8S6x?
-s_ qm]l86 sf8{
-v_ z}lIfs shf{
-u_ ;fgf tyf demf}nf pBdL shf{
-3_ =======================================
-_ =======================================

s"n

141

s'n

o; dlxgfsf]
km08]8 ggkm08]8

-/sd ?=nfvdf_
s'n

k|li6s/0f M
!= cfjlws shf{ M
o; cGt/ut kg{] cfjlws shf{ (Term Loan) eGgfn] k'+hLut k|s[ltsf] vr{sf] nflu Ps jif{eGbf j9L cjlwsf] nflu
k|jfx ePsf] shf{nfO{ ;Demg' kb{5 . Ps jif{eGbf sd cjlwsf] cfjlws shf{ ePdf l8df08 tyf cGo rfn" k'FhL shf{
zLif{sdf hgfpg' kg{]5 . To;}u/L ls:tfjGbLdf jf Psd'i6 c;'n ug{] u/L k|jflxt s'g} klg cjlwsf] cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{,
l/on :6]6 shf{, xfo/kr{]h shf{ nufotsf cGo zLif{sdf kg{] u/L k|jflxt cfjlws shf{ o; cGt/ut ghgfO{ ;DjlGwt
zLif{sdf g} hgfpg' kg{]5 .
@= cf]e/8f6 shf{ M
cf]e/8f6 ;'ljwf pknJw u/fpg kfpg] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfgf JolQmut jf ;+:yfut u|fxsx?nfO{ cf]e/8f6
;Ldf k|bfg u/L jf rNtL lgIf]k vftfdf cf]e/8g ;'ljwf pknJw u/fO{ shf{ k|jfx u/L jSof}tf /x]sf] /sd o; zLif{sdf
hgfpg' kg{]5 .
#= 6i6 l/l;K6 shf{cfoft shf{ M
k|lttkq dfkm{t ;fdfg cfoft ug{] k|of]hgsf] nflu pknJw u/fOPsf] cfoft shf{nfO{ 6i6 l/l;K6 shf{sf] ?kdf hgfpg'
kg{]5 eg] o; zLif{s cGt/ut cfoftsf] nflu k|jfx ul/Psf] cGo shf{x? ePdf To:tf cGo cfoft shf{x?nfO{ ;d]t
;dfj]z u/L o;} zLif{s cGt/ut hgfpg' kg{]5 . t/, :jb]zL k|lttkqdf o; k|sf/sf] shf{ k|bfg ug{ kfO{g] 5}g .
$= l8df08 tyf cGo rfn" k'FhL shf{ M
l8df08 tyf cGo rfn" k'FhL shf{ cGt/ut Hypothecation, Working Capital, Short Term Loan, Demand Loan,
Time Loan, Cash Credit nufotsf cGo rfn" k'FhL k|s[ltsf ;a} shf{x? ;dfj]z x'g] 5g\ .
%= l/on :6]6 shf{ ;fk6 M
l/on :6]6sf] nflu k|jfx ul/Psf] shf{ ;fk6 eGgfn] lgDgfg';f/sf] shf{ ;fk6nfO{ ;Demg' kb{5 .
-c_ cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ -Residential Real Estate_
-cf_ Joj;flos ejg tyf cfjf;Lo ckf6{d]06 lgdf{0f shf{ -l/on :6]6 sDkgLnfO{ k|jfx ul/Psf] ax'cfjf;Lo ckf6{d]06 shf{ / JolQmut
cfjf; sf]nf]gL shf{_
-O lgdf{0f ;DkGg eO{ cfo cfh{g ug{ yfn]sf] Jofkfl/s sDKn]S; shf{ .
-O{_ cGo l/on :6]6 shf{ -hUufhdLg vl/b tyf Knl6+u shf{ ;d]t_
!= hUufhdLg vl/b tyf Knl6 shf{
@= s'g} k|of]hg gv'nfO{ hUuf, hldg lwtf] /fvL k|jfx ePsf ?=%) nfv jf ;f] eGbf j9L /sdsf Personal Loan, Mortgage
Loan, Flexi Loan k|s[ltsf shf{
#= cGo

^=

&=

*=

(=
!)=
!!=

t/, lgDglnlvt shf{nfO{ l/on :6]6 shf{ dflgg] 5}g .


hUuf ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0fdf ;+nUg g/x]sf Jofkfl/scf}Bf]lus kmd{sDkgLn] cfgf] lgoldt
Jofkfl/scf}Bf]lus shf{sf] nflu cGo ;'/If0fsf cltl/Qm 3/ hUuf lwtf] /fv]sf shf{x?,
?=! s/f]8;Ddsf JolQmut cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ .
cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ eGgfn] a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] u|fxssf] cfo>f]t x]/L ;f] >f]tn] kof{Kt wfGg] ls:tf sfod u/L 3/ lgdf{0f jf
vl/bsf] nflu k|jfx u/]sf] cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ -Residential Real Estate_ sf] jSof}tf /sdnfO{ ;Demg' kb{5 .
JolQmut cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ ;fk6 M
?= ! s/f]8;Ddsf JolQmut cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ eGgfn] a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] u|fxssf] cfo>f]t x]/L ;f] >f]tn] kof{Kt wfGg]
ls:tf sfod u/L pQm u|fxsn] cfkm} k|of]u ug]{ jf ef8fdf nufpg] u/L 3/ lgdf{0f, 3/ckf6{d]G6 vl/bsf] nflu k|jfx u/]sf]
cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ -Home Loan) sf] jSof}tf /sdnfO{ ;Demg' kb{5 .
dflh{g k|s[ltsf] shf{ ;fk6 M
s'g} klg JolQm jf ;+:yfnfO{ shf{ ;fk6 k|jfx ubf{ s'g} ;"rLs[t sDkgLsf] z]o/ jf l8j]~r/ ;'/If0fsf] ?kdf lwtf] lnO{ k|jfx
ePsf shf{nfO{ dflh{g k|s[ltsf] shf{ ;fk6sf] ?kdf lnOg] 5 . t/, cGo k|of]hgsf nflu k|jflxt shf{df yk jf cltl/Qm
;'/If0f:j?k ;"rLs[t sDkgLsf] z]o/ jf l8j]~r/ lwtf] /fv]sf] cj:yfdf To:tf] shf{nfO{ dflh{g k|s[ltsf] shf{ dflgg] 5}g .
xfo/kr{]h shf{ M
o; cGt/ut Jofkfl/s lx;fjn] ef8fdf ;+rfng ug{] u/L jf k|of]u ug{] u/fpg] u/L s'g} ;jf/L ;fwg jf ;fdfg vl/b ug{
k|jfx ul/Psf] shf{nfO{ xfo/kr{]h shf{ cGt/utsf] Jofkfl/s k|of]hgdf hgfpg' kg{]5 eg] clGtd k|of]ustf{ (End User)
cfkm}n] k|of]u ug{] u/L ;jf/L ;fwg jf ;fdfg vl/b ug{ ljQLo ;'ljwf pknJw u/fO{ jSof}tf /x]sf] /sd JolQmut xfo/kr{]h
shf{ cGt/ut hgfpg' kg{]5 . xfo/ kr]{h k|s[ltsf t/ cGo k|f]8S6 -h:t}M Auto Loan, Vehicle Loan cflb_ cGtu{t k|jfx
ePsf shf{ ;d]t o; zLif{sdf ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
ljkGg ju{ shf{ M
g]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] lgb{]zgsf] clwgdf /xL k|jfx ug{' kg{] lgb{]lzt ljkGg ju{ shf{sf] jSof}tf /sd o; zLif{sdf hgfpg' kb{5
ljN; vl/b M
a}+s ljQLo ;+:yfn] vl/b u/L lnPsf] r]s, 8f6, lgof{t ljnsf] jSof}tf /sd o; zLif{sdf hgfpg' kb{5 .
cGo k|f]8S6x? M
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] k|of]udf NofPsf dfly pNn]v ePb]lv jfx]ssf cGo k|f]8S6x? ePdf o; zLif{s cGt/ut pNn]v ub{}
hfg' kg{]5 . o;/L pk/f]Qm ! b]lv o; zLif{s;Ddsf] ;Dk"0f{ /sdsf] s'n of]u a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;f] ldltsf] s'n shf{ ;fk6
/sd;+u d]n vfg' kg]{5 .

142

!@= cf}Bf]lus ;+:yf M


s'g} klg j:t' pTkfbg ug{], cyf{t sRrf kbfy{ jf cw{tof/L ;fdfgsf] k|of]ujf6 lglZrt dfgjd]lzg/Lsf] k|of]u u/L d"No
clej[l4 u/fO{ tof/L j:t' pTkfbg ug{] vfnsf ;+:yfnfO{ uPsf] shf{ ;fk6nfO{ o; pkzLif{sdf hgfpg' k5{ . h:tf] M l:6n
pBf]u, l;d]06 pBf]u, ljh'nL pTkfbg, h'6 pBf]u, jfo/ pBf]u, sfk{]6 pBf]u, ufd{]06 pBf]u cflb .
!#= Jofkfl/s ;+:yf M
s'g} yk k|f];]l;+u gu/L tof/L ;fdfg vl/bljqmL ug{] Joj;flos ;+:yfnfO{ uPsf shf{x?sf] aSof}tf /sd o; pkzLif{s
cGt/ut hgfpg' kg{]5 . h:t}M /fli6o Jofkf/ lgud, ;fN6 6]l8 ln=, hg/n 6]l8+u cflb .
!$= ;]jf Joj;fo ;+:yf M
s'g} klg j:t' pTkfbg ug{] jf vl/b ljqmL ug{] geO{ u|fxsnfO{ ;]jf k|bfg ug{] clek|fon] :yflkt ;+:yfnfO{ uPsf] shf{
;fk6nfO{ o; pkzLif{s cGt/ut hgfpg' kg{]5 . o:tf ;+:yf gfkmfd'vL jf k/f]ksf/L ;+:yf b'a} x'g ;Sg]5g\ . h:t}M b"/ ;+rf/,
s"nsn]h, gl;{ xf]d, xl:k6n, xf]6n cflb .

143

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=(=$

==========================================

lnld6]8
;'/If0f cg';f/sf] shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] ljj/0f -dfl;s_
@) ========== ;fn ================ dlxgfsf] ljj/0f

-?= nfvdf_

;'/If0f
!
@
#
$
$=!
$=@
%
%=!
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5

%=@
%=@=!
5.2.2.1
5.2.2.2
5.2.2.3

%=@=@
5.2.2.1
5.2.2.2
5.2.2.3
5.2.2.4
5.2.2.5
5.2.2.6

^
^=!
^=@
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4

&
&=!

ut d;fGtsf] o; dlxgfdf o; dlxgfdf d;fGt;Dddf


efsf gf3]sf]
afFsL
ljtl/t
c;"nL
p7fpg afFsL
;+Vof ;fFjf ;+Vof ;fFjf ;+Vof ;fFjf ;+Vof ;fFjf Aofh ;+Vof ;fFjf Aofh

;'g rfFbL
;/sf/L ;'/If0f kqx?
u}/ ;/sf/L ;'/If0f kqx?
d'2lt /l;b
cfg} ;+:yfsf]
cGo Ohfht kq k|fKt
;+:yfsf]
;DklQsf] ;'/If0f
:yL/ ;DklQ
3/hUuf
d]lzg/L tyf pks/0fx?
kmlg{r/ tyf lkmS;r/
;jf/L ;fwgx?
cGo :yL/ ;DklQx?
rfn" ;DklQ
s[lif k}bfjf/
wfg rfdn
;g x}l;ot
cGo s[lif k}bfjf/
cGou}/ s[lif k}bfjf/
sRrf kbfy{
cw{ tof/L a:t'x?
tof/L a:t'x?
g"g, lrgL, o", t]n
sk8f
cGo j:t'x?
ljnx?sf] ;'/If0fdf
:jb]zL ljn
ljb]zL ljn
cfoft ljn / k|ltt kq
lgof{t ljn
lgof{t ljnsf] lwtf]df
cGo ljb]zL ljn
hdfgtdf k|jflxt
;/sf/L hdfgL

144

&=@
&=#
&=$
&=%
&=^
*
(

;+:yfut hdfgL
JolQmut hdfgL
;fd"lxs hdfgL
cGt//fli6o >]0fLs[t
ljb]zL a}+ssf] hdfgtdf
cGo hdfgtdf
qm]l86 8]lj6 sf8{
cGo
hDdf

ljj/0f tof/ ug]{


b:tvt
gfd
bhf{
ldlt

M
M
M
M
M

ljj/0f k]z
b:tvt
gfd
bhf{
ldlt

145

ug]{ clws[t
M
M
M
M

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=(=%

========================================== lnld6]8
ljkGg ju{ shf{ ljj/0f -q}dfl;s_
@) ========== ;fn ================ dlxgfsf] ljj/0f
l;=g+=
!=
@=

#=

gf]6M

shf{ zLif{s

ut qodf;sf]
afFsL
;+Vof ;fFjf

o; qodf;df
ljtl/t
;+Vof ;fFjf

o; qodf;df
c;"nL
;+Vof ;fFjf

-?= nfvdf_

o; qodf;;Dddf p7fpg
afFsL
;+Vof ;fFjf Aofh

efsf gf3]sf]
;+Vof

;fFjf

Aofh

s'n shf{ ;fk6 -ljN; vl/b


tyf l8:sfp06 ;d]t_
ljkGg ju{ shf{
-s_ k|ToIf nufgL
! s[lif
@ 3/]n' pBf]u
# ;]jf
$= cGo
-v_ ck|ToIf nufgL
-c_ ;+:yfut nufgL yf]s
shf{_
!=
@=
-cf_ z]o/ nufgL
o'jf :j/f]huf/ shf{
hDdf
^ dlxgf cl3sf] s'n afFsL
shf{
^ dlxgf cl3sf] s'n afFsL
shf{;+usf] cg'kft
ck|ToIf nufgL cGtu{t ;+:yfut nufgL -Wholesale Lending_ / z]o/ nufgLsf] /sd 5'f5'} pNn]v ug'{ kb{5 .

ljj/0f tof/ ug]{


b:tvt M
gfd
M
bhf{
M
ldlt
M

ljj/0f k]z
b:tvt
gfd
bhf{
ldlt

146

ug]{ clws[t
M
M
M
M

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=(=^

================================lnld6]8
;+rfnssfo{sf/L k|d'v;+:yfkssd{rf/L tyf z]o/xf]N8/xnfO{ uPsf] shf{ ;fk6 ljj/0f -q}dfl;s_
- @) ;fn
dlxgfsf] ljj/0f_
vl/b tyf l*:sfpG^ ul/Psf lanx / shf{, ;fk^ tyf clwljsif{df k|jflxt s"n /sddWo] ;~rfns,
sfo{sf/L k|d'v, ;+:yfks, sd{rf/L, 1 k|ltzt eGbf a(L z]o/ lng] z]o/ xf]N*/x? / lghxsf] Psf#/
kl/jf/sf JolQm jf To:tf JolQm hdfgL a;]sf] jf Dofg]lh+u Ph]G^ ePsf] s'g} ;+:yf jf sDkgLnfO{ uPsf]
/sdsf] ljj/)f b]xfo adf]lhd % .

-?= nfvdf_

;+:yfks;~rfns
sfo{sf/L
k|d"vsf] gfd
-s_

-v_

-u_

-#_

-_

ut qodf;;Ddsf]
af+sL
Aofh
;fjf+

o; qodf;df c;'nL
;fjf+

Aofh

o; qodf;;Dd af+sL
;fjf+

Aofh

;~rfns
1=
2=
sfo{sf/L k|dv
'
1=
2=
;+:yfks
1=
2=
sd{rf/L
1=
2=
z]o/xf]N*/x?
1=
2=
hDdf

ljj/0f tof/ ug]{


b:tvt M
gfd
M
bhf{
M
ldlt
M

ljj/0f k]z
b:tvt
gfd
bhf{
ldlt

147

ug]{ clws[t
M
M
M
M

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=9=6=1


============================================== lnld^]*
;+:yfks;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf
lwtf] /fvL lnPsf] shf{ ljj/)f -q}dfl;s_
-20
;fn
dlxgfsf] ljj/)f_

qm=;+=

;+:yfks
z]o/wgLsf]
gfd

:jfldTjdf
/x]sf] z]o/
;+Vof

r'Qmfk'FhLsf]
k|ltzt

shf{sf] lwtf]df
/x]sf] z]o/
;+Vof

s"n ;+:yfks z]o/ ;+Vof


ljj/0f tof/ ug]{
b:tvt M
gfd
M
bhf{
M
ldlt
M

shf{ ljj/0f
shf{
/sd

shf{ k|jfx
ug]{ ;+:yfsf]
gfd

lwtf]df
/x]sf]
z]o/
-% df_

ljj/0f k]z ug]{ clws[t


b:tvt M
gfd
M
bhf{
M
ldlt
M

s}lkmot

b|i6JoM
1. Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf ;+:yfks z]o/wgLn] pkef]u u/]sf] shf{ ;DjGwdf hfgsf/L lng shf{ k|jfx ug]{ ;+:yfn] z]o/
/f]Ssfsf] nflu ;DjlGwt ;+:yfdf n]vL k7fp+bf clgjfo{?kdf shf{ /sd ;d]t pNn]v u/L k7fpg' kg]{ / /f]Ssf /fVg] ;+:yfn]
;f]sf] ljj/0f cBfjlws ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fy}, z]o/ lwtf] km's'jfsf] hfgsf/L ;d]t & lbgleqdf ;DalGwt ;+:yfnfO{ pknAw
u/fpg' kg]{5 .
2. z]o/ /lhi6];g nufotsf sfo{ dr]{G6 a}+ls+u ;DaGwL sf/f]af/ ug]{ ;+:yfaf6 u/fOPsf] ePdf ;d]t Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf
;+rfns jf ;+:yfksx?n] k|rlnt gLltut Joj:yf adf]lhd z]o/ lwtf] /fvL lnPsf] shf{sf] clen]v ;DjlGwt ;+:yfn] ;d]t
/fVg' kg]{5 .

148

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=(=&


================================= lnld6]8
;/sf/L ;+:yfgx?nfO{ uPsf] shf{sf] ljj/0f -dfl;s_
@) ======= ;fn ============= dlxgfsf] ljj/0f
;+:yfgsf] gfd

ut
shf{
d;fGt;Ddsf]
sf]
afFsL
p2]Zo
;+Vof ;fFjf

o; dlxgfdf
ljtl/t
;+Vof

o; dlxgfdf
c;'nL

d;fGt;Dddf
p7fpg afFsL

-?= nfvdf_
efsf gf3]sf]

;fFjf ;+Vof ;fFjf ;+Vof ;fFjf Aofh ;+Vof ;fFjf Aofh

!=

cf}Bf]lus
;+:yfgx?
-s_
-v_
-u_
-3_
-_
@= Jofkfl/s
;+:yfgx?
-s_
-v_
-u_
-3_
-_
#= ljQLo
;+:yfx?
-s_
-v_
-u_
-3_
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$= ;]jf ;DaGwL
;+:yfgx?
-s_
-v_
-u_
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%= cGo ;/sf/L
;+:yfgx?
-s_
-v_
-u_
-3_
-_
hDdf
ljj/0f tof/ ug]{ M
b:tvt
M
gfd
M
bhf{
M
ldlt
M

ljj/0f k]z
b:tvt
gfd
bhf{
ldlt

149

ug]{ clws[t
M
M
M
M

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=(=*

=============== lnld6]8
lgIf]ksf] ljj/0f -dfl;s_
@) ===== ;fn ======== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f

vftfjfnfsf] ljj/0f

-!_

-s_
!=
!=!

!=@
!=#
!=$
!=$=!
!=$=@
!=%
!=^
!=&
!=*
!=*=!
!=*=@
!=(
!=(=!
!=(=@
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!=!)=!
!=!)=@
@=
#=
#=!
#=!=!

#=!=@
#=!=#
#=!=$
#=!=%
#=!=^
#=!=&
#=@
#=@=!
#=@=@
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#=#=!
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#=$
#=$=!
#=$=@
#=$=#
#=$=$
#=$=%

-?=nfvdf_

;l6{lkms]6
hDdf
dfu]sf] avt
ckm
dflh{g cGo -!_ b]lv
rNtL art d'2lt
lbg' kg]{ /sd
l8kf]lh6
-&_ ;Dd
-@_

:jb]zL d'b|fdf vf]lnPsf] vftf


ljb]zL ;+3 ;+:yf tyf JolQm
ljb]zL s'6g}lts / ;xfos lgof]ux?
ljb]zL ;/sf/af6 ;+rflnt cfof]hgfx?
cGt/f{li6o ;+:yfx? (UNO nufotsf_
cGo u}/ ;/sf/L ljb]zL ;+:yfx?
cfjf;Lo
u}/ cfjf;Lo
ljb]zL a}+sx?
cGo ljQLo ;+:yfx?
ljb]zL Po/nfOG;x?
ljb]zL ;/sf/sf] k]G;g SofDkx?
ef/tLo ;/sf/
la|l6; ;/sf/
ljb]zL gful/sx?
cfjf;Lo
u}/ cfjf;Lo
cGo
cfjf;Lo
u}/ cfjf;Lo
gu/kflnsf ,uf=lj=;=tyf lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltx?
ljQLo ;+:yfx?
lgIf]k :jLsf/ ug]{ ljQLo ;+:yfx?
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx? -s[=lj= a}+ssf]
jfl0fHo a}+ls sf/f]af/ ug]{ ;d]t_
v ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
;xsf/L ;+:yfx? -;Lldt a}+ls sf/f]af/ ug]{_
u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx? -;Lldt a}+ls sf/f]af/ ug]{_
x'nfs;]jf ljefuf/f ;+rflnt x'nfs art a}+sx?
-art lgIf]k dfq_
cGo ljQLo ;+:yfx?
g]kfn cf}Bf]lus ljsf; lgud
s[lif ljsf; a}+s -jfl0fHo a}+ls sf/f]af/ ug]{ afx]s_
lgIf]k :jLsf/ gug]{ ljQLo ;+:yfx?
jLdf ;+:yf tyf sDkgLx?
sd{rf/L ;+rosf]if
gful/s nufgL sf]if
======================
cGo ;xfos ljQLo OsfOx?
u|fdL0f :jfjnDag sf]if
dgL r]Gh/
lwtf]kq bnfn
lwtf]kq vl/b ljqmL s]Gb|
======================

150

-#_

-$_

-%_

-^_

-&_

-*_

$=
u}/ ljQLo ;+:yfx?
$=!
;/sf/L ;+:yf tyf sDkgLx?
$=!=!
cf}Bf]lus
$=!=@
Jofkfl/s
$=!=#
cGo
$=@
u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf tyf sDkgLx?
$=@=! cf}Bf]lus
$=@=@ Jofkfl/s
$=@=#
cGo
%=
d'gfkmf sdfpg] p2]Zo gePsf ;+:yfx?
%=!
ljBfno, dxfljBfno
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xl:k6n, gl;{ xf]d
%=#
cGo
%=#=!
cfjf;Lo
%=#=@
u}/ cfjf;Lo
^=
JolQmut
^=!
cfjf;Lo
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u}/ cfjf;Lo
&=
cGo
&=!
cfjf;Lo
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*=
vhf~rLsf] hdfgt
:jb]zL d'b|fdf vf]lnPsf] lgIf]ksf] hDdf -!*_
-v_
ljb]zL d'b|fdf vf]lnPsf] vftf
!=
ljb]zL ;+3 ;+:yf tyf JolQm
!=!
ljb]zL s'6g}lts / ;xfos lgof]ux?
!=@
ljb]zL ;/sf/af6 ;+rflnt cfof]hgfx?
!=#
cGt/f{li6o ;+:yfx? (UNO nufotsf_
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cGo u}/ ;/sf/L ljb]zL ;+:yfx?
!=$=!
cfjf;Lo
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ljb]zL a}+sx?
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cGo ljQLo ;+:yfx?
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ljb]zL Po/nfOG;x?
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ljb]zL ;/sf/sf] k]G;g SofDkx?
!=*=!
ef/tLo ;/sf/
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ljb]zL gful/sx?
!=(=!
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:jb]zL ;+3;+:yf tyf sDkgLx?
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s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?
@=@
cGo cfjf;Lo If]q
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u}x| cfjf;Lo If]q
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#=!
cfjf;Lo
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u}/ cfjf;Lo

ljb]zL d'b|fdf vf]lnPsf] lgIf]ksf] hDdf -! #_


hDdf /sd -s_ -v_
hDdf vftf ;+Vof

ljj/0f tof/ ug]{sf]


gfd
M
bhf{
M
b:tvt
M
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ljj/0f k]z
gfd
bhf{
b:tvt
ldlt

151

ug]{ clws[tsf]
M
M
M

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=(=(


======================================= lnld6]8
a}b]lzs ;DklQsf] ljj/0f -dfl;s_
@) ======== ;fn =============== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f
gub
ljb]zL
d'b|f
df}Hbft

ljb]zL
a}+s
df}Hbft

:jb]zL a}+s ljQLo


;+:yf df}Hbft

a}sljQLo ;+:YffnfO{
;fk6L

dfu]sf] avt k|fKt x'g]


/sd
=

g]=/f=a}+ s v u s v u
s v u
s ju{{ ju{ ju{ ju{{ ju{ ju{ ljb]z ju{{ ju{ ju{

!
@
#
$
%
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hDdf

vl/b/e' ljb]zL ljb] ;df;f]wg


n]]
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ul/Psf] 6]h/L a08 b]vfPsf]
8]lj6
ljb]zL
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cGo

ljb]z

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b|Z6Jo M pko'{Qm ljb]zL ;DklQ ljj/0fx?nfO{ kmf/d g+= (=! sf


;DklQ tkm{ b]xfosf ;DjlGwt zLif{sx?df qmdzM k|ljli6 ug'{ kg]{5 .
!=@=!
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ljj/0f tof/ ug]{ M


b:tvt M
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ljj/0f k]z ug]{ clws[tM


b:tvt M
gfd M

152

$=^

$=
^

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%=@=@=
!)

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=(=!)

======================== lnld6]8
7'nf lgIf]kstf{sf] ljj/0f -q}dfl;s_
@) ======= ;fn ======== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f

-?=bz nfvdf_
qm=;+=

lgIf]kstf{sf] gfd

vftfsf] k|sf/

lgIf]k /sd

Jofh b/

s}lkmot

@) 7"nf k|fs[lts lgIf]kstf{sf] ljj/0f

hDdf -s_
@) 7"nf ;+:yfut lgIf]kstf{sf] ljj/0f

hDdf -v_
s / v sf] hDdf
ljj/0f tof/ ug]{ M
b:tvt
M
gfd
M
bhf{
M

ljj/0f k]z
b:tvt
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153

ug]{ clws[t M
M
M
M

======================== lnld6]8
7"nf C0fLx?;Fu p7fpg afFsL shf{sf] ljj/0f -q}dfl;s_
@) ======= ;fn ======== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f

nufgLdf /lx/x]sf] s"n /sd


k|jflxt
p7fpg afFsL
s"n
shf{sf]
p7fpg
afF
s
L
/sd dWo]
shf{{
p2]Zo
s"
n
shf{
/sd
efsf
gf3]sf]
tyf
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/sd
;'ljwf
;fFjf Aofh ;fFjf Aofh

C0fLsf] gfd

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=(=!!

-?=nfvdf_
;'ljwf -ckm Jofn]lG;6 sf/f]af/_

sf/f]af/
sf]
lsl;d

:jLs[t
;Ldf

;'ljwf
sf]
cjlw

pkof]u
ePsf]
/sd

hDdf
b|i6JoM

!=
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7"nf C0fLx? eGgfn] s ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] xsdf ?= % s/f]8 / cGo Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] xsdf ?= %)
nfv jf ;f] eGbf a9L shf{ lnPsf] C0fLnfO{ hgfpFb5 .
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ljleGg sDkgLx?n] pkof]u u/]sf] shf{nfO{ 5'f5'} -;Ldf ggf3] klg_ o; ljj/0fdf b]vfpg' kg]{5 .

ljj/0f tof/
b:tvt
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ug]{
M
M
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ljj/0f k]z ug]{ clws[t


b:tvt
M
gfd
M
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154

======================== lnld6]8
cjlw cg';f/ efsf gf3]sf] shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] ljj/0f -q}dfl;s_
@) ======= ;fn ======== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=(=!@

-?=bz nfvdf_
c;n shf{
k'g/;+/rgf
tyf
# dlxgf;Dd
efsf ggf3]sf]
efsf gf3]sf] k'g/tflnls
s/0f
shf{
shf{
shf{
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/sd
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;+Vof
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shf{ If]q

!=
@=
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lgl:s|o shf{
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^ dlxgfb]lv ! ! jif{eGbf a9L


jif{ ;Dd efsf cjlwn] efsf
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shf{
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s[lif / jg ;DaGwL
df5fkfng ;DaGwL
vfgL ;DaGwL
s[lif, jg tyf k]o kbfy{
pTkfbg ;DaGwL
u}/vfB j:t' pTkfbg
;DaGwL
lgdf{0f
ljB't,UofF; tyf kfgL
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tyf On]S6f]lgs cf}hf/
tyf h8fg
oftfoft, e+8f/ / ;+rf/
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ljQ, jLdf tyf crn
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hDdf
ljj/0f tof/ ug]{ M
b:tvt
M
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M
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M

ljj/0f k]z
b:tvt
gfd
bhf{

ug]{ clws[t
M
M
M
g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= (=!#

============================= lnld6]8
cGt/ a}+s sf/f]jf/ ljj/0f -b}lgs_
sf/f]jf/ ldlt sf/f]jf/ ePsf] a}+ssf]
gfd

;fk6L
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nufgL

(Lending)

Aofhb/

?=xhf/df

cjlw

hDdf /sd
tof/ ug]{

k]z ug]{

155

s}lkmot

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= (=!$


============================= lnld6]8
q}dfl;s ljQLo ljj/0f
qm=;+=
1=
1=1
1=2
1=3
1=4
1=5

1=6
1=7

2=
2=1
2=2
2=3
2=4

ljj/0f
s'n k'FhL tyf bfloTj - !=! b]lv !=& ;Dd _
r'Qmf k'FhL
hu]8f tyf sf]ifx?
C0fkq tyf a08
;fk6L
lgIf]k bfloTj -c + cf_
c= :jb]zL d'b|f
cf= ljb]zL d'b|f
cfos/ bfloTj
cGo bfloTj
s'n ;DklQ -@=! b]lv @=& ;Dd_
gub tyf a}+s df}Hbft
dfu tyf cNk ;"rgfdf k|fKt x'g]
nufgL
shf{ tyf ;fk6
c= l/on :6]6 shf{ ;fk6
!= cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ -?= ! s/f]8;Ddsf] JolQmut cfjf;Lo 3/
shf{ afx]s_
@= Joj;flos ejg tyf cfjf;Lo ckf6{d]06 lgdf{0f shf{
#= lgdf{0f ;DkGg eO{ cfo cfh{g ug{ yfn]sf] Jofkfl/s sDKn]S;
shf{
$= cGo l/on :6]6 shf{ -hUufhdLg vl/b tyf Knl6+u shf{ ;d]t_

o; qodf;

cl3Nnf] qodf;

-?=xhf/df_
utjif{sf] ;DjlGwt qodf;

cf= ?= ! s/f]8;Ddsf] JolQmut cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{

2=5
2=6
2=7

3=
3=1
3=2
s
3=3
3=4
3=5
v
3=6
3=7
u
3=8
#
3=9
3=10

3=11
r
3=12
3=13
%

4=
4=1
4=2
4=3
4=4
4=5

O= dflh{g k|s[ltsf] shf{


O{= cfjlws shf{
p= clwlasif{l6=cf/=rfn' k'FhL shf{
pm= cGo shf{
:yL/ ;DklQ
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v'b Aofh cfDbfgL -#=! #=@_
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;Defljt gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
;+rfng gfkmf -u #=*_
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;Defljt gf]S;fgL Joj:yfaf6 lkmtf{
lgoldt ls|ofsnfkaf6 gfkmf -3 +#=( +#=!)_
c;fdfGo sf/f]jf/af6 ePsf] cfDbfgLvr{ -v'b_
jf]g; / s/ cl3sf] gfkmf - + #=!!_
sd{rf/L af]g; Joj:yf
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v'b gfkmfgf]S;fg -r #=!@ #=!#_
cg'kftx?
k'FhLsf]ifhf]lvd efl/t ;DklQ
lgis[o shf{s'n shf{
;Defljt gf]S;fgL Joj:yfs'n lgis[o shf{
k'FhLsf] nfut -Cost of Funds_
shf{ lgIf]k cg'kft -o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg adf]lhdsf]_

o;

cl3Nnf]

o; qodf;

cl3Nnf] qodf;

156

utjif{sf] ;DjlGwt qodf;;Dd

utjif{sf] ;DjlGwt qodf;

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=(=!%


=======================lnld6]8
On]S6f]lgs a}+ls+u sf/f]af/ ;DaGwL laj/0f -dfl;s_
================d;fGt;Dd
qm=;+
!
!=!
!=@
!=#

laj/0f

!=$
!=%

zfvf /lxt a}+lsu ;]jf


zfvf/lxt a}+lsu ;]jf s]Gb| ;+Vof
;]jf lng] u|fxssf] ;+Vof
:jLs[t s]Gb|df ;]jf ;+rfng gePsf] jf x'g
afFsL eP ;f]sf] ;+Vof
s'n sf/f]jf/ ;+Vof
s'n sf/f]jf/ /sd

@
@=!
@=@
@=#

df]jfOn a}+ls+u ;]jf


;]jf lng] u|fxssf] ;+Vof
s'n sf/f]jf/ ;+Vof
s'n sf/f]jf/ /sd

#
#=!
#=@
#=#

O{G6/g]6 a}+ls+u ;]jf


;]jf lng] u|fxssf] ;+Vof
s'n sf/f]jf/ ;+Vof
s'n sf/f]jf/ /sd

$
$=!

O{sf8{ ;]jf
ATM sf] s'n ;+Vof

$=@
$=@=!
$=@=@
$=@=#
$=#
$=#=!
$=#=@
$=#=#
$=$
$=$=!
$=$=@
$=$=#

8]lj6 sf8{ tkm{


sf8{ lng]sf] ;+Vof
sf8{ dfkm{t ePsf]
sf8{ dfkm{t ePsf]
qm]l86 sf8{ tkm{
sf8{ lng]sf] ;+Vof
sf8{ dfkm{t ePsf]
sf8{ dfkm{t ePsf]
lk|k]8 sf8{ tkm{
sf8{ lng]sf] ;+Vof
sf8{ dfkm{t ePsf]
sf8{ dfkm{t ePsf]

ut
cjlw;Dd

o; cjlwdf
yk36

o; cjlwsf]
cGtdf

s}lkmot

;+rfng gx'g'sf]
sf/0f pNn]v ug]{

ATM ;+Vof
yk36 ePsf]
v08df :yfg
v'nfpg] .

s'n sf/f]jf/ ;+Vof


s'n sf/f]jf/ /sd
s'n sf/f]jf/ ;+Vof
s'n sf/f]jf/ /sd
s'n sf/f]jf/ ;+Vof
s'n sf/f]jf/ /sd

tof/ ug]{

k]z ug]{

157

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf= g+= (=!^

================================================== lnld6]8
zfvf sfof{no ;DaGwL ljj/0f -dfl;s_

tof/ ug]{M
;xLM
gfdM
bhf{M
ldltM

Od]n

kmf]g

7]ufgf
zfvfsf] zfvfsf] ;~rfng
qm=;+= zfvf
sf]8 gfd
k|sf/
ldlt lhNnf uf=lj=;= g= kf= j8f 6f]n
g+

ofS;

====== ;fn ======== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f

lgIf]k
s'n shf{
;fk6 tyf
lan vl/b rNtL art d'2tL cGo s'n

k]z ug]{M
;xLM
gfdM
bhf{M
ldltM

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf= g+= (=!&

=========== a}+s lnld6]8

Aofhb/ cg';f/sf] lgIf]ksf] ljj/0f

-dfl;s_

====== ;fn ======== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f


-?=bz nfvdf_

qm=;+=

lgIf]ksf] k|sf/

Jofhb/ -:jb]zL d'b|f lgIf]kdf_


Go"gtd clwstd efl/t cf}ift

/sd

Jofhb/ -ljb]zL d'b|f lgIf]kdf_


Go"gtd clwstd efl/t cf}ift

!
@
@=!
@=@
@=#
@=$
@=%
@=^
#

art
d'2lt
! dlxgf;Ddsf]
! b]lv # dlxgf
# b]lv ^ dlxgf
^ dlxgfb]lv ! jif{
! b]lv @ jif{
@ jif{eGbf a9L
sn
;l6{lkms]6 ckm
$ l8kf]lh6
% cGo
^ Jofh gnfUg] lgIf]k
^=! rNtL
^=@ dflh{g
^=# cGo
s'n

tof/ ug]{M
;xLM
gfdM
bhf{M
ldltM

k]z ug]{M
;xLM
gfdM
bhf{M
ldltM

158

/sd

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf g+= (=!*

=========== lnld6]8

Aofhb/ cg';f/sf] shf{sf] ljj/0f

-dfl;s_

====== ;fn ======== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f

If]qut shf{
-?=bz nfvdf_
qm=
;+=
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

shf{

Go"gtd

Aofhb/ -:jb]zL d'b|df_


efl/t
clwstd
cf};t

/sd

Go"gtd

Aofhb/ -ljb]zL d'b|df_


efl/t
clwstd
cf};t

/sd

s[lif / jg ;DaGwL
df5fkfng ;DaGwL
vfgL ;DaGwL
s[lif, ag tyf k]o kbfy{ pTkfbg
;DaGwL
u}/vfB j:t' pTkfbg ;DaGwL
lgdf{0f
ljB't, Uof; / kfgL
wft'sf pTkfbgx?, d]l;g/L tyf
On]S6f]lgs cf}hf/ tyf h8fg
oftfoft , e08f/ / ;+rf/
yf]s tyf v'b|f ljq]mtf
ljQ, jLdf tyf crn ;DklQ
ko{6g ;]jf
cGo ;]jfx?
pkef]Uo shf{
:yfgLo ;/sf/
cGo
hDdf

k|f]8S6 cg';f/sf] shf{


qm=
;+=
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
10
11

shf{

Go"gtd

Aofhb/ -:jb]zL d'b|df_


efl/t
clwstd
cf};t

cfjlws shf{
clwljsif{ shf{
6i6 l/l;K6 shf{cfoft shf{
l8df08 tyf cGo rfn' k"FhL shf{
JolQmut cfjf;Lo 3/ shf{ -?= !
s/f]8 ;Ddsf]_
l/on :6]6 shf{ ;fk6
dflh{g k|s[ltsf] shf{x?
ljkGg ju{ shf{
lan v/Lb
cGo shf{x?
hDdf

159

/sd

Go"gtd

Aofhb/ -ljb]zL d'b|df_


efl/t
clwstd
cf};t

/sd

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=3(=!

======================== lnld6]8
;DklQ / bfloTjsf] uf]Zjf/f lx;fj -dfl;s_
@) ===== ;fn =========== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f

-?=xhf/df_
!=
!=!
!=!=!
!=!=@
!=!=#=
!=@
!=#
!=$
!=%
!=^
!=&
!=&=!
!=&=@
!=&=#
!=&=$
!=&=%
!=&=^
!=&=&
!=*
!=!)
!=!!
@=
@=!
@=!=!
@=!=#
@=@
@=@=!
@=@=@
@=@=#
@=@=$
@=@=%
#=
#=!
#=@
#=#
#=#=!
#=#=!
#=$
$=
%=
%=!
%=@
%=#
%=$
%=%
%=^
%=&
%=&
%=*
%=(
%=(=!
%=(=@
%=(=@=!
%=(=@=@

k'FhL tyf bfloTj


k'FhL tyf hu]8f sf]ifx?
r'Qmf k'FhL
;fwf/0f z]o/
gg\l/l8d]jn lk|km/]G; z]o/
l/l8d]jn lk|km/]G; z]o/
sn Og P8\efG;
k|:tfljt af]g; z]o/
;fwf/0f hu]8f
z]o/ lk|ldod
;+lrt gfkmfgf]S;fg (Retained Earning)
cGo hu]8f tyf sf]ifx?
e}k/L cfpg] hu]8f
;DklQ k'gd"{Nofg sf]if
k'FhLut hu]8f sf]if
;+:yf ljsf; sf]if
ljz]if hu]8f sf]if
nfef+z ;dLs/0f sf]if
cGo :jtGq sf]if
k'FhL lkmtf{ hu]8f sf]if
nufgL ;dfof]hg sf]if
cGo sf]if
;fk6L
g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 ;fk6L
k'g/shf{
cGo
cGo ;fk6L
cGt/a}+s ;fk6L
o'jf:j/f]huf/ sf]if
ul/aL lgjf/0f sf]if
u|fdL0f :jfjnDag sf]if
cGo ;fk6L
lgIf]kx?
clgjfo{ art lgIf]k
:j]lR5s art lgIf]k
;j{;fwf/0fjf6 ;+sng u/]sf] lgIf]k
art
d'2lt
cGo lgIf]k
e'QmfgL lbg'kg]{ ljnx?
cGo bfloTj tyf Joj:yfx?
;08L q]ml86;{
k]G;g tyf pkbfg sf]if
sd{rf/L ;+rosf]if
sd{rf/L sNof0fsf]if
sd{rf/L tflndsf]if
sd{rf/L af]g; Joj:yf
sd{rf/Lsf] ljbf jfktsf] /sd
k|:tfljt tyf e'QmfgL lbg afFsL nfef+z
cfos/ Joj:yf
shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
;fdfGo shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
ljz]if shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
k'g/;+/rgfk'g/tflnlss/0f shf{
sd;n shf{

/sd

;DklQ
!=
!=!
!=@=!
@=
@=!
@=!=!
@=!=@
@=!=@=!
@=!=@=!
@=!=#
@=!=$
@=!=%
#=
#=!
#=!=!
#=!=@
#=!=#
#=!=$
$=
$=!
$=!=!
$=!=@
$=!=#
$=!=$
$=@
$=$
$=%
%=
%=!
%=@
%=#
%=$
^=
^=!
^=@
&=
&=!
&=@
&=#
&=$
&=%
&=^
&=&
&=*
&=(
*=
*=!
*=!=!
*=!=@
*=!=#
*=@
*=#
*=$
*=%

160

gub df}Hbft
:jb]zL d'b|f -l;Ssf ;d]t_
ef/tLo d'b|f
a}+s df}Hbft
:jb]zL d'b|f
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf
s ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
clgjfo{ gub df}Hbft k|of]hgsf] nflu
cGo df}Hbft
v ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
u ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
cGo ljQLo ;+:yfdf
dfu]sf avt k|fKt x'g] /sd
:jb]zL d'b|f
s ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
v ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
u ju{sf] Ohfht kq k|fKt ;+:yfdf
cGo ljQLo ;+:yfdf
C0fkqdf nufgL
g]kfn ;/sf/
6]h/L ljn
ljsf; C0fkq
/fli6o art kq
ljz]if C0f kq
g]=/f=a}+s C0f kq
;/sf/L u}/ ljQLo ;+:yf
cGo u}/ ljQLo ;+:yf
z]o/ tyf cGo nufgL
z]o/df nufgL
cGt/a}+s nufgL
d'2lt lgIf]kdf u/]sf] nufgL
cGo nufgL
shf{ tyf ;fk6
;+:yfut
JolQmut
:yL/ ;DklQ
hUuf
ejg
kmlg{r/lkmS;r/
;jf/L ;fwg
sDKo'6/ tyf d]zLg/L
k'FhLut lgdf{0f vr{
lnh xf]N8 ;DklQ
;6j]o/
cGo
cGo ;DklQ
c;'n ug{ afFsL Aofh
;/sf/L C0fkqdf
nufgLdf -cGt/a}+s ;d]t_
shf{df
d;nGb df}Hbft
sd{rf/L ;fk6Lk]ZsL
;08L 8]6;{
clu|d e'QmfgL

/sd

%=(=@=#
%=(=@=$
%=(=#
%=(=$
%=!)
%=!!
%=!@
%=!#
%=!#=!
%=!#=@
%=!#=#
%=!$
%=!^
%=!&
%=!*
^=
^=!
^=@
^=#
&=
&=!
&=@

z+sf:kb shf{
v/fa shf{
cltl/Qm shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
l;df gf3]sf] shf{sf] gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
nufgL ;DaGwL gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
u}/ a}+ls+u ;DklQ gf]S;fgL Joj:Yff
cGo ;DklQ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
Aofh d'NtjL lx;fj
ut cjlw;Ddsf]
o; cjlwdf yk
o; cjlwdf c;'nL ePsf]
lgIf]kdf lbg'kg]{ Aofh
x|f; sL sf]if
kfls g;s]sf] cfDbfgL
cGo
lx;fj ldnfg
s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
If]qLozfvf sfof{no
cGo
gfkmf gf]S;fg lx;fj
ut dlxgf;Ddsf]
o; dlxgfsf]
hDdf

*=&
*=(
*=!!
*=!@
(=
(=!
(=@
(=#
!)=
!!=
!! =!
!!=@
!@=
!@=!
!@=@

dfu{:y gub (Cash in Transit)


clu|d s/ e'QmfgL
Voflt
cGo
ckn]vg x'g afFsL vr{
k"j{ ;~rfng vr{
dh{/ vr{
cGo
u}/ a}+ls ;DklQ
lx;fj ldnfg
s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
zfvf sfof{no
gfkmfgf]S;fg lx;fj
ut dlxgf;Dds]f
o; dlxgfsf]

hDdf

gf]6M dfly tf]lsPsf] s'g} zLif{s cGt/ut /sd g/x]sf] eP tfklg ;f] zLif{s sfod} /fvL o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] 9fFrfdf s'g} kl/jt{g ug{ kfOg] 5}g . o;
kmf/fdsf pkzLif{sx?df ePsf sf/f]jf/x? lglb{i6 :yfgdf clgjfo{ ?kdf b]vfO{ To;sf] hf]8 k|To]s pkzLif{s x'b} d"n zLif{s;Dd ug'{ kg]{5 .

jf;nft aflx/sf sf/f]af/ -;+efljt bfloTjx?_ M

hdfgt
ckl/jTo{ shf{ k|lta4tf (Irrevocable Loan Commitment)
cfos/ jfkt ;Defljt bfloTj
Acceptance ;lxt cGo ;j} k|sf/sf ;Defljt bfloTjx?
r'Qmf jf e'Qmfg x'g af+sL z]o/ nufgL
e'QmfgLsf] nflu bfjL k/]sf] hdfgt
;+:yfpk/ bfjL k/]sf] t/ ;+:yfn] bfloTj :jLsf/ gu/]sf] bfloTjx?

ljj/0f tof/ ug]{sf]


gfd
M
bhf{
M
b:tvt
M
ldlt
M

ljj/0f k]z ug]{ clws[tsf]


gfd
M
bhf{
M
b:tvt M
ldlt
M

161

========================================== lnld6]8

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= 3(=@

gfkmf gf]S;fg lx;fj

@) ====== b]lv @) ========= ;Dd -dfl;s_


vr{

o; dlxgf ut dlxgf
;Ddsf] = ;Ddsf] =

o; dlxgf ut dlxgf
;Ddsf] = ;Ddsf] =

!=
!=!
!=@
!=@=!
!=@=@
!=@=#
!=@=$
!=#
!=$

Aofh cfDbfgL
shf{ ;fk6df
nufgLdf
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;'/If0fkq
ljb]zL C0fkq
g]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] C0fkq
l8a]~r/ tyf a08
Ph]G;L df}Hbftdf
dfu tyf cNk ;"rgfdf k|fKt x'g]
df}Hbftdf
!=% cGodf
@= sld;g tyf l8isfp06
@=! ljn vl/b tyf l8isfp06
@=@ sldzg
@=# cGo
#= cGo ;~rfng cfDbfgL
$= u}/ ;~rfng cfDbfgL
%= hf]lvd ;DaGwL Joj:yfaf6
lkmtf{ -cfDbfgL_
%=! c;n shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
%=@ ljz]if shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
%=@=! k'g/;+/rgfk'g/tflnlss/0f
shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
%=@=@ sd;n shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
%=@=# z+sf:kb shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
%=@=$ v/fa shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
%=# cltl/Qm shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
%=$ ;Ldf gf3]sf] shf{sf] Joj:yf
%=% u}/ a}+lsu ;DklQ gf]S;fgL
Joj:yf
%=^ nufgLdf ;Defljt gf]S;fgL
Joj:yf
%=& cGo ;DklQsf] gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^= ckn]vg ePsf] shf{sf] c;'nL
&= c;fdfGo sf/f]jf/x?af6 ePsf]
cfDbfgL
*=
v'b gf]S;fg

!= Aofh vr{
!=! lgIf]k bfloTjdf
!=!=! clgjfo{ art
!=!=@ :j]lR5s art
!=!=# ;j{;fwf/0fjf6 ;+sng u/]sf] art
!=!=$ cGo art
!=@ cGt/ a}+s/ ljQLo ;+:yf ;fk6L
!=@=! g]kfn /fi6 a}+s
!=@=@ cGt/ a}+s/ ljQLo ;+:yf
!=@=# cGo ;fk6L
@
sld;g vr{
#= sd{rf/L vr{
#=! tna eQf
#=@ cGo vr{
$= ;+rfng vr{
$=! 3/ef8f
$=@ x|f;sL
$=# d;nGb
$=$ O+wg
$=% cGo ;+rfng vr{
%= u}/ ;+rfng vr{
^= hf]lvd ;DaGwL Joj:yf
^=! shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=!=! ;fdfGo shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=!=@ ljz]if shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=!=@=! k'g/;+/rgfk'g/tflnlss/0f shf{
gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=!=@=@ sd;n shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=!=@=# z+sf:kb shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=!=@=$ v/fa shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=!=# cltl/Qm shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=!=$ ;Ldf gf3]sf] shf{sf] Joj:yf
^=@ u}/ a}+lsu ;DklQ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=# nufgLdf ;Defljt gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
^=$ cGo ;DklQsf] gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
&= c;'nL x'g g;Sg] shf{sf] ckn]vg
*= c;fdfGo sf/f]jf/x?af6 ePsf] vr{
(= sd{rf/L af]g; Joj:yf
!)= cfos/ Joj:yf
!!= v'b gfkmf

hDdf

hDdf

ljj/0f tof/ ug]{


b:tvt M
gfd
M
bhf{
M
ldlt
M
gf]6 M

-?=xhf/df_

cfDbfgL

ljj/0f k]z ug]{ clws[t


b:tvt M
gfd
M
bhf{
M
M
ldlt

!_
@_

dfl;s ?kdf x|f; sL vr{ / cGo vr{ ;DjlGwt vr{ zLif{s cGtu{t ;dfj]z x'g' kg]{5 .
x/]s qodf; cGtsf] gfkmf gf]S;fg lx;fj tof/ ubf{ clgjfo{ ?kn] shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf nufot cGo gf]S;fgL
Joj:yfdf ePsf] yk jf 36 /sd oyfy{ lrq0f x'g] u/L n]vfg ug'{ kg]{5 .
#_ sd{rf/L jf]g; / cfos/sf] nflu pko'{Qm cg'dfg u/L a}+s Joj:yfkgn] ;DjlGwt cjlwx?df Joj:yf ug]{ tyf
n]vf+sg ug{' kg]{5 .

162

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= 3(=#


========================================== lnld6]8
If]qut cg';f/sf] shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] ljj/0f -q}dfl;s_
@) ======== ;fn =============== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f

-?= xhf/df_
ut d;fGt;Ddsf] o; dlxgfdf o; dlxgfdf
afFsL
ljtl/t
c;"nL
;+Vof
;fFjf ;+Vof ;fFjf ;+Vof ;fFjf

qm;+=
!
!=!
!=@
!=#
!=$
!=%
!=^
!=&
!=*
!=(
@
#
#=!
#=@
#=#
$
$=!
$=!=!
$=!=@
$=!=#
$=@
$=#
%

d;fGt;Dddf p7fpg
afFsL
;+Vof ;fFjf Aofh

efsf gf3]sf]
;+Vof ;fFjf Aofh

pBf]uIf]qx?
s[lif
cGgafnL
t/sf/L afnL
cGo gub] afnL
kmnkm"n tyf k'ik v]tL
kz'kfngkz' awzfnf
k+IfL kfng
dfx'/L kfng
df5fkfng ;DaGwL
cGo s[lif tyf s[lif hGo ;]jfx?
3/]n' tyf n3'pBf]u
;]jf Jofj;fo
yf]s tyf v'b|f Jofkf/
xf]6n tyf /]i6'/]i6
cGo ;]jfx?
yf]s shf{
g]=/f=a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ljQLo ;+:yf
3 ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?
;xsf/L ;+:yf
u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?
;xsf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf
cGo
cGo
hDdf

ljj/0f tof/ ug]{ M


b:tvt
M
gfd
M
bhf{
M
ldlt
M

ljj/0f k]z ug]{ clws[tM


b:tvt
M
gfd
M
bhf{
M
ldlt
M

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= 3(=$


======================== lnld6]8
cjlw cg';f/ efsf gf3]sf] shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] ljj/0f -q}dfl;s_
@) ======= ;fn ======== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f

-?=xhf/df_
qm=;+=

c;n shf{
shf{ If]q

!
@
#
$
%

k'g/;+/rgf
# dlxgf;Dd
tyf
efsf gf3]sf] k'g/tflnls
s/0f
shf{
shf{
shf{
shf{
/sd
/sd
/sd
/sd
;+Vof
;+Vof
;+Vof
;+Vof
k|jflxt s'n
shf{

efsf ggf3]sf]

lgl:s|o shf{
# b]lv ^
dlxgf;Dd
efsf
gf3]sf]
shf{
/sd
;+Vof

^ dlxgfb]lv ! ! jif{eGbf a9L


efsf gf3]sf]
jif{ ;Dd efsf cjlwn] efsf
s"n shf{
gf3]sf]
gf3]sf]
shf{
/sd
;+Vof

shf{
;+Vof

s[lif
3/]n' tyf n3'pBf]u
;]jf
yf]s shf{
cGo
hDdf

ljj/0f tof/ ug]{ M


b:tvt
M
gfd
M
bhf{
M

ljj/0f k]z
b:tvt
gfd
bhf{

163

ug]{ clws[t
M
M
M

/sd

shf{
/sd
;+Vof

=============================a}+s ln=
q}dfl;s ljQLo ljj/0f -q}dfl;s_
qm=;+=
1=
1=1
1=2
1=3
1=4
1=5
1=5=1
1=5=2
1=6
1=7

2=
2=1
2=2
2=3
2=4
2=5
2=6
2=7

3=
3=1
3=2
s
3=3
3=4
v
3=6
3=7
u
3=8
#
3=9
3=10

3=11
r
3=12
3=13
%

4=
4=1
4=2
4=3
4=4

ljj/0f
s'n k'FhL tyf bfloTj
r'Qmf k'FhL
hu]8f tyf sf]ifx?
C0fkq tyf a08
;fk6L
lgIf]k bfloTj
;d"xut
;j{;fwf/0f
cfos/ bfloTj
cGo bfloTj
s'n ;DklQ
gub tyf a}+s df}Hbft
dfu tyf cNk ;"rgfdf k|fKt x'g]
nufgL
shf{ tyf ;fk6
:yL/ ;DklQ
u}/a}ls ;DklQ
cGo ;DklQ
gfkmf gf]S;fg lx;fj
Aofh cfDbfgL
Aofh vr{
v'b Aofh cfDbfgL
lkm, sldzg / l8:sfp06
cGo ;~rfng cfDbfgL
s"n ;+rfng cfDbfgL
sd{rf/L vr{
cGo ;~rfng vr{
gf]S;fgL Joj:yf cl3sf] ;+rfng gfkmf -v #=^ #=&_
;Defljt gf]S;fgL Joj:yf
;+rfng gfkmf -u #=*_
u}/;~rfng cfDbfgLvr{ v'b
;Defljt gf]S;fgL Joj:yfaf6 lkmtf{
lgoldt ls|ofsnfkaf6 gfkmf -3 +#=( +#=!)_
c;fdfGo sf/f]jf/af6 ePsf] cfDbfgLvr{ -v'b_
jf]g; / s/ cl3sf] gfkmf - + #=!!_
sd{rf/L af]g; Joj:yf
cfos/ Joj:yf
v'b gfkmfgf]S;fg -r #=!@ #=!#_
cg'kftx?
k'FhLsf]ifhf]lvd efl/t ;DklQ
lgis[o shf{s'n shf{
;Defljt gf]S;fgL Joj:yfs'n lgis[o shf{
k'FhLsf] nfut -Cost of Funds_

o; qodf;

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= 3(=%

cl3Nnf] qodf;

o; qodf;
;Dd

cl3Nnf]
qodf;;Dd

o; qodf;

cl3Nnf] qodf;

164

-?=xhf/df_
utjif{sf] ;DjlGwt qodf;

utjif{sf] ;DjlGwt qodf;;Dd

utjif{sf] ;DjlGwt qodf;

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf= g+= 3(=^


==================================================a}+s ln=
sfof{no ;DaGwL ljj/0f -q}dfl;s_

qm=;+= zfvf
sf]8

sfof{nosf]
gfd

7]ufgf
sfof{nosf] ;~rfng
k|sf/
ldlt lhNnf uf=lj=;= g= kf= j8f 6f]n
g+

tof/ ug]{M
;xLM
gfdM
bhf{M
ldltM

kmf]g

====== ;fn ======== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f

s'n shf{
;fk6

k]z ug]{M
;xLM
gfdM
bhf{M
ldltM

165

s'n lgIf]k

g]=/f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf= g+= 3(=&


k|ult ljj/0f -dfl;s_

====== ;fn ======== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f


-?= xhf/df_
qm=;+=
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
12.1
12.2
12.3
13
13.1
13.2
13.3
14
14.1
14.2
14.3
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
21.1
21.2
21.3
21.4
21.4.1
21.4.1
21.5
22
23

ljj/0f

ut cf=a=sf]
cfiff9
;Ddsf]

o; cf=a= sf] dfq


ut dlxgf
;Ddsf]

o; dlxgfsf]

o; dlxgf
;Ddsf]

sfo{If]q ePsf] lhNnf ;+Vof


;]jf k'u]sf] lhNnf ;++Vof
;]jf k'u]sf] uf=lj=;=g=kf= ;++Vof
s'n sd{rf/L ;+Vof
s'n zfvf ;+Vof
s'n s]Gb| ;+Vof
s'n ;d"x ;+Vof
lgis[o ;d"x ;+Vof
s'n ;b:o ;+Vof
lgliqmo ;b:o ;+Vof
s'n C0fL ;+Vof
s'n shf{ ljt/0f
n3' Joj;fo shf{
n3' pBdlwtf] shf{
cGo shf{
shf{sf] ;fFjf c;'nL
n3' Joj;fo shf{sf] ;fFjf c;'nL
n3' pBdlwtf] shf{sf] ;fFjf c;'nL
cGo shf{sf] ;fFjf c;'nL
s'n afFsL shf{
n3' Joj;fo shf{ aFfsL
n3' pBdlwtf] shf{ aFfsL
cGo shf{ aFfsL
efvf gf3]sf] shf{ /sd
efvf gf3]sf] C0fL ;+Vof
Aofh c;'nL /sd
c;'n x'g afFsL Aofh /sd
shf{ gf]S;fgL Aoj:yf
s'n artstf{ ;+Vof
s'n lgIf]k /sd
clgjfo{ art lgIf]k
:j]lR5s art lgIf]k
qmlds (Recurring) art
;j{;fwf/0fjf6 ;+sng u/]sf] art
art
d'2lt
cGo art lgIf]k
s'n jrts'n shf{ -_
n3' pBd shf{s'n shf{ -_

tof/ ug]{M
;xLM
gfdM
bhf{M
ldltM

k]z ug]{M
;xLM
gfdM
bhf{M
ldltM

166

xfn;Ddsf]
afFsL

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf g+= 3(=*

=========== a}+s lnld6]8


Aofhb/ cg';f/sf] lgIf]ksf] ljj/0f

-q}dfl;s_

====== ;fn ======== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f


?= xhf/df

qm=;+=

Aofh b/

lgIf]ksf] k|sf/
Go"gtd

1
2
3
4
4.1
4.2
5

clwstd

/sd

s}lkmot

clgjfo{ art lgIf]k


:j]lR5s art lgIf]k
qmlds (Recurring) art
;j{;fwf/0fjf6 ;+sng u/]sf]
art
art
d'2lt
cGo art lgIf]k

tof/ ug]{M
;xLM
gfdM
bhf{M
ldltM

k]z ug]{M
;xLM
gfdM
bhf{M
ldltM

g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf g+= 3(=(

=========== a}+s lnld6]8


Aofhb/ cg';f/sf] shf{sf] ljj/0f

-q}dfl;s_

====== ;fn ======== dlxgfsf] ljj/0f


?= xhf/df

qm=;+=

Aofh b/

shf{sf] k|sf/
Go"gtd

!
@
#
$
%

clwstd

/sd

s[lif
3/]n' tyf n3' pBf]u
;]jf Jofj;fo
yf]s shf{
cGo
s'n

tof/ ug]{M
;xLM
gfdM
bhf{M
ldltM

k]z ug]{M
;xLM
gfdM
bhf{M
ldltM

167

s}lkmot

Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] o; a}+sdf k7fpg' kg]{ tYofx? ;DaGwL ljj/0f


cg';"rLkmf/fd g+=

ljifo

tYofsf]
lsl;d

k7fpg' kg]{ cjlw

tYof k7fpg' kg]{ ljefusf] gfd

!=! / !=@ -v, u / 3 k'+hLsf]if / hf]lvd efl/t


ju{sf] nflu_
;DklQ

dfl;s

Ps dlxgfleq

a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg


ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu

kmd{ g+= ! b]lv * ;Dd

k'+hLsf]if / hf]lvd efl/t


;DklQ

dfl;s

Ps dlxgfleq

a}+s ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu

@=!, @=@ / @=#

shf{ ;fk6 / Joj:yf, u|fxs


cg';f/ shf{ / u}/ a}ls+u
;DklQ

q}dfl;s

Ps dlxgfleq

a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg


ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu

lgb]{zg g+ # sf] a'Fbf &


cg';f/
#=!

cfk;L ;DaGw ePsf u|fxssf]


shf{ ljj/0f
If]qut shf{ ljj/0f

c4{jflif{s

Ps dlxgfleq

a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg


ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu

dfl;s

!% lbg leq

#=@

pTkfbgzLn If]q shf{ ;dLIff


ljj/0f
t/ntf cg'udg ljj/0f
Aofhb/ hf]lvd cg'udg
ljj/0f
ljb]zL ljlgdo cg'udg ljj/0f

cw{jflif{s

! dlxgfleq

;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu


;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu

q}dfl;s
q}dfl;s

!% lbg leq
!% lbg leq

;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu


;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu

;fKtflxs

& lbgleq

dfl;s

!% lbg leq

;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu


a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg
ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu

-s ju{sf] nflu_

%=!
%=@

%=#
(=!, (=@, (=#, (=#-s_, dfl;s tYof ljj/0f
(=$, (=&, (=*, (=(,
(=!%, (=!^, (=!& /
(=!*
(=%, (=^, (=^=!, (=!),
q}dfl;s tYof ljj/0f
(=!! / (=!@
(=!#
cGt/a}+s sf/f]af/ ljj/0f

q}dfl;s

!% lbg leq .

b}lgs

sfof{no ;doleq

Quarterly Financial Highlight

q}dfl;s

#% lbg leq .

dfl;s tYof ljj/0f

dfl;s

!% lbg leq

3(=^, q}dfl;s tYof ljj/0f

q}dfl;s

Ps dlxgfleq

q}dfl;s tYof ljj/0f

q}dfl;s

#% lbg leq

!!=!

;xljQLos/0f shf{ ljj/0f

q}dfl;s

#) lbg leq

!#=!
!#=@ -3 ju{sf] nflu_

clgjfo{ df}Hbft ljj/0f


clgjfo{ df}Hbft / t/ntf
ljj/0f
j}Bflgs t/ntf ljj/0f

;fKtflxs
dfl;s

;ft lbgleq
!% lbg leq

dfl;s

!% lbg leq

Aofhb/ ljj/0f

q}dfl;s

& lbg leq

;Ldf sf/f]jf/ ljj/0f

sf/f]jf/sf]
cfwf/df

sf/f]jf/sf] ldltn]
!% lbg leq

(=!$
3(=!, 3(=@ / 3(=&
-3 ju{sf] ;+:yfsf] nflu_
3(=#, 3(=$,
3(=* / 3(=(
-3 ju{sf] nflu_
3(=%
-3 ju{sf] nflu_

!#=#
!(=#
!(=$
gf]6M

a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg


ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg
ljefu
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg
ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg
ljefu / n3'ljQ k|j4{g tyf
;'kl/j]If0f ljefu
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg
ljefu / n3'ljQ k|j4{g tyf
;'kl/j]If0f ljefu
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg
ljefu / n3'ljQ k|j4{g tyf
;'kl/j]If0f ljefu
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg
ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu
;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu
;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu
;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg
ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu
ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{

ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{


sf/f]jf/sf] z+sf:kb b]lvg]
cfwf/df
ljlQs}
o; lgb]{zgdf pNn]v eP adf]lhdsf tYof kmf/dx? Od]n dfkm{t k7fpFbf cg';Gwfg ljefunfO{ ;d]t k7fpg' kg]{5 .
o; lgb]{zgdf pNn]v ePb]lv afx]s o; a}+ssf] cGo ljefusfof{nodf k7fpg' kg]{ ljj/0fx? lgoldt ?kdf k7fpg'
kg]{5 .
z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/ ljj/0f

168

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f= lgb]{zg g+= !))^(
laifoM ;+:yfks z]o/ gfd;f/L jf v/LbljqmL jf xs x:tfGt/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks jf ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ s'g} JolQm jf ;+:yfnfO{ gfd;f/L jf
vl/blaqmL jf xs x:tfGt/0f ug]{ ;DaGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L
b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
!=
;+:yfks / ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ lnPsf JolQmx?sf] d[To' ePdf jf k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd kfl/jfl/s
c+za08f ePdf k|rlnt sfg'gsf] l/t k'ofO{ lghx?sf] xsbf/ jf lghx?n] OR5fPsf] JolQmsf] gfddf
gfd;f/L u/L ;f] sf] kGw| lbg leq o; a}+snfO{ hfgsf/L lbg' kg]{5 .
@=
;+:yfks tyf ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ gfd;f/L jf laqmL ;DaGwdf
k|rlnt sfg'gsf] clwgdf /xL ;+:yfks tyf ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ lng] JolQm jf ;+:yfn] cfgf]
:jfldTjdf /x]sf] z]o/ b]xfo adf]lhd l/t k'ofO{ gfd;f/L jf laqmL ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ M
-s_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf z]o/wgLsf] z]o/ vl/blaqmL jf gfd;f/L ug'{ k"j{ o; a}+ssf]
:jLs[lt lng' kg]{5 . :jLs[ltsf] nflu ;+rfns ;ldltsf] l;kmfl/; ;lxt o; a}+sdf cfj]bg
ug'{kg]{ 5 .
-v_
v08 -s_ df h'g;'s} Joj:yf ePtf klg ;+:yfks ;+:yfks jLrdf z]o/ vl/bljqmL ePdf
k|rlnt sfg'gsf] l/t k'ofO{ vl/bljqmL u/L ;f] sf] hfgsf/L !% lbg leq o; a}+snfO{ lbg'
kg]{5 . t/, o; a}+saf6 Fit & Proper Test dfkg gePsf] ;+:yfksn] r'Qmf k'FhLsf] b'O{ -@_
k|ltzteGbf a9L x'g]u/L ;+:yfks z]o/ vl/b ug{ rfx]df ;+:yfks ;+:yfks jLrdf z]o/
vl/bljqmL x'g] ePtf klg o; a}+ssf] :jLs[lt lng'kg]{ 5 .
-u_
d[To' eO{ jf k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd kfl/jfl/s c+zj08f eO{ xs x:tfGt/0f ePsf] afx]s cGo
cj:yfdf ;+:yfksn] cfg} ;d"xsf ;+:yfksnfO{ dfq z]o/ gfd;f/L jf laqmL ug'{ kg]{5 .
-3_
v08 -u_ adf]lhd ;+:yfks ;d"xdf z]o/ gfd;f/L jf laqmL x'g g;Sg] cj:yf ePdf dfq cGo
JolQm jf ;+:yfnfO{ o; lgb]{zgsf clwgdf /xL z]o/ gfd;f/L jf laqmL ug{ ;lsg] 5 . o;/L
;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ gfd;f/L jf vl/b u/L lng] JolQm jf ;+:yf klg h'g ;d"xaf6 z]o/
gfd;f/L jf vl/b u/L lnPsf] xf] ;f]xL ;d"xdf ;dfj]z x'g]5g\ .
-_
b]xfosf] cj:yf ePsf] s'g} klg JolQm jf ;+:yfnfO{ ;+:yfksn] cfgf] :jfldTjsf] z]o/ gfd;f/L
jf laqmL ug{ kfpg] 5}gg\ M
-!_
shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|sf] sfnf];"rLdf k/L ;f] ;"rLaf6 k'ms'jf ePsf] ldltn] sDtLdf tLg
jif{ gk'u]sf],
-@_
;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] cfGtl/s jf afXo n]vfk/LIfsdf lgo'Qm /x]sf],
-#_
;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sfg'gL jf cGo ;Nnfxsf/ kbdf axfn ePsf],
-$_
;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf;Fu s'g} lsl;dsf] 7]Ssf kfdf lx:;]bf/ /x]sf],
-%_
k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd s/ r'Qmf gu/]sf] jf :yfoL s/bftf n]vf gDj/ lgoldt
gu/]sf],
-^_
s'g} Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] sfd sf/jfxLdf a]OdfgL jf ablgot u/]sf] s'/f
cbfntaf6 k|dfl0ft ePsf],
-&_
lwtf]kq bnfn jf ahf/ lgdf{tf, ;xsf/L ;+:yf,
-*_
;DjlGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfaf6 shf{ lnPsf] jf ljQLo :jfy{ /x]sf] . t/, o;
a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt 3 ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] xsdf of] k|fjwfg nfu" x'g] 5}g .

169

-(_

#=
$=
%=
^=

&=

Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] r'Qmf k'FhLsf] kGw| k|ltzt eGbf sd z]o/ lnPsf] z]o/wgLn]
yk z]o/ gfd;f/L jf vl/b u/L ln+bf lghsf] :jfldTjdf pQm Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf]
r'Qmf k'FhLsf] kGw| k|ltzt eGbf a9L z]o/ :jfldTj x'g] cj:yf ePsf], jf
-!)_ kmd{, sDkgLsf] xsdf ljut @ jif{b]lv ;+lrt d'gfkmfdf ;+rfngdf g/x]sf] .
-!!_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DjGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf ( / !! jdf]lhd tf]lsPsf] cjlw /
zt{ k"/f gu/]sf],
-!@_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 hf/L ePsf] z]o/sf] dfu /sd r'Qmfe'QmfgL gu/]sf],
-!#_ ;+:yfks z]o/ vl/bljqmL kl5 sfod x'g cfpg] s'n ;+:Yffksx?dWo] Ps ltxfO{
;b:ox? :gfts jf ;f] ;/xsf] of]Uotf k|fKt x'g'kg]{df ;f] cj:Yff ljBdfg /xg g;Sg]
b]lvPsf], jf
-!$_ o; a}+sn] ;do ;dodf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks x'g tf]s]sf] Go"gtd of]Uotf /
cg'ej gePsf]
-!^_ o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] 9fFrf ;lxtsf] lgj]bg k]z gu/]sf / k|rlnt sfg'gn] cof]Uo 7x/
u/]sf] .
-r_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks jf ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ vl/b ug]{ kmd{sDkgLsf] z]o/
:jfldTj s'g} klg lsl;dn] x:tfGt/0f ug{' cl3 ;f] kmd{ tyf sDkgLn] o; a}+saf6 :jLs[lt
lng' kg]{5 . Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks jf ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ vl/b ug]{ sDkgLsf]
z]o/ csf]{ s'g} sDkgLn] vl/b u/]sf] ePdf To:tf] sDkgLsf] z]o/ klg s'g} klg lsl;dn]
x:tfGt/0f ug'{cl3 o; a}+saf6 :jLs[lt lng' kg]{5 .
-5_
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf ;+:yfks;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ vl/b ubf{ ;+:yfks z]o/wgLxn]
tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf -a}+sljQLo ;+:yf ;+:yfkgf Pj+ ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ug{] Ohfhtkq ;DjGwL gLltut
Pj+ k|s[ofut Aoj:yfM @)^# sf] ;+zf]lwt cg';"rL # sf] a'Fbf g+= !^ sf] ljj/0f_ nufgL x'g]
/sdsf] cfo;|f]t;DaGwL ljj/0f clgjfo{ kdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . ;f] sf] clen]v ;DalGwt a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfn] cBfjlws u/L /fVg' kg]{ tyf ;f] ;DaGwL ;Dk"0f{ clen]vsf] k|ltlnlk o; a}+ssf]
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefudf ;d]t k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
;+:yfks jf ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ gfd;f/L jf vl/b u/L lng] cGo JolQm jf ;+:yfn] bkmf ! / @ df
pNn]v ePsf] k|lqmof gk'ofO{ cfgf] :jfldTjsf] z]o/ gfd;f/L jf laqmL ug{ kfpg] 5}gg\ .
o; a}+sn] ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ gfd;f/L jf laqmL ug{ :jLs[lt lbPsf] ldltn] tLg dlxgf leq cfgf]
:jfldTjsf] z]o/ gfd;f/L jf laqmL u/L ;Sg' kg]{5 . ;f] cjlw kZrft\ ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ laqmL ug{
lbOPsf] :jLs[lt :jtM /2 x'g]5 .
o; a}+saf6 ljleGg ldltdf ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ gfd;f/L jf laqmL ug{ :jLs[lt lnP/ of] lgb]{zg
hf/L ePsf] ldlt;Dd klg z]o/ gfd;f/L jf laqmL u/L g;s]sf z]o/wgLx?n] k'gM o; lgb]{zg cg'?ksf]
k|lqmof k"/f u/]/ dfq cfgf] :jfldTjsf] z]o/ gfd;f/L jf laqmL ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
;+:yfks jf ;f] ;d"xsf] z]o/ gfd;f/L jf vl/b u/L lng] JolQm jf ;+:yfn] o; lgb]{zg ljkl/t x'g] u/L cfgf]
:jfldTjdf /x]sf] z]o/ gfd;f/L jf laqmL u/]df o;/L lgb]{zg ljkl/t cfgf] :jfldTjdf /x]sf] z]o/ gfd;f/L jf
laqmL ug]{ JolQm jf ;+:yfx? lghx?n] cfgf] :jfldTjdf /x]sf] z]o/ gfd;f/L jf laqmL u/]sf] ldltn] sDtLdf
kfFr jif{;Dd csf]{ s'g} Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf]] ;+:yfks x'g tyf s'g} klg Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns x'g
of]Uo x'g] 5}gg\ .
o; a}+sf/f hf/L a}+sljQLo ;+:yf ;+:yfkgf Pj+ ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ug{] Ohfhtkq ;DjGwL gLltut Pj+
k|s[ofut Joj:yfM @)^# n] u/]sf] gLltut Joj:yf cg';f/ o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s'g} Ps a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks z]o/df nufgL ubf{ r'Qmf k"FhLsf] a9Ldf !% k|ltzt / cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfx?df r'Qmf k"FhLsf] a9Ldf ! k|ltzt;Dd dfq nufgL ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
t/, g]kfn ;/sf/sf] %) k|ltzt jf ;f] eGbf a9L :jfldTj ePsf ljQLo If]q;Fu ;DalGwt sd{rf/L ;+ro
sf]if, gful/s nufgL sf]if / /fli6o aLdf ;+:yfgsf] xsdf a9Ldf !% k|ltztsf] ;Ldf sfod x'g] u/L Ps
eGbf a9L a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf ;+:yfks z]o/ nufgL ug{ afwf k'u]sf] dflgg] 5}g .
pQm gLlt nfu" ePsf] ldltn] % jif{leq -cyf{t @)^* c;f/ d;fGtleq_ df tf]lsPsf] ;Ldfleq z]o/
:jfldTj sfod gug]{ tyf ;f] ;LdfeGbf a9L z]o/ wf/0f ug]{ ;+:yfks z]o/wgLx?sf] xsdf tf]lsPsf]
;Ldfleq gcfP;Dd ;DalGwt a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:Yffaf6 ljt/0f ul/g] gub nfef+; tyf af]g; z]o/ /f]Ssf
/fvL ;DalGwt ;+:Yffaf6 hf/L ul/g] xsk|b z]o/df ;xefuL x'g aGb]h nufOPsf] 5 . ;fy} To:tf] a}+s tyf

170

*=

(=
!)=
!!=

!@=

!#=
!$=
!%=

ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ ufEgufleg lgb]{zg lbg ;lsg]5 . t/ o; lgb]{zgn] ;DalGwt ;+:yfksx?n] rfx]sf]
v08df xsk|b z]o/ xs x:tfGt/0f ug{ eg] afwf k'ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
dfly plNnlvt ;+:yfks z]o/wgLsf] z]o/ :jfldTj @)^* cfiff9 d;fGtdf tf]lsPsf] ;Ldfleq Nofpg'
kg]{ Joj:yfnfO{ @)^( cfiff9 d;fGt;Dd sfod ul/Psf] / a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^#
sf] bkmf !! adf]lhdsf kbflwsf/Lx?sf] xsdf s] s:tf] k|lqmof ckgfO{ ;Ldfleq Nofpg] xf] ;f] ;DaGwL
sfo{of]hgf @)^* efb| d;fGtleq a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg tyf ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf
clgjfo{ ?kdf cfO{k'Ug] u/L k]z ug{'kg]{ Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .
k|rlnt sfg'g / o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg kfngf ug]{u/fpg] ;Gbe{df a+}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] wf/0f u/]sf
;+:yfks z]o/, ;+:yfks ;+:yfks jLrdf x:tfGt/0f ug'{ kg]{ cj:yf cfO{ k/]df o; a}+ssf] :jLs[lt lnO{
k|lt JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL, ;+:yf tyf ;d"xsf] !% k|ltztsf] ;LdfeGbf a9L ePdf ;d]t vl/b ljqmL ug{
jfwf k'u]sf] dflgg] 5}g . t/, o;/L wf/0f u/]sf z]o/ !% k|ltztsf] ;LdfeGbf a9L ePsf] cj:yfdf pQm
z]o/ cfkm"n] wf/0f u/]sf] ldltn] % jif{ leq ljqmL ljt/0f u/L clgjfo{ ?kdf !% k|ltztsf] ;Ldf leq NofO{
;Sg' kg]{5 .
pk/f]Qm tf]lsPsf] ;Ldfleq sfod g/x]sf a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf ;+:Yffks z]o/wgLx?nfO{ pQm
;Ldfleq gcfP;Dd ;DalGwt a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:Yffaf6 ljt/0f x'g] gub nfef+;, af]g; z]o/ / xsk|b
z]o/df ;xefuL x'g aGb]h nufOPsf] 5 .
;+:yfkssf] :jfldTjdf /x]sf] z]o/ gfd;f/L jf vl/b u/L lng] JolQm jf ;+:yf klg ;+:yfksx?sf]
;d"xdf /xg] u/L Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] k|aGwkq / lgodfjnLdf clgjfo{ ?kdf ;+zf]wg ug]{ Joj:yf
ug'{ kg]{5 .
o; a}+saf6 :jLs[lt glnO{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ gfd;f/L jf laqmL u/]sf]
nut sf u/L lbPdf To:tf ;+:yfnfO{ g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf !)) adf]lhd sf/jfxL
x'g]5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks jf ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/df ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?af6 nufgL ug]{]
;DjGwdf
o; a}+saf6 O{hfhtkq k|fKt u/]sf jf Ohfhtkqsf] nflu gofF lgj]bg k]z x'g] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf]
;+:yfks jf ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/df k|rlnt sfg'g jdf]lhd ;+:yflkt ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?n] ;+:yfut
?kdf nufgL ug{ kfpg] 5}gg\ .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ;j{;fwf/0fsf nflu z]o/ ljqmL cfJxfg u/L ljj/0fkq ;d]t hf/L u/L z]o/sf]
z'? lg:sf;g -Initial Public Offering_ sf] dfWodaf6 z]o/ wf/0f u/L sfod x'g cfPsf z]o/wgLx?
afx]s ;+:yfks, ;+:yfks ;d"x / Private Placement sf] dfWodaf6 :jb]zL jf ljb]zL JolQm jf ;+:yfn]
wf/0f u/]sf]] z]o/ ;d]t o; a}+ssf] lgodg k|of]hgfy{ ;+:yfks;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ ;/x dflgg]] 5 .
;fj{hlgs lgisfzg ug{ egL 5'ofOPsf] lwtf]kq ;DalGwt ;+:yfks, ;+rfns jf lghsf kl/jf/n] lng
kfpg] 5}gg\ . t/, To:tf] lwtf]kqsf] b/vf:t v'Nnf /xg] egL tf]lsPsf] cjlwleq k"/f laqmL gePsf]
cj:yfdf eg] of] k|ltaGw nfu" x'g] 5}g .
;+:yfks;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ wf/0f u/]sf z]o/wgLn] ;+:yfks ;d"x afx]s cGo ;d"xaf6
;+rfnsdf pDd]b\jf/L lbg kfpg] 5}g .
b'O{ k|ltzteGbf 36L z]o/ vl/b ljqmL ;DaGwL ljz]if Joj:yf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] r'Qmf k'FhLsf] b'O{ -@_ k|ltzt jf ;f]eGbf sd z]o/ lnPsf ;+:yfks
z]o/wgLx?sf] gfddf /x]sf] ;+:yfks z]o/ k|rlnt P]g sfg'g tyf b]xfosf zt{x?sf] cwLgdf /xL
ljBdfg ;+:yfksx?aLr jf cGo JolQm jf ;+:yfnfO{ vl/bljqmL ug{sf] nflu o; a}+ssf] :jLs[lt lnO{
/xg' kg]{ 5}g . gofF ;+:yfksx?n] o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] dfkb08 / Fit and Proper Test sf] Joj:yfnfO{
kl/kfngf u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 . b'O{ k|ltzteGbf a9L z]o/ wf/0f u/]sf ;+:yfks z]o/wgLx?sf] xsdf eg]
o; k|of]hgsf] nflu ;+:yfks z]o/ v08Ls[t u/L b'O{ k|ltzt jf ;f] eGbf sd u/L o:tf] ;'lawf pkof]u
ug{ kfO{g] 5}g .
-s_= ;+:yfks z]o/wgLx?sf] d[To' ePsf], jf k|rlnt sfg'g jdf]lhd kfl/jfl/s c+zj08f ePdf jf
cbfntsf] cfb]z ePsf] cj:yfdf ;DjlGwt xsjfnfnfO{ k|rlnt sfg'g jdf]lhd x:tfGt/0f ug{
;lsg] 5 .
-v_= d[To' eO{ jf k|rlnt sfg'g jdf]lhd kfl/jfl/s c+zj08f xs x:tfGt/0f ePsf] cj:yfdf afx]s
;+:yfks z]o/wgLn] cfgf] ;+:yfks z]o/ x:tfGt/0f ubf{ ljBdfg ;+:yfks z]o/wgLnfO{ g}

171

-u_=
-3_=
-_=

-r_=

-5_=

-h_=
-em_=
-`_=

k|fyldstf lbg' kg]{5 . ljBdfg ;+:yfks z]o/wgLx?n] pQm z]o/ vl/b ug{ grfx]df ;f]sf]
lnlvt hfgsf/L lnO{ cGo ;d"x jf jfX\o JolQm;+:yfnfO{ j]rljvg ug{ ;lsg] 5 . ;Dk"0f{
;+:yfksx?sf] lnlvt ;xdlt lng ;Dej gePdf ;DjlGwt a}+sljQLo ;:yf dfkm{t
/fli6o:t/sf] klqsfdf sDtLdf #% lbgsf] ;fj{hlgs ;"rgf k|sfzg u/L hfgsf/L u/fpg] / ;f]
cjlwleq s;}n] vl/b ug{ rfx]sf] lnlvt hfgsf/L k]z x'g gcfPdf dfq k|rlnt sfg'gsf]
cwLgdf /xL cGo JolQm;+:yfnfO{ ljqmL ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ vl/b ug]{ JolQm;+:yfnfO{ ;f]xL ;+:yfks ;d"xdf ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
Pp6f a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] z]o/ o; a}sjf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt cGo s, v / u ju{sf a}+s
tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx? / ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?n] vl/b ug{ kfpg] 5}gg\ .
a'Fbf g+= @ sf] v08 -_ df pNn]lvt cof]Uotf ePsf] JolQm;+:yf ;+:yfks z]o/ vl/blaqmL
ug]{ sfo{df ;xefuL x'g kfpg] 5}gg\ .
;+ul7t ;+:yfn] z]o/ vl/b ug]{ ePdf pQm ;+:yfsf] sfo{p2]Zodf z]o/ vl/bljqmL ug{
kfpg]gkfpg] olsg u/L ljut @ cfly{s jif{b]lv ;+rfng d'gfkmfdf /x]sf] ljQLo ljj/0f Plsg u/]/
dfq ljqmL ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fy}, pQm ;+ul7t ;+:Yffsf] ;+rfnsx? ;d]t shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb| lnld6]8sf]
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z gePsf] x'g' kg]{5 .
s'g} JolQm kmd{, sDkgL, Psf3/ kl/jf/ jf ;+ul7t ;+:Yffjf6 ;+:Yffks z]o/df nufgL ubf{ o;
a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s'g} Ps a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:Yffdf a9Ldf !% k|ltzt / cGo a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfx?df r'Qmf k'FhLsf] a9Ldf ! k|ltzt;Dd dfq nufgL ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf /x]sf] x'Fbf
;f] ;DaGwL cj:yf ;DalGwt a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfn] osLg u/]kl5 dfq ;+:yfks z]o/
vl/bljqmL sfo{ x'g ;Sg]5 .
dfly v08 3, / r df plNnlvt cj:Yff k"/f eP gePsf] jf/] ;DjlGwt a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf]
;+rfns ;ldltn] cfFk}m osLg u/]/ dfq ;+:yfksx?sf] :jfldTj nut lstfjdf kl/jt{g u/fpg'
kg]{5 .
;+:yfks z]o/ vl/blaqmL ;DaGwL :jLs[lt ;DalGwt a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;~rfns
;ldltn] g} k|bfg ug{ ;Sg] 5 .
z]o/wgLx?n] vl/bljqmL ug]{ ;+:yfks z]o/sf] d"No / ;DjlGwt lgsfox?df nfUg] s/, b:t'/,
;]jf z'Ns k|rlnt sfg'g jdf]lhd x'g]5 .
r'Qmf k'FhLsf] @ k|ltzteGbf a9L ;+:yfks z]o/ wf/0f u/]sf] cj:yfdf To:tf] z]o/ 6'qmf 6'qmf
u/L jf Psd'i6 ?kdf ;+:yfks ;d"xdf g/x]sf] JolQmnfO{ ljqmL ug{' k/]sf] v08df z]o/
ljqmLx:tfGt/0f jf gfd;f/L ug{ o; a}+ssf] :jLs[lt lng' kg]{5 .
s'g} a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfdf ;+:yfks z]o/ lwtf] /fvL shf{ lnPsf] cj:yfdf shf{ c;'nLsf
kof{Kt pkfox? cjnDag ubf{ ;d]t pQm shf{ c;'npk/ x'g g;sL pQm ;+:yfks z]o/ g}
hkmt ug'{ kg]{ cj:yf l;h{gf x'g uPsf] cj:yfdf / k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd a}+s jf ljQLo
;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks z]o/ laqmL ug'{kg]{ afWofTds cj:yfdf z]o/ ;+Vof / cf}lrTosf cfwf/df
hkmt ul/Psf]afWofTds ?kdf ljqmL ug'{ kg]{ pQm ;+:yfks z]o/ ljqmL ug{sf nflu
vl/bstf{sf] klxrfg ug]{ ;DaGwdf b]xfosf] k|s[of cjnDag ug{ ;lsg] 5 M

;+:yfks z]o/ ;fj{hlgs ;"rgf u/L af]nsaf]n -uf]Ko l;N86]08/_ sf] dfWodaf6
k|rlnt sfg'g / g]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] gLlt Pj+ lgb{]zg ljkl/t gx'g] u/L ;DalGwt a}+s
jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf ljBdfg ;+:yfks z]o/wgL nufot cGo OR5's JolQm, kmd{ sDkgL
tyf ;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{ ljqmL ug{ vl/bstf{ 5gf}6 ug{,

k|rlnt sfg'g tyf ljBdfg lgb{]zgdf ePsf] Joj:yf adf]lhd o;/L ;+:yfks z]o/ vl/b
ug{] vl/bstf{ ;+:yfks ;d"xdf g} kg{] Joxf]/f ;d]t hfgsf/L u/fpg] . ;+:yfks z]o/
vl/bstf{ klxrfg eO{;s]kl5 r'Qmf kF"hLsf] @ k|ltzteGbf 36L ;+:yfks z]o/ wf/0f ug]{
;+:yfks z]o/wgLsf] ;+:yfks z]o/sf] xsdf dfly pNn]lvt k|s[of ckgfO{ z]o/ ljqmL jf
gfd;f/L ug{' kg{] . t/, r'[Qmf k'FhLsf] @ k|ltzteGbf a9L z]o/ :jfldTj wf/0f u/]sf]
cj:yfdf z]o/ ljqmLx:tfGt/0f jf gfd;f/L ;DaGwL k|s[of o; a}+saf6 :jLs[lt k|fKt
ePkl5 dfq cl3 a9\g] .

172

-6_=

!^=

;+:yfks z]o/ laqm]tf shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb| lnld6]8sf] sfnf];"rLdf ;"rLs[t /lx/x]sf] eP To:tf]
;+:yfks z]o/ ljqmLaf6 k|fKt x'g cfpg] /sd clgjfo{ ?kdf shf{ r'Qmf ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu
pkof]u ug'{ kg]{5 .
-7_= plNnlvt Joj:yfsf] cwLgdf /xL z]o/ vl/bljqmL u/L gofF sfod ePsf ;+:yfks
z]o/wgLx? ;lxtsf] cBfjlws ljj/0f !% lbgleq o; a}+s ;dIf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-8_= dfly pNn]lvt k|s[of gk'ofO{ ;+:yfks z]o/ vl/blaqmL ul/Psf] cj:Yffdf b]xfosf sf/jfxL
x'g]5g\

a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfM g]kfn /fi6 a}+s, P]g @)%* sf] bkmf !)) adf]lhd ;r]t u/fpg]
nufotsf cGo sf/jfxL . ljqm]tf ;+:yfks z]o/wgLsf xsdf h'g a}+s jf ljQLo
;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks z]o/ xf] ;f]xL a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfn] hkmt ug{ ;Sg] .

vl/bljqmLstf{ MgofF ;+:yfkgf x'g] a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks z]o/df nufgL
ug{ / s'g} klg Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;~rfnssf] ?kdf /xg vl/bljqmL u/]sf]
ldltn] % jif{;Dd of]Uo gx'g] .
-9_= k|rlnt P]g, sfg'g / o; a}+saf6 hf/L ul/Psf gLlt lgb]{zgx?df s'g} kl/dfh{g ePdf ;f]xL
adf]lhd plNnlvt Joj:Yffdf kl/dfh{g ePsf] dflgg] 5 .
%! k|ltzteGbf a9Lsf] ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ ljqmL ;DaGwdf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DjGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf (-@_ sf] k|of]hgsf] nflu b]xfodf plNnlvt
zt{x?sf] cwLgdf /xL %! k|ltzteGbf a9L ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ :jfldTj /x]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfsf ;+:yfks z]o/wgLx?n] rfx]df ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ :jfldTj slDtdf %! k|ltzt sfod /xg]
u/L af+sL z]o/ ;j{;fwf/0f z]o/ ;/x bf];|f] k'FhL jhf/ -Secondary Capital Market_ dfkm{t sf/f]jf/
ug{ ;Sg]] 5g\ .
-s_
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ;~rfng ePsf] % jif{ k"/f u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
-v_
;+:yfks jf ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ :jfldTj slDtdf %! k|ltzt sfod} /xg' kg]{5 .
-u_
%! k|ltzteGbf a9L ePsf] z]o/ :jfldTj lwt]fkq ljlgdo ahf/ lnld6]8 dfkm{t vl/b
ljqmLkl/0ft ug{] k|of]hgsf] nflu ;+:yfksx?sf] z]o/ nufgLsf] cg'kftdf ;dfg'kflts ?kdf
(Pro-rata basis) a9L x'g] z]o/ ;j{;fwf/0fdf kl/0ft u/L k|rlnt sfg'g jdf]lhd lwtf]kq
ljlgdo jhf/ lnld6]8 dfkm{t\ vl/bljqmL ug{ ;lsg] 5 . xfn ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ;~rfng ePsf]
% jif{ k"/f u/]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] o; Joj:yf cg'?k z]o/ ljqmL ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
t/, s'g} ;+:yfks;+:yfks ;d"xdf /x]sf] z]o/wgLn] dfly pNn]v eP cg';f/sf] z]o/x? csf]{
;d"xdf kl/0ft ug{ grfx]sf] egL :jM3f]if0ff ljj/0f k|fKt ePsf] cj:yf /x]5 eg] afFsL /x]sf
;b:ox?n] ;+:yfks;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ :jldTj %! k|ltzteGbf sd gx'g] u/L To:tf]
z]o/ cg'kft pkof]u ug{ kfpg] 5g\ .
-3_
o; ;DjGwdf ;DjlGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] l;kmfl/; ;lxt o; a}+saf6
:jLs[lt k|fKt ug'{ kg]{5 . o;/L :jLs[lt k|fKt ePkl5 cfufdL ;fwf/0f ;efaf6 k|aGwkq tyf
lgodfjnLdf cfjZos ;+zf]wg u/L ;f]xL adf]lhd z]o/ ;+/rgf ldnfpg' kg]{5 . ;f] adf]lhd
k|aGwkq tyf lgodfjnLdf cfjZos ;+zf]wg geP;Dd o;/L vl/bljqmL kl/0ft x'g] z]o/sf]
c+z ;+:yfks ;d"xdf g} /x]sf] dflgg] 5 .
-_
k|aGwkq tyf lgodfjnL ;+zf]wg ubf{ ;~rfns ;ldltdf klg z]o/ :jfldTj cg'?k k|ltlglwTj
x'g] u/L ldnfpg' kg]{5 .
-r_
Psk6s ;j{;fwf/0f z]o/df kl/0ft e};s]sf] z]o/ k'gM ;+:yfks jf ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/df
kl/0ft ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-5_
;+:yfks ;d"xdf /x]sf] z]o/ ;j{;fwf/0f z]o/df kl/0ft u/L ljqmL ug]{ JolQm;+:yf
sfnf];"rLdf /x]sf] ePdf lghsf] z]o/ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] shf{ r'Qmf ug]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu
dfq ljqmL ug{ kfOg] 5 . sfnf];"rLdf /x]g/x]sf] Joxf]/f ;DjlGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] g}
osLg ug'{ kg]{5 .
-h_
o; Joj:yf cg'?k ljqmLkl/0ft ug]{ sfo{ Psk6s dfq ug{ kfOg] 5 .
-em_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf ;~rfnssf] kbdf axfn /x]sf] cj:Yffdf ;d]t ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/
o; Joj:yf cg'?k ;j{;fwf/0fdf kl/0ft ug{ jfwfkg]{ 5}g . t/, vl/bljqmL ;DjGwL k|lqmof
k|rlnt sfg'gsf] cwLgdf /xL ug'{ kg]{5 .

173

!&=

!*=

!(=
!(=!

a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] k'FhL j[l Pj+ k'FhL ;+/rgf kl/jt{g ug{ rfx]df b]xfosf zt{sf] clwgdf /xL ug{
;Sg]
-s_
k'FhL j[lkl5 s'n k'FhLdf ;j{;fwf/0f z]o/ :jfldTjsf] cg'kft k'FhL j[l cl3 sfod /x]sf]
;j{;fwf/0f z]o/ :jfldTjsf] cg'kfteGbf sdL gx'g] u/L dfq k'FhL j[l ug'{ kg]{5 .
-v_
o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg adf]lhd cfly{s jif{ @)^$.^% b]lv @)&) cfiff9 d;fGt;Dddf tf]lsPsf]
r'Qmf k'FhL k"/f ug'{kg]{ ;+:yf afx]ssf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] tof/ u/L k]z u/]sf]] k'FhL of]hgf
cg';f/ tf]lsPsf] Go"gtd r'Qmf k'FhL sfod ug{ Right Re-nounce ug]{ k|of]hg afx]s
Ohfhkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] k'FhL a[l4 ubf{ ;+:yfks ;d"xdf gofF z]o/wgL yk ug{
kfOg] 5}g .
-u_
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] k'FhL j[l Pj+ k'FhL ;+/rgfdf kl/jt{g ug{ k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd
;DjlGwt ;+:yfsf] jflif{s ;fwf/0f ;efljz]if ;fwf/0f ;efjf6 :jLs[t u/fpg' kg]{5 .
-3_
o; sfo{sf nflu o; cl3 ;}flGts ;xdlt lbO;s]sf] cj:yfdf pQm ;}4flGts ;xdltdf
pNn]lvt zt{sf] clwgdf /xL sfof{Gjog ug{ eg] o; Joj:yfn] afwf k'ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
-_
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?nfO{ hf/L ul/Psf] PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^^
sf] O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= !))^^ sf] a'Fbf g+= !^ -a}=lj=lg=lj=gLltkl/kq#)^%.^^ ldlt
@)^%.$.@* sf] kl/kq_ df ePsf] Joj:yf adf]lhd ;+:yfks z]o/sf] cg'kft yk ug{ :jLs[lt
k|fKt u/]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] o; lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf g+= !^ cg';f/sf] ;+:yfks z]o/
;j{;fwf/0fdf kl/jt{g kl/0ft ug{ kfpg] 5}gg\ . ;fy}, ;f] sf] clen]vsf nflu z]o/
k'l:tsfdf clen]vLs/0f u/L k|To]s cfly{s jif{sf] jflif{s k|ltj]bgdf pQm ljifo v'nfpg' kg]{5 .
Cross Holding u/L nufgL ul//x]sf] ;+:yfks z]o/ ljqmL ;DaGwdf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DjGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf $* sf] pkbkmf -!_ -5_ sfof{Gjog ug]{u/fpg]
l;nl;nfdf ;f]xL P]gsf] bkmf (-@_ sf] k|of]hgsf] nflu b]xfosf zt{x?df a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:Yffx?n]
cfk;df Cross-holding x'g] u/L nufgL u/]sf] ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ lwtf]kq ljlgdo jhf/ dfkm{t
vl/bljqmL ug{] ;DaGwdf b]xfo adf]lhd ug'{ kg]{5 .
-!_
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] cGo Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf nufgLdf /lx/x]sf]
;+:yfks ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ g]kfn lwtf]kq ljlgdo jhf/ dfkm{t vl/bljqmL ug{ ;Sg]
u/L 5'6 k|bfg ul/Psf] .
-@_
;+:yfks z]o/ gfd;f/L jf ljqmL ubf{ ljBdfg ;+:yfks z]o/wgLx?sf] ?kdf /lx/x]sf cGo
;b:ox?nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg'kg]{ ljBdfg PsLs[t lgb]{zg g+= !) sf] Joj:Yff o; k|of]hgsf]
nflu nfu" gx'g] .
-#_
g]kfn lwtf]kq ljlgdo jhf/ dfkm{t z]o/ vl/b ug]{ JolQm;+:yf ;d]t ;+:yfks ;d'xdf g}
sfod /xg] .
-$_
;+:Yffks ;d"xsf] z]o/ vl/bstf{ shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb| ln= sf] sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z gePsf] x'g'kg]{
/ k|rlnt sfg'g tyf o; a}+saf6 hf/L ul/Psf lgb]{zg jdf]lhd ;+:yfks z]o/;+:yfks
;d"xsf] z]o/ vl/b ug{ cof]Uo gePsf] :jM3f]if0ff (Self Declaration) z]o/ vl/b ubf{sf]
cj:Yffdf g} k]z ug'{ kg]{ .
-%_
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] o; lgb]{zg adf]lhd cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?df cfkm"n]
nufgL u/]sf] ;+:yfks z]o/ o; lgb]{zg adf]lhd clgjfo{?kdf j]rljvg u/L ;Sg' kg]{ .
-^_
z]o/ vl/b ljqmL ;DjGwL cGo Aoj:yf tyf k|s[ofsf ;DjGwdf k|rlnt sfg'g cg';f/ g} x'g] .
-&_
lwtf]kq ljlgod jhf/ dfkm{t Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] vl/bljqmL u/]sf ;+:yfks z]o/x?
lwtf]kq ljlgdo ahf/ dfkm{t k'gM vl/b ljqmL ug ;lsg] . t/ o;/L z]o/ vl/b ug]{
JolQm;+:yfx? ;DalGwt ;+:yfks ;d"xd} /xg] .
-*_
o;/L JolQm tyf ;+:yfn] k'gM z]o/ vl/bljqmL ug]{ ;DaGwdf dfly pNn]lvt pka'Fbf g+= % df
pNn]v ePsf] Joj:yf afx]ssf cGo ;Dk"0f{ a'Fbfsf Joj:yfx? cfslif{t x'g] .
Cross Holding ljqmL u/]kl5 dfq nfef+; km's'jf ug]{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cGo Ohfhkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?df u/]sf] ;+:yfks
z]o/ nufgL (Cross Holding) @)^% r}qd;fGtleq laqmL (Divest) u/L ;Sg'kg]{ Joj:yf ePsf]df pQm
Joj:yfsf]] kfngf gu/]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ b]xfo adf]lhdsf] sf/jfxL ul/g] 5 .

174

;+:yfks z]o/ nufgL -Cross Holding_ cGTo ug]{ ;DaGwL gLltut Joj:yf kfngf gu/]sf a}+s
tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] xsk|b z]o/ vl/b ug{ gkfpg], gub nfef+;, af]g; z]o/nfO{ /f]Ssf /fVg] /
/f]Ssf /flvPsf] jf]g; z]o/ nufot ;j} Cross Holding ljqmL -Divest_ u/]kl5 dfq gub
nfef+; km's'jf ul/g] 5 .
v=
tf]lsPsf] ;do leq klg a]rljvg gu/]sf ;+:yfnfO{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^#
sf] bkmf &$ adf]lhd sf/jfxL ul/g] 5 .
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# afx]s cGo k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd :yfkgf eO{ lgIf]k kl/rfng
tyf shf{sf] sf/f]jf/ ul//x]sf ;+:yfn] o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt -s, v / u ju{sf_ a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks z]o/df u/]sf] nufgL @)^% cfiff9 d;fGtleq ljqmL gu/]sf] ePdf To:tf]
;+:yfks z]o/df nufgL u/]sf ;+:yfnfO{ xsk|b z]o/gub nfef+; ljt/0f ug{ gkfOg], af]g; z]o/nfO{
/f]Ssf /fVg] / /f]Ssf /flvPsf] jf]g; z]o/ nufot ;j} Cross Holding ljqmL -Divest_ u/]kl5 dfq gub
nfef+; km's'jf ug'{ kg]{5 .
xsk|b z]o/ ;DaGwdf
!=
xsk|b z]o/ laqmL ;DaGwdf
-s_
tf]lsPsf] k'FhLsf]if cg'kft sfod u/]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfxsf] xsdf xsk|b z]o/
hf/L ubf{ a}+s tyf laQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf & -!_ adf]lhd ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{
ljqmL ljt/0f ul/Psf] z]o/ wf/0f ug]{ s'g} z]o/wgLn] vl/b gu/]df jf z]o/ vl/b ug]{ xs
cnfO{ laqmL jf x:tfGt/0f gu/]df To;/L laqmL x'g g;s]sf] xsk|b z]o/sf] c+z v08 -u_
df pNn]lvt cj:yfdf afx]s cGo cj:yfdf :jtM vf/]h ug'{ kg]{]5 .
-v_
v08 -s_ adf]lhd vf/]h ug'{ k/]sf] cj:yfdf k|To]s jif{ ;dfg'kflts kdf r'Qmf k'FhL
j[l4 ub]}{ n}hfg' kg]{ o; a}+ssf] k|fjwfg kfngf ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu To:tf] vf/]hL ug'{
k/]sf] z]o/sf] /sdsf] xb;DdnfO{ cfufdL jif{df ;dfof]hg ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
-u_
v08 -s_ adf]lhd :jtM vf/]h ug'{k/]sf] sf/0faf6 k|rlnt sfg'gL tyf gLltut Joj:yf
adf]lhd z]o/ :jfldTj ;+/rgfdf k|lts'n c;/ kg]{ cj:yf ePdf dfq To:tf] z]o/sf] c+z
;fj{hlgs ;"rgf dfkm{t ;fj{hlgs af]nsjf]nsf] cfwf/ (Public Auction Basis) df
Go"gtd k|lt z]o/ d"No ?= !)) tf]sL ljqmL ug{ ;lsg] 5 . o;/L ;fj{hlgs af]nsjf]nsf]
dfWodf/f ljqmL ubf{ k|lt z]o/ ?= !)) eGbf a9L k|fKt x'g cfpg] /sd -Premium_ nfO{
;DjlGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] 5'6\6} Share Premium zLif{s cGt{ut b]vfpg' kg]{5 .
-3_
;+:yfks;+:yfks ;d"x cGtu{tsf] ljqmL x'g g;s]sf] o:tf] xsk|b z]o/sf] c+z k|rlnt
Joj:yf cg'?k ljBdfg ;+:yfksx?nfO{ ljqmL ug{ ;lsg] 5 . k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd a}+s
jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks z]o/ cGo JolQmnfO{ laqmL ug'{kg]{ afWofTds cj:yfdf z]o/
;+Vof / cf}lrTosf cfwf/df afWofTds ?kdf ljqmL ug'{ kg]{ pQm ;+:yfks z]o/ ljqmL ug{sf
nflu vl/bstf{sf] klxrfg ug]{ ;DaGwdf b]xfosf] k|s[of cjnDag ug{ ;lsg] 5 M
;+:yfks z]o/ ;fj{hlgs ;"rgf u/L af]nsaf]n -uf]Ko l;N86]08/_ sf] dfWodaf6
k|rlnt sfg'g / g]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] gLlt Pj+ lgb{]zg ljkl/t gx'g] u/L ;DalGwt
a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf ljBdfg ;+:yfks z]o/wgL nufot cGo OR5's JolQm, kmd{
sDkgL tyf ;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{ ljqmL ug{ vl/bstf{ 5gf}6 ug{,
k|rlnt sfg'g tyf ljBdfg lgb{]zgdf ePsf] Joj:yf adf]lhd o;/L ;+:yfks
z]o/ vl/b ug{] vl/bstf{ ;+:yfks ;d"xdf g} kg{] Joxf]/f ;d]t hfgsf/L u/fpg] .
;+:yfks z]o/ vl/bstf{ klxrfg eO{;s]kl5 r'Qmf kF"hLsf] @ k|ltzteGbf 36L
;+:yfks z]o/ wf/0f ug]{ ;+:yfks z]o/wgLsf] ;+:yfks z]o/sf] xsdf a'Fbf g+= !%
df pNn]lvt k|s[of ckgfO{ z]o/ ljqmL jf gfd;f/L ug{' kg{] . t/, r'[Qmf k'FhLsf] @
k|ltzteGbf a9L z]o/ :jfldTj wf/0f u/]sf] cj:yfdf z]o/ ljqmLx:tfGt/0f jf
gfd;f/L ;DaGwL k|s[of o; a}+saf6 :jLs[lt k|fKt ePkl5 dfq cl3 a9\g] . o;
k|s[ofaf6 z]o/ vl/b ug]{ JolQm;+:yf k|rlnt Joj:yf cg';f/ of]Uotf k'u]sf] x'g'
kg]{5 .
-_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] xsk|b z]o/ lgisfzg ubf{ ;fljssf ;+:yfks
z]o/wgLx?n] vl/b ug{ kfpg] xsk|b z]o/sf] ;Dk"0f{ jf cf+lzs xs x:tfGt/0f ug{ rfx]df
k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd k|jGwkq tyf lgodfjnLdf Joj:yf u/L r'Qmf k'FhLsf] @ k|ltzt jf
s=

!(=@

@)=

175

!=

;f]eGbf sd z]o/ lnPsf ;+:yfks z]o/wgLsf] xsdf ;DalGwt a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] b]xfosf
zt{sf] clwgdf /xL] xs x:tfGt/0f ug{ ;Sg]] 5g\ .
;+:yfks;+:yfks ;d"xsf] xsk|b z]o/sf] xs x:tfGt/0f cfg} ;d"xpk;d"xsf
;+:yfksnfO{ klxnf] k|fyldstf lbg' kg]{5 . o;/L xs x:tfGt/0f ubf{ cfg}
;d"xpk;d"xdf z]o/sf] xs x:tfGt/0f x'g g;s]sf] cj:yfdf ljBdfg cGo
;+:yfksnfO{ bf];|f] k|fyldstf lbO{ xs x:tfGt/0f ug{ ;Sg] 5 .

pko'{Qm adf]lhd ;+:yfks;+:yfks ;d"xsf] xsk|b z]o/sf] xs x:tfGt/0f cfg}


;d"xpk;d"xsf ;+:yfksnfO{ klxnf] k|fyldstf lbFbf b]xfo adf]lhdsf] k|lqmof
ckgfpg' kg]{ u/L :ki6 ul/Psf] 5 M
xsk|b z]o/sf] xs x:tfGt/0f ug{ rfxg] z]o/wgLn] laqmL d"No tf]sL xs
x:tfGt/0f ug{ rfx]sf] lgj]bg a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
o;/L lgj]bg k]z u/]kl5 & lbgsf] ;do tf]sL ;+:yfn] klxnf]
k|fyldstfdf k/]sf z]o/wgLnfO{ ;"rgf lbg' kg]{5 .
o;/L klxnf] k|fyldstfdf k/]sf z]o/wgL]n] & lbgleq ;f] d"Nodf xs lng
grfx]df cGo ;+:yfksnfO{ a}+sn] ;"rgf lbg' kg]{5 .
tTkZrft cGo ;+:yfksnfO{ bf];|f] k|fyldstf lbO{ xs x:tfGt/0f ug{
;lsg]5 .
@=

@=

v08 -!_ adf]lhd ;+:yfks ;d"xdf z]o/sf] xs x:tfGt/0f x'g g;Sg] cj:yf
ePdf dfq cGo JolQm jf ;+:yfnfO{ o; lgb]{zgsf clwgdf /xL z]o/sf] xs
x:tfGt/0f ug{ ;lsg] 5 . o;/L ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/sf] xs x:tfGt/0f u/L
lng] JolQm jf ;+:yf klg h'g ;d"xpk;d"xaf6 z]o/sf] xs x:tfGt/0f u/L
lnPsf] xf] ;f]xL ;d"xpk;d"xdf ;dfj]z x'g] 5 .
#=
k|:tfljt ;+:yfks z]o/wgL o; a}+saf6 hf/L lgb]{zg cg';f/ ;+:yfks
z]o/wgLsf] nflu tf]lsPsf] of]Uotf -Fit & Proper Test) k"/f ePsf] x'g' kg]{5 .
$=
k|:tfljt ;+:yfks z]o/wgL shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|sf] sfnf];"rLdf gk/]sf] x'g'
kg]{5 .
%=
k|:tfljt ;+:yfks z]o/wgLn] cfkm\gf] nufgLsf] ;|f]t v'Ng] sfuhftsf ;fy}
kl5Nnf] cfly{s jif{sf] s/ r'Qmf k|df0fkq /jf s/ bflvnf u/]sf] lg:;f ;d]t
k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
^=
plNnlvt Joj:yfsf] clwgdf /xL xsk|b z]o/sf] xs x:tfGt/0f u/]sf] ljj/0f
o; a}+s ;dIf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-r_
v08 -s_ b]lv -_ ;Dd h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] ePtf klg a} jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf ;~rfns,
sfo{sf/L k|d'v, n]vfk/LIfs, ;lrj jf a} jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] Joj:yfkg tyf n]vf ;DaGwL
sfo{df k|ToIf ?kn] ;+nUg JolQmn] To:tf] kbdf axfn /xFbfsf avt jf To:tf] kb 5f8]sf]
sDtLdf Ps jif{;Dd ;DalGwt a} jf ljQLo ;+:yf jf To;sf] ;xfos sDkgLsf] xsk|b
z]o/ cGo s'g} klg JolQm jf ;+:yfnfO{ xs x:tfGt/0f ul/lbg jf cGo s'g} klg JolQm jf
;+:yfaf6 xs x:tfGt/0f :jLsf/ ul/lng x'Fb}g .
xsk|b z]o/df k"j{ nufgL ug]{ ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] k'FhL kof{Kttf sfod ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu ;+:yfksx?n]
xsk|b z]o/ -Right Share_ df k"j{nufgL ug{ rfx]df lgDg zt{x?sf] cwLgdf /xL ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
-s_
k'FhL j[l4 ;DaGwL k|:tfj ;DjlGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;fwf/0f;efaf6 lg0f{o
eO;s]sf] x'g' kg]{ .
-v_
o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg cg';f/ k'FhLsf]if cg'kft k'ofpg] k|of]hgsf] nflu ;+:yfks
z]o/wgLx?af6 clu|d ?kdf ;+sng u/]sf] /sd Calls in Advance zLif{sdf hDdf ug'{
kg]{ / To;/L hDdf ul/Psf] /sdnfO{ a}slaQLo ;+:yfn] To;kl5sf] xsk|b z]o/ -Right
Share_ hf/L ubf{sf] cj:yfdf clgjfo{ ?kdf ;dfof]hg ug'{ kg]{5 . To;}u/L, a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfsf z]o/wgL -;+:yfks;j{;fwf/0f ;d"x_ x?n] o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg adf]lhdsf]
cfkm\gf] k'FhL of]hgf cg';f/ ;dfg'kflts ?kdf k'FhL k'/\ofpg' kg]{ ;DjlGwt cfly{s jif{
leqdf g} xsk|b z]o/ jfkt /sd hDdf ul/;s]sf] t/ z]o/ af+8kmf+8 gePsf] sf/0f

176

@!=

@@=

;DalGwt cfly{s jif{df r'Qmf k'FhL zLif{sdf ;dfof]hg x'g g;s]sf] cj:yfdf To:tf]
/sdnfO{ ;d]t z]o/ jfkt clu|d ?kdf ;+sng u/]sf] /sdnfO{ Calls in Advance
zLif{sdf b]vfpg ;lsg] 5 . o;/L cu|Ld ?kdf ;+slnt k'FhL /sdnfO{ o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg
cg';f/ ;dfg'kftLs ?kdf j[l4 ub}{ hfg' kg]{ r'Qmf k'FhLdf u0fgf ug{] k|of]hgsf nflu
;d]t ;dfa]z ug{ ;lsg] .
-u_
o;/L cu|Ld ?kdf z]o/df nufgL ubf{ ;DalGwt ;+:yfks z]o/wgLn] cfkm\gf] c+z -Share_
;Dd dfq nufgL ug{ ;Sg] .
-3_
o:tf] Calls in Advance sf] ;6\6fdf s'g} k|sf/sf] ;'ljwf, C0f lbg jf lwtf] /fVg gkfOg] .
-_
o:tf] Calls in Advance df s'g} k|sf/sf] Aofh lnglbg gkfOg] / z]o/ k'FhL jfkt
ul/g] To:tf] clu|d z]o/ nufgL /sdnfO{ s'g} klg cj:yfdf lkmtf{ e'Qmfg ug{, lemSg jf
36fpg -Divestment_ gkfOg] . ;fy}, o:tf] /sd r'Qmf k'FhLdf n]vf+sg geP;Dd o;df
nfef+; lbg gkfOg] .
-r_
xsk|b z]o/df ul/g] k"j{ nufgL /sdnfO{ To;kl5sf] xsk|b z]o/ lgisf;g -Right Share
Issue_ ;+u cfj4 -Tie- up_ ug'{ kg]{ .
-5_
o;/L cu|Ld ?kdf ;+slnt k'FhL /sdnfO{ Calls in Advance zLif{sdf b]vfpg' kg]{ /
o;df hDdf ePsf] /sdn] vfd]df zfvf vf]Ng] k|of]hgfy{ cfjZos kg]{ cltl/Qm k'FhLsf]
k|of]hgsf] nflu ;d]t r'Qmf k'FhL ;/x g} dfGotf k|bfg ul/g] .
-h_
xsk|b z]o/df k"j{ nufgL eP klg xsk|b z]o/ lgZsf;g ubf{ k'/f ug'{ kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ k|s[of /
ljBdfg Joj:yf kfngf u/]sf]] x'g' kg]{ .
o; a}+saf6 ljQLo dWo:ystf{sf] sf/f]jf/ ug{ cg'dltkq k|fKt u/]sf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfn] cj pk|fGt
3 ju{sf] n3'ljQ ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks z]o/df nufgL ug]{ ePdf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfnfO{ k|bfg
ul/Psf] To:tf] cg'dltkq vf/]h ug]{ zt{df @% k|ltzt;Ddsf] ;Ldf ggf3\g] u/L ;+:yfks z]o/df
nufgL ug{ ;Sg]] 5g\ .
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks z]o/ gfd;f/L jf laqmL ;DaGwL
Joj:yf O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= !))^* af6 hf/L ul/Psf] lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/
d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

177

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f= lgb]{zg g+= !!)^(
laifoM ;xljQLos/0f shf{ ;DaGwL Joj:yf .
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] ;xljQLos/0f (Consortium Financing) cGt/ut k|jfx ug]{
shf{nfO{ Jojl:yt / k|efjsf/L agfpgsf nflu g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/
k|of]u u/L b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
!=
;xljQLos/0f shf{sf] kl/efiff
laifo jf k|;+un] csf]{ cy{ gnfu]df o; lgb]{zgdf ;xljQLos/0f shf{ eGgfn] b'O{ jf b'O{ eGbf a9L
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] cfk;L ;dembf/Lsf] cfwf/df ;+emf}tf u/L s'g} Pp6f u|fxs, kmd{, sDkgLnfO{
jf kl/of]hgfsf] nflu k|jfx ug{] shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwfnfO{ ;Demg' k5{ .
@=
;xljQLos/0f -Consortium_ ;DaGwdf
;xljQLos/0f cGtu{t k|jfx ePsf shf{ pkef]u ug]{ kmd{sDkgLn] cu'jf a}+s tyf ;xefuL a}+sx?;Fu
dfq a}+ls sf/f]af/ ug'{ kg]{5 . of] Joj:yf Loose Consortium shf{df klg ;dfg?kn] nfu" x'g]5 . t/,
Ps k6s ;xljQLos/0f ;d"x u7g eO;s]kl5 ;f] ;d"xsf] ;xdlt lnO{ gofF ;b:onfO{ k|j]z u/fpg
of] Joj:yfn] afwf k'ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
Loose Consortium eGgfn] ;xljQLos/0f ;d"x u7g gu/L Pp6f kl/of]hgfsf] nflu kfl/kf;'sf]
dfWodaf6 ;'/If0f sfod /xg] u/L b'O{ jf b'O{ eGbf a9L a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] k|jfx u/]sf]ug]{ shf{
;fk6 tyf ;'ljwf eGg] ;Demg'k5{ .
#=
;xljQLos/0fdf ;xeflutfsf] nflu cfjZos zt{
-!_
o; a}+saf6 ljQLo sf/f]af/ ug{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] dfq ;xljQLos/0fdf efu lng
kfpg] 5g\ .
t/ sd{rf/L ;+ro sf]if, gful/s nufgL sf]if / aLdf sDkgLnfO{ o; a}+saf6 ljQLo sf/f]af/
ug{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf cu'jf ;+:yf x'g] u/L u7g x'g] ;xljQLos/0f ;d"xdf ;xefuL e}
shf{ k|jfx ug{ of] Joj:yfn] afwf k'ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
:ki6Ls/0f: o; lgb]{zgsf] k|of]hgsf]nflu cu'jf ;+:yf eGgfn] ;xljQLos/0f ;d"xn] cu'jf ;+:yf
egL rog u/]sf] s'g} Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf ;Demg' k5{ .

-@_

$=

pka'Fbf -!_ sf] k|ltjGwfTds jfSof+zdf plNnlvt ;+:yf afx]ssf cGo ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ ;x
ljQLos/0fdf ;xefuL u/fOPdf o; a}+snfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpg' kg]{5 .
cGo ;+:yfn] C0f k|jfx ug{ / u|fxssf] vftf vf]Ng aGb]h
-!_
;xljQLos/0fdf ;xefuL gePsf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ;xljQLos/0f ;d"xf/f k|jflxt
shf{df yk x'g] u/L s'g} klg k|sf/sf] shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwf k|jfx ug{ kfpg] 5}g .
t/, ljz]if sf/0f k/]df ;x-ljQLos/0f ;d"xsf] :jLs[lt lnO{ To:tf] ;d"xdf ;xefuL gePsf]
s'g}] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ;xljQLos/0f ;d"xf/f k|jflxt shf{df yk x'g] u/L s'g} klg
k|sf/sf] shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwf k|jfx ug{ kfpg]5 .
:ki6Ls/0f:- o; lgb]{zgsf] k|of]hgsf]nflu ;xljQLos/0f ;d"x eGgfn] ;xljQLos/0fdf

;xefuL ;+:yfx?sf] ;d"x ;Demg' k5{ .

-@_

;xljQLos/0fsf] Joj:yf cGtu{t shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwf lnPsf]] s'g} u|fxs, kmd{, sDkgL jf
kl/of]hgfsf] To:tf] shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwfsf] vftf ;xljQLos/0fdf ;xefuL ;b:o afx]ssf
cGo Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf vf]Ng kfOg] 5}g .
t/, To:tf] vftf ljz]if sf/0fj; cGo Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf vf]Ng' kg]{ kl/l:ylt k/]df ;x
ljQLos/0f ;d"xsf] :jLs[lt lnO{ vf]Ng ;lsg]5 .

178

%=

^=

&=

*=

(=

!)=

shf{ ljt/0fsf] lg0f{o ug]{ ;dofjlw


shf{sf] nflu lgj]bg k/L ;xljQLos/0f ;d"x u7g eO{ cu'jf ;+:yfsf] rog ;d]t eO;s]kZrft\ gAa]
lbgleq ;xljQLos/0fdf ;xefuL x'g] cu'jf ;+:yf tyf ;xefuL ;b:ox?n] shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwf
k|jfx ug]{ jf gug]{ ;DaGwdf lg0f{o lbO ;Sg' kg]{5 .
;xefuL Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] rog
;xljQLos/0fdf ;xefuL x'g] cGo ;b:ox?sf] rog ug]{ clwsf/ C0fL / lghn] shf{ ;fk6 tyf
;'ljwfsf] nflu lgj]bg lbPsf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfnfO{ x'g]5 .
t/, Psk6s ;xljQLos/0f ;d"x u7g eO{;s]kl5 ;f] ;d"xsf] ;xdlt lagf gofF ;b:onfO{ k|j]z
u/fpg kfOg] 5}g .
;xljQLos/0f ;d"xsf] u7g
a'Fbf g+= % jdf]lhd rog ePsf ;Dk"0f{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwf k|jfx ug{' cl3
;xljQLos/0fdf ;xefuL x'g] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?sf] ;xljQLos/0f ;d"x u7g ug'{ kg]{5 . ;f]
;d"xsf] cfGtl/s sfo{ljlw ;d"x :jo+n] lgwf{/0f u/] adf]lhd x'g]5 .
cu'jf ;+:yfsf] rog
;a}eGbf a9L shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwfsf] c+z nufgL ug{ OR5's, u|fxs;Fu nfdf] cjlwb]lv kl/lrt, ;x
ljQLos/0fdf cg'ej k|fKt tyf Jofj;flos ;Nnfx lbg] ;Ifdtf cflbsf] cfwf/df ;xljQLos/0f
;d"xsf ;b:on] cfkm"dWo]af6 s'g} Ps Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfnfO{ cu'jf ;+:yfsf] ?kdf rog ug'{ kg]{5 .
shf{ ljt/0f tyf c;'nL cu'jf ;+:yfaf6 ug'{ kg]{
;xljQLos/0f cGtu{t shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwf k|jfx ubf{ / ;f]sf] ;fFjf / Aofh c;'nL ubf{ cu'jf
;+:yf dfkm{t\ ug'{ kg]{5 . ls:tf ;fFjf tyf Aofh cfFlzs ?kdf c;'nL ePsf] cj:yfdf nufgLsf]
cg'kftdf bfdf;fxLn] jfF8kmfF8 ug'{ kg]{5 .
cu'jf ;+:yfsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/
cu'jf ;+:yfsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M
-s_
;xljQLos/0fdf ;xefuL ;b:ox?sf] cu'jf tyf k|ltlglw -Ph]G6_ sf] ?kdf sfd ug]{,
-v_
;xljQLos/0fdf ;xefuL ;b:ox?sf aLrdf ;dGjo ug]{ / cfjZos kqfrf/ ug]{,
-u_
;xljQLos/0f ;d"xsf] a}7s slDtdf ltg dlxgfdf Ps k6s clgjfo{ ?kdf af]nfpg],
-3_
s'g} ljz]if sf/0f k/L ;xljQLos/0f ;d"xsf] s'g} ;b:on]] ;d"xsf] a}7s af]nfpg dfu u/]df
kGw| lbg leq a}7s af]nfpg],
-_
kl/of]hgf ljZn]if0f ug{], k|ltj]bg tof/ ug]{ / ;f] k|ltj]bgsf] k|lt ;xljQLos/0fdf ;xefuL
;b:ox?nfO{ pknAw u/fpg],
-r_
kl/of]hgfsf] nflu cNksfnLg shf{ dfu ePdf ;f]sf] cfjZostfsf] ljZn]if0f ug]{,
-5_
;xljQLos/0fdf ;xefuL ;b:ox?sf] ;xdltsf cfwf/df ;xljQLos/0f ;DaGwL ;+emf}tfsf
zt{x? tof/ ug]{ / To:tf zt{x?sf] PsPs k|lt ;a} ;xefuL ;b:ox?nfO{ pknAw u/fpg],
-h_
shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwf k|jfx ug{sf nflu cfjZos sfuhft tof/ kfg]{,
-em_ lwtf] /f]Ssf /fVg] Joj:yf ldnfpg] tyf jLdf nufotsf nufgL ;'/lIft ug]{ ;DaGwL ;Dk"0f{
sfo{x? ug]{ ,
-`_
shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwf ;'/If0f ;DaGwL ;Dk"0f{ sfuhftx? ;'/lIft /fVg] / To:tf sfuhftx?sf]
k|ltlnlk ;a} ;xefuL ;b:ox?nfO{ pknAw u/fpg],
-6_
;do;dodf C0fLaf6 cfjZos tYof tyf cGo ;"rgfx? k|fKt ug]{ / ;f] ;"rgfx? ;a}
;xefuL ;b:ox?nfO{ pknAw u/fpg],
-7_
;do ;dodf ;xefuL ;b:ox?sf] ;xeflutfdf kl/of]hgfsf] :ynut lg/LIf0f ug]{ / lg/LIf0f
k|ltj]bg tof/ ug]{ tyf ;f] k|ltj]bgsf] k|ltlnlk ;a} ;xefuL ;b:ox?nfO{ pknAw u/fpg]],
-8_
shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwf k|jfx ul/Psf] kl/of]hgfsf] ;do ;dodf sfo{;Dkfbgsf] d"Nofg u/L
;f]sf] hfgsf/L ;a} ;b:ox?nfO{ u/fpg],
-9_
;xljQLos/0f ;DaGwL o; a}+sdf k7fpg' kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ ;"rgfx? k7fpg], ;xljQLos/0fsf
jf/]df cu'jf ;+:yfsf] ?kdf / cGo ;xefuL ;b:ox?sf] tk{maf6 ;d]t o; a}+sdf cfjZos
kqfrf/ ug]{ / ;f]sf] hfgsf/L ;a} ;xefuL ;b:ox?nfO{ lbg],

179

-0f_

!!=

!@=

!#=

C0f gltg]{ C0fL pk/ s'g} lsl;dsf] sfg'gL sf/jfxL cufl8 a9fpg' kg]{ cj:yf cfPdf ;x
ljQLos/0f ;d"xsf]] a}7saf6 ;f]sf] lg0f{o u/fO{ cfjZos sfg'gL sf/jfxL cufl8 a9fpg],
-t_
cfgf] e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]afkt C0fL ;d]tsf] ;xdltdf ;xljQLos/0f ;d"xn] lg0f{o u/]
adf]lhd ;]jf z'Ns lng ;Sg],
-y_
;xljQLos/0f cGtu{t nufgL ug{ sa'n u/]sf] /sd s'g} ;b:oaf6 ljt/0f ug{ l9nfO{ e} ;f]
/sd ;xefuL ;b:osf] tk{maf6 cu'jf ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] k|ltu|fxs shf{ ;Ldfleq /xL k|jfx
u/]df ;fFjf /sd / l9nfO{ u/]hlt cjlwsf] Aofh tyf ;xljQLos/0f ;d"x jLrsf] ;xdltdf
lgwf{/0f ul/P adf]lhd xhf{gf ;d]t l9nfO{ ug]{ ;xefuL ;b:oaf6 c;'npk/ ug{;Sg],
-b_ ;xljQLos/0fsf] Joj:yf ldnfpFbf x'g] ljleGg vr{ nufot C0f gltg]{ C0fL pk/ sfg'gL
sf/jfxL cufl8 a9fpFbf x'g] vr{ C0fLaf6 c;'n x'g g;s]df ;a} ;xefuL ;b:ox?af6 nufgL
ul/Psf] shf{ /sdsf] cg'kftdf c;'npk/ ug{ ;Sg],
-w_ shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwf k|bfg ug'{ cl3 shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|af6 C0fLsf ;DaGwdf cfjZos ;"rgf
lng'kg]{ / o;/L ;"rgf lnFbf To:tf] C0fL sfnf] ;"rLdf k/]sf] jf lghn] s'g} shf{ oyf;dodf
r'Qmf gu/]sf] ePdf shf{ k|jfx ug{ gkfOg],
-g_ ;xljQLos/0f ;DaGwL ;Demf}tfdf pNn]v eP adf]lhd C0fLnfO{ oyf;dodf shf{ ;fk6 tyf
;'ljwf pknAw u/fpg] .
-k_ o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zgsf] cwLgdf /xL ;xljQLos/0f ;d"xsf] a}7ssf] lg0f{ofg';f/ cGo cfjZos
sfd sf/jfxL ug]{,
ax'dtsf] lg0f{o dfGo x'g]
;xljQLos/0fdf ;xefuL ;b:ox?sf aLr s'g} ljifodf dt}Sotf x'g g;s]df ax'dtaf6 lg0f{o lng'
kg]{5 / To:tf] dtsf] u0fgf ubf{ shf{ nufgLsf] k|ltztsf] cfwf/df ug'{ kg]{5 . sy+sbflrt dt a/fa/
ePdf cu'jf ;+:yfn] lg0ff{os dt lbg kfpg] 5 .
;xljQLos/0fdf ;xefuL ;b:ox?sf] bfloTj tyf st{Jo
;xefuL ;b:ox?sf] bfloTj tyf st{Jo b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M
-s_
cu'jf ;+:yfnfO{ cfgf] tk{maf6 ;xljQLos/0f ;DaGwL sfdsf/jfxL ug]{ :jLs[lt kq -d~h'/Lgfdf_
lbg],
-v_
cu'jf ;+:yfnfO{ cfgf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{ cfjZos kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg],
-u_
;xljQLos/0f ;DaGwL a}7sdf ;qmLo?kn] efu lng],
-3_
;xljQLos/0f ;d"xsf] a}7saf6 cf}krfl/s ?kdf shf{, ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwf lbg] lg0f{o eO{
;s]kl5 ;xljQLos/0f ;DaGwL ;+emf}tfsf zt{x?df pNn]lvt ;Dk"0f{ zt{x?sf] kfngf ug]{,
-_
;xljQLos/0fsf] efjgfnfO{ sb/ u/L oyf;So ;a} lg0f{ox?df dt}So x'g] u/L cfk;L
ljjfbx? ;dfwfg ug{ k|of; ug]{,
-r_
s'g} Ps ;b:on] csf]{ ;b:osf] clxt x'g] u/L cfkm\gf] :jfy{ k"lt{ x'g] s'g} sfd sf/jfxL gug]{],
-5_
cfk"mn] k|jfx ug]{ shf{ :jLs[t u/]kl5 cu'jf ;+:yfnfO{ hfgsf/L u/fO{ oyf;dodf ;f] /sd
pknAw u/fpg],
-h_
;xljQLos/0f ;DaGwL ;a} sfd sf/jfxL kf/bzL{?kdf u/L shf{ / C0fL;+u ;DalGwt s'g}
klg ;"rgf Ps cfk;df cfbfgk|bfg ug]{,
-em_ ;xljQLos/0f ;d"xsf] a}7sn] u/]sf] lg0f{osf] sfof{Gjog oyfzL3| ug]{,
-`_
s'g} klg ;b:on] s'g} kl/of]hgfdf tf]lsPsf] ;LdfeGbf a9L /sd nufgL ug{, PstkmL{ ?kdf
shf{ c;'nL ;DaGwL sfd sf/jfxL ug{ / ;f] shf{sf] leGg lsl;dn] juL{s/0f ug{ gkfpg],
-6_
;xljQLos/0f ;DaGwL ;Demf}tfdf pNn]v eP adf]lhd C0fLnfO{ oyf;do shf{ ;fk6 tyf
;'ljwf pknAw u/fpg' kg]{ .
yk shf{ ;DaGwL Joj:yf
;xljQLos/0f cGt/ut k|jflxt shf{df s'g} C0fLnfO{ yk shf{ k|bfg ug'{ k/]df b]xfosf cfwf/df ug'{
kg]{5 M
-s_
C0fLsf] cfjZostfsf] ljZn]if0f u/L ;xljQLos/0f ;d"xn] dfq yk shf{ ;fk6 tyf ;'ljwfsf
/sd k|bfg ug]{ ;DaGwdf lg0f{o ug{ ;Sg] . o;/L k|bfg ug{ lg0f{o ePsf] yk shf{ /sd ;a}
;b:ox?n] cfcfkm"n] k"j{ k|jfx u/]sf] /sdsf] cg'kftdf k|bfg ug'{ kg]{ .

180

-v_

!$=

!%=

!^=

!&=

v08 -s_ adf]lhd yk shf{ k|bfg ug]{ lg0f{o eP kZrft\ s'g} ;xefuL ;b:on] cfkm"n] k|jfx
ug'{ kg]{] yk /sd k|jfx ug{ c;dy{tf hgfPdf afFsL ;b:ox? Jff afFsL ;b:ox?sf] ;xdltaf6
cGo s'g} ;b:on] To:tf] af+sL /sd ;d]t k|jfx ug{ ;Sg] jf yk nufgLsf nflu ;x
ljQLos/0f ;d"xsf]] ;xdltdf C0fLsf] ;d]t ;xdlt lnO{ gofF ;b:onfO{ ;dfj]z ug{ ;lsg] .
-u_
C0fLnfO{ yk shf{ jf ;'ljwfsf] cfjZostf k/]sf] cj:yfdf ;xljQLos/0fdf ;+nUg ;+:yfx?n]
shf{ jf ;'ljwf k|bfg ug{ g;Sg] cj:yf k/]df ;f] sf] lnlvt hfgsf/L C0fLnfO{ lbg' kg]{5 .
;xljQLos/0faf6 x6\g ;Sg] cj:yf
-!_
kl/of]hgf ;+rfngdf cfO;s]kl5 b]xfosf] cj:yfdf dfq ;xljQLos/0f ;d"x 5f]8\g ;lsg] 5
M
-s_
;xljQLos/0f ;d"x 5f]8\g OR5's ;b:osf] lx:;f cGo ;b:on] lng d~h'/ u/]df,jf
-v_
laBdfg ;b:ox?sf] ;xdltdf gofF ;b:onfO{ cfgf] lx:;f laqmL u/]df .
-@_
;xljQLos/0f ;d"x 5f]8\g] ;b:osf] lx:;f :jLsf/ ug]{ s'g} klg ;b:on] k'/fgf] ;b:osf]
;Dk"0f{ bfloTj jxg ug'{kg]{ 5 . ;xljQLos/0f 5f]8\g rfxg] ;b:on] cfgf] lx:;f l8:sfp06
jf lk|ldoddf ;d]t laqmL ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-#_
pka'Fbf -!_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ;xljQLos/0f ;d"xdf k|j]z ul/;s]kl5 s'g}
klg ;b:on] ;DalGwt kl/of]hgf ;+rfngdf cfpg'k"j{ ;f] ;d"xaf6 x6\g kfpg] 5}g .
n]vfk/LIfs jf k/fdz{bftf lgol'Qm ug{ ;Sg]
C0fLsf] ljQLo l:ylt ;do;dodf d"Nofg ug{ cfjZos b]lvPdf ;xljQLos/0f ;d"xn] cfgf]
tk{maf6 :jtGq n]vfk/LIfs jf k/fdz{bftf lgo'Qm ug{ ;Sg]5 . o;/L lgo'Qm n]vfk/LIfs jf
k/fdz{bftfsf] vr{ cfkm"n] k|jfx u/]sf] shf{ nufgLsf] cg'kftdf ;xljQLos/0f ;d"xsf k|To]s ;b:on]
Joxf]g'{ kg]{5 .
;xljQLos/0f ;DaGwdf k7fpg' kg]{ ljj/0f
cu'jf ;+:yfn] lgb]{zg kmf=g+= !!=! jdf]lhd ;xljQLos/0f ;DaGwL k|To]s cfly{s jif{sf] cflZjg, kf}if,
r}q / cfiff9 d;fGtsf] ljj/0f qodf; ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] tL; lbg leq o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yf lgodg ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'k/Lj]If0f ljefudf clgjfo{ ?kdf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] ;xljQLos/0f shf{ ;+aGwL Joj:yf O=k|f= lgb]{zg g+= !!)^* af6
hf/L ul/Psf] lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u
;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

181

g]= /f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= !!=!


======================= lnld6]8 -cu'jf a}+s_
;xljQLos/0f shf{ ljj/0f
@)^======== ;fn ===================== dlxgfsf] -q}dfl;s ljj/0f_
l;= ;d"xsf] gfd C0fLsf]
gfd,
g+=
7]ufgf

k|bfg u/]sf] shf{


/sd ldlt

e'StfgL yk shf{ k|bfg


/sd ldlt
ldlt

;+nUg a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ljj/0f s}lkmot dxndf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .

182

c;'nL /sd afFsL /sd


;fFjf Aofh ;fFjf Aofh s}lkmot

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= !@)^(
ljifo M shf{ ;"rgf tyf sfnf];"rL ;DaGwL Joj:yf .
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?sf] shf{ k|jfxdf z'4tf / pko'Qmtf sfod ug]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu ;f]
;DaGwL ;"rgf Joj:yf / oyf;dodf shf{ gltg]{ C0fLx?sf] sfnf];"rL tof/ ug]{ sfo{nfO{ lgoldt tyf
Jojl:yt u/L Pp6} :yfgaf6 ;"rgf k|fKt x'g] Joj:yf ug{ jf~5gLo ePsfn] g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf]
bkmf ** sf] k|of]hgsf] nflu ;f]xL P]gsf] bkmf &( / g]kfn /fi6 a}+s shf{ ;"rgf ljlgodfjnL, @)%( sf]
ljlgod & n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
1.
shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb| ;DaGwL Joj:yf
sDkgL P]g, @)^# cGtu{t ;+:yfkgf eO{ ;~rfngdf /x]sf] shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb| ln= nfO{ g} g]kfn /fi6 a}+s
P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf ** / g]kfn /fi6 a}+s shf{ ;"rgf ljlgodfjnL, @)%( sf] ljlgod # adf]lhdsf]
shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb| -o;kl5 s]Gb| elgPsf]_ tf]lsPsf] 5 .
2.
s]Gb|df C0fL -u|fxs_ ;DaGwL ljj/0f k7fpg' kg]{
@=!
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] s]Gb|df b]xfo cg';f/sf] shf{ ;DaGwL ljj/0f -s=;"=kmf=g+= ! / @_ dlxgf
e'Stfg ePsf] !% lbgleq k7fpg' kg]{5 .
s_
cfkm"n] :jLs[t u/]sf] klRr; nfv ?k}ofF jf ;f] eGbf a9Lsf] shf{;'ljwf .
v_
() lbg eGbf a9Ln] efsf gf3]sf bz nfv ?k}ofF jf ;f] eGbf a9L / klRr; nfv
?k}ofF eGbf sd /sdsf] shf{;'ljwf .
@=@
pko'{St ljj/0f tTkZrft\ k|To]s cfly{s jif{sf] qodf; ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] !% lbgleq shf{
r'Qmf geP;Dd s]Gb|df k7fpg' kg]{5 . o;/L s]Gb|df k7fPsf] ljj/0fdf kl5 s'g} kl/jt{g ePdf
jf shf{ r'Qmf ePdf, efsf gf3]sf] shf{ lgoldt ePdf jf efsf ldlt yk jf k'g/tflnsLs/0f
ePdf ;f] sf] hfgsf/L ;d]t !% lbgleq clgjfo{ ?kdf s]Gb|nfO{ pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
@=#
s]Gb|Lo tyf If]qLo sfof{nox?n] ljj/0f k7fpg' kg]{
s'g} C0fLn] Pp6} Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ljleGg zfvfsfof{nox?af6 lnPsf] jf :jLs[lt
ePsf] shf{;'ljwf klRr; nfv ?k}ofF eGbf sd ePtf klg To:tf] u|fxsn] pkef]u u/]sf] shf{
;'ljwfsf] of]u /sd klRr; nfv ?k}ofF jf ;f]eGbf a9L x'g] ePdf pQm ;+:yfn] s=;"=kmf=g+= ! /
@ cg';f/sf] ljj/0f x/]s qodf; ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbg leq shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|df
k7fpg' kg]{5 .
@=$
u|fxssf] ljj/0f lng' kg]{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf s'g} JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{ b; nfv ?k}ofF jf
;f]eGbf a9Lsf] shf{;'ljwfsf] nflu cfj]bg k/]df shf{ ljZn]if0fsf] nflu u|fxsC0fLsf] b]xfo
adf]lhdsf] ljj/0f lng' kg]{5 M
-s_
JolQmut C0fL tyf hdfgt lbg] JolQmsf] xsdf lghsf] gful/stfsf] k|ltlnlk, :yfoL
tyf c:yfoL 7]ufgf, lghsf] tLgk':t] / Psf3/ kl/jf/sf ;b:ox?sf]] ljj/0f .
-v_
k|f]k|fO{6/l;k;fem]bf/L kmd{sf] xsdf v08 -s_ df pNn]v eP cg'?ksf] k|f]k|fO6/
;fem]bf/x?sf] ljj/0f / kmd{sf] tk{maf6 sf/f]jf/ ug{ clVtof/k|fKt JolQmsf] gfd, y/,
7]ufgf, ;fem]bf/L ;Demf}tfsf] k|ltlnkL / ;f] ;DaGwL lg0f{o .
-u_
k|fOe]6 sDkgLsf] xsdf ;+rfns / ;f] sDkgLsf !% k|ltzt jf ;f] eGbf a9L z]o/
:jfldTj ePsf z]o/wgLx?sf] v08 -s_ df pNn]v eP cg'?ksf ljj/0f / sDkgLsf]
tk{maf6 sf/f]jf/ ug]{ clVtof/k|fKt JolQmsf] gfd, y/, 7]ufgf / ;f] ;DjGwL lg0f{o .
-3_
klAns sDkgLsf] xsdf ;+rfnsx? / ;f] sDkgLsf !% k|ltzt jf ;f] eGbf a9L z]o/
:jfldTj ePsf z]o/wgLx?sf] v08 -s_ df pNn]v eP cg'?ksf ljj/0f, sDkgLsf]
tk{maf6 sf/f]jf/ ug]{ clVtof/k|fKt JolQmsf] gfd, y/, 7]ufgf / ;f] ;DjGwL lg0f{o .

183

3.

$=

%=
%=!

-_
lwtf] d"Nofgstf{sf] gfd, y/, 7]ufgf / Ohfhtkq .
clgjfo{ ?kdf shf{ ;"rgf lng' kg]{
!_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] bz nfv ?k}ofF jf ;f]eGbf a9Lsf] shf{ k|jfx ug{, k'/fgf] shf{ gjLs/0f
ug{, k'g/;+/rgf jf k'g/tflnsLs/0f ug{' cufj} C0fLu|fxssf] af/]df s]Gb|af6 clgjfo{ ?kdf
shf{ ;"rgf lng' kg]{5 . o;/L shf{ ;"rgf dfu ePdf s]Gb|n] a9Ldf # -ltg_ sfo{ lbg leqdf
To:tf] ;"rgf lbg' kg]{5 .
@_
s'g} u|fxsC0fLnfO{ shf{;'ljwf k|bfg ubf{ s]Gb|af6 pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd shf{ ;"rgf k|fKt
u/L ;s]kl5 cGo lgsfoaf6 ;"rgf lng clgjfo{ x'g] 5}g .
#_
o; v08 adf]lhd s]Gb|af6 lnOPsf] shf{ ;"rgf afkt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] s]Gb|n] tf]s]sf]
shf{ ;"rgf ;]jf z'Ns s]Gb|nfO{ a'emfpg' kg]{5 .
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug]{ k|s[of
-!_
o; lgb]{zgdf pNn]lvt cj:yf k'u]kl5 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfaf6 hlt;'s} kl/df0fsf] shf{,
;fk6 tyf ;'ljwf /sd lnO{ gltg]{ C0fLx?nfO{ sfnf];"rLdf /fVg ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfn] shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug{ ;Sg]5 . o;/L sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug{ ;DalGwt
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfaf6 l;kmfl/; gfdfjnLnfO{ shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|n] osLg ;d]t u/L kGw|
lbgleq sfnf];"rLdf /fVg' kg]{5 .
-@_
o; lgb]{zgdf tf]lsPsf] cj:yf k'u]kl5 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+sx?af6 k|bfg ul/g] qm]l86 sf8{
;'ljwf pkef]u u/L ;f] jfktsf] hlt;'s} /sdshf{ gltg]{ u|fxsx?nfO{ sfnf];"rLdf /fVg
;DalGwt a}+sn] shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|nfO{ l;kmfl/z ug{ ;Sg]5 . o;/L sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug{
;DalGwt a}+saf6 l;kmfl/; k|fKt ePkl5 ;f] gfdfjnLnfO{ kGw| lbgleq sfnf];"rLdf /fVg' kg]{5
/ sfnf];"rLaf6 gfd x6fpg] ;DaGwL sf/jfxL ljBdfg gLltut tyf k|s[oft Joj:yf adf]lhd
g} x'g]5 .
-#_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] klRr; nfveGbf a9Lsf] shf{ /sd sfnf];"rL ;DaGwL Joj:yf cGtu{t
sfnf];"rLdf ;"rLs[t u/fPkl5 dfq h'g;'s} /sdsf] shf{ sfnf];"rLdf /fVg l;kmfl/; ug'{
kg]{5 .
C0fLx?sf] juL{s/0f
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfjf6 C0f lnO{ gltg]{ C0fLx?nfO{ b]xfo adf]lhd auL{s/0f ug'{ kg]{]5 M
lgotk"j{s C0f gltg]{ C0fLx? (Willful Defaulters):
s_
e'QmfgLsf] efsf gf3]sf] ! jif{;Dd klg a}+ssf] ;Dks{df gcfPsf, C0f glt/L a]kQf ePsf jf
efu]sf, C0fsf] k'g/;+/rgf / k'g/tflnsLs/0f ;d]tsf] k|lqmof z'? gu/]sf / e'QmfgLsf]
k|lta4tf hfx]/ gu/]sf .
v_
;+:yfsf] shf{ aSof}tf /fkm;fkm ug{ lwtf] laqmL ug{ ;lsg] cj:yf x'Fbfx'Fb} klg laqmL ug{ gvf]Hg]
jf glbg] cj:Yff l;h{gf ug]{ .
u_
PseGbf a9L Joj;fo ;+rfng u/L cflh{t k|ltkmn tyf cfkm";Fu ePsf] cGo ;DklQ C0f
ltg{df k|of]u gug]{ .
3_
;+:yfaf6 h'g kl/of]hgfsf] nflu C0f lnPsf] xf] pQm C0f To;df k|of]u gu/L cGo p2]Zodf
k|of]u ug]{ (Diversion of Fund), Joj;foaf6 cflh{t /sd C0f ltg{df gnufO{ cGo sfo{df
k|of]u ug]{ (Siphoning off), cGo ;DklQ l;h{Gff ug]{, cNksfnLg shf{af6 bL3{sfnLg pkof]u
ug]{ tyf ;Demf}tf ljkl/t sDkgLaf6 ;xfos sDkgL jf cGo kmd{sDkgLdf ;fwg k|jfx ug]{ .
_
cfkm\gf] lgoGq0fdf /x]sf] kl/of]hgf jf Joj;fodf cGo JolQm jf t]>f] kIf h:t}M sfdbf/,
sd{rf/L cflbsf] gfd pkof]u u/L cfkm\gf] ;+nUgtf /x]sf] gb]vfpg] dg;fo /fvL C0f lnPsf .
r_
shf{sf] efsf gf3]kl5 ;+:yfn] dfu]sf] avt cGo yk ;'/If0f jf JolQmut hdfgL glbg] .
5_
lwtf] jf Joj;fosf] ;Gbe{df hfgLa'emL em'6f] ljj/0f k|bfg ug]{ .
h_
C0f;Fu ;DjlGwt lwtf] lxgfldgf u/]sf] kfO{Pdf .
em_ C0f k|bfg ug]{ ;+:yfsf sd{rf/L;FunfO{ ldnLdtf] u/L, b'?T;flxt u/L jf cGo u}/sfg'gL
n]gb]g u/L C0f lnPsf / gltg{sf nflu cjfl~5t bjfj lbg] .
`_
kl/of]hgfsf] ljQLo, k|fljlws, Joj:yfksLo tyf dfu, cfk"lt{ jf ahf/kIfsf] unt ljZn]if0f
u/L k'FhLsf] nfut c:jfefljs ?kn] j[l4 (Overcapitalization) ug]{ nufgLstf{ .

184

%=@

^=

&=

*=

kl/l:yltjzM C0f gltg]{ C0fLx? (Non-willful Defaulters):


s_
C0f ltg]{ dg;fo x'Fbfx'Fb} klg sfa' aflx/sf] kl/l:ylt -G cflbsf sf/0f b]zdf pTkGg c;xh
cfly{s, Jofkfl/s tyf cf}Bf]lus cj:yf jf k|lts"n afx\o cj:yf_ sf sf/0f Joj;fo 3f6fdf
uO{ jf ;d:ofu|:t agL C0f ltg{ g;s]sf .
v_
Dofbleq C0f ltg{ g;s]klg cfkm"n] C0f lnPsf] ;+:yfsf] ;Dks{df cfO{ shf{ k'g/;+/rgf jf
k'g/tflnsLs/0fsf] k|lqmof k"/f u/L ;+:yfnfO{ dfGo x'g] tj/af6 e'QmfgLsf] k|lta4tf hfx]/
u/]sf .
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ePsf C0fLnfO{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfaf6 shf{ k|bfg ug{df aGb]h
o; lgb]{zg adf]lhd sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ePsf JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] s'g} klg gofF shf{;'ljwf k|bfg ug{, shf{;'ljwf gjLs/0f ug{, yk
shf{;'ljwf k|bfg ug{, ls:tfjGbLdf k|bfg ePsf] shf{sf] afFsL ls:tf k|bfg ug{ jf hdfgt :jLsf/
ug{ ;d]t kfpg] 5}gg\ .
t/,
s_
sfod /x]sf] afFsL shf{nfO{ o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zgsf] kl/lwleq /xL k'g/tflnsLs/0f / k'g/;+/rgf ug{
eg] jfwf k'Ug] 5}g . To:t}, sfnf] ;"rLdf ;dfj]z ePsf C0fLsf] ;d"x;Fu ;DalGwt JolQm, kmd{,
sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfx?dWo] lgoldt ?kdf shf{sf] ;fFjf tyf Aofh r'Qmf ug]{ JolQm, kmd{,
sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfx?sf] xsdf a9Ldf 5 dlxgf;Dd of] aGb]h nfu" x'g] 5}g . To:tf C0fLnfO{
;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldltn] C0fLsf] dfu pko'Qm b]v]df csf]{ 5 dlxgfsf]
Dofb yk lbg ;Sg]5 . sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ePsf C0fLsf] ;d"x;Fu ;DalGwt JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL
jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfx?dWo] tf]lsPsf] efsfdf shf{sf] ;fFjf tyf Aofhsf] e'QmfgL gu/L efsf g3fpg]
JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfn] To:tf] shf{nfO{ a9Ldf 5 dlxgfleq jf ;+rfns ;ldltn]
lbPsf] yk Dofbleq lgoldt u/fO ;Sg' kg]{5 . cGoyf To:tf] C0fLsf] ;d"x;Fu ;DalGwt JolQm,
kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfdWo] lgoldt ?kdf shf{sf] ;fFjf tyf Aofh r'Qmf ug]{ JolQm, kmd{,
sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{ ;d]t gofF jf yk shf{ k|bfg ug{, gjLs/0f ug{ jf shf{sf] afFsL
ls:tf k|bfg ug{ ;d]t kfOg] 5}g .
v_
qm]l868]lj6 sf8{ cGt/ut x'g] sf/f]jf/sf] xsdf ;DjlGwt JolQm sfnf];"rLsf] bfo/fdf cfpg'
cl3 g} hf/L ePsf] qm]l868]lj6 sf8{sf] nflu To:tf] qm]l868]lj6 sf8{sf] Dofbleq u|fxsn]
vr{ u/]sf] /sd Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:Yffn] e'QmfgL ug{ afwf kg]{ 5}g .
u_
sfnf];"rLdf k/]sf JolQmx?;Fu ;DalGwt kl/jf/sf ;b:ox?nfO{ s'g} Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn]
shf{ k|bfg ug{ rfx]df ;+rfns ;ldltn] u/]sf] lg0f{o cg';f/ shf{ k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]5 . o;/L
k|bfg ul/Psf] shf{sf] xsdf k|rlnt Joj:yfsf] bf]Aa/ shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 . t/
;Dk"0f{ shf{x?sf] xsdf ztk|ltzteGbf a9L shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug'{ kg]{ 5}g .
lwtf] d"Nofgstf{ ;DaGwL ljz]if Joj:yf
-!_
s'g} Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] lwtf] lnnfdL ubf{ lwtf] d"Nofgstf{n] d"Nofg u/]sf] /sdsf] b'O{
ltxfO{ eGbf sd /sd dfq p7]df jf unt :yfgk|s[ltsf] lwtf]nfO{ ;xL xf] egL d"Nof+sg
u/]df To:tf lwtf] d"Nofgstf{nfO{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] l;kmfl/zdf s]Gb|n] sfnf] ;"rLdf
;dfj]z ug{' kg]{5 . o;/L ;dfj]z ePsf lwtf] d"Nofgstf{x?n] o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkq kfPsf
s'g} klg ;+:yfx?df lwtf] d"Nofg ;DaGwL sfo{ ug{ kfpg] 5}gg\ .
-@_
s'g} Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] lwtf] lnnfd ubf{ ;f] lwtf]sf] d"Nofg /sdsf] b'O{ ltxfO{ eGbf sd
/sd dfq p7\g'df To:tf] d"Nofgstf{sf] sfa' aflx/sf] cj:yf k/L lghsf] bf]if gb]lvPsf] eGg]
;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldltnfO{ nfu]df To:tf]] d"Nofgstf{nfO{ sfnf];"rLdf
g/fVg] lg0f{o ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-#_
h'g shf{sf] lwtf] d"Nofg ul/Psf] xf] ;f] shf{sf] C0fL sfnf];"rLaf6 x6]df To:tf] lwtf]
d"Nofg ug]{ d"Nofgstf{nfO{ klg sfnf];"rLaf6 s]Gb|n] x6fpg' kg]{5 .
-$_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] s]Gb|af6 sfnf];"rLdf /x]g/x]sf] ;"rgf lnO{ lwtf] d"Nof+sgstf{sf] ;"rL
sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .
n]vfk/LIfs ;DjGWfL ljz]if Joj:yf
C0fLsf] Joj;fo tyf kl/of]hgfsf] n]vfk/LIf0f ug]{ n]vfk/LIfsn] jf;nft, gfkmf gf]S;fg lx;fj, gub k|jfx

185

(=

!)=
!)=!

!)=@

ljj/0f tyf cGo ljQLo ljj/0fx? k|dfl0ft ug]{ qmddf em'7f ljQLo ljj/0f k|dfl0ft ug]{ n]vfk/LIfsnfO{
sfg'g jdf]lhd sf/jfxL ug{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] g]kfn rf6{8{ Psfp06]06 ;+:yfnfO{ l;kmfl/z ug'{
kg]{5 .
/fxbfgL hkmt ug{ l;kmfl/z ug]{
sfnf];"rLdf k/]sf JolQmx?sf] gofF /fxbfgL hf/L ug{ tyf eO{/x]sf] /fxbfgL hkmt ug{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfn] g]kfn /fi6 a}+s dfkm{t g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/z ug{ ;Sg]5 . /fxbfgL hkmt ePsf JolQmx?n]
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?df ;Dks{ /fvL ;+:yfnfO{ dfGo x'g] lsl;dn] cfkm"n] lnPsf] shf{ k'g/;+/rgf
jf k'g/tflnsLs/0f u/]df To:tf JolQmx?sf] hkmt ePsf] /fxbfgL lkmtf{ ug{{ k'gM l;kmfl/; ug'{ kg]{5 .
sfnf];"rL ;DaGwL Joj:yf
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z x'g] cj:yfx?
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?af6 klRr; nfv ?k}ofF jf ;f]eGbf a9Lsf] shf{;'ljwf lnPsf C0fLx? jf
JolQmnfO{ b]xfosf s'g} Ps jf ;j} cj:yfdf sfnf];"rLdf /fVg' kg]{5 M
-s_ shf{sf] ;fFjf jf ;fFjfsf] s'g} ls:tf jf Aofhsf] e'QmfgL ldlt Ps jif{ gf3]df -s'g} C0fLn]
pkof]u ul//x]sf] ljleGg shf{;'ljwfdWo] s'g} Pp6f dfq shf{sf] e'QmfgL ldlt gf3]df klg_,
t/, ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldltn] cj:yf / cf}lrTo x]/L a9Ldf ltg
dlxgf;Dd yk ;do k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-v_
shf{ tyf ;'ljwfsf] b'?kof]u u/]sf] k|dfl0ft ePdf,
o; k|of]hgsf] nflu b'?kof]u eGgfn] k|of]hg v'nfO{ lnPsf] shf{ /sd ;DjlGwt k|of]hgdf
k|of]u gu/]sf], kl/of]hgf ;~rfngdf g/x]sf], lg/LIf0f tyf ;'kl/j]If0fsf] qmddf ;'kl/j]Ifs,
n]vfk/LIfsaf6 b'?kof]u ePsf] k|dfl0ft ePsf] cj:yfdf shf{ tyf ;'ljwfsf] b'?kof]u u/]sf]
dflgg] 5 .
-u_
;'/If0fdf /fv]sf] ;fdfg b'?kof]u u/]sf] k|dfl0ft ePdf,
-3_
C0fL ufoj ePdf,
-_
k|rlnt sfg'g jdf]lhd C0fL 6f6 kN6]df,
-r_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] C0fL lj?4 cbfntdf d'2f bfo/ u/]sf] cj:yfdf,
-5_
C0f c;'nL Gofoflws/0fdf ph'/L lbPsf] cj:yfdf,
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z x'g] cGo cj:yfx?
-s_
gSsnL r]s, 8fK6, ljb]zL d'b|f, qm]l868]lj6 sf8{, ljN; cflb sfuhft tyf pks/0f k|of]u
u/L /sd 7uL u/]df . To:t} ;f]xL 7uL ug]{ k|of; u/]sf] ljifodf cbfntaf6 s;'/bf/ 7xl/Pdf,
-v_
s'g} JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yf ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ;DjGwL ck/fwdf ;+nUg ePsf]
k|dfl0ft ePdf,
-u_
s'g} JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+:yfn] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf;+u lnPsf] shf{ ;f] shf{sf] lnvtsf]
efsfleq r'Qmf gu/L a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g @)^# sf] bkmf %& adf]lhd c;'nLsf]
sf/jfxL rnfpFbfsf] cj:yf,
-3_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] shf{ ckn]vg ug'{kbf{sf] cj:yfdf,
-_
vftfdf df}Hbft ckof{Kt ePdf,
s'g} JolQm kmd{, sDkgL jf ;ul7t ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] vftfdf kof{Kt df}Hbft geO{ hlt;'s} /sdsf]
r]s hf/L u/]df a'Fbf g+= !)=! df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] ePtfklg b]xfo jdf]hd x'g]5 M
-!_
Psk6s e'QmfgL geOsg lkmtf{ ePsf] r]ssf] xsdf e'QmfgL kfpg'kg]{ JolQmn]
;fj{hlgs ljbf jfx]s sDtLdf b'O{ lbgsf] ;do lbO{ ;DjlGwt a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfdf
k'gM r]s k]z ug{;Sg] 5 .
-@_ ;f] Dofb kZrft\ klg /sd e'QmfgL gePsf] v08df /sd e'QmfgL kfpg'kg]{ JolQm, kmd{,
sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfn] r]ssf] /sd e'QmfgL ug'{kg]{ a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfdf lnlvt
?kdf hfgsf/L lbg ;Sg]5 .
-#_
v08 -@_ adf]lhd lnlvt hfgsf/L k|fKt ePkl5 ;DjlGwt a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfn] r]s
hf/L ug]{ To:tf JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{ r]ssf] /sd e'QmfgL ug{
;fj{hlgs ljbf jfx]s ;ft lbgsf] ;"rgf lbg'kg]{5 / ;f] ldltleq klg /sd e'QmfgL x'g
g;s]df To:Tff] r]s lvRg] JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{ ;DjlGwt a}+s jf

186

!)=#

ljQLo ;+:yfn] clgjfo{ ?kdf sfnf];"rLdf ;"rLs[t ug{ shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|df n]vL
k7fpg' kg]{5 . ;f] cg';f/ gu/]df a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ o;} lgb]{zg adf]lhd
sf/afxL x'g]5 .
-$_ s'g} JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfn] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ To:tf] e'QmfgL
gx'g] r]s lbPdf ;d]t o; v08 adf]lhd sfnf];"rLdf /fVg'kg]{ 5 . ;f] cg';f/ gu/]df
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ o;} lgb]{zg adf]lhd sf/afxL x'g]5 .
-%_ o; v08 adf]lhd sfnf];"rLdf /x]sf JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfn] To:tf]
;"rLaf6 km's'jf geP;Dd cfkm\gf] vftfdf /sd hDdf ug]{ afx]s cGo s'g}klg
lsl;dsf] a}+ls sf/f]jf/ ug{ kfpg] 5}g .
-r_
vftfjfnfn] cfk'mn] hf/L u/]sf] r]ssf] /sd e'QmfgL gx'Fb} vftf aGb u/]sf] sf/0faf6 s'g}
r]ssf] e'QmfgL x'g g;s]sf] hfgsf/L k|fKt x'gf;fy ;DalGwt a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfn] s'g}
dfWodaf6 ;DalGwt vftfjfnfnfO{ k|rlnt sfg"gL Joj:yf cg';f/ hfgsf/L u/fpg' kg]{5 .
o;/L hfgsf/L u/fPsf] cj:yfdf ;d]t pQm r]ssf] e'QmfgL x'g] Joj:yf gu/]sf] v08df To:tf]
r]s hf/L ug]{ JolQmkmd{sDkgLnfO{ sfnf];"rLdf /fVg l;kmfl/z u/L k7fpg' kg]{ 5 .
-5_
g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%*, a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# tyf cGo gLltut
Joj:yf adf]lhd o; a}+sn] lbPsf] lgb]{zgsf] kfngf gu/L gub hl/jfgfsf] sf/jfxLdf k/]sf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf ;+rfns, sfo{sf/L k|d'v tyf cGo sd{rf/Laf6 gub hl/jfgf e'QmfgL
geP;Dd,
:ki6Ls/0fM o; v08sf] k|of]hgsf] nflu k|dfl0ft eGgfn] cbfnt jf ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfsf] lg/LIf0f 6f]nL jf cfGtl/s jf jfXo n]vfk/LIfs jf o; a}+saf6 vl6Psf] lg/LIf0f 6f]nLn]
k|dfl0ft u/]sf] ;Demg' k5{ .
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z x'g] kIfx?
s'g} jf ;a} cj:yf k/L sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z x'g] b]xfo jdf]lhdsf C0fL JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t
;+:yf / ;DalGwt cGo kIfx?nfO{;d]t sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
t/ s'g} C0fL sfnf];"rLdf k/]df To:tf C0fLsf] Psf3/ kl/jf/sf ;b:ox?nfO{ sfnf];"rLdf /fVg' kg]{
5}g
-s_
shf{;'ljwf pkof]u ug]{ JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yf .
-v_
k|f]k|fO6/;Lk kmd{sf k|f]k|fO6/ .
-u_
;fe]mbf/L kmd{sf ;fe]mbf/x? .
-3_
shf{;'ljwfsf] nflu hdfgt lbg] JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yf .
t/, hdfgtbftfnfO{ sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug'{k"j{ lghn] hdfgL lbPsf] /sd r'Qmf ug{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] k}tL; lbgsf] lnlvt ;"rgf lbg' kg]{5 . lnlvt ;"rgfsf] kq ;DalGwt
JolQmsf] 7]ufgfdf gk'u]df ;f] ;"rgf klqsfdf ;fj{hlgs ug'{ kg]{5 .
-_
sDkgL;+ul7t ;+:yfsf ;+rfnsx? .
-r_
k|fOe]6 jf klAns sDkgLsf,
!_
;+rfnsx/m,
@_
kGw| k|ltzt jf ;f] eGbf a9L z]o/ :jfldTj ePsf z]o/wgLx?,
t/, k|fOe]6 jf klAns sDkgLsf] !% k|ltzteGbf sd z]o/ lng] pQm k|fOe]6 jf
klJns sDkgLsf z]o/wgLx?sf]] s'g} klg lsl;dsf] ljQLo :jfy{ ePdf a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfx?n] To:tf z]o/wgLx?nfO{ ;d]t sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug{ s'g} jfwf k'u]sf]
dflgg] 5}g .
#_
;~rfns dgf]gog ug]{ clwsf/ kfPsf] JolQm, kmd{, ;+ul7t ;+:yfx? .
t/, o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] k|jfx u/]sf] shf{ jfkt kbLo x}l;otn] ;f]xL
shf{sf] ;'/Iffsf] nflu C0fL ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldltdf ;+rfnssf] x}l;otdf
k|ltlglwTj ug]{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] k|ltlglw sd{rf/LnfO{ sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z
ug'{kg]{ 5}g .
-5_
sfnf];"rLdf k/]sf] s'g} JolQm jf ;+:yfsf] cGo s'g} kmd{sDkgL;+ul7t ;+:yfdf JolQmut jf
;+:yfut ?kdf kGw| k|ltzt jf ;f]eGbf a9L z]o/ :jfldTj ePdf To:tf] kmd{sDkgL ;+ul7t
;+:yfsf] ;~rfns tyf sfo{sf/L k|d'v .

187

t/, Ps} ;d"x cGtu{tsf JolQm, kmd{, sDkgLsf] xsdf !% k|ltzteGbf sd z]o/ wf/0f u/]sf]
ePtfklg s'n z]o/ nufgLdf !% k|ltzt gf3]sf] cj:yfdf To:tf ;d"x cGt/utsf JolQm,
kmd{, sDkgLnfO{ sfn]f;"rLdf ;"rLs[t ug{ afwf k'u]sf] dflgg] 5}g .
-h_
sfnf];"rLdf k/]sf] s'g} JolQm jf ;+:yfsf] k|ltlglw cGo s'g} u}/ ;/sf/L kmd{sDkgL ;+ul7t
;+:yfdf ;+rfns ePdf To:tf] kmd{sDkgL;+ul7t ;+:yf .
t/, b]xfosf] ;a} cj:yf k"/f ePdf sfnf] ;"rLdf k/]sf] JolQm jf ;+:yfsf] k|ltlglw ;+rfns
/x]sf] u}/ ;/sf/L kmd{sDkgL;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{ sfnf] ;"rLdf ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{ 5}g M
-!_
sfnf];"rLdf k/]sf] JolQm jf ;+:yfsf] k|ltlglw ;+rfns /x]sf] u}/ ;/sf/L
kmd{sDkgL ;+ul7t ;+:yfdf To:tf] ;+rfnssf] z]o/ !% k|ltzt eGbf sd x'g' kg]{ .
-@_
sfnf];"rLdf k/]sf] JolQm jf ;+:yfsf] k|ltlglw ;+rfns /x]sf] u}/ ;/sf/L kmd{sDkgL
;+ul7t ;+:yfn] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfnfO{ a'emfpg' kg]{ ;fFjf /jf Aofh jfktsf]
/sd tf]lsPsf] ;do jf ;f] eGbf cufj} lgoldt ?kdf r'Qmf ul//x]sf] x'g' kg]{,
-#_
sfnf];"rLdf k/]sf] JolQm jf ;+:yfsf] k|ltlglw ;+rfns /x]sf] JolQmn] ;+rfns kbaf6
/flhgfdf u/]df jf To:tf] JolQm ;+rfns kbaf6 d'Qm ePdf .
-em_ o; a}+sn] hf/L u/]sf] lgb]{zg cg';f/ cfk;L ;DaGw eO{ Ps} ;d"xdf k/]sf JolQm, kmd{,
sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yf .
-`_
u|fxsnfO{ Uof/]G6L lbg] JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yf .
t/, Uof/]06L / cf+lzs Uof/]G6L (Partial Guarantee) sf] xsdf eg] ;f] Uof/]G6Lsf] /sd r'Qmf
u/]df C0fLsf] cGo jSof}tfsf] nflu of] Joj:yf nfu" x'g] 5}g .
-6_
C0fLsf] d[To' ePdf lghsf] ;DklQ :jLsf/ ug]{ JolQmx?nfO{ ;f] sf] bfloTj axg u/fP/ pQm
bfloTj axg u/]sf JolQmx?nfO{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] dgfl;j dflkmssf] ;do k|bfg ug{
;Sg]5 . bfloTj jxg ug{ gdfg]df jf pQm Dofbleqdf klg shf{ r'Qmf jf lgoldt gu/]df
To:tf] JolQmx?nfO{ klg sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-7_
s'g} C0f @ jif{eGbf a9L cjlwn] efsf gf3]sf] cj:yfdf ;d]t C0fLnfO{ sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z
gul/Psf] eP ;f] sf] :kli6s/0f k|To]s cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] Ps dlxgfleq o; a}+s ;dIf
k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
!)=$ sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z gx'g] cj:yfx?
C0fLsf] sfa'eGbf aflx/sf] b]xfodf plNnlvt s'g} c;fdfGo kl/l:yltsf] sf/0faf6 pTkGg ;d:ofn] ubf{
;dodf ;fFjf /jf Aofh r'Qmf ug{ g;s]sf] Joxf]/f C0fLn] cg'/f]w u/]df / To:tf] Joxf]/f dgfl;j
b]lvPdf ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldltn] To:tf u|fxsnfO{ sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z
gug]{ lg0f{o ug{ ;Sg]5 M
-s_
af9L, klx/f], e"sDk h:tf b}jL k|sf]k k/]df .
-v_
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z x'g' cufj} ?U0f pBf]u k'g?Tyfg ;ldltsf] l;kmfl/zdf k'g/shf{ k|bfg
ul/Psf C0fLnfO{ k'g/shf{sf] ;'ljwf pkof]u ug{ kfpg] cjlw;Dd .
-u_
g]kfn ;/sf/n] u|fxssf] hfoh]yf tyf Joj;fo ;+rfngdf /x]sf] :yfg clwu|x0f u/]df .
t/, To:tf] lg0f{o ubf{ cfwf/x? :ki6 ?kdf v'nfpg' kg]{5 .
!)=% sfnf];"rLaf6 gfd x6\g ;Sg] Joj:yf
b]xfosf cj:yfdf sfnf];"rLdf /x]sf u|fxssf] gfd To:tf] ;"rLaf6 x6fpgsf nflu ;DalGwt
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] tLg lbgleq s]Gb|nfO{ l;kmfl/z u/L k7fpg' kg]{5 . o;/L k|fKt gfdgfd];L
s]Gb|n] # sfo{ lbgleq cBfjlws ul/;Sg' kg]{5 .
!=
efsf gf3]sf] shf{sf] ;fFjf Aofh r'Qmf u/]df,
@=
;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldltn] pko'Qm 7xofO{ shf{sf] efsf yk u/]df jf
o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zgsf] clwgdf /xL shf{ k'gtf/lnsLs/0f jf k'g/;+/rgf u/]df,
#=
shf{ jf ;'ljwfsf] bfloTjsf] ;Ldf ls6fg u/L PseGbf a9L C0fL ;lDdlnt x'g] C0fsf] xsdf
s'g} C0fLaf6 p;sf] efusf] ;fFjf Aofh r'Qmf u/]sf] egL efsf yk u/]df jf o; a}+ssf]
lgb]{zgsf] clwgdf /xL shf{ k'g/;+/rgf jf k'g/tflnsLs/0f u/]sf] egL ;DalGwt a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 n]vL cfPdf To:tf C0fLsf] gfd sfnf] ;"rLaf6 x6fpg' kg]{ 5 . t/, ;+rfns
jf sfo{sf/L kbflwsf/L eO{ sfdsfh ug]{ JolQmsf] ;DaGwdf of] Joj:yf nfu" x'g] 5}g .

188

$=

!!=

!@=

!#=

!$=

shf{sf] bfloTj cGo JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfn] :jLsf/ ug]{ ;DaGwdf ;DalGwt
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldltaf6 :jLs[lt ePdf o;/L sfnf];"rLaf6 x6fpFbf bfloTj
:jLsf/ ug]{ JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{ a9Ldf Ps jif{sf] Dofb lbg] / pQm
Dofbleq shf{;'ljwf r'Qmf jf lgoldt gu/]df pQm gofF JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t
;+:yf;d]tnfO{ sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
%=
C0fLx?n] lnPsf] C0fdWo] cfkm\gf] bfloTj olsg u/L C0f;'ljwf lnPsf] cj:yfdf pQm /sd
e'QmfgL u/]sf] egL a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?af6 n]vL cfPdf shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|n] sfnf];"rLaf6
x6fpg' kg]{5 . t/, ;f] Joj:yf ;+rfns tyf sfo{sf/L kbflwsf/Lx?sf] xsdf nfu" x'g] 5}g .
tyflk ;+rfns tyf sfo{sf/L kbflwsf/Lx?sf] xsdf C0f c;'nL GofofwLs/0f tyf cGo
;DalGwt Goflos lgsfosf] cfb]z cg';f/ cfkm\gf] bfloTj cg'?k x'g cfpg] c+z j/fj/sf] /sd
e'QmfgL u/]sf] egL a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?af6 n]lvcfPdf lghnfO{ shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|n]
sfnf];"rLaf6 x6fpg s'g} afwf k'ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
^=
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] kl/l:yltjz C0f gltg]{ C0fLx?nfO{ shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|sf]
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z u/]sf] ePtfklg olb s]xL ;do k|bfg u/]df C0fLn] k|of; u/L 5f]6f]
cjlwdf C0f r'Qmf u5{ eGg] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ nfu]df ^ dlxgfsf] nflu sfnf];"rLaf6
x6fpg] Joj:yf ug{ ;Sg]5 . t/, ^ dlxgfleq C0f r'Qmf gu/]df clgjfo{ ?kdf sfnf];"rLdf
;dfj]z ug{ s]Gb|nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug{' kg]{5 .
;xljQLos/0f shf{sf] ;DaGwdf
!_
;xljQLos/0f cGtu{t k|jfx x'g] shf{sf] ;DaGwdf o; lgb]{zgsf] clwgdf /xL cu'jf a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yf (Lead Bank) n] ;xljQLos/0fsf] a}7sdf (Consortium Meeting) shf{nufgL
cg'kftsf] cfwf/df ax'dtsf] lg0fo{af6 ;DalGwt C0fLnfO{ sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug{x6fpg
s]Gb|nfO{ l;kmfl/z ug'{ kg]{5 . o;/L cu'jf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf (Lead Bank) sf] l;kmfl/z
k|fKt ePkl5 s]Gb|n] ;DalGwt C0fLnfO{ sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug'{x6fpg' kg]{5 .
@_
olb s'g} cu'jf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf (Lead Bank) n] o; lgb]{zg cg';f/ s]Gb|nfO{ l;kmfl/z gu/L
;xefuL a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] C0fLnfO{ sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z u/]sf] /x]5 eg] s]Gb|n] ;xefuL
a}s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] l;kmfl/; k|fKt ePkl5dfq ;DjlGwt C0fLnfO{ sfnf];"rLjf6 x6fpg' kg]{5
. o:tf] cj:yfdf cu'jf a}+sn] cfk"mn] k"/f ug'{ kg]{ bfloTj lgjf{x gu/]sf] 7x/L g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g,
@)%* sf] bkmf !)) adf]lhd sf/jfxL ul/g] 5 .
#_
s'g} u|fxsn] ;xljQLos/0f shf{ ;'lawf cGt/ut / Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf;+u 5'6\6} bf]xf]/f] shf{
tyf ;'lawfsf] pkof]u u/L sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ePsf] /x]5 eg] ;xljQLos/0f ;d"xsf] a}7sn]
sfnf];"rLjf6 x6fpg] l;kml/; u/]tfklg afFsL v/fj shf{;'ljwfsf] /sd e'QmfgL gu/];Dd
sfnf];"rLdf sfod} /xg] 5 .
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug'{k"j{ ;"rgf lbg' kg]{
s'g} klg C0fL jf C0f;Fu ;DalGwt cGo ;a} kIfnfO{ sfnf];"rLdf ;dfa]z ug'{k"j{ ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfn] sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug'{kg]{ sf/0f;lxt slDtdf kl}t; lbg cufj} ;"rgf lbO{ ;f] sf] clen]v /fVg'
kg]{5 . pQm ;"rgf k|bfg ubf{ tf]lsPsf] Dofbleq C0fLn] shf{ r'Qmf jf lgoldt gu/]df sfnf];"rLdf
;dfj]z ul/g] Joxf]/f pNn]v ePsf] x'g' kg]{5 . o:tf] ;"rgf ;DalGwt JolQm jf lghsf] kl/jf/sf ;b:o
jf lghsf] sf/f]jf/;+u ;DalGwt ;+:yfdf a'emfPdf klg ;"rgf k|fKt ePsf] dflgg] 5 .
C0fL tyf hdfgtstf{nfO{ lnvt u/fpg' kg]{
s'g} klg C0fLnfO{ shf{;'ljwf k|bfg ubf{ o; lgb]{zg adf]lhdsf] cj:yf k/L s]Gb|sf] sfnf];"rLdf gfd
;dfj]z u/]df d]/f] dGh"/L 5 egL ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ;DalGwt C0fL tyf hdfgLstf{nfO{
lnvt u/fpg' kg]{5 .
t/, of] Joj:yfn] To:tf] lnvt ljgf klg C0fL tyf hdfgLstf{sf] gfd sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug{ afwf
k'u]sf] dflgg] 5}g .
s]Gb|n] ;"rgf tyf ljj/0fx? dfu ug{ ;Sg]
g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf **, g]kfn /fi6 a}+s shf{ ;"rgf ljlgodfjnL, @)%( / o;
lgb]{zgsf] p2]Zo sfof{Gjog ug]{ l;nl;nfdf o; lgb]{zgn] tf]s] afx]ssf cGo ;"rgf / ljj/0fx?
s]Gb|n] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf;Fu dfu ug{ ;Sg]5 . o;/L dfu u/]sf] ;"rgf / ljj/0fx? pknJw u/fpg'
;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] st{Jo x'g]5 .

189

!%=

s]Gb|n] lg/LIf0f ug{ ;Sg]


Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] s]Gb|df lbg' kg]{ C0fLx?sf] ljj/0f ;dod} pknAw u/fP gu/fPsf], shf{ k|jfx
ug'{ cl3 shf{ ;"rgf lnP glnPsf] tyf pknAw u/fPsf ljj/0fx? cBfjlws eP gePsf] ;DaGwdf
s]Gb|n] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] cg'udg tyf lg/LIf0f ug{ ;Sg]5 / ;f]sf] k|ltj]bg o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k]z ug'{ kg]5 . s]Gb|n] o:tf]
lg/LIf0f;'kl/j]If0f cfgf sd{rf/L v6fO{ :ynut tyf u}/ :ynut ?kdf ug{ ;Sg]5 .

!^=

sfnf];"rLdf ;dflji6 C0fLx?sf] ljj/0f ;fj{hlgs ug'{ kg]{


o; lgb]{zg adf]lhd k|To]s cfiff9 / kf}if d;fGt;Dddf sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z eO{ Ps s/f]8 ?k}ofFeGbf
a9L /sd ltg{ afFsL /x]sf JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] gfdfjnL cBfjlws u/L s]Gb|n]
/fli6o b}lgs klqsfdf qmdzM >fj0f / df3d;fGtleq ;j{;fwf/0fsf] hfgsf/Lsf] nflu k|sflzt ug'{
kg]{5 . ;f]] hfgsf/L o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu tyf ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu,
sDkgL /lhi6f/sf] sfof{no / lwtf]kq jf]8{nfO{ ;d]t pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 . cGo JolQmx?sf]
gfdfjnLsf] xsdf shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|n] ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ cfjZos k/L dfu u/]df z'Ns lnO{ jf glnO{
To:tf] ;"rgf pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 . ;fy}, sfnf];"rLdf ;dflji6 JolQmx?sf] cBfjlws ;"rgf s]Gb|n]
clgjfo{ ?kdf cfgf] j]j ;fO6df /fVg' kg]{5 .
cGo Joj:yfx?
!_
uf]kgLotf sfod ug'{ kg]{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf / s]Gb|aLr cfbfg k|bfg x'g] ;"rgf tyf cGo ljj/0f ;+j]bgzLn ePsf]n]
To:tf ;"rgf tyf ljj/0f cfbfg k|bfg ubf{ jf clen]v /fVbf k"0f{ uf]kgLotf sfod /fVg' kg]{5
@_
JolQmut tyf ;+:yfut hdfgLdf k|jflxt shf{sf] ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?af6 s'g} klg lsl;dsf] JolQmut tyf ;+:yfut hdfgLdf k|bfg ePsf]
shf{ tyf ;'ljwfx? lgwf{l/t ;dodf r'Qmf gu/]df hdfgL lbg] JolQm tyf ;+:yfx?nfO{ ;d]t
o; lgb]{zgsf] clwgdf /xL sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug{' kg]{5 . To:tf hdfgLstf{x?n] u/]sf]
hdfgL /sdsf] ;Ldf;Ddsf] /sd r'Qmf ePsf] ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfaf6 hfgsf/L
k|fKt x'g cfPdf hdfgLstf{sf] gfd sfnf];"rLaf6 x6fpg' kg]{5 .
#_
z]o/wgLsf] gfd kl/jt{g eO{ cfPdf
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ePsf z]o/wgLx?n] cfgf] z]o/ cGo JolQmx?nfO{ x:tfGt/0f u/L lghsf]
bfloTj gofF z]o/wgLn] :jLsf/ u/]sf] cj:yfdf ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns
;ldltnfO{ pQm ljifo :jLsf/ u/L l;kmfl/z eO{ cfPdf klxn]sf z]o/wgLnfO{ sfnf];"rLaf6
x6fpg' kg]{5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfaf6 C0f lnPsf s'g} k|fOe]6 lnld6]8 jf ;j{;fwf/0fdf z]o/ hf/L u/L
g;s]sf klAns lnld6]8 sDkgLsf kGw| k|ltzteGbf a9L z]o/ lng] z]o/wgLn] To:tf] sDkgLsf]
cfgf] :jfldTjdf /x]sf] z]o/ ljqmL jf gfd;f/L ug'{k"j{ C0f k|bfg ug]{ ;DalGwt
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] :jLs[lt lng' kg]{5 . o; k|of]hgsf] nflu ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfsf] :jLs[lt glnO{ To:tf] C0fL sDkgLsf] z]o/ ljqmL jf gfd;f/L ug{ gkfpg] u/L C0f
k|bfg ug]{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] clgjfo{ ?kdf sfuh u/fpg' kg]{5 . o;/L :jLs[lt glnO{
C0fL sDkgLsf] z]o/wgLsf] z]o/ gfd;f/L jf ljqmL u/]df ;fljssf z]o/wgLnfO{ sfnf];"rLdf
/fVg' kg]{5 .
$_
;/sf/L tyf cw{;/sf/L lgsfoaf6 dgf]lgt ;+rfnsx?sf] ;DaGwdf
o; lgb]{zgdf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] ePtf klg o; a}+s, g]kfn ;/sf/ jf g]kfn
;/sf/sf] k"0f{ jf clwsf+z :jfldTjdf /x]sf] ;+:yfaf6 dgf]lgt s'g} klg JolQm s'g} klg C0fL
;+:yfsf] ;+rfns eO{ To:tf] ;+:yf sfnf];"rLdf k/]df To;/L dgf]lgt ;+rfnsx? sfnf];"rLdf
;dfj]z x'g] 5}gg\ .
%_
Psf3/ kl/jf/sf] ;DaGwdf
o; lgb]{zgsf] k|of]hgsf] nflu Psf3/ kl/jf/ eGgfn] ;DalGwt JolQmsf] klt jf kTgL, 5f]/f,
cljjflxtf 5f]/L, wd{k'q, cljjflxtf wd{k'qL, afa', cfdf, ;f}t]gL cfdf / cfkm"n] kfng kf]if0f
ug'{ kg]{ bfh' efO / lbbL alxgL ;Demg' kg]{5 .
^_
shf{ ;"rgf OsfO{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] s]Gb|Lo ?kdf shf{ ;"rgf OsfO{ u7g u/L s]Gb| tyf cGo lgsfodf
k7fpg' kg]{ shf{;"rgf ;DaGwL ;Dk"0f{ sfo{x? ;f] OsfO{af6 dfq ug'{u/fpg' kg]{5 . s]Gb|;Fu

!&=

190

&_

*_

(_

!*=

ul/g] ;Dk"0f{ sfo{sf] nflu OsfO{sf hgzlQmnfO{ tf]Sg' kg]{5 / ;f]sf] hfgsf/L ;DalGwt
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] s]Gb|nfO{ pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 . ;fy}, tf]lsPsf] OsfO{n] Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yf / s]Gb|aLr x'g] kqfrf/sf] k|dfl0ft clen]v cBfjlws u/L /fVg' kg]{5 .
e"nj; sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ePsfx?sf] ;DaGwdf
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z gx'g' kg]{ s'g} JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yf e"nj; sfnf];"rLdf
;dfj]z ul/Psf] /x]5 eg] o; ;DaGwdf ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldltaf6
l;kmfl/z eO{ cfPdf cljnDa To:tf] JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{ clen]v g}
g/xg] u/L sfnf];"rLaf6 x6fpg' kg]{5 . o;/L sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z eO{ x6]sf JolQm, kmd{,
sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{ sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ePsf] dflgg] 5}g .
s]Gb|sf] ;b:otf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] shf{ ;"rgfsf] cfbfg k|bfg ug]{ / ;dodf shf{sf] ;fFjfAofh gltg]{
C0fLnfO{ sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu clgjfo{ ?kdf s]Gb|sf] ;b:otf lng' kg]{5 .

5'6

o; lgb]{zgdf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg g]kfn ;/sf/ jf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] k"0f{ jf
clwsf+z :jfldTj ePsf ;/sf/L ;+:yfgx?, o; a}+saf6 lgIf]k / shf{sf] sf/f]af/ ug{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx? / lkIfLo jf jx'kIfLo ;DaGw ePsf cGt//fli6o ;+3 ;+:yfx?nfO{
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ul/g] 5}g .
!)_ sfnf];"rL ljj/0f cBfjlws ug]{
o; lgb]{zg adf]lhd s]Gb|n] tof/ ug]{ sfnf];"rL cBfjlws u/L /fVg' kg]{5 .
!!_
s]Gb|sf] sfnf];"rLdf ;"rLs[t Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf z]o/wgLx?n] k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] xsk|b z]o/
tyf cu|flwsf/ z]o/, C0fkq / nfef+zsf ;DaGwdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .
-s_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf ;+:yfks z]o/wgLx?dWo] s]Gb|sf] sfnf];"rLdf
;"rLs[t eO{/x]sf ;+:yfks z]o/wgLn] cfkm" ;+:yfks /x]sf] a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] xsk|b
z]o/ tyf cu|flwsf/ z]o/ / C0fkq vl/b ug{ kfpg] 5}gg\ . t/, s]Gb|sf] sfnf];"rLaf6
x6]sf] k|df0f ;lxt ;DalGwt a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf ;+:yfks z]o/wgLn] cfkm" ;+:yfks
/x]sf] a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] xsk|b z]o/ tyf cu|flwsf/ z]o/ / C0fkq bfjL ug{
cfPdf k|rlnt sfg'g cg';f/ cGo JolQm;+:yfnfO{ a]rljvgafF8kmfF8hkmt
ul/;lsPsf] cj:yf /x]g5 eg] ;fljss} ;+:yfks z]o/wgLn] k|fKt ug{ ;Sg]5g\ .
-v
s]Gb|sf] sfnf];"rLdf ;"rLs[t C0fLsf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks nufotsf
cGo z]o/wgLsf x}l;otn] kfpg] nfef+z /sd cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] shf{
aSof}tfsf] k|df0f ;lxt e'StfgL dfu u/]df To:tf JolQm;+u c;'n ug'{kg]{ /sd lghn]
kfpg] nfef+z /f]Ssf u/L ;DjlGwt ;+:yfn] pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 . o:tf] Joj:yf cfg}
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] shf{ r'Qmf ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu ;d]t nfu" x'g]5 .
!@_
sfnf];"rLdf /x]sf ;+:yfks z]o/wgLn] xsk|b z]o/df ;xefuL x'g / nfef+z lng gkfpg]M
-s_
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ;+:yfks z]o/wgLn] o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfaf6 lgisfzg x'g] s'g} klg lsl;dsf] xsk|b z]o/df ;xefuL x'g kfpg] 5}g .
-v_
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ;+:yfks z]o/wgLn] k|fKt ug]{ s'g} klg lsl;dsf] nfef+z C0f
ltg]{ k|of]hg afx]s cGo lsl;dn] e'QmfgL lnglbg kfOg] 5}g .
-u_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] sfnf];"rLdf ;"rLs[t cfkm\gf] ;+:yfsf]
;+:yfks z]o/wgLx?sf] ljj/0f cBfjlws u/L /fVg' kg]{5 .
!#_
o; a}+snfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpg' kg]{
pka'Fbf -(_ df pNn]v ePsf ;+:yf afx]s o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt jf cg'dltkqk|fKt cGo
;+:yfnfO{ sfnf];"rLdf /fVg shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug{' k"j{ ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfn] o; a}+snfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpg' kg]{5 .
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?af6 shf{ lnO{ C0f gltg]{ C0fLx?dWo] cf=j= )^#^$ sf] ah]6 jQmJo dfkm{t
C0fsf] k'g/tflnsLs/0f ug{ tf]lsPsf] @)^# efb| d;fGtleq k'g/tflnsLs/0f u/]sf, k'g/tflnsLs/0fsf]
nflu sf/jfxL eO{ /x]sf C0fL / a}+ssf] ;+o'Qm k|of;df z'? ePsf] t/ ;DkGg eO{ g;s]sf afx]s ;DalGwt
a}+sn] C0f r'Qmf ug]{ u/fpg] ;DaGwdf C0fLnfO{ k6s k6s cj;/ lb+bf klg j]jf:tf u/L a;]sf /
;DalGwt a}+sn] sf/jfxL cufl8 a9fpg pko'Qm 7xofPsf C0fLx?nfO{ b]xfo adf]lhdsf] k|lqmof adf]lhd
sf/jfxL cl3 a9fpg] .

191

!_

@_
#_
$_

!(=

b08
!_

@_

#_

$_

;fFjf C0f ?= kfFr s/f]8 eGbf a9L lnPsfx?dWo]af6 ;a}eGbf a9L C0f lng] C0fLx?nfO{
k|fyldstfsf] cfwf/df ;DalGwt a}+sn] qmdzM sf/jfxL cufl8 a9fpg] . ;DalGwt a}+sn]
k|rlnt Joj:yf cg';f/ ug{ ;lsg] sf/jfxL cfk}m+ u/L ;f] sf] hfgsf/L o; a}+snfO{ u/fpg]
cGoyf ug'{kg]{ sf/jfxLsf nflu l;kmfl/z;fy o; a}+snfO{ cg'/f]w ug]{ .
o; cg';f/ sf/jfxLdf k/]sf C0fLn] C0f e'QmfgL jf k'g/;+/rgfk'g/tflnsLs/0f u/]df
;DalGwt a}+sn] ;DalGwt C0fLnfO{ ;fljsdf u/]sf sf/jfxL lkmtf{ ug{ t'?Gt kxn ug]{ .
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?af6 To:tf C0fLx?sf] gfddf hf/L ul/Psf 8]lj6 sf8{, qm]l86 sf8{
h:tf ;'ljwfx? tTsfn /f]Ssf /fVg] Joj:yf ug]{ .
;DalGwt a}+sn] C0fsf] k|s[lt, pkef]usf] cj:yf, c;'nLsf] ;+efjgf, C0fLn] C0f e'QmfgL ug{
b]vfPsf] Jojxf/ tyf dg;fo cflb kIfx?nfO{ dWogh/df /fvL a'Fbf !* -!_ sf] kl/lwleq /xL
lgotj; C0f gltg]{ sfnf];"rLdf k/]sf C0fLx? / To:tf C0fLx?nfO{ hdfgt lbg] JolQm, kmd{
jf sDkgL jf ;+:yfnfO{ b]xfodWo]sf Ps jf ;f]eGbf a9L sf/jfxL ug{ o; a}+snfO{ cg'/f]w
ug]{ .
-s_
lgotjz C0f gltg]{ C0fLx?sf /fxbfgL hkmt ug]{ / gofF hf/L ug{ /f]s nufpg]
k|of]hgsf nflu o; ;DaGwL ;"rgf k//fi6 dGqfno, u[x dGqfnonfO{ cfjZos
sf/jfxLsf] nflu hfgsf/L u/fpg / ;fj{hlgs?kdf ;d]t ;"rgf k|sflzt ug{ .
-v_
lgotj; C0f gltg]{ C0fLx?nfO{ ;/sf/L jf ;+ul7t ;fj{hlgs lgsfodf lj1
k/fdz{bftf nufot ;fj{hlgs lhDd]jf/Lsf cf]xbf tyf /fhgLlts lgo'lQmsf kbx?df
lgo'Qm gug{ / lgo'Qm eO{ sfo{/t /x]sf 5g\ eg] kbaf6 tTsfn cjsfz lbg .
-u_
dfg, kbjL, ;Ddfg jf /fHoaf6 lbOg] s'g} klg lsl;dsf] ;'ljwf, ;x'lnot jf ;Ddfg
k|bfg gug{ .
-3_
sDkgL P]g cGtu{t btf{ ePsf jf x'g] s'g} klg sDkgLsf] ;+rfns x'g /f]s nufpg .
-_
gofF pBf]u, kmd{ jf sDkgL btf{ ug{, ;/sf/L 7]Ssfkfdf efu lng jf a}+sn] :jLs[lt
lbPsf] cj:yfdf C0f ltg]{ k|of]hgsf nflu afx]s To:tf C0fLsf] :jfldTjdf /x]sf] s'g} klg
rncrn ;DklQ /f]Ssf /fVg] / o;sf] nflu ;DalGwt lgsfo -dfnkf]t sfof{no,
oftfoft Joj:yf sfof{no, gu/kflnsfpkdxfgu/kflnsfdxfgu/kflnsf_ nfO{ lgb]{zg
hf/L ug]{ Joj:yf ug{ .
-r_
;/sf/L ;'/If0fkqx?df ePsf] nufgL hkmt u/L lnnfd ug]{ / To;/L k|fKt x'g cfpg]
/sd shf{ r'Qmf ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu pkof]u ug{ .
hl/jfgf tyf sf/jfxL ;DaGwL Joj:yf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] s]Gb|df e/L k7fpg' kg]{ C0fLx?sf] ljj/0f / sfnf];"rLdf /fVg' kg]{
C0fLx?sf] gfd tyf ljj/0f ;dodf g} s]Gb|df pknAw gu/fPdf jf To:tf tYo n'sfP/ yk shf{
;'ljwf k|bfg u/]sf] kfOPdf jf unt ;"rgf k|jfx u/]df jf sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ePsf] JolQm, kmd{,
sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{ shf{ k|jfx ePdf jf o; a}+ssf] lg/LIf0f tyf ;'kl/j]If0f k|ltj]bgdf
To:tf] Joxf]/f pNn]v eO{ cfPdf ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf jf ltgsf ;DalGwt ;+rfns,
kbflwsf/L jf sd{rf/L ;d]tnfO{ o; a}+sn] g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf !)) adf]lhdsf]
sf/jfxL ug{ ;Sg]5 .
sfnf];"rLdf k/]sfnfO{ C0f ;'ljwf k|bfg u/]df hl/jfgf nufOg]
sfnf];"rLdf k/]sf JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfx?nfO{ s'g} klg a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfn] C0f;'ljwf k|jfx u/]df g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf (( -!_ ad]flhd pQm
C0f ;'ljwf a/fa/sf] /sd ljuf] sfod u/L ;DjlGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ hl/jfgf ul/g]
5.
sfnf];"rLdf /fVg l;kmfl/z gu/]df hl/jfgf nufOg]
s'g} a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] g]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] lgb]{zg cg';f/ s'g} JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf
;+ul7t ;+:yfnfO{ shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|sf] sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ug{ l;kmfl/z ug'{kg]{df ;f] u/]sf]
gkfO{Pdf To:tf] ;+:yfnfO{ g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf (( sf] pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd
To:tf] C0fL;+u p7fpg afFsL /x]sf] /sd a/fa/sf] ljuf] sfod u/L hl/jfgf nufOg] 5 .
sfnf];"rLdf k/]sf JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfx?nfO{ k|bfg u/]sf] shf{df ztk|ltzt
shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf sfod ug'{ kg]{

192

s_

v_
@)=

sfnf];"rLdf /x]sf JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL tyf ;+ul7t ;+:yfaf6 s'g} shf{ c;'nL ug{
afFsL /x]sf] eP To:tf] shf{sf nflu ztk|ltzt shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf ug'{kg]{ /
To;/L Joj:yf gu/]sf] kfO{Pdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf !)) sf] pkbkmf
-@_ sf] v08 -u_ adf]lhd ;DjlGwt sfo{sf/L k|d'vnfO{ kfFr nfv ?k}ofF;Dd gub
hl/jfgf nufOg] 5 .
s'g} C0fL cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf dfkm{t sfnf];"rLdf /fv]sf] ePtf klg To:tf
C0fLnfO{ k|bfg ePsf] C0fsf] xsdf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfkm"n] k|bfg u/]sf] shf{
jf ;'ljwfsf] juL{s/0fsf] cfwf/df shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:Yff sfod ug{ ;lsg] 5 .

vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg @)^* sf] shf{ ;"rgf tyf sfnf];"rL ;DaGwL Joj:yf O=k|f lgb]{zg g+=
!@)^* af6 hf/L ul/Psf] lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf
o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

193

s=;"=kmf=g=! -s_
JolQmut shf{sf] k|of]hgsf] nflu
JolQmut tyf ;'/If0f ;DaGwL ljj/0f
@)=== ;fn ===========dlxgf == ut]

k|yd k6s shf{ :jLs[lt ubf{efsf gf3]sf shf{sf] ljj/0f shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|df of] kmf/d e/L k7fpg' kg]{ .
;fy}, o; kmf/ddf pNn]v ePsf] ljj/0fdf s'g} kl/jt{g ePdf ;f]sf] hfgsf/L o; kmf/ddf e/L lbg' kg]{ . t/,
rn ;DklQsf] d"Nof+sg /sddf dfq kl/jt{g ePdf k7fpg' gkg{] .
C0f k|bfg ug]{ a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] gfd M
zfvfpkzfvf M
!
C0fLsf] gfd M
;d'xM
!=! gful/stf k|df0fkqdf pNn]v eP adf]lhdsf] 7]ufgf M
xfnsf] 7]ufgf M
lhNnf M
g=kf=uf=lj=;= M
lhNnf M
g=kf=uf=lj=;= M
j8f g+= M
6f]n M
3/ g+= M
j8f g+= M
6f]n M
3/ g+= M
!=@ gful/stf g+= M
hf/L u/]sf] ldlt M
hf/L u/]sf] lhNnf M
!=# dtbftf k|df0fkq g+= M
hf/L u/]sf] ldlt M
hf/L u/]sf] lhNnf M
!=$ ;jf/L rfns cg'dlt kq g+= M
hf/L u/]sf] lhNnf M
!=% /fxbfgL g+= M
k|bfg u/]sf] d'n's M
!=^ :yfoL n]vf g+= M
hf/L u/]sf] ldlt M
;+:yf sf]8 M
!=& kmf]g g+= M
df]afO{n g+= M
O{d]n 7]ufgf M
!=* tLgk':t] ljj/0f M
afa'
afh]
>Ldfg\>LdtL
cfdf
;;'/f
@= C0fLsf] Psf3/ kl/jf/sf] ljj/0f M -o; k|of]hgsf] nflu Psf3/ kl/jf/ eGgfn] C0fLsf] klt jf kTgL, 5f]/f, a'xf/L,
cljjflxtf 5f]/L, wd{k'q, cljjflxtf wd{k'qL, afa', cfdf, ;f}t]gL cfdf / cfkm"n]
kfng kf]if0f ug'{ kg]{ bfh', efO, lbbL / alxgLnfO{ a'emfp+5 ._
Psf3/ kl/jf/sf ;b:ox?sf] gfd
gftf

#= clwsf/ k|fKt JolQmsf]


gfd / 7]ufgf

gful/stf g+=

afa'sf] gfd

afh]sf] gfd

$= sG;g{ ;DaGwL ljj/0f M -C0fLsf] cGo s'g} kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfdf !% k|ltzt jf ;f]eGbf a9L z]o/ :jfldTj
ePdf jf ;+rfns ePdf pNn]v ug{' kg{]_
;+nUg kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] gfd
7]ufgf
z]o/xf]N8/;+rfns
z]o/ nufgL k|ltzt

-/sd ?=df _
%= C0fLn] pkof]u u/]sf] shf{sf] nflu hdfgt lbg] JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] ljj/0f M
%=! hdfgt lbg] JolQm ePdf ;f]sf] ljj/0f M
gfd
7]ufgf
gful/stf g+=
/ /fxbfgL
g+=

gful/stf
hf/L ePsf]
ldlt

%=! -s_ hdfgt lbg] JolQmsf] tLgk':t]] ljj/0f M

194

gful/stf hf/L ePsf] hdfgt


lhNnf / /fxbfgL hf/L lbPsf]
ePsf] d'n's
/sd

hdfgt lbPsf] shf{


zLif{s

gfd

afa'

afh]

>Ldfg\>LdtL

%=@ hdfgt lbg] kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yf ePdf ;f]sf] ljj/0f M
gfd
7]ufgf
/lhi6]zg g+= hf/L ePsf]
kfg g+=
ldlt

cfdf
hf/L u/]sf]
lgsfo

;;'/f

hdfgt
lbPsf] /sd

%=@ -s_ hdfgt lbg] kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfdf ;+nUg z]o/wgL tyf ;+rfnsx?sf] ljj/0f M
z]o/wgL /jf ;+rfnssf] gfd
7]ufgf
z]o/wgL ;+rfns

hdfgt lbPsf] shf{


zLif{s

z]o/ nufgL k|ltzt

%=@ -v_ hdfgt lbg] kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] z]o/wgL / ;+rfnsx?sf] tLgk':t] ljj/0f M
z]o/wgL /jf
gful/stf g+=
afa'
afh]
>Ldfg\>LdtL
cfdf
;+rfnssf] gfd

^= ;'/If0fdf /x]sf] hldg, 3/, kl/of]hgf cflb h:tf crn ;DklQsf] ljj/0f M
lwtf]sf] k|sf/ lwtf]] /x]sf] :yfg lwtf]wgLsf]
d"Nof+lst d"Nofsg
d"Nof+sg
-j8f g+= ;lxt_
gfd
/sd
ldlt
stf{sf] gfd

;;'/f

lwtf] /flvPsf]
shf{ zLif{s

&= ;'/If0fdf /x]sf] artkq, C0fkq, d'2lt /l;b, k|f]ld;/L gf]6, z]o/, ;fdfg lwtf] -xfOkf]lys]zg ;d]t_, cflb h:tf rn
;DklQsf] ljj/0f M
lwtf]sf]
lwtf]] /x]sf]
lwtf]wgLsf] gfd d"Nof+lst /sd
d"Nofsg
d"Nof+sgstf{
lwtf] /flvPsf]]
k|sf/
:yfg
ldlt
sf] gfd
shf{ zLif{s
-j8f g+= ;lxt_

*= C0fL;+u ;DalGwt s}lkmot M

==================
tof/ ug]{

====================
r]s ug]{

====================
Aoj:yfksk|d'v

-pk/f]Qm sf]7fx? ljj/0fsf] nflu ckof{Kt ePdf csf]{ kmf/fd k|of]u ug{ ;lsg]5 ._

195

;+o'Qm shf{sf] k|of]hgsf] nflu

s=;"=kmf =g+=! -v_

JolQmut tyf ;'/If0f ;DaGwL ljj/0f


@)=========;fn ======== dlxgf =====ut]
k|yd k6s shf{ :jLs[lt ubf{{efsf gf3]sf shf{sf] ljj/0f shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|df of] kmf/d e/L k7fpg' kg]{ .
;fy}, o; kmf/ddf pNn]v ePsf] ljj/0fdf s'g} kl/jt{g ePdf ;f]sf] hfgsf/L of] kmf/fd e/L lbg' kg]{ . t/, rn ;DklQsf]
d"Nof+sg /sddf dfq kl/jt{g ePdf k7fpg' gkg{] .
C0f k|bfg ug]{ a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] gfd M
zfvfpkzfvf M
!
;+o'Qm C0fLx?sf] gfd M
!=!
klxnf] C0fLsf]] gfd M
!=!=!
gful/stf k|df0fkqdf pNn]v eP adf]lhdsf] 7]ufgf M xfnsf] 7]ufgf M
lhNnf M
g=kf=uf=lj=;=M
lhNnf M
g=kf=uf=lj=;=M
j8f g+= M
6f]n M
3/ g+= M
j8f g+= M
6f]n M
3/ g+= M
!=!=@
gful/stf g+= M
hf/L u/]sf] ldlt M
hf/L u/]sf] lhNnf M
!=!=#
dtbftf k|df0fkq g+= M
hf/L u/]sf] ldlt M
hf/L u/]sf] lhNnf M
!=!=$ ;jf/L rfns cg'dlt kq g+= M
hf/L u/]sf] lhNnf M
!=!=%
/fxbfgL g= M
k|bfg u/]sf] d'n's M
!=!=^
:yfoL n]vf g+= M
hf/L u/]sf] ldlt M
;+:yf sf]8 M
!=!=&
kmf]g g M
df]afO{n g+= M
O{d]n 7]ufgf M
!=!=* klxnf] C0fLsf]] tLgk':t] ljj/0f M
afa'
afh]
>Ldfg\>LdtL
cfdf
;;'/f
!=@
!=@=!
!=@=@
!=@=#
!=@=$
!=@=%
!=@=^
!=@=&
!=@=*

bf];|f] C0fLsf]] gfd M


gful/stf k|df0fkqdf pNn]v eP adf]lhdsf] 7]ufgf M
xfnsf] 7]ufgf M
lhNnf M
g=kf=uf=la=;= M
lhNnf M
g=kf=uf=la=;=M
j8f g+= M
6f]n M
3/ g+=M
j8f g+=M
6f]n M
3/ g+=M
gful/stf g+= M
hf/L u/]sf] ldlt M
hf/L u/]sf] lhNnf M
dtbftf k|df0fkq g+= M
hf/L u/]sf] ldlt M
hf/L u/]sf] lhNnf M
;jf/L rfns cg'dlt kq g+= M
hf/L u/]sf] lhNnf M
/fxbfgL g+= M
k|bfg u/]sf] d'n's M
:yfoL n]vf g+= M
hf/L u/]sf] ldlt M
;+:yf sf]8 M
kmf]g g+= M
df]afO{n g+=M
O{d]n 7]ufgf M
bf];|f] C0fLsf] tLgk':t] ljj/0f M
afa'
afh]
>Ldfg\>LdtL
cfdf
;;'/f

@= C0fLx?sf] Psf3/ kl/jf/sf] ljj/0f M -o; k|of]hgsf] nflu Psf3/ kl/jf/ eGgfn] C0fLsf] klt jf kTgL, 5f]/f, a'xf/L,
cljjflxtf 5f]/L, wd{k'q, cljjflxtf wd{k'qL, afa', cfdf, ;f}t]gL cfdf / cfkm"n] kfng kf]if0f ug'{ kg]{ bfh', efO, lbbL /
alxgLnfO{ a'emfp+5 ._
C0fLx?sf] gfd
Psf3/ kl/jf/sf ;b:ox?sf] gfd
gftf

#= clwsf/ k|fKt JolQmsf]


gfd / 7]ufgf
gful/stf g+=

afa'sf] gfd

afh]sf] gfd

$= sG;g{ ;DaGwL ljj/0f M -C0fLx?sf] JolQmut ?kdf cGo s'g} kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfdf !% k|ltzt jf ;f]eGbf
a9L z]o/ :jfldTj ePdf jf ;+rfns ePdf pNn]v ug{'kg{] _
C0fLsf]] gfd
;+nUg kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t
7]ufgf
z]o/xf]N8/ z]o/ nufgL k|ltzt

196

;+:yfsf] gfd

;+rfns

-/sd ?=df_
%= C0fLn] pkof]u u/]sf] shf{sf] nflu hdfgt lbg] JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] ljj/0f M
%=! hdfgt lbg] JolQmM ePdf ;f]sf] ljj/0f M
gfd
7]ufgf gful/stf g+= gful/stf hf/L
/fxbfgL g+=
ePsf] ldlt

%=! -s_ hdfgt lbg] JolQmsf] ltgk':t]] ljj/0f M


gfd
afa'
afh]

gful/stf hf/L ePsf]


lhNnf /fxbfgL hf/L
ePsf] d'n's

>Ldfg\>LdtL

%=@ hdfgt lbg] kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yf ePdf ;f]sf] ljj/0f M
gfd
7]ufgf
/lhi6]zg g+=
hf/L ePsf]
hf/L u/]sf]
kfg g+=
ldlt
lgsfo

hdfgt
lbPsf]
/sd

hdfgt lbPsf]
shf{ zLif{s

cfdf

hdfgt
lbPsf] /sd

;;'/f

hdfgt lbPsf] shf{


zLif{s

%=@ -s_ hdfgt lbg] kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfdf ;+nUg z]o/wgL tyf ;+rfnsx?sf] ljj/0f M
z]o/wgL /jf ;+rfnssf] gfd
7]ufgf
z]o/wgL;+rfns
z]o/ nufgL k|ltzt

%=@ -v_ hdfgt lbg] AolQm tyf kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] z]o/wgL / ;+rfnsx?sf] tLgk':t] ljj/0f M
z]o/wgL /jf ;+rfnssf] gfd
gful/stf g=
afa'
afh]
>Ldfg\>LdtL
cfdf

^= ;'/If0fdf /x]sf] hldg, 3/, kl/of]hgf cflb h:tf crn ;DklQsf] ljj/0f M
lwtf]sf]
lwtf]] /x]sf] :yfg
lwtf]wgLsf]
d"Nof+lst /sd d"Nof+sg
k|sf/
-j8f g+= ;lxt_
gfd
ldlt

d"Nof+sgstf{
sf] gfd

;;'/f

lwtf] /flvPsf]
shf{ zLif{s

&= ;'/If0fdf /x]sf] artkq, C0fkq, d'2lt /l;b, k|f]ld;/L gf]6, z]o/, ;fdfg lwtf] -xfOkf]lys]zg ;d]t_, cflb h:tf rn
;DklQsf] ljj/0f M
lwtf]sf]
lwtf]] /x]sf] :yfg
lwtf]wgLsf]
d"Nof+lst
d"Nof+sg
d"Nof+sgstf{sf]
lwtf] /flvPsf]
k|sf/
-j8f g+= ;lxt_
gfd
/sd
ldlt
gfd
shf{ zLif{s

*= C0fL;+u ;DalGwt s}lkmot M


===================
===================
=======================
tof/ ug]{
r]s ug]{
Joa:yfksk|d'v
-pk/f]Qm sf]7fx? ljj/0fsf] nflu ckof{Kt ePdf csf]{ kmf/fd k|of]u ug{ ;lsg]5 ._

197

s=;"=kmf =g+=! -u_

kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] shf{sf] k|of]hgsf] nflu


JolQmut tyf ;'/If0f ;DaGwL ljj/0f
@)==== ;fn ======= dlxgf ====ut]

k|yd k6s shf{ :jLs[lt ubf{efsf gf3]sf shf{sf] ljj/0f shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|df of] kmf/d e/L k7fpg' kg]{ .
;fy}, o; kmf/ddf pNn]v ePsf] ljj/0fdf s'g} kl/jt{g ePdf ;f]sf] hfgsf/L of] kmf/fd e/L lbg' kg]{ . t/, rn
;DklQsf] d"Nof+sg /sddf dfq kl/jt{g ePdf k7fpg' gkg{] .
C0f k|bfg ug]{ a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] gfd M
zfvfpkzfvf M
!
C[0fL kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] gfd M
;d"x M
!=!
/lhi6/ k|df0fkq adf]lhdsf] 7]ufgf M
sfof{nosf] 7]ufgf M
lhNnf M
g=kf=uf=lj=;=M
lhNnf M
g=kf=uf=lj=;=M
j8f g+=M
6f]n M
3/ g=M
j8f g+=M 6f]n M
3/ g+=M
!=@ /lhi6]zg g+=M
btf{ u/]sf] ldlt M
btf{ u/]sf] lgsfo M
!=#
kmf]g g+=M
km\ofS; g+=M
O{d]n M
!=$ kfg g+=M
btf{ u/]sf] ldlt M
btf{ u/]sf] lhNnf M
@=-s_ k|f]k|fO6/, ;fem]bf/, z]o/xf]N8/ /jf ;+rfnsx?sf] ljj/0f M -k|fO{e]6 ln= k|f]k|fO6/, ;fem]bf/ / ;+rfnsdWo] h'g
s+= / klJns ln= s+= ePdf !% k|ltzt jf ;f]eGbf a9L z]o/ wf/0f ug]{
xf] ;f] df - _ lrGx nufpg]
z]o/wgLx?sf] dfq gfd pNn]v ug]{ ._
s}lkmot
k|f]k|fO6/
;fem]bf/
;+rfns

@=-v_ k|f]k|fO6/, ;fem]bf/, z]o/xf]N8/ /jf ;+rfnsx?sf] tLgk':t] ljj/0f M


gfd
gful/stf g+= /
afa'
afh]
>Ldfg\>LdtL
hf/L ldlt

#= clwsf/ k|fKt JolQmsf]


gfd / 7]ufgf
gful/stf g+=

afa'sf] gfd

cfdf

;;'/f

afh]sf] gfd

$= sG;g{ ;DaGwL ljj/0f M -C[0fL kmd{ / ;f]sf k|f]k|fO6/, ;fem]bf/, z]o/xf]N8/ /jf ;+rfnsx?sf] JolQmut, ;+o'Qm jf
;+:yfut ?kdf cGo s'g} kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfdf !% k|ltzt jf ;f]eGbf a9L z]o/ :jfldTj ePdf jf ;+rfns
ePdf pNn]v ug{' kg{]_
;+nUg AolQmsf] gfd
;+nUg kmd{, sDkgL jf
7]ufgf
z]o/xf]N8/;rfns
z]o/
;ul7t ;+:yfsf] gfd
nufgL
k|ltzt

198

-/sd ?=df_
%= C0fLn] pkof]u u/]sf] shf{sf] nflu hdfgt lbg] JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] ljj/0f M
%=! hdfgt lbg] JolQm ePdf ;f]sf] ljj/0f M
gfd
7]ufgf
gful/stf
g+= /fxbfgL
g+=

%=! -s_ hdfgt lbg] JolQmsf] tLgk':t]] ljj/0f M


gfd
afa'
afh]

gful/stf
hf/L ePsf]
ldlt

gful/stf hf/L ePsf]


lhNnf/fxbfgL hf/L
ePsf] d'n's

>Ldfg\>LdtL

%=@ hdfgt lbg] kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yf ePdf ;f]sf] ljj/0f M
gfd
7]ufgf
/lhi6]zg g+=
hf/L ePsf]
kfg g+=
ldlt

hdfgt
lbPsf] /sd

cfdf

hf/L u/]sf]
lgsfo

;;'/f

hdfgt
lbPsf] /sd

%=@ -s_ hdfgt lbg] kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfdf ;+nUg z]o/wgL tyf ;+rfnsx?sf] ljj/0f M
z]o/wgL /jf ;+rfnssf] gfd
7]ufgf
z]o/wgL;+rfns

%=@ -v_ hdfgt lbg] kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] z]o/wgL / ;+rfnsx?sf] tLgk':t] ljj/0f M
z]o/wgL /jf ;+rfnssf] gful/stf g+=
afa'
afh]
>Ldfg\>LdtL
gfd

^= ;'/If0fdf /x]sf] hldg, 3/, kl/of]hgf cflb h:tf crn ;DklQsf] ljj/0f M
lwtf]sf] k|sf/
lwtf]] /x]sf] :yfg
lwtf]wgLsf] gfd
d"Nof+lst
d"Nof+sg
-j8f g+= ;lxt_
/sd
ldlt

hdfgt
lbPsf] shf{
zLif{s

hdfgt
lbPsf] shf{
zLif{s

z]o/ nufgL
k|ltzt

cfdf

d"Nofsgstf{
sf] gfd

;;'/f

lwtf] /flvPsf]
shf{ zLif{s

&= ;'/If0fdf /x]sf] artkq, C0fkq, d'2lt /l;b, k|f]ld;/L gf]6, z]o/, ;fdfg lwtf] -xfOkf]lys]zg ;d]t_, cflb h:tf rn
;DklQsf] ljj/0f M
lwtf]sf]
lwtf]] /x]sf] :yfg
lwtf]wgLsf] gfd
d"Nof+lst
d"Nof+sg
d"Nof+sgstf{sf]
lwtf] /flvPsf]
k|sf/
-j8f g+= ;lxt_
/sd
ldlt
gfd
shf{ zLif{s

*= C0fL;+u ;DalGwt s}lkmot M


===================
===================
===================
tof/ ug]{
r]s ug]{
Joa:yfksk|d'v
-pk/f]Qm sf]7fx? ljj/0fsf] nflu ckof{Kt ePdf csf]{ kmf/fd k|of]u ug{ ;lsg]5 ._

199

kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] shf{sf] k|of]hgsf] nflu

s=;"=kmf =g+=! -3_

;+:yfut tyf ;'/If0f ;DaGwL ljj/0f


@)==== ;fn ======= dlxgf ====ut]

k|yd k6s shf{ :jLs[lt ubf{efsf gf3]sf shf{sf] ljj/0f shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|df o; kmf/d e/L k7fpg' kg]{ .
;fy}, o; kmf/ddf pNn]v ePsf] ljj/0fdf s'g} kl/jt{g ePdf ;f]sf] hfgsf/L o; kmf/fd e/L lbg' kg]{ . t/, rn
;DklQsf] d"Nof+sg /sddf dfq kl/jt{g ePdf k7fpg' gkg{] .
C0f k|bfg ug]{ a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] gfd M
!
;+o'Qm C[0fL kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] gfd M
!=!
klxnf] C0fLsf] gfd M
!=!=! /lhi68{ k|df0fkq adf]lhdsf] 7]ufgf M
lhNnf M
g=kf=uf=lj=;=M
j8f g+=M
6f]n M
3/ g=M
!=!=@ /lhi6]zg g+=M
btf{ u/]sf] ldlt M
!=!=# kmf]g g+=M
km\ofS; g+=M
!=!=$ kfg g+=M
btf{ u/]sf] ldlt M
!=@
!=@=!

bf]>f]] C0fLsf] gfd M


/lhi68{ k|df0fkq adf]lhdsf] 7]ufgf M
lhNnf M
g=kf=uf=la=;=M
j8f g+=M
6f]n M 3/ g=M
!=@=@ /lhi6]zg g+=M
btf{ u/]sf] ldlt M
!=@=# kmf]g g+=M
km\ofS; g+=M
!=@=$ kfg g+=M
btf{ u/]sf] ldlt M

zfvfpkzfvf M
sfof{nosf] 7]ufgf M
lhNnf M
g=kf=uf=lj=;=M
j8f g+=M 6f]n M
3/ g+=M
btf{ u/]sf] lgsfo M
O{d]n M
btf{ u/]sf] lhNnf M
sfof{nosf] 7]ufgf M
lhNnf M
j8f g+=M 6f]n M
btf{ u/]sf] lgsfo M
O{d]n M
btf{ u/]sf] lhNnf M

g=kf=uf=la=;=M
3/ g+=M

@=-s_ klxnf] C0fLsf k|f]k|fO6/, ;fem]bf/, z]o/xf]N8/ /jf ;+rfnsx?sf] ljj/0f k|f]k|fO6/, ;fem]bf/ / ;+rfnsdWo] h'g
M -k|fO{e]6 ln= s+= / klJns ln= s+= ePdf !% k|ltzt jf ;f]eGbf a9L z]o/
xf] ;f]df - _ lrGx nufpg]
wf/0f ug]{ z]o/wgLx?sf] dfq gfd pNn]v ug]{ ._
gfd
7]ufgf
z]o/ nufgL k|ltzt
s}lkmot
-gful/stf k|df0fkq adf]lhd_
k|f]k|fO{6/
;fem]bf/
;+rfns

@=-v_ klxnf] C0fLsf k|f]k|fO6/, ;fem]bf/, z]o/xf]N8/ /jf ;+rfnsx?sf] tLgk':t] ljj/0f M
gfd
gful/stf g+= hf/L ldlt hf/L lhNnf
afa'
afh]
>Ldfg\>LdtL

cfdf

;;'/f

@=! -s_ bf];|f] C0fLsf k|f]k|fO6/, ;fem]bf/, z]o/xf]N8/ /jf ;+rfnsx?sf] ljj/0f k|f]k|fO6/, ;fem]bf/ / ;+rfnsdWo] h'g
M -k|fO{e]6 ln= s+= / klJns ln= s+= ePdf !% k|ltzt jf ;f]eGbf a9L z]o/
xf] ;f]df - _ lrGx nufpg]
wf/0f ug]{ z]o/wgLx?sf] dfq gfd pNn]v ug]{ ._
gfd
7]ufgf
z]o/ nufgL k|ltzt
s}lkmot
-gful/stf k|df0fkq adf]lhd_
k|f]k|fO6/
;fem]bf/
;+rfns

@=! -v_ bf];|f] C0fLsf k|f]k|fO6/, ;fem]bf/, z]o/xf]N8/ /jf ;+rfnsx?sf] tLgk':t] ljj/0f M
gfd
gful/stf
hf/L
hf/L
afa'
afh]
>Ldfg\>LdtL
g+=
ldlt lhNnf

200

cfdf

;;'/f

#= clwsf/ k|fKt JolQmsf]


gfd / 7]ufgf
gful/stf g+=

afa'sf] gfd

afh]sf] gfd

$= sG;g{ ;DaGwL ljj/0f M -C0fL kmd{ / ;f]sf k|f]k|fO6/, ;fem]bf/, z]o/xf]N8/ / jf ;+rfnsx?sf] JolQmut, ;+o'Qm jf
;+:yfut ?kdf cGo s'g} kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfdf !% k|ltzt jf ;f]eGbf a9L z]o/ :jfldTj ePdf jf ;+rfns
ePdf pNn]v ug{' kg{]_
;+nUg AolQmsf] gfd
;+nUg kmd{, sDkgL jf
7]ufgf
z]o/wgL
z]o/ nufgL
;ul7t ;+:yfsf] gfd
;rfns
k|ltzt
%= C0fLn] pkof]u u/]sf] shf{sf] nflu hdfgt lbg] JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf]] ljj/0f M
%=! hdfgt lbg] JolQm ePdf ;f]sf] ljj/0f M
gfd
7]ufgf
gful/stf
gful/stf gful/stf hf/L ePsf] hdfgt lbPsf]
g+= /fxbfgL hf/L ePsf] lhNnf/fxbfgL hf/L
/sd
g+=
ldlt
ePsf] d'n's
%=! -s_ hdfgt lbg] JolQmsf] ltgk':t]] ljj/0f M
gfd
afa'
afh]

>Ldfg\>LdtL

%=@ hdfgt lbg] kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yf ePdf ;f]sf] ljj/0f M
gfd
7]ufgf
/lhi6]zg g+= hf/L ePsf]
kfg g+=
ldlt

cfdf

hf/L u/]sf]
lgsfo

;;'/f

hdfgt
lbPsf] /sd

%=@ -s_ hdfgt lbg] kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfdf ;+nUg z]o/wgL tyf ;+rfnsx?sf] ljj/0f M
z]o/wgL /jf ;+rfnssf] gfd
7]ufgf
z]o/wgL;+rfns

hdfgt lbPsf]
shf{ zLif{s

z]o/ nufgL k|ltzt

%=@ -v_ hdfgt lbg] kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] z]o/wgL / ;+rfnsx?sf] tLgk':t] ljj/0f M
z]o/wgL /jf ;+rfnssf] gfd
gful/stf g+=
afa'
afh]
>Ldfg\>LdtL

^= ;'/If0fdf /x]sf] hldg, 3/, kl/of]hgf cflb h:tf crn ;DklQsf] ljj/0f M
lwtf]sf] k|sf/
lwtf]] /x]sf] :yfg
lwtf]wgLsf] gfd
d"Nof+lst
d"Nof+sg
-j8f g+= ;lxt_
/sd
ldlt

hdfgt lbPsf]
shf{ zLif{s

d"Nofsgstf{
sf] gfd

cfdf

;;'/f

lwtf] /flvPsf]
shf{ zLif{s

&= ;'/If0fdf /x]sf] artkq, C0fkq, d'2lt /l;b, k|f]ld;/L gf]6, z]o/, ;fdfg lwtf] -xfOkf]lys]zg ;d]t_, cflb h:tf rn
;DklQsf] ljj/0f M
lwtf]sf]
lwtf]] /x]sf] :yfg
lwtf]wgLsf] gfd
d"Nof+lst
d"Nof+sg
d"Nof+sgstf{sf]
lwtf] /flvPsf]
k|sf/
-j8f g+= ;lxt_
/sd
ldlt
gfd
shf{ zLif{s
*= C0fL;+u ;DalGwt s}lkmot M
===================
===================
===================
tof/ ug]{
r]s ug]{
Joj:yfksk|d'v
-pk/f]Qm sf]7fx? ljj/0fsf] nflu ckof{Kt ePdf csf]{ kmf/fd k|of]u ug{ ;lsg]5 ._

201

s=;"=kmf=g+= @
JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfsf] C0f aSof}tf ;DaGwL
@)====== sf] klxnf]bf];|f]t];|f]rf}yf] q}dfl;s ljj/0f
-/sd ?=df_
C0f k|bfg ug]{ a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] gfd M
C0fLsf] gfd M
shf{sf]
lsl;d

shf{ :jLs[t

shf{ nufgL

/sd ldlt /sd

=================
tof/ ug]{

ldlt

zfvfpkzfvf M

shf{ vftfsf]
g+= :jfldTj

e'QmfgL x'g' kg]{


ls:tfshf{

/sd

==============
r]s ug]{

ldlt

e'QmfgL
hDdf
efsf gf3]sf] ls:tfs
shf{sf]
ljnDj
p7fpg ls:tfshf{ hf{ r'Qmf
;'/If0f
u/]
s
f]
ePsf] lbg afFls /sd
/sd
ldlt

=============================
Joj:yfksk|d'v

202

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= !#)^(
laifoM clgjfo{ df}Hbfta}wflgs t/ntf ;DjGwL Joj:yf .
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfgf] lgIf]k tyf ;fk6L bfloTjsf] cfwf/df sfod ug'{ kg]{
clgjfo{ df}Hbft tyf t/n ;DklQ Joj:yf ;DjGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/
k|of]u u/L b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
!=
s, v, u / ;j{;fwf/0fsf] ;d]t lgIf]k ;+sng ug]{ v'b|f n3' a}+ls+u ug]{ 3 ju{sf ;+:yfsf
nflu clgjfo{ df}Hbft ;DjGwL Joj:yf
-!_
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf ;+:yfn] s"n lgIf]k bfloTjsf] %=) k|ltzt tyf rNtL
/jf sn vftf ;d]tsf] lgIf]k :jLsf/ ug]{ v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] s"n
lgIf]k bfloTjsf] %=) k|ltzt clgjfo{ df}Hbft jfkt o; a}+sdf /fVg' kg]{5 .
t/, rNtL / sn vftf afx]ssf cGo lgIf]k dfq ;+sng ug]{ v u / ;j{;fwf/0fsf] ;d]t
lgIf]k ;+sng u/L v'b|f n3' a}+ls+u ug]{ 3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] s"n lgIf]k bfloTjsf]
b'O{ k|ltzt clgjfo{ df}Hbft /fVg' kg]{5 .
-@_
v, u / ;j{;fwf/0fsf] ;d]t lgIf]k ;+sng u/L v'b|f n3'a}+ls+u ug]{ 3 ju{sf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] o; a}+ssf] sfof{no gePsf] :Yffgdf glhssf] s ju{sf]
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf o; k|of]hgsf] nflu rNtL vftf vf]nL cfjZos /sd hDdf u/]df klg
clgjfo{ df}Hbftdf u0fgf ul/g]5 .
t/, Aofh cfh{g x'g] u/L s ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf hDdf u/]sf] /sdnfO{ clgjfo{
df}Hbftdf u0fgf ul/g] 5}g . o:tf] vftfsf] hfgsf/L o; a}+ssf] ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf
lbg' kg]{5 .
clgjfo{ df}Hbft k|of]hgsf nflu vf]lng] vftf ;DalGwt ljQLo ;+:yfsf] s]Gb|Lo sfof{no ePsf]
:yfgdf dfq vf]Ng' kg]{5 .
;DalGwt ljQLo ;+:yfsf] s]Gb|Lo sfof{no /x]sf] :yfgdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] sfof{no gePsf]
v08df glhssf] s ju{sf] Pp6} a}+sdf hDdf u/]sf] /sdnfO{ dfq clgjfo{ df}Hbftdf u0fgf
ul/g]5 . o; a}+ssf] sfof{no afx]s PseGbf a9L a}szfvfdf hDdf u/]sf] /sdnfO{ o;
k|of]hgsf nflu of]Uo dflgg] 5}g .
clgjfo{ df}Hbft u0fgf ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu vftf vf]lnPsf] a}+saf6 ;DalGwt ljQLo ;+:yfn]
s'g} klg lsl;dsf] ;fk6L;'ljwf pkof]u ug{ kfpg] 5}g . t/, ljkGg ju{ shf{ pknAw
ug{u/fpg o; lgb]{zgn] afwf k'ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
-#_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd /fVg' kg]{ df}Hbft gk'u ePsf] cj:yfdf b]xfo jdf]lhd hl/jfgf nufOg]
5 M
-s_
klxnf] k6s clgjfo{ df}Hbft gk'u ePsf] cj:yfdf gk'u eP hlt /sddf k|rlnt a}+s
b/sf] k|ltztn] .
-v_
bf];|f] k6s clgjfo{ df}Hbft gk'u ePsf] cj:yfdf gk'u eP hlt /sddf k|rlnt a}+s
b/sf] bf]Aj/ k|ltztn] .
-u_
t];|f] k6s / ;f] eGbf kl5 hlt k6s gk'u eP klg gk'u eP hlt /sddf k|rlnt
a}+s b/sf] t]Aj/ k|ltztn] .
t/, clGtd C0fbftf ;'ljwf k|of]u u/]sf o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfx?sf] xsdf To:tf] ;'ljwf k|of]u ubf{sf] xKtf;Dd clgjfo{ df}Hbft gk'u ePsf] cj:yfdf
a}+s b/sf] bf]Aa/;Dd dfq hl/jfgf nufOg] 5 .

203

-$_
-%_
-^_

-&_
-*_

pka'Fbf -#_ sf] v08 -s_, -v_ / -u_ adf]lhd k6s sfod ubf{ k|To]s cfly{s jif{sf] nflu cnu
cnu k6s sfod ul/g] 5 .
clgjfo{ df}Hbftdf gk'u eP hlt /sddf k|rlnt a}+s b/sf] k|ltztn] ;fKtflxs lx;fjdf xhf{gf
nufOg]5 / o;/L gk'u eP hltsf] /sdnfO{ a}+s b/sf] k|ltztn] u'0ff u/L jfpGgn] efu ul/g] 5
.
clgjfo{ df}Hbft u0fgf ;DjGwL k|of]hgsf nflu b]xfosf] k|lqmof ckgfOg]5 M
-s_
clgjfo{ df}Hbftsf] u0fgf ;fKtflxs -k|To]s cfOtjf/b]lv zlgjf/_ ?kdf ul/g] 5 .
-v_
df}Hbftsf] u0fgf ubf{ b'O{ xKtf cl3sf] ;fKtflxs cf};t lgIf]k bfloTjsf] cfwf/df
ul/g]5 . s'g} xKtfdf k'/} lbg ljbf kg{ uPdf To:tf] xKtfsf] cf};t lgIf]k ln+bf l7s
cl3Nnf] xKtfsf] cf};t lgIf]knfO{ lng' kg]{5 .
-u_
clgjfo{ df}Hbft u0fgf ug]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu s'n lgIf]k bfloTj / g]kfn /fi6 a+}s
df}Hbftsf] cfOtjf/b]lv zlgaf/;Ddsf] b}lgs df}Hbftsf] s'n of]unfO{ ;ft cn] efu
u/L ;fKtflxs ?kdf b}lgs cf};t lgwf{/0f ul/g] 5 . o;/L lgwf{/0f ubf{ ;Ktfxdf s'g}
lbg ljbf k/]df cl3Nnf] lbgsf] df}HbftnfO{ g} ;f] lbgsf] df}Hbft sfod ul/g] 5 .
-3_
o; k|of]hgsf] nflu lgwf{l/t lgb]{zg kmf=g+= !#=! df cfOtjf/b]lv zlgaf/;Ddsf]
ljj/0f - ljbfsf] lbgdf cl3Nnf] lbgsf] df}Hbft pNn]v ug'{kg]{_ e/L xKtf ljt]sf] ;ft
lbg leq clgjfo{ ?kdf o; a}+ssf] ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf cfOk'Ug] u/L k7fpg'
kg]{5 .
o; p2]Zosf] nflu Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] ;Dk"0f{ sfof{nox?nfO{ Pp6} OsfO{ dflgg] 5 .
o; a}+sdf /x]sf] vftfdf hDDff x'g] u/L km08 6fG;km/sf] l;nl;nfdf dfu{:y (Transit) df kg{
uPsf] :jb]zL d'b|fsf] /sdnfO{ o; a+}ssf] df}Hbftdf ;dfj]z u/fOg] 5 .

:ki6Ls/0fM
-!_
o; bkmfsf] k|of]hgsf] nflu s"n lgIf]k eGgfn] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] rNtL, sn,
art jf d'2lt vftfdf hDdf ePsf] /sd ;Demg' k5{ / ;f] zAbn] Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfn] o; a}+sn] tf]s]adf]lhdsf ljleGg ljQLo pks/0fsf] dfWodaf6 :jLsf/ ug]{
/sd ;d]tnfO{ hgfpF5 .
-@_
o; a}+ssf] ;fwf/0f vftfdf ePsf] df}HbftnfO{ dfq clgjfo{ df}Hbftdf u0fgf ul/g] 5
. o; a}+sdf ljz]if k|of]hgsf] nflu vf]lnPsf] ljz]if vftf tyf ljb]zL d'b|f vftfdf
/x]sf] /sdnfO{ o; k|of]hgsf] nlfu u0fgf ul/g] 5}g .
l6Kk0fLM
-!_
clgjfo{ df}Hbft u0fgf k|of]hgsf] nflu kl/jTo{ ljb]zL d'b|fsf] lgIf]k, sd{rf/L hdfgt
tyf dflh{g vftfdf /x]sf] /sd s"n lgIf]kdf ;dfj]z ul/g] 5}g .
-@_
rNtL vftf eGgfn] dfu]sf] avt hlxn] klg lemSg kfpg] u/L a}+s jf ljQLo
;+:yfdf /flvPsf] /sdsf] x/lx;fa n]lvPsf] vftf ;Demg' k5{ .
-#_
art vftf eGgfn] a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfdf artsf] lgldQ /flvPsf] /sdsf]
x/lx;fa n]lvPsf] vftf ;Demg' k5{ .
-$_
d'2lt vftf eGgfn] a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfdf lglZrt cjlw;Dd hDdf /xg] u/L
/flvPsf] /sdsf] x/lx;fa n]lvPsf] vftf ;Demg' k5{ .
-%_
clgjfo{ df}Hbft u0fgf ug]{ k|of]hgfy{ g]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] sfof{no gePsf :yfgx?df
/fli6o afl0fHo a}+s ln= tyf g]kfn a}+s ln= df /x]sf] gf]6sf]ifdf hDdf x'g] dfu{:y
gub -Cash in Transit_ ;d]t ;dfj]z ug{ ;lsg]5 . gf]6sf]ifdf /sd /flvPdf jf
gf]6sf]ifaf6 /sd lemlsPdf ;DalGwt a}+sn] To;sf] ljj/0f tTsfn d'b|f Joj:yfkg
ljefu / ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf ;d]t k7fpg' kg]{5 .
@=

3 ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf nflu clgjfo{ df}Hbft ;DjGwL Joj:yf


-!_
3 ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] ;d"x ;b:ox?af6 ;+sng u/]sf] JolQmut,
;d"xut, ljz]if art tyf ;fk6L sf]ifsf] sDtLdf z"Go bzdnj kfFr k|ltztn] x'g] /sd
clgjfo{ df}Hbftsf] ?kdf o; a}+sdf jf o; a}+ssf] zfvf gePsf] :yfgdf o; a}+saf6 s
ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf ;f]xL k|of]hgsf] nflu 5'} rNtL vftf vf]nL hDdf ug'{ kg]{5 .
o:tf] vftfsf] hfgsf/L o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu / ;DjlGwt

204

;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf lbg' kg]{5 .

:ki6Ls/0fM o; pka'Fbfsf] k|of]hgsf] nflu ;fk6L sf]if eGgfn] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cGo
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf, JolQm, kmd{, ;+ul7t ;+:yf -:jb]zL tyf ljb]zL_ tyf sDkgL;+u lnPsf]
;fk6L /sd ;Demg' k5{ .
-@_

#=

3 ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] s"n lgIf]k bfloTjsf] Go"gtd b'O{ bzdnj kfFr
k|ltzt t/n ;DklQsf] ?kdf /fVg' kg]{5 . t/n ;DklQ eGgfn] b]xfo adf]lhdsf] ;DklQ
;Demg' kb{5 M
-s_
cfkm\gf] 9's'6Ldf /x]sf] gub df}Hbft,
-v_
;/sf/L ;'/If0fkqdf u/]sf] nufgL ,
-u_
g]kfn /fi6 a}+s C0fkqdf u/]sf] nufgL, jf
-3_
s ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf lgIf]ksf] ?kdf /x]sf] df}Hbft .
-#_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd hDdf ug'{ kg]{ Go"gtd clgjfo{ df}Hbft eGbf a9L hDdf u/]df a9L ePhlt
/sd pka'Fbf -@_ sf] k|of]hgsf] nflu ;dfj]z ug{ kfOg]5 .
-$_
clgjfo{ df}Hbft tyf t/n ;DklQsf] u0fgf b]xfo jdf]lhd x'g]5 M
-s_
clgjfo{ df}Hbft / t/n ;DklQsf] u0fgf b}lgs cf};tsf] cfwf/df dfl;s ?kdf
ul/g]5 .
-v_
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf /x]sf] d'2lt lgIf]ksf] xsdf a9Ldf gAa]
k|ltzt;Dd dfq t/n ;DklQdf u0fgf ug'{ kg]{5 .
-u_
pka'Fbf -@_ adf]lhdsf t/n ;DklQsf] u0fgf ubf{ d'2lt lgIf]k jf ;/sf/L C0fkq tyf
g]kfn /fi6 a}+s C0fkq lwtf]df /fvL C0f lnPsf] eP C0f lnP a/fa/sf] /sd 36fpg'
kg]{5 .
-3_
3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] lgb]{zg kmf=g+= !#=@ adf]lhd clgjfo{ df}Hbft /
t/n ;DklQsf] ljj/0f dfl;s ?kdf k|To]s dlxgf lat]sf] kGw| lbgleq o; a}+ssf]
;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
-_
clgjfo{ df}Hbftsf] u0fgf ubf{ Ps dlxgf cl3sf] JolQmut, ;d"xut, ljz]if art tyf
;fk6L sf]ifsf] cfwf/df ul/g]5 .
-%_
clgjfo{ df}Hbft / t/n ;DklQ sfod g/fv] 3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:Yffn] pka'Fbf -!_
adf]lhd o; a]}+sdf hDdf ug'{ kg]{ clgjfo{ df}Hbft hDdf gu/]df jf sd hDdf u/]df ;f]
gu/]sf] cjlw;Ddsf] nflu a'Fbf g+= ! sf] pkaFbf -#_ adf]lhd hl/jfgf ul/g]5 .
-^_
a'Fbf g+= ! sf] pka'Fbf -#_ sf] v08 -s_, -v_ / -u_ adf]lhd k6s sfod ubf{ k|To]s cfly{s
jif{sf] nflu cnu cnu k6s sfod ul/g] 5 .
-&_
clgjfo{ df}Hbftdf gk'u eP hlt /sddf k|rlnt a}+s b/sf] k|ltztn] dfl;s lx;fjdf xhf{gf
nufOg]5 / o;/L gk'u eP hltsf] /sdnfO{ a}+s b/sf] k|ltztn] u'0ff u/L jfx|n] efu ul/g]
5.
-*_
dfly h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] ePtf klg cGo a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] tkm{jf6 c;'n u/L lbg]
zt{df yf]s shf{ sf/]fjf/ ug]{ 3 ju{sf n3' ljQ ljsf; a}sdf x:tfGt/0f eO{ cfPsf] C0f
;fk6L /sddf clgjfo{ df}Hbft sfod ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yfnfO{ 5'6 lbg ;lsg] 5 .
-(_
;j{;fwf/0fsf] ;d]t lgIf]k ;+sng ug]{ v'b|f n3' a}+ls+u ug]{ 3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn]
clgjfo{ df}Hbft ;DaGwL cGo Joj:yfx? tyf o; a}+snfO{ k7fpg' kg]{ ljj/0f o;} lgb]{zgsf] a'+bf
g+= ! cg';f/ x'g]5 . ;fy}, To:tf n3'ljQ ;+:yfx?sf] xsdf o; a'Fbfsf] pka'+bf g+= -@_ nfu" x'g] 5}g
.
clgjfo{ df}Hbft ;DjGwL cGo Joj:yf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?sf] sfo{nfO{ lj:tfl/t, ;xh / ;'ljwfo'Qm agfpg ahf/ lgdf{tfx afx]ssf o;
a}+saf6 s, v / u ju{sf] Ohfht k|fKt ;+:yfn] klg ;/sf/L ;'/If0fkqsf] ;fFjf tyf Aofh
e'QmfgL u/L ;f]sf] zf]wegf{sf] nflu o; a}+sdf dfu ug{ ;Sg]5g\ . o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfxsf nflu g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;'/If0fkqsf] ;fFjf e'QmfgL /sdsf] zf]wegf{ k|fKt gx'Fbf;Ddsf]
cjlwsf] nflu pQm /sdnfO{ ;d]t clgjfo{ df}Hbft cg'kftdf u0fgf ul/g] 5 . ;fy}, ;fj{hlgs labf

205

$=

kg{ uO{ ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ ;fFjf /sd e'QmfgL ug{ g;lsPsf] cj:yfdf ;f] labfsf]
cjlwsf] nflu pQm ;fFjf /sdnfO{ o; a}+sdf /fVg' kg]{ clgjfo{ df}Hbft cg'kftdf u0fgf x'g]5 .
j}wflgs t/ntf cg'kft -Statutory Liquidity Ratio_ ;DaGwL Joj:yf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf a}+sn] !% k|ltzt, v ju{sf ljsf; a}+sn] !! k|ltzt, u ju{sf ljQ
sDkgLn] !) k|ltzt, rNtL / sn lgIf]k ;+sng gug]{ v / u ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ^ k|ltzt
tyf ;j{;fwf/0fsf] ;d]t lgIf]k kl/rfng ug]{ 3 ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfxn] $ k|ltzt j}wflgs t/ntf
cg'kft sfod ug'{ kg]{5 . o; k|of]hgsf] nflu a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfxsf] lgDgfg';f/sf] t/n
;DklQx? u0fgf ul/g] 5 M
-s_ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;'/If0fkqdf u/]sf] nufgL,
-v_ clgjfo{ df}Hbft k|of]hgsf nflu g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf /flvPsf] /sd,
-u_ cfkm\gf] 9's'6Ldf /x]sf] gub df}Hbft,
-3_ v, u / 3 ju{sf ;+:yfsf] xsdf clgjfo{ df}Hbft k|of]hgsf nflu jfl0fHo a}+sx?df /x]sf]
/sd,
-_ /fli6o:t/ jfx]ssf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] dfu]sf jvt k|fKt x'g] u/L cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?df
/fv]sf] /sd,
-;+nUg cg';"rL !#=# adf]lhd_

o;dWo] s, v / u ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] %=) k|ltzt / rNtL / sn lgIf]k :jLsf/
gug]{ ljQLo ;+:yfx? -v, u / ;j{;fwf/0faf6 ;d]t lgIf]k kl/rfng ug]{ 3 ju{sf_ n] @ k|ltzt
clgjfo{ df}Hbft cg'kft sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .
j}wflgs t/ntf cg'kft u0fgf ;DaGwdf b]xfo adf]lhd Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .
-!_
j}wflgs t/ntf cg'kft u0fgf ubf{ l7s cl3Nnf] dlxgfsf] cGTodf /x]sf] :jb]zL lgIf]k bfloTjnfO{
cfwf/ dflgg]5 .
-@_
o:tf] cg'kft u0fgf u/L k|To]s dlxgfe/sf] j}wflgs t/ntf cg'kft /sdsf] ljj/0f lgb]{zg
kmf=g+= !#=# df pNn]v eP adf]lhd k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-#_
pNn]lvt df}Hbft gk'u ePsf] cj:yfdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf (( sf] pkbkmf !_ df ePsf] Joj:yfsf] cwLgdf /xL b]xfo jdf]lhd hl/jfgf nufOg] 5 M
-s_
klxnf] k6s j}wflgs t/ntf cg'kft gk'u ePsf] cj:yfdf gk'u eP hlt /sddf
k|rlnt a}+sb/sf] k|ltztn] .
-v_
bf]>f] k6s j}wflgs t/ntf cg'kft gk'u ePsf] cj:yfdf gk'u eP hlt /sddf
k|rlnt a}+sb/sf] bf]Aj/ k|ltztn] .
-u_
t]>f] k6s / ;f]eGbf kl5 hlt k6s gk'u eP klg gk'u eP hlt /sddf k|rlnt a+}s
b/sf] t]Aj/ k|ltztn] .
-$_
pka'Fbf -#_ sf] v08 -s_, -v_ / -u_ adf]lhd k6s sfod ubf{ k|To]s cfly{s jif{sf] nflu cnu
cnu k6s sfod ul/g]5 .
-%_
j}wflgs t/ntf cg'kft gk'u eP hlt /sddf k|rlnt a}+sb/sf] k|ltztn] dfl;s lx;fjdf
xhf{gf nufOg]5 / o;/L gk'u eP hltsf] /sdnfO{ a+}sb/sf] k|ltztn] u'0ff u/L afx|n] efu
ul/g]5 .
-^_
j}wflgs t/ntf cg'kft gk'u ePsf] cj:yfdf hl/jfgfsf] k|of]hgsf nflu o; a}+sn] tf]s]
adf]lhd k|sflzt u/]sf] a}+sb/nfO{ g} cfwf/ lnOg]5 .

b|i6JoM != o; bkmfsf] k|of]hgsf] nflu ;/sf/L ;'/If0fkq eGgfn] g]kfn ;/sf/n] hf/L u/]sf] artkq,
ljsf; C0fkq, 6]h/L ljN; tyf o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] cGo ;'/If0fkq ;Demg' k5{ .
t/, ahf/ lgdf{tf -Market Maker_ sf] ?kdf sfo{ ul//x]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n]
sf/f]af/ -Trading_ k|of]hgsf] nflu g]kfn /fi6 a}+s, /fi6 C0f Joj:yfkg ljefu cGt/utsf]
ljz]if vftf -Special Account_ df /x]sf] ;/sf/L ;'/If0fkqsf] /sd lgtfGt sf/f]af/
-Trading_ k|of]hgsf] nflu dfq x'g] x'Fbf ;f] ;'/If0fkqsf] /sd j}wflgs t/ntf cg'kft
(Statutory Liquidity Ratio, SLR) k|of]hgsf] nflu ;/sf/L ;'/If0fkqdf u0fgf ug{ kfOg]
5}g .
@= j}wflgs t/ntf cg'kft ljj/0f k|To]s dlxgf ;dfKt ePsf] kGw| lbgleq k7fpg' kg]{5 .

206

%=

vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] clgjfo{ df}Hbft ;DjGwL Joj:yf O=k|f lgb]{zg g+= !#)^* af6 hf/L
ul/Psf] lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf clgjfo{
df}Hbftj}wflgs t/ntf cg'kft;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

207

g]=/f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=!#=!


s, v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] sfod /fVg' kg]{ clgjfo{ df}Hbft ;DaGwL
;fKtflxs ljj/0f **
ldlt @) ===== ;fn ======== dlxgf ====== ut]b]lv @) ====== ;fn ========= dlxgf======== ut];Ddsf] lgIf]k+
-?=xhf/df_
cfOtaf/

;f]daf/ d+unaf/

a'waf/

ljxLaf/

z'qmaf/ zlgjf/

hDdf cf}ift

s'n lgIf]k bfloTj


-s_ g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf /x]sf] df}Hbft
-ldlt @)=== ;fn======dlxgf b]lv
====;DDf_
-g]kfn /fi6 a}+s /]s8{ cg';f/_
-v_*sju{sf]
Ohfhtkqk|fKt
a}+sdf rNtL vftfdf /x]sf]
df}Hbft
-u_ v'b dfu{:y gub -!@+#_
-!_ gf]6sf]ifdf hDdf ul/Psf] /sd
-@_ gf]6sf]ifaf6 lemlsPsf] /sd
-#_ cGo
-3_ ;/sf/L C0fkqjrtkqsf] ;fFjf
e'QmfgL /sd
-_ clgjfo{ df}Hbft k|ltzt
-r_ ;fk6L lnPsf] s'n /sdsf] ljj/0f

* v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] xsdf dfq .


** 3 ju{sf] v'b|f n3'a}+lsu ug]{ ;+:yfn] ;j{;fwf/0fsf] lgIf]k lnPdf ;d]t oxL kmf/fd cg';f/ k7fpg] .
+ b'O{ xKtf cl3sf] ;fKtflxs cf}ift lgIf]k bfloTj
ldltM @)^ . .

ljj/0f k]z ug]{ clws[tsf] b:tvt


bhf{

gfd / y/
-s_
-v_
-u_
-3_

s'n lgIf]k eGgfn] rNtL, art / d'2lt vftfsf] /sd tyf dfu]sf avt e'QmfgL lbg' kg]{ /sd / ;l6{lkms]6 ckm
l8kf]lh6 ;Demg' k5{ . o; k|of]hgsf] nflu kl/jTo{ ljb]zL d'b|fsf] lgIf]k, sd{rf/L hdfgt tyf dflh{g vftfdf /x]sf] /sd
;dfj]z x'g] 5}g .
d'2lt lgIf]k eGgfn] lglZrt cjlw;Dd hDdf /xg] u/L /flvPsf] :jb]zL d'b|fsf] lgIf]k ;Demg' k5{ .
rNtL, sn / art lgIf]k eGgfn] d'2lt lgIf]k afx]ssf ;a} k|sf/sf lgIf]k ;Demg' k5{ .
o; a}+ssf] ;fwf/0f vftfdf ePsf] df}HbftnfO{ dfq clgjfo{ df}Hbftdf u0fgf ul/g] 5 . o; a}+sdf ljz]if k|of]hgsf] nflu
vf]lnPsf] ljz]if vftf tyf ljb]zL d'b|f vftfdf /x]sf] /sdnfO{ o; k|of]hgsf] nflu u0fgf ul/g] 5}g .

208

g]=/f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=13=2

3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf nflu


clgjfo{ df}Hbft tyf t/n ;DklQ ;DaGwL ljj/0f
-dfl;s_
@) === ;fn === dlxgf=== ut]b]lv === d;fGt;Dd

ut]

s'n
art
tyf
;fk6L
sf]if

s'n
art
sf]if

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s jf


o; a}+saf6 s ju{sf]
Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfdf rNtL vftf
vf]nL hDdf u/]sf]
df}Hbft

;/sf/L
cfkm\gf]
9's'6Ldf C0fkqdf
/x]sf] gub
u/]sf]
df}Hbft
nufgL

C0fkq.
s ju{sf]
g]kfn /fi6
d'2lt
Ohfhtkq
a}+s
lgIf]k /l;b
C0fkqdf k|fKt ;+:yfdf
shf{
lgIf]ksf] ?kdf
u/]sf]
-_
/x]sf] df}Hbft
nufgL

!
@
#
$
%
^
&
*
(
!)
!!
!@
!#
!$
!%
!^
!&
!*
!(
@)
@!
@@
@#
@$
@%
@^
@&
@*
@*
@(
#)
#!
#@
s'n
cf};t
clgjfo{ gub
t/ntf df}Hbft
k|ltzt

ldlt

clws[t

209

s'n
t/n
;DklQ

Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf nflu


j}wflgs t/ntf cg'kft -SLR_ ;DaGwL ljj/0f
-dfl;s_
@) === ;fn ==================== dlxgf .

ut]

;/sf/L
;'/If0f
kqdf
u/]sf]
nufgL

clgjfo{
df}Hbft
k|of]hgfy{
g]kfn /fi6
a}+sv,
dfu]sf s"n
jvt
u /
3 ju{sf 9's'6Ldf
k|fKt j}wflgs
;+:yfsf] /x]sf] gub
x'g] t/ntf
/sd
xsdf
df}Hbft
jfl0fHo
***
a}+s
;d]tdf
/x]sf] /sd
**

ut]

;/sf/L
;'/If0f
kqdf
u/]sf]
nufgL

g]= /f a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+=!#=#

clgjfo{
df}Hbft
k|of]hgfy{
g]kfn /fi6
a}+sv, 9's'6Ldf
u / 3
/x]sf]
ju{sf
gub
;+:yfsf]
df}Hbft
xsdf
jfl0fHo a}+s
;d]tdf /x]sf]
/sd **

dfu]sf
jvt
k|fKt
x'g]
/sd
***

s"n
j}wflgs
t/ntf

!
!&
@
!*
#
!(
$
@)
%
@!
^
@@
&
@#
*
@$
(
@%
!)
@^
!!
@&
!@
@*
!#
@(
!$
#)
!%
#!
!^
#@
sfod u/]sf] cf};t j}wflgs t/ntf -s_
cl3Nnf] dlxgfsf] cGTodf /x]sf] :jb]zL lgIf]k bfloTj -v_
sfod ug'{ kg]{ j}wflgs t/ntf cg'kft -u_-v_ * %
a9Lgk'u /sd -3_ -s_-u_
** o; a}+ssf] ;fwf/0f vftfdf ePsf] df}HbftnfO{ dfq clgjfo{ df}Hbftdf u0fgf ul/g] 5 . o; a}+sdf ljz]if

k|of]hgsf] nflu vf]lnPsf] ljz]if vftf tyf ljb]zL d'b|f vftfdf /x]sf] /sdnfO{ o; k|of]hgsf] nflu u0fgf ul/g]
5}g . ;fy}, j}wflgs t/ntfdf clgjfo{ df}Hbft /sd u0fgf ubf{ dlxgfe/sf] cf};t df}Hbft /sd ;dfj]z ug'{
kg]{5 .
*** /fli6o:t/ jfx]ssf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] dfu]sf jvt k|fKt x'g] u/L cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?df /fv]sf] /sd,
eGg] a'em\g' kb{5 .
ldltM
clws[tM

210

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= !$)^(
laifoM zfvfsfof{no vf]Ng] ;DaGwL Joj:yf .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] zfvfsfof{no vf]Ng] Joj:yfsf ;DaGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf &( n]
lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 M
!=
zfvfsfof{no vf]Ng] ;DaGwL Joj:yf
-s_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] zfvf sfof{no vf]Ng o; a}+ssf] k"j{ :jLs[lt lng' kg]{
5.
-v_
b]xfosf] cj:yf k"/f u/]sf s, v / u ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:Yffn] cfkm\gf] sfo{If]q
leq gofF zfvf sfof{no vf]Ng ;Sg]5g\M
-c_
zfvf lj:tf/ ug{sf nflu k|:tfljt :yfg ljQLo ?kn] ;DefJo /x]sf] :ynut cWoog
k|ltj]bg tof/ ug'{ kg]{ .
-cf_ o; a}+ssf] gLltut Joj:yf tyf lgb]{zgn] tf]s]sf] Go"gtd r'Qmf k'FhL k"/f u/]sf] jf
rfn' cf=j= sf] nflu r'Qmf k'FhL k"/f ug{ ;do lbPsf]df ;f] ;doleq k'FhL j[l4 ug]{ u/L
tof/ ul/Psf] k'FhL of]hgf jdf]lhdsf] sfo{ ;+kfbg e}/x]sf] Joxf]/f o; a}+s ;dIf k]z
ul/;s]sf] .
-O_
o; a}sjf6 Ohfhtkq k|bfg ubf{ tf]lsPsf zt{x? k"/f ug{'sf ;fy} zfvf vf]Ng'
cufl8sf] q}dfl;s ljQLo ljj/0fdf o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] k'FhLsf]if k"/f u/]sf] .
-O{_
zfvf sfof{nodf ;"rgf cfbfg k|bfg ug{sf] nflu g]6jls{ (Networking) u/L jf
ljB'tLo dfWodjf6 s]Gb|Lo sfof{nodf ;"rgf k|0ffnLdf tTsfn cfj4 x'g ;Sg] Joj:yf
u/]sf] .
-p_
l7s cl3Nnf] qodf;df lgliqmo shf{{ (NPL) % k|ltzteGbf a9L gePsf] .
-pm_ ;DalGwt ;+:yfsf] ;~rfns ;ldltaf6 zfvf sfof{no :yfkgf;+rfng ug]{ ;DaGwL
lg0f{o ePsf] x'g' kg]{ . ;~rfns ;ldltn] lg0f{o u/]sf] ldltn] !% lbgleq o; a}+s
;dIf ;+nUg cg';"rL !$=! adf]lhdsf] 9fFrfsf] kmf/d e/L :jLs[ltsf] nflu cfj]bg
lbg' kg]{ . o; a}+saf6 :jLs[lt kfPsf] ldltn] 5 dlxgfleqdf zfvf sfof{no vf]nL
sf/f]af/ ;~rfng ul/ ;Sg' kg]{ .
-P_
u ju{sf O{hfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] xsdf pkv08 -cf_ adf]lhdsf] Go"gtd r'Qmf k'FhL
k"/f ug'{sf cltl/Qm k|lt zfvf ?= %) nfvsf b/n] cltl/Qm r'Qmf k'FhL yk ul/;s]sf]
cj:yfdf sf7df08f}+ pkTosf jflx/ Pp6f / k|lt zfvf ?= @=)) s/f]8sf b/n]
cltl/Qm r'Qmf k'FhL yk ul/;s]sf] cj:yfdf sf7df08f}+ pkTosfdf Pp6f gofF zfvf
sfof{no vf]Ng ;Sg] . o; k|of]hgsf] nflu ;+:yfsf] Go"gtd r'Qmf k'FhL ?= @) s/]f8
jf @)^$ cfiff9 d;fGtdf sfod /x]sf] r'Qmf k'FhLnfO{ cfwf/ dfgL x/]s aif{ k'FhL
of]hgf cg';f/ ;dfg'kflts ?kdf k'/\ofpg'kg]{ k'FhLsf cltl/Qm pk/f]Qm cg';f/sf] yk
k'FhLsf] Joj:yf u/]df dfq zfvfsf] k|of]hgsf] nflu u0fgf ul/g] .
-P]_
pkv08 -P_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] ePtf klg Ohfhtkq k|fKt s, v / u
ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf jf ltgsf b'O{ jf ;f] eGbf sd zfvf /x]sf sf7df08f}+
pkTosf afx]ssf gu/kflnsf jf ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt jf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfxsf]
pkl:ylt Go"g /x]sf tf]lsPsf #) lhNnfdf zfvf lj:tf/ u/]df cltl/Qm r'Qmf k'FhL
yk ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yfdf 5'6 lbOg]5 .
-u_
3 ju{sf] O{hfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] @)^$ cfiff9df sfod /x]sf] r'Qmf k'FhLdf ? @% nfv jf
;f] sf b/n] yk u/]df xfn sfod /x]sf] ef}uf]lns If]q;+u hf]l8Psf] yk Ps lhNnf jf ;f]xL
cg'kftdf r"Qmf k'FhL a[l4 u/]df yk lhNnfx?df ;d]t sfo{If]q sfod u/L zfvf lj:tf/ ug{
;Sg]5g\ . o;/L r'Qmf k'FhLdf yk ePsf] ljj/0f n]vfk/LIfsjf6 k|dfl0ft u/fO{ k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .

211

-3_

-_
-r_

-5_

-h_

-em_

s'g} lhNnfleq % jf ;f]eGbf a9L j}+ls OsfO{ ePsf] cj:yf /x]tfklg s'g} ufFp ljsf; ;ldlt
jf gu/kflnsfdf s'g} klg a}+ls sf/f]jf/ ug]{ OsfO{ gePsf] ljz]if Joj:yf cGt/ut ;+:yfkgf
eO{ ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ;+rfng ul//x]sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] zfvf sfof{no tyf cGo s'g} lsl;dsf]
yk sfof{no vf]Ng kfpg] 5}g .
zfvf sfof{no vf]Ng] lg0f{o ubf{ jf ;+rfngsf] ;dodf dfly plNnlvt zt{ tyf Joj:yfx?
k"/f gePsf / Joj:yfkg ;'wf/sf] k|s[ofdf /x]sf ;+:yfx?n] laz]if cj:yfdf o; a}sn]
tf]lslbPsf] zt{x?sf] clwgdf /xL zfvf sfof{nocGo sfof{no :yfkgf ug{ kfpg]5 .
zfvf lj:tf/ ug{ :jLs[lt k|bfg ubf{ k|:tfljt If]qsf] Joj;flos sf/f]jf/, a}+ls ;]jfsf] kx'Fr
tyf pQm a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 s[lif, phf{, ko{6g / n3' pBdsf] If]qdf shf{ k|jfxdf x'g
;Sg] j[l4sf] l:ylt emNsg] u/L k]z ul/Psf] ;DefJotf cWoog k|ltj]bg ;d]tnfO{ cfwf/
agfOg] 5 . zfvf :yfkgfsf] nflu k]z ul/g] ;DefJotf cWoog k|ltj]bgdf k|:tfljt zfvf
:yfkgfsf nflu x'g] k"FhLut tyf cGo vr{x?, tLg jif{leqdf ;f]xL ;+:yfsf] cGt/zfvf Aofh
cfDbfgL afx]ssf a}+ls sf/f]af/af6 k|:tfljt zfvf d'gfkmfdf ;+rflnt x'g ;Sg] cfwf/ ;d]t
;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{ 5 .
s ju{ / /fli6o:t/sf v ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;++:yfx?n] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfxsf]
pkl:ylt Go"g /x]sf tf]lsPsf #) lhNnfdf zfvf vf]n]df ;b/d'sfddf ?= %) nfv;Dd /
;b/d'sfdeGbf aflx/ = ! s/f]8;Dd o; a}+saf6 z"Go Aofhb/df shf{ ;'lawf pknJw
u/fpg ;lsg] 5 . t/, k|d'v /fhdfu{ / ;f];Fu hf]l8Psf uf=lj=;=gu/kflnsfdf vf]lng]
zfvfsf] nflu o:tf] ;'ljwf pknAw u/fOg] 5}g . z"Go Aofhb/df shf{ k|jfx ;DaGwL k|s[ofut
Aoj:yf, @)^& tyf td;'s cg';'rLdf ;+nUg ul/Psf] 5 .
o; Joj:yf adf]lhd z'Go Aofhb/df shf{ lng rfxg] jfl0fHo a}+sx?n] o; a}+saf6 hf/L
lgb]{zg adf]lhd s[lif / phf{ If]qdf ug'{kg]{ nufgL k"/f u/]sf] cj:yfdf dfq o:tf] shf{ ;'ljwf
pknAw u/fOg] 5 .
ljQLo ;]jfsf] kx'Fr sd ePsf dgf, x'Dnf, 8f]Nkf, sflnsf]6, d'u', hfh/sf]6, aemf, afh'/f /
bfr'{nf u/L ( lhNnfdf 3 ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfn] zfvf vf]nL ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ;+rfng u/]df
k|lt zfvf ?= !% nfv z'Go Jofhb/df shf{ ;'ljwf pknJw u/fOg]5 . o:tf] shf{ ;'ljwf z'Go
Aofhb/df shf{ k|jfx ;DaGwL k|s[ofut Joj:yf, @)^& df plNnlvt k|lqmof adf]lhd k|bfg
ul/g] 5 .
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfxsf] pkl:ylt Go"g /x]sf tf]lsPsf #)
lhNnfdf sDtLdf Ps zfvf / sf7df08f} pkTosf aflx/ cGoq Ps zfvf u/L b'O{j6f zfvf
vf]nL ;+rfngdf NofP kZrft dfq sf7df8f}+ pkTosfleq Ps zfvf vf]Ng :jLs[lt k|bfg ug{
;lsg] 5 . pkTosf leq zfvf vf]Ng lgj]bg k]z ubf{ o;/L vf]lng] zfvfsf] nflu aflx/
vf]lnPsf zfvfx?sf] ljj/0f k]z ug'{kg]{ 5 .
t/, pko'{Qm Joj:yfn] b]xfo adf]lhdsf :yfgdf zfvf lj:tf/ ug{ jfwf k'/\ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
/fli6o:t/sf ;+:yfx? afx]ssf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?sf] xsdf cfkm\gf] :jLs[t
sfo{If]qleq zfvf sfof{no :yfkgf ug{ .
s ju{sf Ohfhtk|qk|fKt ;++:yfsf] ?kdf :yflkt gofF a}+ssf] sf7df08f}+ pkTosfleq
s]Gb|Lo sfof{noskf]{/]6 sfof{no / Pp6f zfvf sfof{no :yfkgf ug{ .
cfoft lgof{t Jofkf/sf nflu k|d'v eG;f/ gfsf dflgPsf sfFs8lef, lj/f6gu/, jL/u+h,
e}/xjf, g]kfnu+h / wgu9Ldf PsPsj6f zfvf sfof{no :yfkgf ug{ .
gf]6M k"j{ Joj:yf cg';f/ @)^& c;f/ d;fGt;Dddf ;+rfns ;ldltn] lg0f{o u/L ^ dlxgfleq sf7df08f}
pkTosf jflx/ vf]lnPsf zfvf sfof{nox?nfO{ o; k|of]hgsf] nflu u0fgf ug{ kfOg] 5}g .

-`_

@=

o; lgb]{zgsf] k|of]hgsf nflu kfFry/, tfKn]h', t]x|y'd, ;+v'jf;ef, ef]hk'/, vf]6f, cf]vn9+'uf,
bf]nvf, /fd]5fk, /;'jf, dgf, c3f{vfFrL, d':tf, /f]Nkf, ?s'd, ;Nofg, Ko'7fg, h'Dnf, d'u',
x'Dnf, sfnLsf]6, 8f]Nkf, b}n]v, hfh/sf]6, aemf, 8f]6L, afh'/f, c5fd, bfr'{nf / a}t8L u/L #)
lhNnfx?nfO{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfxsf] pkl:ylt Go"g /x]sf lhNnfx? egL tf]lsPsf] 5 .
zfvfsfof{no aGb tyf :yfgfGt/0f ug]{ ;DaGwL Joj:yf
-s_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn]] o; a}+ssf] k"j{ :jLs[lt ljgf zfvf jf s'g} klg lsl;dsf] sfof{no aGb

212

ug{ jf :yfgfGt/0f ug{ jf ufEg kfpg] 5}gg\ .


Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn]] dxfgu/kflnsf, pk dxfgu/kflnsf / gu/kflnsfsf] ;f]xL j8fleq
tyf uf=lj=;=sf] xsdf ;f]xL uf=lj=;=leq zfvf sfof{no :yfgfGt/0f ug'{ k/]df Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldltsf] lg0f{ofg';f/ :yfgfGt/0f u/L & lbgleq ;f]sf] hfgsf/L o; a}+snfO{
lbg' kg]{5 .
-Uf_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn]] s]Gb||Lo/lhi68{ sfof{no -skf]{/]6 sfof{no_ sf] 7]ufgf kl/jt{g ug{ jf
:yfgfGt/0f ug{ rfx]df o; a}ssf] :jLs[lt lnO{ k|rlnt sfg'gsf] clwgdf /xL cfgf] k|jGwkq
tyf lgodfjnLdf ;+zf]wg u/L ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
zfvfpkzfvfx? k"j{jt :yfgdf sfod ug]{ ;DaGwdf
ljutdf ;'/Iffsf] sf/0faf6 o; a}+ssf] :jLs[lt lnO{glnO{ o; a}+snfO{ ;"rgf dfq lbP/ aGb ul/Psf
uflePsf zfvfpkzfvfx? k"j{jt ?kdf ;~rfng ug{ o; a}+ssf] :jLs[lt lnO/xg' kg]{ 5}g . To;/L
k"j{jt ?kdf ;~rfng eP kl5 ;f] sf] hfgsf/L & lbg leq o; a}+snfO{ lbg' kg]{5 .
sfof{no ;do ;DjGwL Aoj:yf
g]kfn /fi6 a}+s v'n]sf] lbg / ;dodf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] clgjfo{ ?kdf cfgf] sfof{no ;~rfng
ug'{ kg]{5 . t/, Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] g]kfn /fi6 a}+s v'n]sf] lbg / ;dosf cltl/Qm ;do tyf cGo
ljbfsf lbg / ;dodf cfgf] sf/f]jf/ ;~rfng ug'{ k/]df o; a}ssf] a+}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
/ ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf ;f]sf] k"j{ hfgsf/L lnlvt ?kdf lbO{ sf/f]jf/ ;+rfng ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
-v_

#=

$=

%=

PS;6]G;g sfp06/ ;DjGwL Joj:yf


Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] PS;6]G;g sfp06/ vf]Ng] ;DjGwdf b]xfo cg';f/sf] zt{x? k"/f ug'{
kg]{5 M
-s_
-v_
-u_

-3_

-_

-r_
-5_
-h_

o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if sfod u/]sf] .


o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf zfvf sfof{no :yfkgfsf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ Go"gtd zt{x? h:t} k'FhL
of]hgf cg';f/sf] Go"gtd r'Qmf k'FhL, lgliqmo shf{ cg'kft nufotsf zt{x? k"/f u/]sf] .
sf7df08f} pkTosf, dxfgu/kflnsf / pkdxfgu/kflnsf afx]ssf If]qdf dfq PS;6]G;g
sfp06/ vf]Ng ;lsg] 5 . t/, Jofkfl/s pT;j, d]nf, k]G;g ljt/0f tyf cfjlws3'DtL ahf/
;+rfng x'g] :yndf a9Ldf #% lbgsf] nflu lgIf]k ;+sng, r]ssf] e'QmfgL / ljb]zL d'b|fsf]
;6xL sfo{ dfq ug]{ u/L o; a}+snfO{ k"j{ hfgsf/L lbO{ To:tf] PS;6]G;g sfp06/ vf]Ng
;lsg]5 .
v08 -u_ df plNnlvt If]qafx]ssf :yfgdf s, v / u ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn]
o; a}+ssf] k"j{ :jLs[lt lnO{ PS;6]G;g sfp06/ vf]Ng ;Sg]5g\ o;/L vf]lnPsf PS;6]G;g
sfp06/af6 lgIf]k ;+sng, /]ld6fG;sf] e'QmfgL / lgIf]k vftfaf6 e'QmfgL ug{] sfo{ dfq ug{
kfOg]5 . ljb]zL d'b|fsf] vl/bljqmL sfo{sf] xsdf o; a}+ssf] ljb]zL ljlgdo ljefusf]
Ohfhtkq cfjZos kg{]5 .
s / v ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfnfO{ o; a}ssf] k"j{ :jLs[lt k|fKt u/L cbfnt kl/;/,
c:ktfn, ;}lgs Aof/]s, ljZjljBfno, cf}Bf]lus If]q, ljb]zL s'6g}lts lgof]ux?sf] xftfleq
tyf ljb]zdf sfd ug]{ g]kfnLsf] nflu k]G;g ljt/0f tyf /fh:j ;+sng;/sf/L sf/f]jf/
;~rfng ug]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu vf]lng] sfp06/x?af6 :jb]zL d'b|fdf lgIf]k ;+sng tyf e'QmfgL
ug{ jfx]s cGo s'g} klg ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ug{ gkfOg] u/L PS;6]G;g sfp06/ ;~rfng ug{
:jLs[lt k|bfg ug{ ;lsg]5 . To:t} 6]lnkmf]g, ljB't, vfg]kfgL dxz'n tyf jLdf lk|ldod ;+sng
ug]{ sfo{ dfq ug{ kfpg]] u/L To:tf] sfo{ ug]{ sfof{nosf] xftfleq PS;6]G;g sfp06/ ;~rfng
ug{ :jLs[lt k|bfg ug{ ;lsg]5 .
;fy}, o;/L vf]l+ng] PS;6]G;g sfp06/ ;DjGwL :jLs[lt k|bfg ubf{ v08 -u_ sf] Joj:yf nfu"
x'g] 5}g .
zfvf sfof{no :yfkgflj:tf/ ug{ tf]lsPsf zt{x? k"/f u/]sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] o;
a}+ssf] k"j{:jLs[lt k|fKt u/L j}b]lzs /]ld6\ofG; /sd e'QmfgL ug]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu /]ld6\ofG;
e'QmfgL sfp06/ ;+rfng ug{ ;Sg]5g\ .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] PS:6]G;g sfp06/sf] nflu ;DalGwt zfvf tf]Sg' kg]{5 .
rfn' tyf ljut cfly{s jif{df ljkGg ju{ shf{ ;DaGwL s'g} hl/jfgfsf/jfxL ul/Psf ;+:yfx?
PS;6]G;g sfp06/ :yfkgf ug{ cof]Uo x'g]5g\ .

213

-em_

^=
&=

PS:6]G;g sfp06/ zfvfdf kl/jt{g x'g] ePdf zfvf :yfkgf ;DaGwL gLltut k|s[of k"/f ug'{
kg]{5 .
-`_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt /fli6o:t/sf s, v / u ju{sf ;+:yfnfO{ qmdzM a9Ldf %, % / #
j6f;Dd tyf /fli6o:t/ afx]ssf v / u ju{sf ;+:yfnfO{ a9Ldf # j6f;Dd PS:6]G;g
sfp06/ :yfkgf ug{ cg'dlt k|bfg ug{ ;lsg]5 . ;fy}, cl3Nnf] cf=j= df ? ! cj{eGbf a9Lsf]
jfXo /]ld6\ofG; e'QmfgL ug]{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?nfO{ yk % :yfgdf PS;6]G;g sfp06/
:yfkgf ug{ cg'dlt k|bfg ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
-6_
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] pkl:ylt gePsf] :yfga:tLdf
PS:6]G;g sfp06/ vf]Ng k|fyldstf lbOg] 5 .
;Dks{k|ltlglw sfof{no ;DjGwL Joj:yf
a}b]lzs z]o/ nufgL ;d]tsf] ;xeflutfdf :yfkgf ePsf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] dfq o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf
zt{x?sf] clwgdf /xL ;Dks{k|ltlglw sfof{no vf]Ng kfpg] 5g\ .
3'DtL a}+ls+u ;]jf ;DaGwL Joj:yf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf afl0fHo a}+s / /fli6o:t/sf v ju{sf ljsf; a}+sx?n] a}+ls+u ;'ljwfsf] kx'Fr
gePsf] :yfgdf b]xfosf] gLltut Joj:yf tyf zt{x?sf] clwgdf /xL ;jf/L ;fwgdf sfof{no /fv]/ 3'DtL
a}+ls+u ;]jf ;+rfng ug{ ;Sg]] 5g\ .
!=
3'DtL a}+ls+u ;]jf sf7df08f}+ pkTosfsf] dxfgu/kflnsf, pkdxfgu/kflnsf / gu/kflnsf
afx]s b]ze/ s'g} klg :yfgdf cfkm\gf] a}+ssf] s'g} glhssf] zfvfnfO{ ;Dks{lgoGq0f sfof{no
tf]s]/ ;+rfng sfof{Gjog ug'{ kg]{5 .
@=
3'DtL a}+ls+u ;]jfdf ;+nUg x'g] gub, dfu{:y gub -Cash in Transit_, ;jf/L ;fwg, sd{rf/L tyf
cGo ;DklQsf] aLdf u/]sf] x'g' kg]{ 5 .
#=
;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] of] ;]jf ;+rfng ubf{ cfOkg]{ ;'/Iff k|0ffnL nufotsf ;Dk"0f{
hf]lvd klxrfg / Joj:yfkg cfkm}+n] ug{' kg]{5 .
$=
3'DtL a}+ls+u ;]jf pknAw u/fP afkt ljBdfg k|rlnt ;]jf z'Ns afx]s cGo s'g}klg ;]jfz'Ns
;]jfu|fxL;+u lng kfOg] 5}g . sf/f]af/sf] ljj/0f / k|efj u|fxssf] vftfdf tTsfn emNsg]
Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
%=
3'DtL a}+ls+u ;]jf pknAw u/fpg] :yfg cflbsf] ;DaGwdf cfjZostf cg';f/ g]kfn ;/sf/sf]
;DalGwt lgsfo jf clwsf/Lsf] :jLs[lt lng' kg]{5 . cfjZostfg';f/ :yfgLo k|x/L, k|zf;g;+u
t'?Gt ;Dks{ ug{u/fpg ;Sg] u/L cfw'lgs ;+rf/ ;fwgsf] ;'ljwf x'g' kg]{5 .
^=
;'/Iff l:ylt tyf :yfg ljZf]if x]/L 3'DtL a}+ls+u ;]jf ;+rfng ug{ rfxg] ;+:yfn] sf/f]af/
/sdsf] ;Ldf cfkm}+ lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
&=
3'DtL a}+ls+usf] dfWodaf6 g]kfnL ?k}+ofdf dfq lgIf]k tyf e'QmfgL ;]jf k|bfg ug'{ kg]{5 .
*=
3'DtL a}+ls+u ;]jf pknAw u/fOg] :yfgdf xltof/ ;lxtsf] ;'/Iff uf8{ x'g' kg]{5 .
(=
a}+ssf] cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIf0f ljefun] 3'DtL a}+ls+u sf/f]af/nfO{ ;'/lIft agfpg lglZrt
dfkb08 agfO{ cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIf0fdf ;f] ;DaGwL sf/f]af/nfO{ ;d]t ;d]6\g' kg]{5 .
!)= 3'DtL a}+ls+u ;]jf ;+rfng ug]{ ;+:yfn] u|fxssf] lgIf]k ;DaGwL sf/f]af/ tyf /]ld6\ofG; ;]jf
pknAw u/fpg] afx]ssf cGo ;]jf ;'ljwf k|bfg ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
!!=
;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] of] ;]jf ;+rfng ubf{ k|of]u ug]{ ;jf/L ;fwgdf cfjZos
;]jf k|bfg ug{ k"jf{wf/ / ;"rgf k|0ffnL h8fg u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
!@=
3'DtL a}+ls+u ;]jfdf hfg] sd{rf/Ln] :jLs[t ef}uf]lns If]qdf dfq uPsf] k|dfl0ft x'g] ;jf/L
;fwgsf] nu a's tyf cGo sfuhft tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
!#=
a}+ssf] Network / Database k"0f{ ;'/lIft x'g' kg]{5 . k|fljlws Joj:yfkgdf s'g} ;d:of cfO{
lgIf]k tyf e'QmfgL sf/f]af/ k|efljt eO{ Database Iflt ePdf ;f] Ifltsf] k"0f{ hjfkmb]lxtf
;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] g} x'g]5 .
!$= Software Data nfO{ ;+:yfsf] s]Gb|Lo ;"rgf k|0ffnLdf tTsfn k|jfx / ;"rgf ljlgdo ug{
Joj:yf ldnfpg' kg]{ 5 .
!%=
3'DtL a}+ls+u sf/f]af/ ug]{ ;DaGwL lg0f{o ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldltaf6
ePsf] x'g' kg]{5 .

214

!^=

*=

(=

dfly pNn]lvt zt{x?, cGo k|rlnt sfg'g / o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zgsf] clwgdf /xL o; a}+ssf]
k"j{:jLs[lt lnP/ dfq 3'DtL a}+ls+u ;]jf k|bfg ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
;Lldt a}+ls OsfO{ -Limited Banking Outlets_ ;DaGwL Joj:yf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf a}+s / /fli6o:t/sf v ju{sf ljsf; a}+sx?n] ;Lldt a}+ls OsfO{
-Limited Banking Outlets_ sf] ?kdf sfof{no -lgoldt ?kdf sd{rf/L v6fO{ jf tf]lsPsf] lbgdf
sd{rf/L v6fO{ ;]jf k|bfg ug{]_ :yfkgf u/L b]xfosf] gLltut Joj:yf tyf zt{x?sf] clwgdf /xL a}+ls
;]jfsf] kFx'r gk'u]sf -sf7df08f}+ pkTosf, b]zsf cGo pkdxfgu/kflnsfgu/kflnsf afx]ssf_
If]qx?df ;Lldt a}+ls OsfO{ dfkm{t a}+ls+u ;]jf k|bfg ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
gLltut Joj:yf tyf zt{x?M
;Lldt a}+ls ;]jf pknAw u/fpg] ;DaGwL lg0f{o ;DalGwt ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldltaf6 ePsf] x'g'
kg]{5 .
;Lldt a}+ls OsfO{ dfkm{t ;]jf k|bfg ug{ rfxg] ;+:yfn] sf/f]af/ /sdsf] ;Ldf cfkm}+ lgwf{/0f
ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
;DalGwt ;+:yfn] of] ;]jf ;+rfng ubf{ cfOkg]{ ;'/Iff k|0ffnL nufotsf ;Dk"0f{ hf]lvd klxrfg /
Joj:yfkg cfkm}+n] ug{' kg]{5 .
;Lldt a}+ls ;]jf pknAw u/fOg] :yfgdf kof{Kt ;'/Iffsf] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
;Lldt a}+ls OsfO{ ;]jfdf ;+nUg x'g] gub, dfu{:y gub -Cash in Transit_, ;jf/L ;fwg, sd{rf/L
tyf cGo ;DklQsf] aLdf u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
;Lldt a}+ls OsfO{ dfkm{t ;]jf pknAw u/fP afkt ljBdfg k|rlnt ;]jf z'Ns afx]s cGo s'g}klg
;]jfz'Ns ;]jfu|fxL;+u lng kfOg] 5}g . sf/f]af/sf] ljj/0f / k|efj u|fxssf] vftfdf tTsfn emNsg]
Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
;Lldt a}+ls OsfO{sf] dfWodaf6 g]kfnL ?k}+ofdf dfq lgIf]k tyf e'QmfgL ;]jf k|bfg ug'{ kg]{5 /
cGt/f{li6o:t/df sf/f]jf/ -Cross Border Transaction_ ug{ / e'QmfgL ;]jfdf j}b]lzs d'b|fsf] k|of]u ug{
kfOg] 5}g .
;+:yfn] u|fxsnfO{ lgIf]k, e'QmfgL tyf shf{ ;DaGwL sf/f]af/ / cfGtl/s /]ld6\ofG; ;]jf pknAw
u/fpg] afx]ssf cGo ;]jf ;'ljwf k|bfg ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
;+:yfsf] Network / Database k"0f{ ;'/lIft x'g' kg]{5 . k|fljlws Joj:yfkgdf s'g} ;d:of cfO{ lgIf]k
tyf e'QmfgL sf/f]af/ k|efljt eO{ Database Iflt ePdf ;f] Ifltsf] k"0f{ hjfkmb]lxtf ;DalGwt
;+:yfsf] g} x'g]5 .
sf/f]jf/ ;DkGg eP kZrft ;DalGwt glhssf] zfvf jf Parent zfvf jf s]Gb|Lo sfof{nodf
Software Data Transfer clgjfo{ u/L s]Gb|Lo ;"rgf k|0ffnLdf tTsfn k|jfx / ;"rgf ljlgdo ug{]
Joj:yf Pj+ pko'Qm Backup sf] ;d]t Joj:yf u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
o:tf] ;'ljwf tf]lsPsf] :yfgdf sDtLdf xKtfsf] @ lbg pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
;+:yfsf] cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIf0f ljefun] ;Lldt a}+ls sf/f]af/nfO{ ;'/lIft agfpg lglZrt dfkb08
agfO{ cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIf0fdf ;f] ;DaGwL sf/f]af/nfO{ ;d]t ;d]6\g' kg]{5 .
sf/f]af/ ubf{ u|fxs klxrfg nufot ;DklQ z'l4s/0f ;DaGwL lgb]{zgsf] k"0f{ kl/kfngf u/]sf] x'g'
kg]{5 .
dfly pNn]lvt zt{x?, cGo k|rlnt sfg'g / o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zgsf] clwgdf /xL o; a}+ssf]
k"j{:jLs[lt lnP/ dfq ;Lldt a}+ls ;]jf pknAw u/fpg ;lsg] 5 .
s ju{sf jfl0fHo a}+sxn] ljb]zdf zfvf sfof{no :yfkgf ug]{ ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf jfl0fHo a}+sxn] lgDgfg';f/sf zt{ tyf dfkb08xsf] clwgdf /xL
ljb]zdf zfvf sfof{no :yfkgf ug]{ ;DaGwdf b]xfosf] gLltut tyf k|s[ofut Joj:yf sfod ul/Psf]]
5.
zt{ tyf dfkb08x?
-!_
zfvf lj:tf/ ug{sf nflu k|:tfljt :yfg ljQLo?kn] ;DefJo /x]sf] :ynut cWoog k|ltj]bg
-Feasibility Study Report) k|:tfljt Jofj;fosf] of]hgf, t'ngfTds nfutnfe ljZn]if0f Comparative Cost-benefit Analysis), Jofj;flos /0fgLlt tyf ;+rfng ug]{ sf/f]af/sf] lsl;d,
cfGtl/s lgoGq0f, hf]lvd Joj:yfkg / Host Country ;+u g]kfnsf] lkIfLo ;DaGwsf] ljj/0f
o; a}+s ;dIf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .

215

-@_
-#_
-$_

-%_
-^_
-&_
-*_

-(_
-!)_
-!!_
-!@_
-!#_
-!$_
-!%_

-!^_

s ju{sf] afl0fHo a}+sn] ljb]zdf zfvf vf]Ng cfj]bg k]z ubf{ Go"gtd r'Qmf k'FhL -xfn ?= @
ca{_ k'u]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
h'g b]zdf zfvf sfof{no :yfkgf ul/g] xf], ;f] b]z (Host Country) sf] lgofds lgsfon] tf]s]sf]
k'FhL -Assigned Capital_ k"/f ug'{ kg]{5 / ;f] k'FhLsf] Joj:yfkg ul/g] ;|f]t ;d]t v'n]sf] ljj/0f
cfj]bgsf] ;fydf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
h'g b]zdf zfvf sfof{no :yfkgf ul/g] xf], pQm b]zaf6 nfef+; (Dividend)d'gfkmfsf] ?kdf
ljb]zL d'b|fdf g]kfn leq\ofpg Pjd\ syd\sbflrt ljb]zl:yt zfvf sfof{no aGb ug'{ kg]{
cj:yf cfPdf tf]lsPsf] k'FhL -Assigned Capital_ h'g ljb]zL d'b|fdf nluPsf] xf], ;f]xL ljb]zL
d'b|fdf jf kl/jTo{ ljb]zL d'b|fdf clgjfo{ kdf :jb]zdf lkmtf{ ug'{ kg]{ x'Fbf ;f] ;d]tsf
ljifodf Host Country sf] P]g tyf gLltut Joj:yfn] g/f]Sg] Joxf]/f k|dfl0ft x'g] sfuhft ;d]t
k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
o; a}saf6 Ohfhhkq k|bfg ubf{ tf]lsPsf zt{x? k"/f ug{'sf ;fy} ljb]zdf zfvf vf]Ng'
cufl8sf] q}dfl;s ljQLo ljj/0fdf o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] k'FhLsf]if k"/f u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
ljb]zdf /x]sf] zfvf sfof{nodf ;"rgf cfbfg k|bfg ug{sf] nflu g]6jls{ (Networking) u/L jf
ljB'tLo dfWodjf6 s]Gb|Lo sfof{nosf] ;"rgf k|0ffnLdf tTsfn cfj4 x'g ;Sg] Joj:yf u/]sf]
x'g' kg]{5 .
l7s cl3Nnf] qodf;df lgliqmo shf{ (Non Performing Loan) kfFr k|ltzteGbf sd ePsf] x'g'
kg]{5 .
ljb]zdf zfvf sfof{no :yfkgf;+rfng ug]{ ;DaGwL lg0f{o ;DalGwt a}+ssf] ;~rfns
;ldltaf6 ug'{ kg]{5 . ;~rfns ;ldltn] lg0f{o u/]sf] ldltn] !% lbg leq ;f]sf] hfgsf/L o;
a}+snfO{ u/fpg' kg]{ 5 . o; a}+snfO{ hfgsf/L u/fPsf] Ps ;o aL; lbgleqdf :jLs[lt lbOg]
5 . ljb]zdf zfvf sfof{no :yfkgfsf] :jLs[lt k|fKt u/]sf] ldltn] ^ dlxgfleqdf zfvf
sfof{no vf]nL sf/f]af/ ;~rfng ul/;Sg' kg]{5 . pQm tf]lsPsf] cjlwleq zfvf sfof{no
;+rfng ug{ g;s]gePdf :jLs[lt :jtM /2 x'g]5 / k'gM :yfkgf ug{] :jLs[ltsf] nflu gofF
k|s[ofaf6 lgj]bg k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
o; a]}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu / a}+s ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k]z ug'{ kg]{
k|rlnt Joj:yf adf]lhd ljQLo ljj/0fx?df ljb]zdf ;+rflnt zfvf sfof{nosf] ljQLo ljj/0f
PsLs[t -Consolidate_ tyf 5'} -Separately_ ;d]t k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
ljb]zdf zfvf sfof{no :yfkgf ug]{ s ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn]] o; a}+ssf] k"j{ :jLs[lt
ljgf pQm zfvf sfof{no aGb ug{ jf :yfgfGt/0f ug{ jf ufEg kfpg] 5}gg\ .
ljb]zdf zfvf sfof{no :yfkgf ug]{ s ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ljb]zL zfvf
sfof{nosf] 7]ufgf kl/jt{g ug{ jf :yfgfGt/0f ug{ rfx]df o; a}ssf] k"j{ :jLs[lt lng' kg]{5 .
ljb]zdf zfvf vf]Ng rfxg] a}+sn] ;DalGwt Host Country n] tf]s]sf dfkb08 cg'?k No
Objection Letter k|fKt eP kZrft o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] zt{ tyf gLltut Joj:yfx?sf] kfngf
u/]kl5 o; a}+sn] No Objection Letter k|bfg ug]{5 .
ljb]zdf zfvf vf]Ng rfxg] a}+sn] ;DalGwt Host Country sf] lgofds ;+:yfsf] lgb]{zg / o;
a}+sn] tf]s] adf]lhdsf] k'FhLsf] ljj/0f / k'FhL kof{Kttf ;b}j k"/f u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
ljb]zl:yt zfvfsf] k|of]hgsf] nflu tf]lsPsf] k'FhL -Assigned Capital_ afx]ssf] s'g} klg /sd
jf kl/jTo{ ljb]zL d'b|f ljb]z n}hfg kfOg] 5}g .
ljb]zl:yt zfvfn] u/]sf] Jofj;flos sfd sf/jfxLsf] ;Dk"0f{ bfloTj k"/f ug{ cfjZos x'g]
/sd tyf cGo s'g} klg bfloTj /fi6 a}+sn] dfu u/]sf] avt pknAw u/fpg] 5f}+ egL g]kfndf
/x]sf] d'Vo sDkgL -Parent Company_ sf] ;~rfns ;ldltn] u/]sf] lnlvt k|lta4tf o;
a}+sdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
ljb]zl:yt zfvfsf] ;Dk"0f{ sf/f]jf/x?sf] lgodg / ;'kl/j]If0f ug]{ clwsf/ g]kfn /fi6 a}+s /
Host Country sf] lgofds / ;'kl/j]Ifsdf cGtlg{lxt /xg]5 . k|rlnt Joj:yf adf]lhd To:tf
zfvfx?sf] cfjlws ?kdf u}/ :ynut -Off-site_ tyf :ynut -On-site_ ;'kl/j]If0f sfo{
lgoldt ?kdf ul/g]5 . ;f] ;'kl/j]If0fsf] sfo{sf] nflu ;DalGwt a}+sn] ;+:yfut 9+un] g}
;'kl/j]IfsnfO{ ;xof]u ug'{ kg]{5 .

216

-!&_

!)=

!!=

g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?nfO{ hf/L ul/Psf] lgb]{zg, kl/kq,
dfu{bz{g OToflb -cGoyf pNn]v ul/Psf] cj:yfdf afx]s_ ljb]zl:yt zfvfsf] xsdf ;d]t
nfu" x'g]5 . To:tf zfvfx?sf] nflu s'g} ljz]if Joj:yf ug'{ k/]df jf lgsfzf lbg' k/]df g]kfn
/fi6 a}+sn] cfjZostfg';f/ ug{ ;Sg]5 . gLltut lgb]{zg tyf sfg'gsf] kfngf gu/]df k|rlnt
/fli6o tyf cGt/f{li6o k|rng cg';f/ sf/jfxL / b08 hl/jfgf ul/g] 5 .
-!*_ ljb]zdf zfvf sfof{no :yfkgf ug]{ s ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn]] o; k|of]hgsf] nflu
cfj]bg lb+bf tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf kmf/fd e/L btf{ z'Ns afkt ?= b'O{ nfv -lkmtf{ gx'g]_ sf]
g]=/f=a}+= gf=gf]=cf=lx;fadf hDdf u/]sf] ef}r/sf] cw{sL ;d]t k]z u/L cfj]bg lbg' kg]{5 .
-!(_ ljb]zdf zfvf sfof{no ;+rfng ubf{ ckgfOg] a}+ls+u sfo{ljlw, shf{ lgb]{lzsf nufotsf
sfuhft oyf;do o; a}+sdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . Host Country sf] lgofds jf ;'kl/j]Ifsn]
nufPsf] b08, h/Ljfgf tyf ;'zf;g ;DaGwL sf/jfxLsf] hfgsf/L !% lbgleq o; a}+ssf]
lgodg ljefu / ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-@)_ ljb]zdf zfvf sfof{no ;+rfng ubf{ ;DklQ z'l4s/0f lgjf/0f P]gsf] kl/kfngf k"0f{ ?kn]
ug'{u/fpg' kg]{5 .
zfvfsfof{no ;DjGwL lgb]{zgsf] kfngf gu/]df x'g] sf/jfxL
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn]] zfvfsfof{no ;DjGwL o; lgb]{zgsf] kfngf gu/L zfvf sfof{no vf]nL
;+rfng u/]df g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* adf]lhd b]xfosf sf/jfxL ul/g]5,
!_
k|s[of tyf zt{ k"/f gu/L vf]lnPsf zfvf tTsfn} aGb ul/g] / cfufdL @ jif{;Dd yk zfvf vf]Ng
gkfOg] .
@_
k|s[of tyf zt{ k"/f gu/L zfvf sfof{no ;+rfng ug]{ lg0f{odf ;+NfUg ;+rfnsx?nfO{ g]kfn
/fi6 a}s P]g @)%*, sf] bkmf !)) -@_ jdf]lhdsf] sf/jfxL / ;hfo x'g] .
#_
a}s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DjGwL P]g, @)^# / k|rlnt cGo sfg'g jdf]lhd s'g} klg sf/jfxL ug{
;lsg] .
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] zfvf sfof{no ;DaGwL Joj:yf O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= !$)^* af6 hf/L
ul/Psf] lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt
;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

217

cg';"rL !$=!
zfvfsfof{no vf]Ng] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 :jLs[ltsf] nflu k]z ug'{ kg]{ lgj]bgsf] 9fFrf
>L g]kfn /fi6 a}+s
ldltM =======================
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
afn'jf6f/, sf7df8f}+ .
laifoM zfvf sfof{no vf]Ng] :jLs[lt jf/] .
dxfzo,
To; a}+ssf] PsLs[t lgb]{zg g+= !$)^( n] tf]s]sf zt{x?sf] k"0f{ kfngf u/L b]xfo adf]lhdsf] :yfgdf zfvf
sfof{noPS6]G;g sfof{no vf]Ng] u/L o; a}+ssf] ;+rfns ;ldltsf] lg0f{o g+= ===== ldlt =================== af6 lg0f{o ePsf] x'Fbf
To+xfsf] :jLs[ltsf] nflu cg'/f]w ub{5f}+ .
!= a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] gfd, 7]ufgf M
@= k|:tfljt zfvf :yfkgf ul/g] :yfg, lhNnfsf] gfd, 7]ufgf M
#= ;+:yfsf] ljj/0f
-s_ g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ldlt
M
-v_ ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ;~rfng u/]sf] ldlt M
-u_ ;+:yfsf] l7s cl3Nnf] qodf;sf] r'Qmf k'FhL M
-3_ ;+:yfsf] s"n shf{ /sd M
-_ kl5Nnf] cf=j= sf] clGtd n]vfk/LIfsjf6 k|dfl0ft s"n lgliqmo shf{ /sd / k|ltzt M
-r_ xfn;Dd ;+rfngdf /x]sf zfvf ;+Vof
M
-5_ gofF zfvf sfof{no vf]n]kl5 x'g] zfvf ;+Vof M
-h_ @)^$ r}q d;fGtkl5 vf]lnPsf zfvfsf] ljj/0f -qmdfg';f/_
c_ sf7df8f}+ pkTosf aflx/sf] ljj/0f M
cf_ sf7df8f}+ pkTosfleqsf] ljj/0f M
O_
tf]lsPsf #) lhNnfxdWo]sf] ljj/0f M
O{_
u ju{sf] xsdf sf7df08f} pkTosf afx]ssf @ j6feGbf sd a}+ls+u OsfO{ ePsf] :yfgdf vf]n]sf zfvfsf]
ljj/0f M
$= k|:tfljt zfvfsf] nflu tf]lsPsf] / yk u/L x'g] s'n r'Qmf k'FhLsf] ljj/0f -u ju{sf] nflu_ M
%= k|:tfljt zfvfsf] nflu sf7df8f}+ pkTosf aflx/ vf]lnPsf zfvfsf] ljj/0f M
s_ tf]lsPsf #) lhNnfxleq M
v_ tf]lsPsf #) lhNnfx afx]s cGoq M
^= zfvf sfof{nos]Gb|Lo sfof{no;Fu ;"rgf cfbfg k|bfgsf] nflu Joj:yf ul/Psf] ;"rgf k|ljlw (Networking) sf] ljj/0fM
&= ;j{;fwf/0f z]o/ hf/L u/]sf] ldlt M
*= q}dfl;s k'FhLsf]ifsf] k|ltzt M
qodf;
k|fylds k'FhL k|ltzt
k'FhLsf]if k|ltzt
@)^== cfiff9
@)^== cflZjg
@)^== kf}if
@)^== r}q
(= k'FhL of]hgf adf]lhdg]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] lgb]{zg adf]lhd kl5Nnf] cf=a= sf] cGTodf,
-s_ k"/f x'g' kg]{ r'Qmf k'FhL
M
-v_ xfn sfod /x]sf] r'Qmf k'FhL
M
!)= ;+:yfsf] sfo{If]qsf] ljj/0f
M
!!= zfvf sfof{no vf]Ng] lg0f{odf ;+nUg /x]sf kbflwsf/Lx?sf] ljj/0f,
-s_ ;+rfns ;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lx?
M
-v_ k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[tsDkgL ;lrj
M
gf]6M ;+efJotf cWoog k|ltj]bgdf lgb]{zgdf pNn]lvt ljifox? clgjfo{?kdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{ .
;fy}, o; a}sn] zfvf sfof{no ;+rfng ug]{ ldltdf ;d]t dfly plNnlvt ;Dk"0f{ zt{ tyf Joj:yfx? kfngf ug]{5f} . dfly
plNnlvt ljj/0fx? l7s ;fFrf] xf], s'g} ljj/0fdf km/s k/]df k|rlnt sfg'g tyf To; a}+ssf] PsLs[t lgb]{zg g+= !$)^( df
tf]lsP adf]lhdsf] ;hfosf/jfxL ePdf d~h'/L ePsf] Joxf]/f cjut u/fpFb5f}+ .

218

cg';"rL !$=@

z"Go Aofhb/df shf{ k|jfx ;DaGwL k|s[ofut Aoj:yf, @)^&


z"\Go Aofh b/df k|bfg ul/g] shf{ ;DaGwdf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] pkl:ylt Go"g /x]sf tf]lsPsf #) lhNnfsf
;b/d'sfddf zfvf vf]n]df ?=%) nfv / ;b/d'sfd aflx/ vf]n]df ?=! s/f]8 tyf 3 ju{sf] ;+:yfsf] xsdf ljQLo
;]jfsf] kx'Fr sd ePsf tf]lsPsf ( lhNnfdf zfvf vf]n]df ?=!% nfv shf{ lbg] ;DaGwdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf]
k|s[ofut Aoj:yf th{'df ul/Psf] 5 .
!=
lgj]bg;fy x'g'kg{] sfuhft / of]Uotf
-s_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] pkl:ylt Go"g /x]sf tf]lsPsf #) lhNnfsf ;b/d'sfd tyf
;b/d'sfdeGbf aflx/ :yfkgf x'g] zfvfx?sf] nflu dfq a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] of] ;'ljwf dfu
ug{ ;Sg]5g\ . 3 ju{sf] ;+:yfsf] xsdf ljQLo ;]jfsf] kx'Fr sd ePsf tf]lsPsf ( lhNnfdf :yfkgf
x'g] zfvfx?sf] nflu dfq of] ;'ljwf dfu ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
-v_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldltn] shf{ lng];DaGwdf u/]sf] lg0f{osf] k|dfl0ft k|ltlnlk k]z
ug{' kg{]5 .
-u_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;DalGwt zfvfsf] kl5Nnf] ljQLo l:yltsf] ljj/0f k]z ug{' kg{]5 .
@=
o:tf] shf{sf] ;'/If0f lgDglnlvt s'g} klg jf ;a} hfoh]yf tyf ;'/If0fkqx? /xg] 5g\ .
-s_ g]kfn ;/sf/af6 hf/L ePsf C0fkqx? .
-v_ ;f] ;+:yfsf] o; a}+ssf] yfkfynLl:yt a}+ls sfof{no jf cGo sfof{nox?df k|of]hg v'nfO{ jf
gv'nfO{ vf]lnPsf] a}+s vftfdf /x]sf] df}Hbft /sd .
-u_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] shf{ ln+bf tof/ ul/Psf] shf{ td;'s -cg";"rL !$=#_.
#=
shf{sf] e'QmfgL ;DaGwL Joj:yf
-s_ o:tf] shf{sf] ;fFjfsf] e'QmfgL ;f] shf{ k|jfx ePsf] ldltn] ^ dlxgfleq clgjfo{?kdf ug'{kg]{5 .
-v_ shf{ ;'ljwf e'QmfgL cjlw cl3 g} k"j{e'QmfgL (Pre-payment) ;d]t ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
-u_ of] shf{ pkef]u u/]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;fFjf e'StfgL Dofb ;dfKt ePsf] lbg ;f] /sd
e'StfgL gu/]df g]kfn /fi6 a}+sl:yt ;DalGwt ;+:yfsf] h'g;'s} vftf vr{ n]vL shf{ c;'npk/
ul/lng / ;f] sf] vr{ -Debit_ ug]{ clVtof/L g]kfn /fi6 a}+snfO{ x'g]5 . o;df kl5 s'g} ph'/L jf
bfjL nfUg] 5}g .
-3_ lgwf{l/t ;doleq shf{ e'StfgL gu/]df e'QmfgL x'g afFsL /sddf ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn]
;f] cjlwdf k|sflzt u/]sf] shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] clwstd Aofhb/ g} k]gfn Aofhb/ x'g]5 .
$= ljljw Joj:yf
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] k|bfg u/]sf] z"Go Aofhb/sf] shf{ ;'ljwfsf] ;DaGwdf ;do ;dodf cGo ljj/0f
dfu]sf] v08df tf]lsPsf] Dofbleq C0fL a}+sn] pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .

219

cg';"rL !$=#
-z"Go Aofhb/sf] shf{ td;'ssf] gd"gf_
lnlvtd wgLsf gfd sf=lh= sf=d=g=kf= j8f g+= !! yfkfynLl:yt g]kfn /fi6 a}+s, a}ls sfof{no cfu] ;f] /sd
C0f lng] C0fLsf] gfd ====================================s]Gb|Lo sfof{no /x]sf]========================================= lnld6]8n]
g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 z"Go Aofhb/df shf{ k|bfg ug{] ;DaGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf $( n] u/]sf]
Joj:yf cGtu{t g]kfn /fi6 a}+s;Fu cfhsf ldltdf ?= ============ ==========-cIf/]kL ================================================
============== dfq_ shf{ lnPsf] l7s ;fFrf] xf] . pQm shf{ lnPsf] /sdafkt C0fLn] cfgf] lgDg adf]lhdsf]] a}+sn]
shf{sf] nflu o; a}+snfO{ n]lvlbPsf] td;'snfO{ shf{ ;'ljwfsf] nflu lwtf] ;'/If0fsf] ?kdf /flvlbPsf 5f}+ . tkl;n
adf]lhdsf] lwtf] ljj/0f tyf zt{x? / o; ;DaGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 hf/L ljBdfg gLltut Joj:yf tyf g]kfn
/fi6 a}+sn] ;do ;dodf tf]s]sf] zt{dfkb08 kfngf ug]{5f}+ . zt{x? kfngf gu/]df pQm lwtf] tyf C0fL a}+ssf]
cGo rncrn ;DklQ ;d]taf6 pQm /sd c;'n u/L lng' egL a}+ssf] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] lg0f{o;xdlt ;d]t
/x]sf]n] g]kfn /fi6 a}+s, a}+ls sfof{no, yfkfynL, sf7df8f}+df a;L of] td;'s n]vL wgL g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf r9fof}+ .
tkl;n
zt{x?M
!=

@=

#=
$=
%=
^=

s,v / u ju{sf] ;+:yfsf] xsdf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] pkl:ylt Go"g /x]sf tf]lsPsf #)
lhNnfdf :yfkgf x'g] zfvfx?sf] nflu dfq / 3 ju{sf] ;+:yfsf] xsdf ljQLo ;]jfsf] kx'Fr sd ePsf
tf]lsPsf ( lhNnfdf :yfkgf x'g] zfvfx?sf] nflu dfq a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] of] ;'ljwf pkof]u u/L
;+rfng vr{ k|of]hgsf nflu vr{ ug{ kfOg] 5 .
z"Go Aofhb/sf] shf{ ;'ljwf cGtu{tsf] shf{sf] ;fFjf e'QmfgL shf{ k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] ^ dlxgfleq
clgjfo{?kdf ug'{kg]{5 . shf{ ;'ljwf e'QmfgL cjlw cl3 g} k"j{e'QmfgL -Pre-payment_ ;d]t ug{ ;lsg]
5 . of] shf{ pkef]u u/]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;fFjf e'StfgL Dofb ;dfKt ePsf] lbg ;f] /sd
e'StfgL gu/]df g]kfn /fi6 a}+sl:yt ;DalGwt ;+:yfsf] h'g;'s} vftf vr{ n]vL shf{ c;'npk/ ul/lng
/ ;f] sf] vr{ (Debit_ ug]{ clVtof/L g]kfn /fi6 a}+snfO{ lbOPsf] 5 . o;df kl5 s'g} ph'/L jf bfjL
ul/g] 5}g .
lgwf{l/t ;doleq shf{ e'Stfg gu/]df e'Qmfg x'g afFsL /sddf ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;f]
cjlwdf k|sflzt u/]sf] shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] clwstd Aofhb/ g} k]gfn Aofhb/ x'g]5 . g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn]
C0fL a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] s'g} klg vftf vr{ -Debit_ u/L /sd c;'npk/ ug{ ;Sg]5 .
z"Go Aofhb/sf] of] shf{sf] ;'/If0fjfkt g]kfn ;/sf/af6 hf/L ePsf C0fkqx?, /jf ;f] ;+:yfsf] o;
a}+ssf] yfkfynLl:yt a}+ls sfof{no jf cGo sfof{nox?df k|of]hg v'nfO{ jf gv'nfO{ vf]lnPsf] a}+s vftfdf
/x]sf] df}Hbft /sd tyf Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] shf{ ln+bf tof/ ul/Psf] shf{ td;'s .
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] k|bfg u/]sf] z"Go Aofhb/sf] shf{ ;'ljwfsf] ;DaGwdf ;do ;dodf cGo ljj/0f dfu]sf]
v08df tf]lsPsf] Dofbleq C0fL a}+sn] pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
C0f k|of]u ;DaGwdf o;};fy ;+nUg gLltut zt{ tyf dfkb08x? kfngf ug]{ k|lta4tf JoQm ul/Psf] 5 .
;f] adf]lhd gu/]df g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g / cGo k|rlnt sfg"g cg';f/
;hfo ePdf d~h'/L 5 .

g]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] tk{maf6


b:tvt
M
gfd
M
kb
M
5fk
M
ljefusfof{no M

a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] tk{maf6 k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t


b:tvt M
gfd M
kb
M
5fk M
ljefusfof{no M

Olt ;Dat\ @)==== ;fn ============ dlxgf =======ut] /f]h ======= z'ed\

220

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= !%)^(
laifo M Aofhb/ ;DaGwL Joj:yf .

!=
@=
#=

$=

%=

^=

Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] lgIf]kdf k|bfg ug]{ / shf{ tyf ;fk6df lng] Aofhb/ ;DaGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s
P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
Aofhb/ ;DjGwL Joj:yf
s v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] lgIf]kdf lbg] / shf{ tyf ;fk6df lng] Aofhb/ lgwf{/0f
ug{ / To:tf] Aofhb/sf] k|sf/ tyf sfo{ljlw cfkm+}n] lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
;db/df Aofhb/ tf]Sg aGb]h
3 ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf afx]s cGo Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] shf{ tyf ;fk6df ;db/ (Flat rate)
df Aofhb/ tf]Sg kfOg] 5}g .
Aofhb/ lg0f{o u/fP/ nfu" ug'{ kg]{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] lgIf]kdf lbg] / shf{ tyf ;fk6df lng] Aofhb/, Aofh u0fgf ljlw, xhf{gf
nufpg] ljlw, ;]jf z'Ns / sldzg b/ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] lg0f{o u/fO{ nfu" ug'{ kg]{5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] lgIf]kdf k|bfg ug]{ k|sflzt Aofhb/df z"Go bzdnj kfFr k|ltzt laGb';Dd
a9fpg ;Sg]5g\ eg] shf{sf] Aofhb/sf] xsdf k|sflzt Aofhb/eGbf a9L b/ sfod ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
t/, -s_ cIfosf]if jf % jif{ eGbfa9L e'QmfgL cjlw ePsf]] lgIf]kdf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf /
u|fxsjLrsf] cfk;L ;xdltsf] cfwf/df Aofhb/ sfod ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
-v_ af]nsaf]n -Bidding_ sf] cfwf/df ;+sng x'g] ;+:yfut lgIf]ksf] xsdf k|sflzt Aofhb/sf]
Joj:yf nfu" x'g] 5}g .
Aofhb/ ;DjGwL ljj/0f k7fpg' kg]{
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] x/]s qodf; ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] ;ft lbgleq lgIf]k tyf shf{sf] Aofh b/
o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf clgjfo{?kdf k7fpg'
kg]{5 . ;fy}, Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] a'Fbf g+ # df plNnlvt Aofhb/ ;DjGwL ;Dk"0f{ Aoj:Yff Pj+ ljlwx?
z'?df nfu" ubf{ / To;kl5 k|To]s k6s ;+zf]wg ubf{ ;f]sf] k"0f{ ljj/0f ;ft lbgleq pknJw u/fpg'
kg]{5 .
Aofhb/ ;fj{hlgs ug'{ kg]{
s v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] lgIf]kdf lbg] / shf{ tyf ;fk6df lng] Aofhb/ ;+zf]wg
ubf{ tyf a'Fbf g+ $ jdf]lhdsf] ljj/0f q}dfl;s ?kdf /fli6o :t/sf ;+:yfx?n] /fli6o b}lgs klqsf
dfkm{t\ / If]qLo :t/sf ;+:yfn] If]qLolhNnf :t/sf klqsf dfkm{t ;fj{hlgs ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fy},
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] rNtL tyf jrt vftfdf sfod ug'{ kg]{ Go"gtd df}Hbftsf] /sd yk36 u/]sf]
cj:yfdf ;d]t klqsf dfkm{t ;fj{hlgs ;"rgf k|sfzg u/L ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpg' kg]{5 .
t/, 3 ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] Aofhb/ ;DaGwL ;"rgf cfkm\gf] ;"rgf kf6Ldf 6fF; u/L
;fj{hlgs hfgsf/L x'g] Joj:yf ldnfpg' kg]{5 .
ljkGg ju{ shf{sf] Jofh b/df ;x'lnot lbg]
o; a}+saf6 hf/L O=k|f lgb]{zg g++ !& -ljkGg ju{df k|jfx ug'{kg]{ shf{ ;DaGwL Joj:Yff_ adf]lhd blnt,
d'Qm sd}of, jfbL, xlnof, G lkl8t, Psn dlxnf, ckf tyf h]i7 gful/sx?nfO{ a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfx?af6 k|jfx x'g] ljkGg ju{ shf{df lng] Aofh b/df Ps k|ltzt laGb'n] ;x'lnot lbg] Joj:yf
ug'{kg]{5 .

221

&=

*=

(=
!)=

Aofh cfDbfgL hgfpg] Joj:Yff


Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] k|bfg u/]sf] shf{ ;fk6df k|fKt x'g'kg]{ AofhnfO{ gub k|flKtsf] cfwf/df dfq
cfDbfgL hgfpg' kg]{5 . kfs]sf] t/ gubdf c;'n x'g g;s]sf] AofhnfO{ h'g jif{df c;'n ePsf] xf]
;f]xL jif{df dfq cfDbfgL jfFwL ;f] sf] lx;fj ldnfg ug'{ kg]{5 . ;DalGwt cjlwe/df kfs]sf] AofhnfO{
kfpg' kg]{ Aofh lx;fj df vr{ n]vL Aofh d'NtjL lx;fj df hDdf ug'{ kg]{5 .
Aofh k|bfg ug]{ ;DaGwdf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 k|jflxt shf{;fk6df q}dfl;s ?kdf Aofh c;'n ug]{ u/]sf] cj:yfdf
lgIf]kstf{sf] artvftfdf klg sDtLdf ## dlxgfdf Aofh k|bfg ug]{ u/L hDdf u/fO{ lbg' kg]{5 .
lgIf]kstf{nfO{ lbg] Aofh ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] lgIf]k bfloTjdf Aofh k|bfg ug]{ gLlt
adf]lhd ;fKtflxs, dfl;s, q}dfl;s jf cGo h'g cjlwsf] cfwf/df Aofh u0fgf ug]{ xf] ;f] cjlwsf]
sDtLdf cf};t df}Hbft -Average Deposit Balance_ df k|bfg ug'{ kg]{5 .
l6Kk0fLM cf};t lgIf]k df}Hbft eGgfn] b}lgs sf/f]jf/ ;dflKt kZrft sfod x'g cfPsf] b}lgs clGtd df}Hbft
-Closing Balance_ sf] cf};t eGg] ;Demg' k5{ . -pbfx/0fsf] nflu Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n]
shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] aSof}tf /sddf Aofh u0fgf ug]{ ljlw h;/L cjnDag u/]sf 5g\ ;f]xL ljlw adf]lhdsf]
Aofh u0fgf ug{'u/fpg' kg]{5 . _
Aofhb/ ;DjGwL Joa:yf kfngf gu/]df x'g] sf/jfxL
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] Aofhb/;DjGwL lgb]{zgsf] kfngf gu/]df g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* adf]lhd
sf/jfxL ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] Aofhb/ ;DaGwL O=k|f lgb]{zg g+= !%)^* af6 hf/L ul/Psf] lgb]{zg
tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{
kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

ldlt @)^*.$.# df hf/L kl/kq g+= )!.)^*.^( df b]xfosf] Joj:yf ePsf]M


-s_ @)^* cfiff9 d;fGt;Dd k|fKt x'g'kg]{ Jofh @)^* >fj0f d;fGt;Dd k|fKt ePdf ;d]t Deferred cash basis df ;f] /sdnfO{
cf=j= )^&.^* df k|fKt eP ;/x dfgL Jofh cfDbfgL hgfpg ;lsg]5 .
-v_ @)^* cfiff9 d;fGt;Dd k|fKt x'g'kg]{ ;fFjf /sd @)^* >fj0f d;fGt;Dd k|fKt ePdf ;d]t ;f] /sdnfO{ @)^* cfiff9 d;fGtdf
k|fKt eP ;/x dfGg ;lsg]5 .

ldlt @)^*.&.@* df hf/L kl/kq g+= !#.)^*.^( df b]xfosf] Joj:yf ePsf]M


@)^* cflZjg d;fGt;Dd k|fKt x'g'kg]{ Jofh @)^* sflt{s dlxgfe/df k|fKt ePdf ;d]t Deferred cash basis df ;f] /sdnfO{
@)^* cflZjg d;fGtdf k|fKt eP ;/x dfgL Jofh cfDbfgL hgfpg kfOg]5 .

222

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= !^)^(
laifoM ljQLo ;|f]t ;+sng ;DaGwL Joj:yf .
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ;+sng ug{]{ ljQLo ;|f]t ;DjGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf]
bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
!=
ljQLo >f]t ;+sng ;Ldf
-!_
s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfnfO{ ljQLo >f]t ;+sng ;DaGwL s'g} ;Ldf nfUg] 5}g . t/,
;fk6Lsf] xsdf cfkm\gf] s'n lgIf]k bfloTjsf] a9Ldf Ps ltxfO;Dd kl/rfng ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-@_
v ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] k|fylds k'FhLsf] a9Ldf lj; u'0ff;Dd ljQLo ;|f]t -Aofh
jf ljgf Aofhdf :jLsf/ ul/g] s'g} klg k|sf/sf] lgIf]k, ;fk6L / ljleGg lsl;dsf C0f pks/0fx?_
;+sng ug{ ;Sg]5 . t/, ;fk6Lsf] xsdf cfkm\gf] s'n lgIf]k bfloTjsf] a9Ldf Ps ltxfO;Dd
kl/rfng ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-#_
u ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] k|fylds k'FhLsf] a9Ldf kGw| u'0ff;Dd ljQLo ;|f]t -Aofh
jf ljgf Aofhdf :jLsf/ ul/g] s'g} klg k|sf/sf] lgIf]k, ;fk6L / ljleGg lsl;dsf C0f pks/0fx?_
;+sng ug{ ;Sg]5 . t/, ;fk6Lsf] xsdf cfkm\gf] s'n lgIf]k bfloTjsf] a9Ldf Ps ltxfO;Dd
kl/rfng ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-$_
3 ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] k|fylds k'FhLsf] a9Ldf lt; u'0ff;Dd ljQLo ;|f]t
kl/rfng ug{ ;Sg]5 . t/, o;} lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf g+= !@ sf] cj:yfdf afx]s u}/ ;b:ox?jf6
lgIf]k kl/rfng ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
:ki6Ls/0fMM ljQLo ;|f]t eGgfn] ;d"x ;b:ox?af6 lgIf]k, ;fk6L / l8j]~r/af6 ;+slnt /sd
;Demg' kb{5 .
-%_
ljQLo ;|f]t ;+sng ;Ldf cg'udg ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu l7s cl3Nnf] qodf;df sfod /x]sf]
k|fylds k'FhLnfO{ cfwf/ dflgg]5 .
@=
;+:yfut lgIf]k ;+sng ;Ldf
s, v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] s'g} Pp6f kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfaf6 cfkm\gf]
s'n lgIf]ksf] a9Ldf aL; k|ltzt;Ddsf] ;Ldfdf gj9\g] u/L ;+:yfut lgIf]k kl/rfng ug{ kfpg] 5 .
#
lgIf]k ;+sng tyf e'QmfgL ;DjGwL lgod tyf k|s[of agfO{ nfu" ug'{ kg]{
-!_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] :jLsf/ ug]{ lgIf]ksf] cjlw, k|sf/ cflb ;Dk"0f{ lgod tyf sfo{ljlwsf
jf/]df Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf cfkm}n] lgod agfO{ nfu" ug{' kg]{5 / To:tf] lgod tyf sfo{ljlw
o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu / ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k]z ug'{
kg]{5 .
-@_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] bz jif{b]lv rNtL gePsf tyf xs bfjL gk/]sf lgIf]k vftfx?sf]
ljj/0f k|To]s cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf] dlxgfleq o; a}+sdf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
-#_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] nfef+z 3f]if0ff u/]sf] ldltn] kfFr jif{;Dd klg ;DalGwt z]o/wgL jf
lghsf] xsjfnf ;f] nfef+z lng gcfPdf k|To]s cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] Ps dlxgfleq
z]o/wgLsf] gfd gfd];L ;lxtsf] ljj/0f /fli6o:t/sf] kqklqsfdf sDtLdf Psk6s k|sfzg
ug'{ kg]{ 5 . o:tf] ;"rgf k|sfzgkl5 klg nfef+zsf] e'QmfgL lng gcfPdf ;DalGwt ;+:yfdf
bfjL gePsf] nfef+z vftf vf]nL /sdfGt/ ug'{ kg]{ 5 . o;/L /sdfGt/ ePsf] nfef+z
/sdsf] ljj/0f clen]v u/L k|sfzg ubf{ Psd'i6 ?kdf k|sfzg ug{ ;lsg]5 . ;fy} k|sflzt
ljj/0fsf] Ps k|lt o; a}+sdf k]z ug'{ kg]{ 5 .
-$_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] pka'Fbf -!_ jf -@_ adf]lhd rNtL gePsf jf bfjL gk/]sf lgIf]kx?sf]
ljj/0f cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] Ps dlxgfleq /fli6o:t/sf] kqklqsfdf sDtLdf Psk6s
lgIf]kstf{sf] gfd gfd];L ;lxt k|sfzg ug'{ kg]{5 .
-%_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn]] k|fs[lts JolQm jf gfkmf sdfpg] p2]Zo g/fvL :yfkgf ePsf ;+3

223

;+:yfx? -x'nfs art a}+s ;d]t_ sf] xsdf dfq art vftf vf]Ng ;Sg]5 . k|fs[lts
JolQmgfkmf sdfpg] p2]Zo g/fvL :yflkt ;+:yfx? afx]s cGo ;+:yflgsfojf6 art vftf
vf]n]sf] cj:yfdf cljnDj aGb ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fy}, :jLsfo{ a}+ls dfGotf cg'?k ;DalGwt
;+:yfn] r]sa's hf/L ug]{ vftf tyf hf/L gug]{ vftf 5'ofO{ ;f]xL cfwf/df r]sa's hf/L ug]{
Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
t/, pQm Joj:yfn] k|fs[lts JolQm afx]ssf cGo ;+3, ;+:yf, sDkgL nufotsf ck|fs[lts
JolQmn] Aofh cfh{g x'g] u/L art vftf afx]ssf cGo vftf vf]Ng afwf k'ofpg] 5}g .
$
;fk6L lng ;Sg]
-!_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] a'Fbf g+= ! df plNnlvt ;Ldfleq /xL Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf, JolQm,
kmd{, sDkgL tyf ;+ul7t ;+:yf;+u ;fk6L lng ;Sg] 5 .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] ePtf klg ljb]zL ;/sf/ jf cGt//fli6o ;+3;+:yfaf6
s'g} cfly{s ;xfotf jf C0f lng'k/]df Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] o; a}+ssf] :jLs[lt lng' kg]{5 .
ljb]zL d'b|fdf cfly{s bfloTj gkg]{ u/L ljb]zL ;+:yf jf lghsf] g]kfn /fHodf :yflkt ;+:yf jf
kl/of]hgfaf6 o; a}+saf6 k"j{ :jLs[lt lnO{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] :jb]zL d'b|fdf C0f tyf
cg'bfg lng ;Sg]5g\ .
%=
l8a]~r/ tyf cGo C0f pks/0fx? hf/L ug{] ;DaGwL Joj:yf
b]xfodf plNnlvt zt{x? k"/f u/]sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] a'Fbf g+= ! sf] clwgdf /xL a9Ldf cfkm\gf]
k|fylds k'FhLsf] krf; k|ltzt;Ddsf] l8a]~r/cGo C0f pks/0f hf/L ug{ :jLs[ltsf] nflu o; a}+sdf
lgj]bg k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . To:tf] lgj]bg dfly cfjZos 5fgjLg u/L pko'Qm 7fg]df o; a}+sn] l8a]~r/
tyf cGo C0f pks/0f hf/L ug{] :jLs[lt lbg ;Sg]5 M
-!_
ljQLo sf/f]af/ k|f/De u/]sf] kfFr jif{ k"/f ePsf],
-@_
;j{;fwf/0fdf ljqmL ljt/0f ug'{ kg]{ z]o/ ljqmL ljt/0f u/L lwtf]kq ljlgdo ahf/df ;"rLs[t
eO;s]sf],
-#_
;+lrt gf]S;fgL afFsL g/x]sf] .
t/, l8a]~r/ tyf cGo C0f pks/0f hf/L ug{ :jLs[lt lng] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n]
Discount Factor cGt/ut /fVg' kg]{ Capital Redemption Reserve clgjfo{ ?kdf /fVg' kg]{5 .
^=
lgIf]k sf/f]jf/ ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cGo k|rlnt sfg'g jdf]lhd lgIf]k kl/rfng tyf shf{sf]
sf/f]jf/ ul//x]sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?df lgIf]k /fVg tyf shf{sf] sf/f]jf/ ug{ kfOg] 5}g . t/, n3' ljQsf]
yf]s sf/f]jf/ ug]{ u/L :yfkgf ePsf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] xsdf pko{'Qm Joj:yf nfu" x'g] 5}g .
&=
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] Ps csf{df lgIf]k vftf vf]Ng]
;DaGwdf
-s_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt cGo s'g}
klg a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf jf s'g} klg k|sf/sf] lgIf]k ;DaGwL sf/f]jf/ ug]{ ;+:yfdf Aofh k|fKt x'g]
u/L s'g} klg k|sf/sf] :jb]zL lgIf]k vftf vf]Ng kfOg] 5}g .
-v_ t/, of] Joj:yfn] b]xfo adf]lhdsf /sdx? Aofh cfh{g x'g] u/L /fVg /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
sd{rf/L cjsfz sf]if jfktsf] /sd,
z'? ;fj{hlgs lgisf;g, k'gM ;fj{hlgs lgisf;g / xsk|b z]o/ lgisf;gaf6 ;+sng ePsf] /sd
hDdf u/L Aofh cfh{g x'g] c:yfoL k|s[ltsf lgIf]k vftf,
ljb]zL d'b|fsf] vftf,
-u_ pko'{Qm a'Fbf g+= -v_ afx]ssf Aofh cfh{g x'g] u/L o; k"j{ vf]lnPsf vftfsf] xsdf b]xfo adf]lhd ug'{
kg]{5M
d'2tL lgIf]k vftfx? ;f] sf] e'QmfgL cjlw -Maturity Period_ ;dfKt eP kZrft gjLs/0f gug]{ .
Jofh cfh{g x'g] cGo k|s[ltsf vftfx? @)^* kf}if d;fGtleq aGb ug]{ .
-3_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt v / u ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] xsdf s, v / u ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfdf dfu]sf] avt lkmtf{ kfpg] vftf vf]nL @)&) cfiff9 d;fGt;Dd /sd /fVg ;Sg] u/L 5'6 k|bfg
ul/Psf] 5 .

224

*=

(=

!)=

!!=

;LdfeGbf a9L ljQLo >f]t ;+sng u/]df ;Ldfleq Nofpg] ;dofjlw


v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zgn] tf]s]sf] ljQLo ;|f]t ;+sng ;DaGwL
Joj:yfsf] ;Ldf eGbf a9L x'g] u/L ;fk6L (Borrowings) lng] tyf kl/rfng u/] ePsf] ca:yfdf b]xfo
cg';f/sf] Joj:yf sfod x'g] 5 M
-!_
ljQLo >f]t ;+sng ;DaGwL o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zgdf tf]lsPsf] ;LdfeGbf a9L ljQLo ;|f]t ;+sng
u/]sf] kfOPdf To;/L ;LdfeGbf a9L ;+sng ul/Psf] ljQLo ;|f]tdf To:tf] ;Ldfdf gcfP;Ddsf]
cjlwsf] nfuL b}lgs ?kdf k|rlnt a}+sb/n] x'g cfpg] /sd xhf{gf :j?k ;DalGwt ;+:yfnfO{
nufpg ;lsg] 5 . ;fy}, To:tf] ;DalGwt ;+:yfsf] sfo{sf/L k|d'vnfO{ ;d]t ?= Ps nfv;Dd
hl/jfgf nufpg ;lsg] 5 / o:tf] /sd sfo{sf/L k|d'vaf6 JolQmut ?kdf c;'npk/ ul/g]
5.
-@_
o; k|of]hgsf] nflu n]vfk/LIf0f ePsf] ;a}eGbf kl5Nnf] ljQLo ljj/0faf6 sfod x'g cfpg]
k|fylds k'FhLnfO{ cfwf/ lnO{ u0fgf ul/g] 5 .
-#_
;fk6L ;DaGwL b}lgs ljj/0f xfn o; a}+s ;dIf k]z x'Fb} cfPsf] clgjfo{ df}Hbft ;DaGwL
;fKtflxs ljj/0f -lgb]{zg kmf=g+= !#=!_ df Pp6f 5'} ;fk6L zLif{s sfod u/L ;fk6L lnOPsf] s'n
/sd v'nfpg' kg]{5 .
;fj{hlgs z]o/ lgisfzg ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;+rfngdf cfPsf] ldltn] a9Ldf b'O{ jif{leq ;j{;fwf/0fsf]
nflu 5'6\ofOPsf] z]o/ laqmL ljt/0f u/L ;Sg' kg]{5 . ;fy}, k|rlnt lwtf]kq ;DaGwL sfg'gsf] clwgdf
/xL ;fj{hlgs ?kdf k'gM z]o/ lgisfzg (Further Public Issue) ug{ ;Sg]5g\ .
z]o/ lgIf]k of]hgf ;+rfng ug{ ;Sg]
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf -s, v / u ju{_ n] b]xfo adf]lhdsf zt{ cGtu{t /xL z]o/
lgIf]k (Share Deposit_ of]hgfx? ;+rfng ug{ ;Sg]] 5g\ M
-s_
z]o/ lgIf]k of]hgf cGtu{t jrt ug]{ artstf{xn] pQm sDkgLsf] z]o/ vl/b ug{ -;+:yfks
;d"x_ rfx]sf] cj:yfdf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# tyf o; a}+saf6 hf/L ePsf]
PsLs[t lgb]{zg tyf Ohfhtkq k|bfg ul/g] gLltdf pNn]v ePsf k|fjwfgx cg';f/ ;+:yfks
x'g tf]lsPsf] of]Uotfx k"/f u/]sf] x'g' kg]{ .
-v_
z]o/ lgIf]k of]hgf cGtu{t hDdf ePsf] lgIf]knfO{ ;fwf/0f z]o/df -;+:yfks ;d"x_ kl/jt{g
ug{ rfxg] lgIf]kstf{xn] lwtf]kq sf/f]jf/ ;DaGwL k|rlnt P]gdf pNn]v ePsf Joj:yf Pj+
k|lqmofx kfngf ug'{ kg]{ / o;/L jrtstf{xnfO{ ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ k|bfg ug]{ ;dodf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] g]kfn lwtf]kq af]8{af6 ;d]t clgjfo{ ?kdf :jLs[lt lnP/ dfq OR5's
artstf{x?nfO{ ;+:yfks z]o/ lbg' kg]{ .
-u_
pQm of]hgf cGtu{t ;xefuL eO{ ;+:yfks z]o/ vl/b ug{ rfxg] artstf{xnfO{ a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^#, o; a}+sn] hf/L u/]sf gLltut Joj:yfx tyf cGo k|rlnt
P]g, sfg'gsf] clwgdf /xL k|rlnt lwtf]kq ;DaGwL P]g, lgod, lgb]{lzsfsf] kfngf u/L
cfjZos k|lqmof k"/f u/]/ dfq ;+:yfks ;d"xsf] z]o/ vl/b ug{ ;Sg] eGg] Joxf]/f ;fj{hlgs
hfgsf/Lsf nflu k|sflzt x'g] ;fdu|L ;DalGwt sDkgLsf] cfGtl/s gLltlgoddf ;d]t
:ki6;Fu pNn]v x'g' kg]{ .
;xfos cfjlws C0fkq tyf e'QmfgL of]Uo ckl/jt{gLo cu|flwsf/ z]o/ hf/L ug{ ;Sg]
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;'/If0f g/flvPsf] ;xfos cfjlws C0fkq (Subordinated Term Debt) / e'QmfgL
of]Uo ckl/jt{gLo cu|flwsf/ z]o/ -Redeemable Non-Convertible Preference Share_ hf/L ubf{ o;
;DaGwL cGo Joj:yfsf cltl/Qm lgDg zt{x?sf] cwLgdf /xL ug{' kg]{]5 M
-!_
C0fkq s'g} klg ;'/If0f g/fvL lgisfzg ug{' kg{],
-@_
C0fkqsf] cjlw tf]s]sf] x'g' kg]{,
-#_
C0fkqe'QmfgLof]Uo ckl/jt{gLo cu|flwsf/ z]o/df k|bfg ul/g] Aofhnfef+; e'QmfgL ug]{
cjlw, jflif{s Aofhb/ k|ltztdf tf]Sg' kg{], Aofhb/ kl/jt{g ug{ gkfOg] / cflh{t Aofh
/sddf cfos/ P]g cg';f/ cfos/ nfUg]nufpg] Joj:yf ug{' kg{],
-$_
a}+s lj36g ePsf] cj:yfdf C0fkqe'QmfgLof]Uo ckl/jt{gLo cu|flwsf/ z]o/sf] e'QmfgL
lgIf]kstf{eGbf kl5 dfq x'g],

225

-%_

!@=

!#=

C0fkqe'QmfgLof]Uo ckl/jt{gLo cu|flwsf/ z]o/ hf/L ePsf] ldltn] ^ dlxgf leqdf g]kfn
lwtf]kq ljlgdo ahf/df ;"rLs[t ug{' kg{],
-^_
C0fkqe'QmfgLof]Uo ckl/jt{gLo cu|flwsf/ z]o/ lgisfzg ug'{ cl3 tof/ ul/g] ljj/0fkq o;
a}+ssf] ;xdlt lnP/ dfq k|sflzt ug{' kg{],
-&_
C0fkqe'QmfgLof]Uo ckl/jt{gLo cu|flwsf/ z]o/sf] /sd e'QmfgL ug{ l;h{gf ul/g] C0fkq
e'QmfgL sf]if (Debt/Preferance Share Redemption Reserve) sf] Joj:yf ug{ lgDgfg';f/ sf]if
l;h{gf u/]sf] x'g' kg]{ .
-s_
lg:sfzg ul/Psf] cfly{s jif{ / e'QmfgL x'g] cfly{s jif{ To:tf] e'QmfgL sf]if
(Redemption Reserve) df s'g} /sd ljlgof]hg gu/] klg x'g],
e'QmfgL cjlw afFsL /x];Dd To;kl5sf k|To]s jif{ aflif{s d'gfkmfaf6 sDtLdf
-v_
;dfg'kflts cfwf/df (Proportionate Basis) /sd 5'6\ofpg' kg]{,
-u_
v08 -v_ adf]lhd ;dfg'kflts cfwf/df 5'6\ofpg' kg]{ /sd eGbf a9L /sd 5'6\ofpg]
ePdf s'g cfly{s jif{df slt /sd 5'6\ofpg] xf] :ki6 pNn]v ug{' kg{] .
-*_
Private Placement sf] cfwf/df laqmL ul/g] C0fkqe'QmfgLof]Uo ckl/jt{gLo cu|flwsf/ z]o/sf]
;DaGwdf s'g} ;+3;+:yf;+u clu|d s'g} ;Demf}tf ePsf] eP ;f] ;Demf}tfsf] k|ltlnlk k]z ug{'
kg{],
-(_
olb s'g} kIfn] ;f] kIfnfO{ 5'6\ofOPsf] C0fkqe'QmfgLof]Uo ckl/jt{gLo cu|flwsf/ z]o/ vl/b
gu/]df ;f] csf{] kIfnfO{ ljqmL ug{] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{,
-!)_ C0fkqe'QmfgLof]Uo ckl/jt{gLo cu|flwsf/ z]o/df cflh{t Aofh nufgLstf{x?nfO{ slxn]
e'QmfgL ug]{ eGg] ljifodf ljj/0fkqsf] Aofhnfef+z e'QmfgL ug]{ ;do (Interest/Preferred
Dividend Payment Timing) zLif{s cGtu{t :ki6 pNn]v ug'{ kg]{,
-!!_ C0fkqe'QmfgLof]Uo ckl/jt{gLo cu|flwsf/ z]o/df cfj]bg ug{] k|To]s cfj]bsnfO{ lghn]
cfj]bg u/]sf] /sddf cfj]bg u/]sf] ldltb]lv afF8kmfF8 x'g] lbg;Ddsf] cjlwsf nflu k|rlnt
ahf/sf] b/n] vl08t cjlwsf] Aofh (Broken Period Interest) k|bfg ug'{ kg]{ / ;f] ljifodf
ljj/0fkqdf :ki6 pNn]v ug'{ kg]{,
-!@_ C0fkqe'QmfgLof]Uo ckl/jt{gLo cu|flwsf/ z]o/ e'QmfgL u/]kl5 e'QmfgL sf]if (Redemption
Reserve) df s'g} /sd afFsL /xg uPdf To:tf] /sdnfO{ ljz]if hu]8f (Special Reserve)
lx;fjdf ;fg'{ kg]{ .
jLdf of]hgf ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] lgIf]k :jLsf/ ubf{sf] avtdf g} vftfx? jLdf x'g] Joj:yf
ug]{ ePdf jLldt vftfsf Ps} k|s[ltsf lgIf]kstf{x?sf aLrdf s'g} lje]b gx'g] tyf lgIf]kstf{nfO{ yk
Jooef/ gkg]{ u/L o:tf] of]hgf ;+rfng ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ . jLdfn]v -Insurance Policy_ df pNn]v ul/g]
;]jf, zt{ / ;'ljwfx?sf] ;DaGwdf jLldt lgIf]kstf{nfO{ lgIf]k :jLsf/ ubf{ s} avtdf :ki6 hfgsf/L
u/fpg' kg]{5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt v'b|f n3'a}+ls+u sf/f]jf/ ug]{ 3 ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfxn] ;j{;fwf/0faf6 lgIf]k kl/rfng
ug]{ ;DaGwdf
!=
b]xfosf zt{x? k"/f u/]sf v'b|f n3'a}+ls (Retail Micro Banking) sf] sf/f]jf/ ug]{ 3 ju{sf ljQLo
;+:yfx?n] ;j{;fwf/0faf6 o; a}+ssf] :jLs[lt lnO{ lgIf]k kl/rfng ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ M
-s_
afo n]vfk/LIf0faf6 ljut # jif{b]lv v'b d'gfkmf cfh{g u/]sf] k|dfl0ft ePsf] ,
-v_
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] tf]s]sf] Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if k"/f u/]sf] ,
-u_
k"j{ ;~rfng vr{ k"0f{?kdf ckn]vg ePsf] ,
-3_
k|aGwkq tyf lgodfjnLdf ;j{;fwf/0faf6 lgIf]k kl/rfng ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf ePsf] ,
-_
jrt, shf{ nufgL gLlt / sf]if kl/rfng;DaGwL gLlt tof/ u/]sf] ,
-r_
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sf/f hf/L ;Dk"0f{ lgb]{zgx?sf] kfngf ePsf] ,
-5_
l7s cl3Nnf] qodf;sf] ljj/0f cg';f/ lgis[o shf{ % k|ltzteGbf a9L gePsf] ,
-h_
s'n ;d"x ;+Vof sDtLdf %)) /x]sf] jf sDtLdf @,%)) ;b:o;+u shf{ sf/f]jf/ ul//x]sf,
-em_ ;+:yfn] cGo lgsfoaf6 k|fKt u/]sf] ;fk6LC0f zt k|ltzt cfgf u|fxsx?df nufgL
u/]sf] .

226

@=

pko'{Qm zt{x? k"/f u/L lgIf]k kl/rfng ug]{ n3'ljQ ljsf; a}+sx?n] ;j{;fwf/0faf6 lgIf]k
kl/rfng ug]{ ;Ldf tyf cGo Joj:yf b]xfo adf]lhdsf] x'g]5 M
-s_
cfkm\gf] k|fylds k'FhLsf] #) u'0ff;Dd ljQLo >f]t kl/rfng ug]{ ;Ldfleq /xL k|fylds
k'FhLsf] a9Ldf % u'0ff;Dd ;j{;fwf/0faf6 lgIf]ksf] ?kdf ljQLo >f]t kl/rfng ug{ ;Sg]
5g\ . ;j{;fwf/0faf6 ;+slnt lgIf]ksf] ;Ldfdf ;d"x ;b:ox?sf] art lgIf]k u0fgf x'g]
5}g .
-v_
jrt tyf @ jif{;Ddsf] d'2lt lgIf]k dfq kl/rfng ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
-u_
s'g} Pp6f kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yfaf6 cfkm\gf] s'n lgIf]ksf] j9Ldf la;
k|ltzt;Ddsf] ;Ldfdf ga9\g] u/L ;+:yfut lgIf]k kl/rfng ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
-3_
q}dfl;s ?kdf ;DklQ tyf bfloTjsf] cj:yfaf/] cGt/ -Gap) cg'udg u/L k|ltj]bg k]z
ug'{ kg]{5 .
!$= lgIf]k ;+sng sfo{nfO{ cfsif{s agfpg pkxf/ ;DaGwL sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{ gkfO{g] ;DaGwdf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] lr6\7fdf cfwfl/t s'g} klg k|sf/sf] lgIf]k pkxf/ sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{ kfOg]
5}g . t/, ;DalGwt a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] tf]s]sf lglZrt dfkb08x? cGtu{t kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ lgIf]kstf{x?sf
aLrdf s'g} lje]b gu/L To:tf ;a} lgIf]kstf{x?n] lgIf]k /sdsf] cfwf/df ;dfg?kdf pkxf/ k|fKt ug]{ u/L
lgIf]k pkxf/ sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{ eg] o; Joj:yfn] s'g} afwf k'ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
!%= ;]jf z'Ns ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] lgIf]k vftf ;+rfng u/] jfkt u|fxsaf6 s'g} lsl;dsf] ;]jf
z'Ns lng kfOg] 5}g .
!^= lgIf]k ;'/If0f u/fpg] ;DaGwdf
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfkm\gf] ;+:yfdf k|fs[lts JolQmsf gfddf art
tyf d'2lt vftfdf /x]sf] ? @ nfv;Ddsf] lgIf]k lgIf]k tyf shf{ ;'/If0f lgud ;Fu ;'/If0f
ug]{u/fpg] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{ / ;f] /sdnfO{ j[l4 u/L qmdzM ? % nfv;Ddsf] lgIf]k lgIf]k tyf shf{
;'/If0f lgud ;Fu ;'/If0f u/fpg] cfjZos Joj:yf ldnfpg' kg]{5 .
;fy}, Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfkm\gf] ;+:yfdf /x]sf] @ nfv ?k}ofF;Ddsf] JolQmut
art tyf d'2tL lgIf]ksf] /sd / To:tf lgIf]kstf{sf] ;+VofTds ljj/0f q}dfl;s ?kdf qodf; ;dfKt
ePsf] Ps dlxgf leq lgIf]k tyf shf{ ;'/If0f lgudnfO{ pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
!&= ljb]zL nufgLaf6 cflh{t nfef+z /sdsf] lgIf]k vftf vf]Ng] ;DaGwdf
ljb]zL nufgLstf{n] g]kfnleq nufgL u/L cfh{g u/]sf nfef+z /sd ;DalGwt b]zsf] ;/sf/L lgsfo jf
s]Gb|Lo a}+ssf] ;xdtLdf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf d'2tL vftf vf]nL hDdf ug{ ;Sg] / ;f] lgIf]k tyf
lgIf]kaf6 cflh{t Aofhsf] l/Kof6Lo;g b]xfosf] zt{df ljb]zL ljlgdo Joj:Yffkg ljefuaf6 :jLs[lt lnP/
dfq ug{ kfpg] Joj:yf sfod ul/Psf] 5 M
zt{x?M
-!_ ljlgdo b/, Jofhb/, nufotsf s'g} klg hf]lvd ;DalGwt nufgLstf{n] g} axg ug'{ kg]{ .
-@_ o:tf] d'2tL lgIf]ksf] cjlw slDtdf ! jif{sf] x'g' kg]{ / To:tf] lgIf]ksf] lwtf]df s'g} lsl;dsf] shf{ lng
gkfpg] .
-#_ o:tf] lgIf]k vftf vf]Ng' cl3 o; a}+ssf] ljb]zL ljlgdo Joj:yfkg ljefusf] k"j{ :jLs[lt lng'kg]{ .
-$_ o:tf] lgIf]k tyf Jofhsf] cw{jflif{s ljj/0f o; a}+ssf] ljb]zL ljlgdo Joj:yfkg ljefudf k]z ug'{kg]{ .
!*= vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] ljQLo >f]t ;+sng ;DaGwL Joj:yf O=k|f= lgb]{zg g+= !^)^*
af6 hf/L ul/Psf] lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf o;}
ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

227

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= !&)^(
laifo: ljkGg ju{df k|jfx ug'{ kg]{ shf{ ;DaGwL Joj:yf .
o; a}+saf6 s, v / u ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ljkGg ju{df k|jfx ug'{ kg]{ shf{x?sf] ;DaGwdf
g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
1.
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v u ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfgf] s'n afFsL shf{ ;fk6 -ljN;
vl/b tyf l8:sfp06 ;d]t_ sf] Go'gtd qmdzM #=% k|ltzt, #=) k|ltzt / @=% k|ltzt ljkGg ju{df
shf{ k|jfx ug'{ kg]{ 5 .
o; lgb]{zgsf] k|of]hgsf nflu ljkGg ju{ eGgfn] Go"g cfo ePsf / vf;u/L ;fdflhs ?kdf
lk5l8Psf dlxnf, hghflt, blnt ju{, cGwf, alx/f, zfl//Ls ?kn] ckf JolQmx?, ;LdfGtLs[t ;d'bfo
tyf ;fgfls;fg, sflnu9, dhb"/ / e"ldxLg kl/jf/nfO{ ;Demg' kb{5 . ljkGg ju{sf] cfly{s tyf
;fdflhs pTyfgsf] nflu ;~rfng x'g] :j/f]huf/d"ns n3' pBdx? ;~rfng ug{ o; a}+sf/f
tf]lsPsf] ;Ldf;Dd k|jfx x'g] n3' shf{nfO{ ljkGg ju{ shf{ elgPsf] 5 .
2.
s, v / u ju{sf] ljQLo sf/f]af/ ug{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf tyf gofF vf]lng] jf :t/f]Gglt eO{
sf/f]af/ ;~rfng u/]sf] ! jif{kl5sf] q}dfl;s cjlwdf ^ dlxgf cl3sf] s"n afFsL shf{ ;fk6sf]
cfwf/df ljkGg ju{df clgjfo{ ?kn] shf{ k|jfx ug'{ kg]{5 .
3.
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] lgDg cg';f/ k|ToIf ?kdf k|jfx u/]sf]
shf{nfO{ ljkGg ju{df k|jfx ePsf] shf{df u0fgf ul/g]5 .
-s_
ljkGg jf Go"g cfo ePsf JolQmnfO{ n3' Joj;fo ;~rfng ug{ k|lt;d"x ;b:oJolQmnfO{
;fd"lxs JolQmut hdfgtdf k|bfg u/]sf] a9Ldf ;f7L xhf/ ?k}ofF;Ddsf] n3' shf{ .
-v_
gjLs/0fLo phf{ k|ljlw cGtu{t krf; lsnf]jf6;Ddsf] n3' hnljB't kl/of]hgf -Micro
Hydropower Project_, 3/]n' ;f}o{ ljB't k|0ffnL -Solar Home System_, ;f}o{ r'nf] -Solar Cooker_,
;f}o{ 8fo/ -Solar Dryer_, ;f}o{ ljB't kDk -Solar Pump_, afof]UofF; -Biogas_, ;'wfl/Psf] kfgL
36\6 -Improved Water Mill_, ;'wfl/Psf] r'nf] -Improved Cook Stoves_ / jfo' phf{ -Wind
Energy_ k|of]hgdf k|ltkl/jf/ ;f7L xhf/ ?k}ofFdf gj9\g] u/L k|jfx u/]sf] shf{ .
-u_
ljkGg jf Go"g cfo ePsf JolQmnfO{ n3' pBd ;+rfng ug{sf] nflu :jLsf/of]Uo
lwtf];fd"lxs hdfgLdf ;d"x ;b:onfO{ qmdzM a[l4 u/L k|ltJoj;fo Psnfv krf; xhf/
?k}ofFdf gj9\g] u/L pknJw u/fPsf] n3' pBd shf{ .
-3_
j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg] JolQmx?nfO{ /f]huf/bftf /fi6sf /f]huf/bftf sDkgLx?af6 /f]huf/L
tyf ls:tfaGbLdf C0f c;'nL ul/lbg] ;DaGwL cfZjf;g kq (Assurance Letter) k]z ug{;Sg]
Dofgkfj/ sDkgL / /f]huf/Ldf hfg] JolQmaLr lqkIfLo C0f ;Demf}tf u/L pknAw u/fPsf]
k|ltJolQm ?= Psnfv krf; xhf/;Ddsf] shf{ .
-_
j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg] JolQmx?nfO{ lwtf] lnO{ jf glnO{ pknAw u/fPsf] k|ltJolQm ?= Psnfv
krf; xhf/;Ddsf] shf{ .
-r_
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] o'jf :j/f]huf/ tyf /f]huf/ k|lzIf0f sfo{qmd cGtu{t j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg]
sfdbf/nfO{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] tf]s]sf] a}+ssf] ;dGjodf s'g} klg s ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfn] k|bfg u/]sf] j}b]lzs /f]huf/ shf{ .

ldlt @)^*.^.$ df hf/L kl/kq g+= )*.)^*.^( df b]xfosf] Joj:yf ePsf]M


o; a}+saf6 ldlt @)^*.$.!@ df hf/L kl/kqaf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ljkGg ju{df k|jfx ug'{
kg]{ shf{sf] cg'kft )=% k|ltztn] j[l4 ul/Psf]df pQm Joj:yf adf]lhd rfn' cfly{s jif{df j[l4 ug'{kg]{ )=% k|ltzt dWo] )=@% k|ltzt
@)^* kf}if / )=@% k|ltzt @)^( cfiff9;Dddf j[l4 u/L tf]lsPsf] cg'kft sfod ug{ ;lsg] u/L 5'6 k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 .

228

-5_

4.

ljkGg ju{ shf{ k|fKt ug{ of]Uo JolQm;d'bfon] Psn jf ;fd'lxs?kdf un}+rfsf] nflu
cfjZos kg]{ pmg pTkfbg ug]{ k|of]hgfy{ e]8fkfng ug{ jf un+}rf a'Gg] tfg /fVgsf nflu a}+s
tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?jf6 :jLsf/of]Uo lwtf] lnO{ k|lt kl/jf/ ?=! nfv %) xhf/df ga9\g] u/L
-ljut b'O{ jif{b]lv ljkGg ju{ shf{ pkef]u u/L c;n ju{df k/]sfsf] nflu ?= @ nfv x'g]_
k|jfx ePsf] shf{ .
To;}u/L, ljkGg ju{ shf{ k|fKt ug{ of]Uo ;LdfGtLs[t ;d'bfo tyf ;fgf ls;fg jf ls;fg
;d'bfon] dnvfb tyf jLpljhg vl/b, ;fd"lxs?kdf pTkfbg e08f/0fsf] nflu zLt e08f/
-Cold Storage_ lgdf{0f, pTkfbgsf] jhf/Ls/0f, ;fgf l;+rfO{ s'nf], :ofnf] 6\o'jj]n h8fgh:tf
p2]Zosf nflu klg a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?af6 :jLsf/of]Uo lwtf] lnO{ k|lt kl/jf/ ?=! nfv
%) xhf/df ga9\g] u/L k|jfx ul/Psf] shf{ . ;fy}, kz'kfng, dT:okfng, df}/Lkfng h:tf
Joj;fosf] nflu k|lt kl/jf/ ?= @ nfv %) xhf/ k}ofF;Ddsf] shf{ .
-h_
dlxnfx?f/f ;+rflnt n3' pBdnfO{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 k|jfx ePsf] ?= # nfv;Ddsf]
shf{ .
-em_ u|fdL0f If]qdf ul7t pkef]Qmf ;ldlt jf To:tf] If]qdf sfo{/t ;xsf/L ;+:yf dfkm{t ;fd'bflos
l;+rfO{ k|0ffnL]df k|jfx u/]sf] shf{ tyf u|fdL0f If]qdf 6\ofS6/, y|];/ tyf cGo s[lif cf}hf/
vl/b ug]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu k|jfx ePsf] shf{ .
-`_
dfWolds tyf pRr dfWolds tx ;/xsf] k|fljlws tyf Joj;flos lzIff cWoogsf] nflu
ljkGg kl/jf/sf o'jfx?nfO{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?af6 lagf lwtf]df k|jfx x'g] ?=@
nfv;Ddsf] shf{ . o;/L k|jfx x'g] shf{sf] lgIf]k tyf shf{ ;'/If0f lgudaf6 clgjfo{ ?kdf
;'/If0f ug]{ u/fpg] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
-6_
;fd'bflos pkef]Qmf ;ldlt jf lghL If]q jf ;xsf/L ;+:yfn] %)) lsnf]jf6 Ifdtf;Ddsf]
hnljB't cfof]hgfsf] s'n nfutsf] sDtLdf %) k|ltzt jf ;f] eGbf a9L nufgL ug]{
kl/of]hgfdf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;fd'bflos pkef]Qmf ;ldlt jf lghL If]q jf ;xsf/L
;+:yfnfO{ k|bfg ug]{ ?= ! s/f]8;Ddsf] shf{ tyf ;fk6 .
-7_
;fgf ls;fg ju{n] cGgafnL ;+/If0f ug]{ k|of]hgfy{ ;fd"lxs :jfldTjdf sf]N8:6f]/]h :yfkgf ug{
rfx]df ;f]sf] nflu k|jfx x'g] k|lt kl/jf/ = ! nfv %) xhf/;Ddsf] shf{ .
-8_
l/S;f ;~rfng x'g] t/fO{sf ;Dk"0f{ lhNnfx?df l/S;f rfnsx?nfO{ cfg} :jfldTjdf l/S;f
vl/b u/L cfkm} ;+rfng ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu pQm l/S;fs} lwtf]df k|jfx ePsf] shf{ .
-9_
u|fdL0f If]qdf sfo{/t ;xsf/L ;+:yfnfO{ s[lif ;DaGwL kf]i6 xfe]{i6 ;]jf pknAw u/fpg]
kl/of]hgf ;Grfngsf] nflu a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] k|bfg ug]{ ?= ! s/f]8;Ddsf] shf{ tyf
;fk6 .
-0f_
r]kf h:tf lk5l8Psf cNk;+Vos hflt, ;'s'Djf;L, d'Qm sd}of, xlnof, sDn/L, jfbL ;d'bfo
cflbnfO{ 3/ lgdf{0f ug{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ljgf lwtf] k|bfg u/]sf] ?=! nfv;Ddsf] shf{ .
-t_
art tyf C0f ;DaGwL sf/f]jf/ ug]{ ;xsf/L ;+:yfx? afx]s cGo ;DalGwt ljifout ;xsf/L
;+:yfn] ;d"x ;b:o dfkm{t ;fd'lxs v]tL tyf kz'k+IfLkfng ug]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu k|lt ;b:o
?=() xhf/ ggf3\g] u/L ;d"x ;b:o ;+Vofsf] cfwf/df shf{ ;Ldf sfod x'g] u/L k|jfx ePsf]
clwstd ?= Ps s/f]8;Ddsf] shf{ .
o;/L k|jfx ePsf] shf{ b'?kof]u ePsf] kfOPdf To:tf] shf{nfO{ v/fj shf{df juL{s/0f u/L
!%) k|ltzt hf]lvd ef/ sfod ug'{ kg]{ 5 .
s, v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?af6 lgDg cg';f/ ck|ToIf ?kdf k|jfx ePsf] shf{nfO{
ljkGg ju{df k|jfx ePsf] shf{df u0fgf ul/g] 5 .
-s_
ljkGg ju{df shf{ k|jfx ug]{ zt{df o; a}+saf6 3 ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx? tyf
ljQLo dWo:ytfsf] sfd ug]{ ;+:yf ;DaGwL k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd n3' ljQ ;DaGwL sfo{ ug{
:yfkgf ePsf ;+:yfx?nfO{ ;+:yfut Ifdtf tyf ;+:yfut hdfgLdf k|jfx u/]sf] yf]s shf{ .
-v_
ul/jLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf, ljkGg jf Go"g cfo ePsf hgtfsf] cfo tyf /f]huf/ a9fpg o;
a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] d"Nof+sg u/L of]Uo
7fg]sf u|fdL0f If]qdf :yfkgf eO{ sfo{/t ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?nfO{ ljkGg ju{df nufgL ug]{ u/L
yf]s shf{ pknAw u/fpg ;Sg] / o;/L pknAw u/fPsf] shf{ ljkGg ju{df nufgL eP gePsf]
;DaGwdf ;DalGwt a}+sljQLo ;+:yfaf6 g} cg'udg u/L ^^ dlxgfdf ;f]sf] ljj/0f o;
a}+sdf k7fpg' kg]{ .

229

-u_

%=

^=
&=

*=
(=

!)=

;fgf ls;fg ;xsf/L ;+:yf Pj+ n3' ljQ sf/f]jf/ ug]{ ;+:yfx?nfO{ yf]s shf{ k|jfx ug]{
p2]Zon] :yfkgf ePsf 3 ju{sf n3'ljQ ljsf; a}+snfO{ k|jfx ul/Psf] yf]s shf{ .
-3_
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] s, v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt
a}+sljQLo ;+:yfaf6 shf{ lnO{ j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg] sfdbf/nfO{ k|jfx u/]sf] ?= Ps nfv
krf;xhf/ ;Ddsf] shf{ . pk/f]Qm shf{ ;DalGwt s, v / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt
a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] ljkGg ju{ shf{ nufgLdf dfq u0fgf ul/g] 5 .
;fy}, a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ljkGg ju{ shf{df u0fgf ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu pknAw u/fPsf]
yf]s shf{ k|fKt ug]{ ;+:yfaf6 k|To]s ^^ dlxgfdf shf{sf] k|of]u ljkGg ju{df g} ePgePsf]
;DaGwdf k|ult ljj/0f lng' kg]{ tyf o; a}+ssf] lg/LIf0fsf] qmddf To;/L pknJw u/fOPsf]
yf]s shf{ b'?kof]u ePsf] kfOPdf b'?kof]u ePsf] shf{ a/fa/sf] /sd ljkGg ju{df u0fgf
ul/g] 5}g .
ljut b'O{ jif{b]lv ljkGg ju{ shf{ pkef]u u/L c;n ju{df k/]sf k|lt ;d"x ;b:oJolQmnfO{
;fd"lxs JolQmut hdfgtdf k|jfx ug'{ kg]{ shf{sf] ljBdfg ;Ldf ?= ^) xhf/sf] ;f ?= () xhf/
ul/Psf] 5 . o;}u/L n3' pBd shf{sf] ?= ! nfv %) xhf/sf] ;Ldfsf] ;f ?= @ nfv sfod ul/Psf]
5 . t/, pQm dfkb08 k"/f gu/]sfsf] xsdf ljkGg ju{ shf{ ;Ldf k"j{ Joj:yf adf]lhd ?= ^) xhf/ /
?= ! nfv %) xhf/ g} x'g]5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt -s, v / u ju{sf_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] 3 ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yfsf] z]o/df
u/]sf] nufgLnfO{ ;d]t ck|ToIf ?kdf ljkGg ju{df k|jfx ul/Psf] shf{ ;/x u0fgf ul/g] 5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?af6 ljkGg ju{ shf{ cGt/ut n3' ljQ ljsf; a}+sx?n] k|fKt u/]sf] shf{ /sd
zt k|ltzt ljkGg ju{df clgjfo{ ?kdf shf{ k|jfx ug'{ kg]{5 . ;f] cg'?k nufgL gePdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?af6 n3' ljQ ljsf; a}+sx?nfO{ k|jfx x'g] To:tf] s'n yf]s shf{ ljkGg ju{
shf{df u0fgf x'g] 5}g .
ljkGg ju{df k|jfx ul/Psf] shf{ u0fgf ubf{ ^ dlxgf cl3sf] s"n afFsL shf{ ;fk6 -laN; vl/b tyf
l8:sfp06 ;lxt _ sf] cfwf/df k|To]s qodf;df cyf{t cflZjg, kf}if, r}q / cfiff9 d;fGtdf ul/g] 5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt jfl0fHo a}+s -s ju{ _, ljsf; a}+s -v ju{ _ / ljQ sDkgL -u ju{ _ af6 k|ToIf
?kdf lgDg zt{x?sf] cwLgdf /xL c:ktfnnfO{ k|jfx x'g] shf{nfO{ ljkGg ju{ shf{df u0fgf ul/g]5 .
-s_
d'gfkmf ljt/0f gug]{ sDkgLsf] ?kdf To:tf] c:ktfn ;DalGwt lgsfodf btf{ ePsf] x'g' kg]{ .
-v_
;DalGwt a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] o; k|of]hgsf nflu cfgf] k|fylds k'FhL -Core Capital_ sf]
a9Ldf % k|ltzt ;Ddsf] shf{ /sd dfq k|jfx ug{ ;Sg] .
-u_
;DalGwt c:ktfnn] g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;DalGwt lgsfoaf6 ;+rfng :jLs[lt k|bfg ul/+bf
tf]lsPsf ;Dk"0f{ zt{x?sf] k"0f{ kfngf u/]sf] x'g' kg]{ .
-3_
;DalGwt c:ktfnn] cfgf] s"n z}of Ifdtfsf] Go"gtd !) k|ltzt z}of lgMz'Ns ?kdf ljkGg
ju{sf hgtfx?nfO{ pknAw u/fpg] u/L cfjZos Joj:yf ldnfPsf] x'g' kg]{ .
-_
dfly v08 -s_ b]lv -3_ ;Dd pNn]lvt zt{x? k"/f ePsf] osLg u/]/ dfq ;DalGwt a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfn] shf{ k|jfx u/]sf] x'g' kg]{ .
-r_
pk/f]Qm dfkb08 k"/f u/]sf u|fdL0f If]qdf ;+rflnt ;fd'bflos c:ktfnnfO{ a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfxaf6 k|ToIf kdf k|jfx x'g] =! s/f]8;Ddsf] shf{nfO{ ;d]t ljkGg ju{ shf{df u0fgf
ul/g]5 .
Go"g nfut cfjf; -Low Cost Housing_ shf{nfO{ ljkGg ju{df u0fgf ug]{ ;DaGwdf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?af6 ljkGg ju{df u0fgf x'g of]Uo JolQmx?sf nflu dfq 3/hUuf vl/b tyf
3/ lgdf{0f shf{sf] cfjZostf k"/f ug]{ p2]Zon] b]xfo cg';f/sf] zt{sf] clwgdf /xL k|bfg ePsf]
shf{nfO{ ;d]t ljkGg ju{sf] shf{df u0fgf ul/g] 5 .
-s_
;'/lIft lwtf] lnO{ ;fd'lxs jf JolQmut cfwf/df k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf ?kdf k|bfg x'g] ?= $
nfv;Ddsf] shf{ .
-v_
;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] cfkm\gf] shf{ gLltdf o;/L ljkGg ju{nfO{ 3/hUuf vl/b
tyf 3/ lgdf{0f shf{ k|bfg ug]{ ;DaGwdf :ki6 ?kdf pNn]v u/]sf] x'g' kg]{ .
-u_
o:tf] shf{ k|bfg ubf{ k|rlnt P]g, sfg'g tyf o; a}+ssf] gLlt lgb]{zg adf]lhdsf] ;Dk"0f{
k|s[of k"/f u/]sf] x'g' kg]{ .
-3_
ljkGg ju{ eGgfn] dfly a'Fbf g+= ! df pNn]lvt kl/efiff cg';f/ Go"g cfo ePsf / vf;u/L
;fdflhs ?kdf lk5l8Psf dlxnf, hghflt, blnt ju{, cGwf, alx/f, zf/Ll/s ?kn] ckf

230

!!=
!@=

JolQmx?, ;LdfGtLs[t ;d'bfo tyf ;fgf ls;fg, sflnu9, dhb"/ / e"ldxLg kl/jf/nfO{ ;Demg'
kg]{ .
n3'shf{ -Microcredit_ ;DaGwdf
3 ju{sf n3'ljQ ljsf; a}+sx?n] ;d"xdf cfj4 gePsf OR5's JolQmx?nfO{ klg kof{Kt lwtf] lnO{
a9Ldf ?=;f7L xhf/;Ddsf] n3'shf{ k|bfg ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foL :j/f]huf/ sf]if ;DaGwdf
!=
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ljkGg ju{df k|jfx ug'{ kg]{ # k|ltzt -s ju{_, !=% k|ltzt -v
ju{_ / ! k|ltzt -u ju{_ /sdsf] Ps ltxfO /sd g]kfn ;/sf/, cy{ dGqfno, o'jf tyf
;fgf Joj;foL :j/f]huf/ sf]if -o;kl5 sf]if elgPsf]_ sf] gfddf cfg} ;+:yfdf vf]lnPsf]
vftfdf hDdf ug'{ kg]{5 . a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] pko'{Qm pNn]lvt /sdeGbf a9L /sd pSt
vftfdf hDdf ug{ o; Joj:yfn] afwf k'u]sf] dflgg] 5}g . sf]ifdf hDdf ePsf] /sd ;DalGwt
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] sf]ifnfO{ k|jfx ul/Psf] shf{ dflgg]5 / o;/L hDdf ul/Psf] /sdnfO{
ljkGg ju{df u0fgf ul/g] 5 .
@=
a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] pka'Fbf g+= ! cg';f/ k|jfx u/]sf] shf{ h'g;'s} cj:yfdf shf{;fk6sf]
juL{s/0f / shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yfsf] k|of]hgsf] nflu c;n shf{df ;dfj]z ul/g]5 . o;}u/L
a}+sn] o:tf shf{ kF"hL kof{Kttf (Capital Adequacy) BASEL II cGtu{t Claims on
Government zLif{sdf /fVg ;Sg] / v / u ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfn] o:tf shf{df z"Go
hf]lvd ef/ k|bfg ug{ ;Sg] 5 .
#=
vftf vf]Ng], vftf ;+rfng ug]{ / shf{ ;Df}tfdf x:tfIf/ ug]{ clVtof/L ;lxtsf] sfuhft
lnO{ o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foL :j/f]huf/ sf]if sf] gfddf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] vftf vf]Ng'
kg]{5 .
$=
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 sf]ifnfO{ k|jfx ul/Psf] pka'Fbf g+= ! sf] /sd r'Qmf ug]{ bfloTj
sf]ifsf] x'g]5 .
%=
sf]if / a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf larsf] ;Df}tf cg';"rL !&=! df pNn]v eP adf]lhd ug'{ kg]{
5 . o; k|of]hgsf] nflu pSt ;Demf}tf afx]s cGo s'g} sfuhft cfjZos kg]{ 5}g .
^=
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foL :j/f]huf/ sf]if -;+rfng_ lgodfjnL, @)^%
cGtu{t o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foLx?nfO{ kl/of]hgf dfq lwtf] lnO{ b'O{ nfv;Ddsf] shf{ nufgL
u/]df To:tf] shf{nfO{ ljkGg ju{df u0fgf ul/g]5 . t/, pka'Fbf g+= ! df pNn]v ePsf] hDdf
ug'{ kg]{ /sddf sf ug{ kfOg] 5}g . o:tf] shf{ k|jfx ubf{ b]xfo adf]lhdsf Joj:yfx? nfu"
x'g] 5g\ M
s=
Joj;fosf] p2]Zo cg';f/ shf{ cjwL a9Ldf kfFr aif{;Ddsf]] x'g]5 / a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfsf] lgodfg';f/ tf]s]sf] ls:tfdf a'fpg' kg]{ u/L ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfn] ls:tf tf]Sg]5 / ;fFjf Aofh e'StfgL 5'6 cjlw (Grace Period) sf]ifn] tf]s]
cg';f/ x'g]5 .
v=
;DalGwt JolStn] ug]{ :j/f]huf/d"ns Joj;fo;Fu ;DalGwt rn crn ;DklQ g}
;Dk"0f{ ;fFjf Aofh e'Stfg gx'Gh]n;Dd a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] k|bfg u/]sf] shf{sf]
lwtf] x'g]5 .
u=
shf{ :jLs[t ug]{ jf gug]{ ;Dk"0f{ clwsf/ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf gLlxt /xg]5 .
3=
pk/f]St adf]lhd shf{sf] hf]lvd tyf C0f c;'npk/ ug'{ kg]{ bfloTj ;DalGwt a}+s
tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf /xg]5 .
&=
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] pka'Fbf g+= ^ adf]lhdsf] shf{ k|bfg ug{ o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foL
:j/f]huf/ sf]ifaf6 aflif{s & k|ltzt Aofhdf k'g/shf{ lng;Sg] 5 .
*=
sf]ifsf] ;+rfng o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foL :j/f]huf/ sf]if -;+rfng_ lgodfjnL, @)^%, shf{
tyf jLdf Joj:yf ;DaGwL lgb]{lzsf, @)^% / o; a}+saf6 hf/L o;} lgb]{zgdf pNn]v eP
adf]lhd x'g]5 .
(=
dfly h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] ePtfklg Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf -3 ju{ afx]s_ n]
ljkGg ju{df u0fgf x'g] o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foL :j/f]huf/ sf]ifdf hDdf ug'{kg]{ /sd csf]{
kl/kqaf6 ;"rgf hf/L geP;Dd ldlt @)^^.!!.@^ sf] kl/kq cg';f/ @)^^ r}q d;fGtb]lv
nfu" x'g] u/L pQm sf]ifdf /sd hDdf ug{'kg]{ 5}g . t/, o;/L o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foL
:j/f]huf/ sf]ifdf tTsfnnfO{ /sd hDdf ug'{ gk/]tfklg a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] o;}

231

lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf g+= ! cg';f/sf] b/n] ljkGgju{df k|jfx ug'{ kg]{ /sd k"j{jt g} nufgL ug'{
kg]{5 .
!#= ljkGg ju{df k|jflxt shf{ ;DaGwL g]=/f= a}+s lgb]{zg kmf/fd g+= (=% cg';f/sf] q}dfl;s ljj/0f o; a}+ssf]
;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf qodf; ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] !% lbg leq k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
!$= ;DalGwt O{hfhtkq k|fKt ;+:yfn] ljkGg ju{df k|jfx ul/g] shf{ ;DaGwL gLltut Pj+ k|s[ofut
Joj:yfnfO{ cfgf] shf{ gLltdf :ki6 ?kdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
!%= cGo lgb]{zgdf h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] ePtfklg ;fd"lxsJolQmut;+:yfut hdfgLdf k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf
?kdf ljkGg ju{df u0fgf x'g] u/L k|jfx ul/Psf] shf{sf] nflu cltl/Qm la; k|ltzt yk shf{ gf]S;fgL
Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{ 5}g .
!^= ljkGg ju{df k|jfx ug]{ u/L k|fKt ;fk6L /sdnfO{ nlIft ju{df k|jfx gu/L ;f] afktsf] /sd Jofh cfh{g
x'g] u/L s'g} klg a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf hDdf ug{ kfOg] 5}g . t/ o; Joj:yfn] 3 ju{sf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] xsdf shf{ ;Ldf -Line of Credit_ pkof]u ug{ jfwf k'/\ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ljkGg ju{ shf{df u0fgf ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu pknAw u/fPsf] yf]s shf{ k|fKt
ug]{ ;+:yfaf6 k|To]s ^^ dlxgfdf shf{sf] k|of]u ljkGg ju{df g} ePgePsf] ;DaGwdf k|ult ljj/0f lng'
kg]{5 . o; a}+ssf] lg/LIf0fsf] qmddf To;/L pknJw u/fOPsf] yf]s shf{ nlIft ju{df k|jfx ePsf]
gkfO{Pdf ;f] shf{ a/fa/sf] /sd ljkGg ju{df u0fgf ul/g] 5}g .
!&= dfly plNnlvt a'Fbf -!^_ adf]lhdsf] yf]s shf{ k|jfx ug]{ ;+:yfn] p2]Zo adf]lhd ;Dk"0f{ yf]s shf{ /sd
k|jfx u/]gu/]sf] ljj/0f lnO{ ;f] sf] k|dfl0fs/0f u/L k|To]s cfly{s jif{sf] df3 / ;fpg d;fGtdf
;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefunfO{ hfgsf/L lbg' kg]{5 .
!*=s, v / u ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ljkGg ju{df k|jfx ug'{ kg]{ shf{ ;DjGwL lgb]{zg
adf]lhdsf] shf{ k|jfx gu/]df jf sd k|jfx u/]df To;/L k|jfx gu/]sf] jf sd k|jfx u/]sf] /sddf g]kfn
/fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf *! adf]lhd ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ;f] u0fgf cjlwdf shf{df lng]
clwstd Aofhb/n] x'g] /sd xhf{gf nufOg] 5 .
t/ clGtd C0fbftf ;DaGwL ;'ljwf pkof]u ug]{ Ohfhtkq k|fKt ;+:yfsf] xsdf ;f] shf{;'ljwf k|fKt
u/]sf] ldlt b]lv ljkGg ju{ shf{ k|jfx gu/]sf] sf/0fn] ;f] shf{sf] ;Ldf gk'uL nfUg] xhf{gfdf plNnlvt
clGtd C0fbftf ;'ljwf sfod /x];Dd 5'6 k|bfg ul/g] 5 .
o; a}+saf6 g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf *^v= adf]lhd ;d:ofu|:t 3f]if0ff ul/Psf] jf a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfsf] zL3| ;'wf/fTds sf/jfxL ;DaGwL ljlgodfjnL, @)^$ sf] ljlgod # sf] v08 -v_
adf]lhdsf] sf/jfxLdf /x]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?nfO{ pQm cjlwe/ ljkGg ju{df k|jfx ug'{ kg]{ shf{
k|jfx gu/]sf] sf/0fn] nfUg] xhf{gfdf 5'6 k|bfg ul/g] 5 .
!(=
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?nfO{ hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx?nfO{
vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 .
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] ljkGg ju{df k|jfx ug'{ kg]{ shf{ ;DaGwL Joj:yf O=k|f= lgb]{zg g+=
!&)^* af6 hf/L ul/Psf] lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf
o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .
:ki6Ls/0f Mtf]lsPsf] ljkGg ju{ shf{ ;Ldf ;DaGwdf o; lgb]{zgdf h'g;'s} Joj:yf ePtf klg

Ohfhtkqk|fKt 3 ju{sf n3'ljQ ;+:yfx?n] n3' shf{sf] nflu tf]lsPsf] -JolQmutk|ltpBd_ ;Ldf;Dd
dfq shf{ k|jfx ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .

232

cg';"rLM !&=!
a}+sljQLo ;+:yf tyf sf]ifaLr x'g] ;Demf}tf
o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foL :j/f]huf/ sf]if -;+rfng_ lgodfjnL, @)^% adf]lhd :yflkt cy{ dGqfnosf] o'jf tyf
;fgf Joj;foL :j/f]huf/ sf]ifsf tkm{af6 ldlt ============== sf] clVtof/ k|fKt ============= >L =========================
-o;kl5 sf]if elgPsf]_ / a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# adf]lhd :yflkt ======lhNnf===== g=kf= j8f
g+= ===== l:yt ========================= sf tkm{af6 clVtof/ k|fKt ================>L ================ -o;kl5 a}+sljQLo
;+:yf elgPsf]_ sf aLr tkl;nsf zt{x?sf clwgdf /xL b'a} kIfsf] dgf]dfg /fhLv'zLn] tkl;nsf ;fIfLx?sf
/f]xj/df sf]ifsf] sfof{nodf a;L of] ;Demf}tf ul/Psf] 5 .
tkl;n
a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] g]kfn /fi6 a}+s, a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefusf] lgb]{zg g+======== sf] a'Fbf g+=======
!=

@=

#=

$=
%=
^=
&=
*=
(=

tyf ;f]df ;do ;dodf x'g] ;+zf]wg cg';f/ sf]ifdf /sd hDdf ug]{5 . sf]ifdf hDdf ePsf] /sd ;DalGwt
a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] sf]ifnfO{ k|jfx ul/Psf] shf{ dflgg]5 . a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] sf]ifdf x/]s q}df;df hDdf
u/]sf] /sd / s'n shf{ jSof}tf /sd v'nfO{ sf]ifnfO{ lnlvt hfgsf/L lbg]5 . o;/L hfgsf/L lbPsf] & lbgleq
a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] sf]ifaf6 s'g} cGoyf Joxf]/fsf] lnlvt ;"rgf k|fKt gu/]df pk/f]St adf]lhd hfgsf/L
u/fOPsf] /sd g} sf]ifn] a}+sljQLo ;+:yfaf6 lnPsf] shf{ /sd dflgg]5 .
a'Fbf g+= ! adf]lhd k|jfx ul/Psf] shf{ jfkt sf]ifn] a}+sljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ q}dfl;s ?kdf e'Qmfg ug]{ u/L
jflif{s % k|ltzt Aofh lbg]5 . sf]ifn] k|bfg ug]{ k'g/shf{df & k|ltzt Aofhb/ a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] q}dfl;s
?kdf sf]ifnfO{ e'Stfg ug'{kg]{ 5 . o:tf] Aofhb/, ahf/b/ / d'b|f:kmLltnfO{ dWogh/ /fvL b'j} kIfsf] lnlvt
;xdltdf ;do ;dodf k'g/fjnf]sg ul/g]5 .
sf]ifn] lnPsf] shf{ / a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n]] sf]if;+u lnPsf] k'g/shf{df nfUg] Aofh ltg]{ bfloTj sf]ifsf] /
a}+sljQLo ;+:yfx? b'j}sf] /xg]5 . lnPsf] shf{sf] a'fpg'kg]{ Aofh /sd sf]ifn] / a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn]
q}dfl;s ?kdf cfiff9, cflZjg, kf}if / r}q d;fGtdf glt/]df ;Dk"0f{ ;fFjf tyf Aofh e'Stfg ug{ sf]if /
a}+sljQLo ;+:yf b'j} kIfn] ;"lrt ug{ ;Sg]5 . ;f] cg';f/ ;"rgf kfPdf & -;ft_ lbgleq sf]if jf a}+sljQLo
;+:yfx?n] ;Dk"0f{ ;fFjf Aofh e'Stfg ug]{5 .
a'Fbf g+= # adf]lhd ;fFjf /jf Aofh e'Stfg gu/]df e'StfgL ug'{ kg]{ ldltb]lv e'StfgL x'g] ldlt;Ddsf] cjlwsf]
nflu jflif{s !) k|ltzt / @ k|ltzt k]gfn Aofh ;lxt ;fFjf /jf Aofh sf]if jf a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] e'Stfg
ug]{5 .
o; ;Demf}tfsf] cjlw cfhsf] ldltb]lv nfu" eO{ k|jfx u/]sf] shf{ r'Qmf geP;Ddsf] cjlwsf] nflu nfu" x'g]5 .
s'g} klg ;dodf sf]ifn] a}+sljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ sDtLdf !% lbgsf] k"j{ ;"rgf lbO{ afFsL ;Dk"0f{ ;fFjf Aofh
a}+sljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ lt/L a'emfO{ ;Df}tf ;dfKt ug{ ;Sg]5 .
;Demf}tf cjlwe/ s'g} klg avt sf]if la36g ePdf cljnDa sf]ifn] ltg'{a'emfpg'kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ ;fFjf Aofh /sd
sf]ifn] a}+sljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ ltg{a'emfpg kg]{5 .
b'a} kIfsf] lnlvt ;xdltdf o; ;Demf}tfdf pNn]lvt zt{x? ;+zf]wg, km]/abn jf yk36 ug{ ;lsg]5 .
a}+sljQLo ;+:yfn] lgoldt shf{ c;'n ePsf] cj:yfdf l;w} ;x'lnot b/df nfUg] Aofhsf] ^) k|ltzt /sd
36fO{ u0fgf u/L lng]5 . Aofh lgoldt gePsf] v08df o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foL :j/f]huf/ sf]if -;+rfng_
lgodfjnL, @)^% adf]lhd c;'npk/ ug]{5 .

a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf tkm{af6


clVtof/ k|fKt
gfd
kb
x:tfIf/
5fk
ldlt
;fIfL
================================

o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foL :j/f]huf/ sf]ifsf


clVtof/ k|fKt
gfd
kb
x:tfIf/
5fk
ldlt
;fIfL
=================================
Olt ;Dat\ @)^===;fn ======= dlxgf ====== ut] /f]h ===== z'ed\

233

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= !*)^(
laifoM :t/f]Gglt x'g], sfo{If]q lj:tf/ jf ;+s'rg tyf ufEg]ufleg] ;DaGwL Joj:yf .
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# adf]lhd tNnf] ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ljQLo ;+:yf dflyNnf]
ju{df kl/0ft x'gsf] nflu jf b'O{ jf b'O{ eGbf a9L Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf Ps cfk;df ufEgufleg jf o;/L
ufleO{ ;s]kl5 :t/f]Gglt x'g tyf xfnsf] ju{df g} /xL sfo{If]q lj:tf/ ug{ o; a}+sdf lgj]bg lbg]
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?sf] xsdf lgDgfg';f/sf] Joj:yf sfod ul/Psf] x'Fbf ;f]xL adf]lhd ug'{u/fpg' x'g
g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L of] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
-s_ :t/f]Gglt x'g] ;DaGwL Joj:yf
!=
kl/efiffM
o; lgb]{zg adf]lhd :t/f]Gglt eGgfn] a'Fbf g+= -@_ adf]lhdsf] dfkb08 k"/f u/]sf o; a}+saf6
Ohfhtkqk|fKt /fli6o:t/sf] sfo{If]q ePsf u jf v ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yf qmdzM v jf s
ju{sf] ;+:yfdf kl/0ft x'g;Sg] cj:yf ;Demg' kb{5 .
@=
:t/f]Gglt x'g] ;DaGwL dfkb08M
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf #^ adf]lhd o; a}+saf6 v jf u ju{sf]
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ljQLo ;+:yf :t/f]Gglt x'gsf] nflu b]xfosf k"j{of]Uotfdfkb08x? k"/f ePsf] jf u/]sf]
x'g' kg]{5 M
-s_
;+:yfn] ;DalGwt ju{sf] ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ug{ Ohfhtkq k|fKt u/]sf] cjlw % jif{ k"/f u/]sf] .
-v_
;+:yf kl5Nnf] kfFr cfly{s jif{df nuftf/ ?kdf gfkmfdf /x]sf] .
-u_
;+:yf ;+lrt gf]S;fgLdf g/x]sf] .
-3_
s'n lgis[o sh{f (Non performing loan) cg'kft % k|ltzt eGbf tn /x]sf] .
-_
dflyNnf] ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf nflu o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] Go"gtd r'Qmf k'FhL k"/f ePsf] .
-r_
;+:yfn] o; a}+sf/f hf/L k'FhL kof{Kttf, k|lt u|fxs shf{ ;Ldf, shf{ lgIf]k cg'kft, shf{
gf]S;fgL Joj:yf / ljQLo ;|f]t kl/rfng ;DaGwL lgb]{zgx? k"0f{ ?kdf kfngf u/]sf] .
-5_
;+:yf jf ;+rfns ;ldltkbflwsf/LnfO{ o; a}+saf6 ;'zf;g nufot v08 -r_ df plNnlvt
lgb]{zgx? kfngf gu/]sf] ljifodf sf/jfxL ePsf] eP ;f] sf/jfxL km's'jf ePsf] cjlw # jif{
k"/f ePsf] .
-h_
zL3| ;'wf/fTds sf/jfxL ePsf] eP ;f] sf/jfxL km's'jf ePsf] # jif{ k"/f ePsf] .
-em_ ;+:yfn] cl3Nnf] cfly{s jif{;Ddsf] n]vfk/LIf0f ;DkGg u/]sf] .
-`_
/fli6o:t/sf] sfo{If]q ePsf] v ju{af6 s ju{df :t/f]Gglt x'g rfxg] ;+:yfsf] cl3Nnf]
cfly{s jif{df Joj;fosf] cfsf/ - lgIf]k tyf shf{sf] s'n of]u_] Go"gtd r'Qmf k'FhLsf] !% u'0ff
-xfnsf] ju{sf]_ / u|fxs ;+Vof @% xhf/ -lgIf]kstf{ / C0fL_ ePsf] .
-6_
/fli6o:t/sf] sfo{If]q ePsf] u ju{af6 v ju{df :t/f]Gglt x'g rfxg] ;+:yfsf] cl3Nnf]
cfly{s jif{df Joj;fosf] cfsf/ -lgIf]k tyf shf{sf] s'n of]u_] Go"gtd r'Qmf k'FhLsf] !% u'0ff
-xfnsf] ju{sf]_ / u|fxs ;+Vof !) xhf/ -lgIf]kstf{ / C0fL_ ePsf] .
#=
:t/f]Ggltsf nflu lgj]bg lbg]M
a'Fbf g+=@ adf]lhdsf dfkb08x? k"/f u/]sf] ;+:yfn] :t/f]Gglt x'g] ;}4flGts ;xdltsf nflu b]xfosf
sfuhft tyf ljj/0f;lxt o; a}+s ;dIf lgj]bg lbg ;Sg]5 M
-s_ ;}4flGts ;xdltsf] nflu cg';"rL !*=! jdf]lhdsf] 9fFrfdf lgj]bg .
-v_ o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] Go"gtd r'Qmf k'FhL k'u]sf] Joxf]/f o; a}+ssf] ;"rLs[t n]vfk/LIfsaf6
k|dfl0ft ePsf] ljj/0f .
-u_ :t/f]Gglt x'g] ;DjGwdf ;DjlGwt ;+:yfsf] jflif{s ;fwf/0f ;efn] u/]sf] lg0f{osf] 5ljlrq .

234

-3_ ;+:yfsf] sDtLdf cfufdL % jif{sf] Joj;flos of]hgf tyf k|If]k0f (Business Plan and Projection)
-_ cg';"rL !*=@ / cg';"rL !*=# adf]lhdsf] 9fFrfdf b'O{ k|ltzt jf ;f] eGbf a9L z]o/ wf/0f
u/]sf ;+:yfksx?sf] JolQmut ljj/0f .
-r_ ;+:yfksx?n] ;DjlGwt ;+:yfaf6 shf{ glnPsf] :jM3f]if0ff kq .
-5_ ;+:yfksx?n] cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:Yffx?af6 C0f lnO{ efsf ggf3]sf] jf shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|
ln= sf] sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z gePsf] Joxf]/f pNn]v ePsf] :jM3f]if0ff kq .
-h_ jt{dfg z]o/ k'FhL ;+/rgf / :jfldTj -;+:yfks ;d"x / ;j{;fwf/0f ;d"x_ ;DaGwL ljj/0f .
-em_ ;+:yfksx?n] s'g} Ps a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:Yffdf r'Qmf k'FhLsf] a9Ldf !% k|ltzt / cGo a}+s
tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?df r'Qmf k"FhLsf] a9Ldf ! k|ltzt eGbf a9L nufgL gu/]sf] :jM3f]if0ff .
-`_ o; a}+s ;dIf lgj]bg lb+bfsf jvt ;+:yfsf] s'n shf{sf] % k|ltzt eGbf sd lgis[o shf{
/x]sf] k'i6\ofO{F x'g] sfuhft .
-6_ ;+:yf ;+:yfkgf ubf{ vr{ ePsf] k"j{ ;~rfng vr{ k"0f{ ?kdf ckn]vg ePsf] k|dfl0ft x'g]
sfuhft .
-7_ ;+:yf kl5Nnf] % jif{b]lv nuftf/ d'gfkmfdf ;~rfng e}/x]sf] k|dfl0ft x'g] n]vfk/LIf0f ePsf]
ljut % jif{sf] ljQLo ljj/0f .
-8_ ;+:yfn] New Capital Adequacy Framework k"0f{ ?kdf nfu" ug{;Sg] of]hgf tyf ;+rfns
;ldltsf] k|ltj4tf .
-9_ z]o/ vl/b ljqmL sf/f]jf/ /f]Ssf ePsf] Joxf]/fsf] lwtf]kq ljlgdo ahf/sf] kq .
-0f_ k'FhL kof{Kttf, k|lt u|fxs shf{ ;Ldf, shf{ lgIf]k cg'kft, shf{ gf]S;fgL Joj:yf / ljQLo >f]t
kl/rfng ;DaGwL lgb]{zgx? k"0f{ ?kdf kfngf u/]sf] :jM3f]if0ff tyf ;f] k'i6\ofO{F x'g] sfuhft .
-t_ ljut # jif{df zL3| ;'wf/fTds sfo{jfxL gePsf] :jM3f]if0ff .
-y_ n]vfk/LIf0f ePsf] cl3Nnf] cfly{s jif{sf] ljQLo ljj/0fsf] cfwf/df Joj;fosf] cfsf/ -lgIf]k
tyf shf{sf] s'n of]u_ / u|fxs ;+Vof -lgIf]kstf{ / C0fL_ o; lgb]{zg adf]lhd /x]sf] k'i6\ofO{F
x'g] sfuhft .
$=
;}4flGts ;xdltM
-!_ a'Fbf g+= -#_ cg';f/ :t/f]Ggltsf nflu k]z x'g cfPsf] lgj]bgdfly o; a}+sn] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf
;DjGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf #^, o;} lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf g+= @ adf]lhdsf] k"j{of]Uotf tyf k]z x'g cfPsf
sfuhft tyf ljj/0fx? d"Nofg u/L dflyNnf] ju{sf] ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ug]{ cg'dlt k|bfg ug]{ k|s[ofut
Joj:yf cjnDag ug]{5 / dflyNnf] ju{sf] ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ug{ rfxg] ;DalGwt ljQLo ;+:yfx?nfO{
plNnlvt Joxf]/f hfgsf/L u/fpg] 5 . o;/L hfgsf/L pknAw u/fp+bf b]xfosf zt{x? sfod u/L
;}4flGts ;xdlt k|bfg ug{ ;lsg]5 M
-s_ dflyNnf] ju{sf] ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ;+Rffngsf] nflu hf/L k'FhLsf] )=)@ k|ltztn] x'g] /sd o;
a}ssf] gf=gf]=cf=lx= km'6s/ zLif{sdf hDdf u/L ;Ssn ef}r/ ;lxt cg';"rL !*=$ adf]lhdsf]
9fFrfdf lgj]bg lbg'kg]{ .
-v_ dflyNnf] ju{sf] ;+:yfn] ug]{ sfo{ ;dfj]z u/L sDkgL /lhi6f/sf] sfof{noaf6 k|dfl0ft ;+zf]lwt
k|jGwkq / lgodfjnLsf] k|ltlnlk k]z ug'{kg]{ .
-u_ ;+zf]lwt shf{ gLlt, cfly{s k|zf;g ljlgodfjnL, sd{rf/L k|zf;g ljlgodfjnL / shf{
ckn]vg ljlgodfjnL k]z ug'{kg]{ .
-3_ dflyNnf] ju{sf] ;+:yfsf] ;+u7gfTds ;+/rgf / kbflwsf/Lx?sf] ljj/0f k]z ug'{kg]{ .
-_ ;"rgf k|ljlw tyf ;km\6j]o/ ;DaGwL ljj/0f k]z ug'{kg]{ .
-@_ :t/f]Ggltsf] nflu lgj]bg lbPkl5 ;DjlGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefu;+u ;dGjo u/L tof/ ul/Psf] ljz]if
lg/LIf0f k|ltj]bg;d]tnfO{ cfwf/ dfgL :t/f]Ggltsf nflu ul7t l;kmfl/; ;ldltdf cfjZos 5nkmn
u/L ;f] ;ldltsf] l;kmfl/;df dfq :jLs[lt k|bfg ul/g] 5 .
-#_ ;}4flGts ;xdlt k|bfg ePsf] ldltn] ^ dlxgfleq dflyNnf] ju{sf] ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ;+rfng ug{ cfj]bg
ul/;Sg' kg]{5 . tf]lsPsf] ;doleq cfj]bg gu/]df o; a}+sn] k|bfg u/]sf] ;}4flGts ;xdlt /2 ug{
;lsg]5 .
%=
;}4flGts ;xdlt lbg OGsf/ ug{ ;lsg]M -!_ o; lgb]{zgdf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f pNn]v ul/Psf] eP
tfklg o; a}+sn] b]xfosf] s'g} cj:yfdf :t/f]Gglt x'g rfxg] ;+:yfnfO{ :t/f]Ggltsf] nflu ;}4flGts
;xdlt lbg OGsf/ ug{ ;Sg]5 M

235

-@_

^=

-!_

-@_
&=
*=

(=
-!_

-@_

-s_ a} jf ljQLo If]qsf] ljBdfg cj:yf / ;DefJotfsf] cfwf/df dflyNnf] ju{sf] ljQLo sf/f]af/
;~rfng ug{ yk a} jf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ Ohfhtkq lbg pko'St gb]lvPdf .
-v_ v08 -s_ sf] cj:yf x]/L lgIf]kstf{sf] lxt ;+/If0fsf] lgldQ dflyNnf] ju{sf] ljQLo sf/f]af/
;~rfng ug{ Ohfhtkq lbg plrt gb]lvPdf .
-u_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfnfO{ dflyNnf] ju{sf] ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ug{ Ohfhtkq lbFbf ljQLo If]qdf
c:j:y k|lt:kwf{sf] jftfj/0f l;h{gf x'g] jf s'g} Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] Psflwsf/ jf
lgolGqt cEof; sfod x'g;Sg] ;Defjgf b]lvPdf .
-3_ o; lgb]{zgdf tf]lsPsf zt{ tyf dfkb08x? k"/f ePsf] gb]lvPdf .
pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd s'g} ;+:yfnfO{ dflyNnf] ju{sf] ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ;~rfng ug{ ;}4flGts ;xdlt lbg
g;lsg] cj:yf ePdf o; a}+sn] ;f]sf] sf/0f v'nfO{ lgj]bg k/]sf] ldltn] Ps ;o aL; lbgleq
;DalGwt ;+:yfnfO{ ;"rgf lbg]5 . ;f] cjlwleq o; a}+sn] yk ljj/0f dfu u/]sf] eP To:tf] ljj/0f
k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] gAa] lbgleq To:tf] ;"rgf lbg]5 .
:t/f]Ggltsf] nflu :jLs[lt k|bfg ug]{M
:t/f]Gglt eO{ dflyNnf] ju{sf] sf/f]jf/ ;+rfngsf] nflu lgj]bg k|fKt ePkl5 sfuhftx?sf] k/LIf0f
tyf ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ;d]t lg/LIf0f u/L :jLs[lt lbg o; a}+s ;Gt'i6 ePdf cfj]bg u/]sf] tLg dlxgf
leq :jLs[lt k|bfg ul/g] 5 . To:tf] :jLs[ltsf] nflu o; a}+sn] yk sfuhft dfu u/]sf] cj:yfdf
To:tf] sfuhft k]z u/]sf] ldltn] :jLs[lt k|bfg ug]{ sfof{jlw u0fgf x'g]5 .
:t/f]Gglt eO{ dflyNnf] ju{sf] sf/f]jf/ ;+rfngsf] nflu :jLs[lt k|bfg ug'{ cl3 ;}4flGts ;xdlt k|bfg
ubf{ tf]lsPsf ;Dk"0f{ zt{x? k"/f u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
3 ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yfsf ;DaGwdf M
3 ju{sf n3' ljQ ;+:yf :t/f]Gglt ug]{ sfo{ xfnnfO{ :ylut ul/Psf] 5 .
z]o/ vl/b laqmL sf/f]jf/ /f]Ssf ug'{ kg]{M
dflyNnf] ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ k'FhL k"/f u/]/ ;}4flGts ;xdlt kfpF egL
lgj]bg lbg] ljQLo ;+:yfn] To:tf] lgj]bg ;fy ;f] ;DaGwdf o; a}saf6 clGtd 6'+uf] gnfu];Ddsf]
cjlwsf] nflu To:tf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] z]o/ lwtf]kq jhf/df ;"rLs[t /x]sf] cj:yfdf z]o/
vl/b laqmL sf/f]jf/ /f]Ssf ePsf] Joxf]/fsf] lwtf]kq ljlgdo ahf/sf] kq ;d]t k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
ufEg]ufleg] eO{ :t/f]Gglt x'g] ;DaGwdfM
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf ^( jdf]lhd Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf Ps cfk;df
ufEg]ufleg] eO{ ;f]xL P]gsf] bkmf #^ adf]lhd :t/f]Ggltsf] nflu o; a}+sdf lgj]bg k]z x'g cfPdf
;j{k|yd ufEg]ufleg] ;DaGwL k|s[of cjnDjg ug'{ kg]{ 5 / ;f] sf] 6+'uf] nfu] kl5 :t/f]Ggltsf] sf/jfxL
cl3 a9fOg] 5 . o;/L ufEg]ufleg] eO{ :t/f]Ggltsf] nflu k]z x'g cfPsf] lgj]bgnfO{ k|fyldstf
lbOg]5 .
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd o; a}+sdf lgj]bg lb+bf ;f]sf] hfgsf/L ;DalGwt ;+:yfn] clgjfo{ ?kdf sDkgL
/lhi6f/sf] sfof{no, g]kfn lwtf]kq af]8{ / lwtf]kq ljlgdo ahf/ ;d]tnfO{ u/fpg' kg]{5 .

-v_ sfo{If]q lj:tf/ ;DaGwL Joj:yf


!=
v ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yfsf] xsdf
sf7df8f}+ pkTosf afx]s clw/fHosf ;Lldt lhNnfsf] sf/f]jf/af6 yk lhNnfdf
-! lhNnfaf6
hf]l8Psf] # lhNnf, hf]l8Psf ! # lhNNffaf6 $!) lhNNff / $!) lhNNffaf6 /fli6o :t/df_ sf/f]jf/
;+rfng ug{ rfxg] v ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yfn] b]xfosf zt{x? k"/f u/L sf/f]jf/sf] If]q lj:tf/ ug{
:jLs[ltsf nflu Joj;flos of]hgf ;lxt o; a}+sdf lgj]bg lbg ;Sg]5 M
-!_ o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] Go"gtd r'Qmf k'FhL k"/f u/]sf] .
-@_ lgoldt?kn] jflif{s n]vfk/LIf0f u/L ;fwf/0f ;ef ;DkGg u/]sf] .
-#_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] # jif]{ sfo{ ;+rfng cjlwsf] ljQLo ;"rsx? ;+lrt gf]S;fgLdf g/x]sf] .
-$_ o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg cg'?k k'FhLsf]if (Capital Adequacy) kof{Kt /x]sf] .
-%_ o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg cg'?k shf{sf] juL{s/0f u/L ;f]sf] nflu kof{Kt shf{ gf]S;fgL Aoj:yf (Loan
Loss Provision) sfod u/]sf] .

236

-^_ lgis[o shf{ (NPA) kfFr k|ltzt ggf3]sf] .


-&_ Ohfht lb+bf tf]lsPsf zt{x? k"/f u/]sf] .
@=
u ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yfsf] xsdf
sf7df8f}+ pkTosf afx]s clw/fHosf cGo lhNnfdf ;+:yfkgf ePsf] u ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yfn]
/fli6o:t/df sf/f]jf/ ;+rfng ug{ rfx]df b]xfosf zt{x? k"/f u/L sf/f]jf/ If]q lj:tf/ ug]{ :jLs[ltsf
nflu Joj;flos of]hgf ;lxt o; a}+sdf lgj]bg lbg ;Sg]5 M
-!_ o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] Go"gtd r'Qmf k'FhL k"/f u/]sf] .
-@_ lgoldt?kn] jflif{s n]vfk/LIf0f u/L ;fwf/0f ;ef ;DkGg u/]sf] .
-#_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] # jif]{ sfo{ ;+rfng cjlwsf] ljQLo ;"rsx? ;+lrt gf]S;fgLdf g/x]sf] .
-$_ o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg cg'?k k"FhLsf]if (Capital Adequacy) kof{Kt /x]sf] .
-%_ o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg cg'?k shf{sf] juL{s/0f u/L ;f]sf] nflu kof{Kt shf{ gf]S;fgL Aoj:yf -Loan
Loss Provision) sfod u/]sf] .
-^_ lgis[o shf{ (NPA) kfFr k|ltzt ggf3]sf] .
-&_ Ohfht lb+bf tf]lsPsf zt{x? k"/f u/]sf] .
#=
3 ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yfsf] xsdf
sf7df8f}+ pkTosf afx]s clw/fHosf hf]l8Psf !# lhNnfaf6 $!) lhNnf, $!) lhNnfaf6 If]qLo
:t/ / If]qLo :t/af6 /fli6o:t/df sf/f]jf/ ;+rfng ug{ rfxg] 3 ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfn] b]xfosf
zt{x? k"/f u/L sf/f]jf/ If]q lj:tf/ ug]{ :jLs[ltsf nflu Joj;flos of]hgf ;lxt o; a}+sdf lgj]bg
lbg ;Sg]5 M
-!_ o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] Go"gtd r'Qmf k"FhL k'/f u/]sf] .
-@_ lgoldt?kn] jflif{s n]vfk/LIf0f u/L ;fwf/0f ;ef ;DkGg u/]sf] .
-#_ o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg cg'?k k"FhLsf]if (Capital Adequacy) kof{Kt /x]sf] .
-$_ o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg cg'?k shf{sf] juL{s/0f u/L ;f]sf] nflu kof{Kt shf{ gf]S;fgL Aoj:yf -Loan
Loss Provision) sfod u/]sf] .
-%_ lgis[o shf{ (NPA) kfFr k|ltzt ggf3]sf] .
-^_ Ohfht lb+bf tf]lsPsf zt{x? k"/f u/]sf] .
$=
sfo{If]q lj:tf/ ;DaGwL dfly plNnlvt Joj:yfsf] cltl/Qm lgDg yk Joj:yf sfod ul/Psf] 5 M
-s_ ! lhNnf sfo{If]q ePsf v ju{sf ;+:yf Psk6sdf Ps tx dfq cyf{t # lhNnf;Dd, # lhNnf;Dd
sfo{If]q ePsf ;+:yf Psk6sdf Ps tx dfq cyf{t !) lhNnf;Dd / !) lhNnf;Dd sfo{If]q ePsf
;+:yf Psk6sdf Ps tx dfq cyf{t /fli6o:t/;Dd tyf sf7df8f}F pkTosf aflx/ sfo{If]q sfod /x]sf
u ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yfn] :yfkgf ePsf] jf sfo{If]q lj:tf/ u/]sf] # jif{kl5 dfq qmlds ?kdf -tx
ggfg] u/L_ yk sfo{If]q lj:tf/ ug{ ;Sg]5g\ . t/ 3 ju{sf] ;+:yfsf] xsdf If]qLo:t/sf jf !%
lhNnf;Dd ;]jf lj:tf/ u/]sf ;+:yfn] /fli6o:t/sf] sfo{If]qsf nflu lgj]bg lbg ;Sg]5g\ . Ps lhNnf
sfo{If]q sfod /x]sf 3 ju{sf n3'ljQ ;+:yfn] :yfkgfsf] # jif{kl5 dfq $!) lhNnf jf If]qLo:t/df
sfo{If]q lj:tf/ ug{;Sg] 5g\ .
pko{'Qm Joj:yf o;cl3 lgj]bg lbPsf ;+:yfx?sf] xsdf ;d]t nfu" x'g]5 .
-v_ sfo{If]q lj:tf/sf nflu cfj]bg lbg] ;+:yfn] ljBdfg sfo{If]qleqsf k|To]s lhNnfdf slDtdf Ps
Psj6f zfvf sfof{nox? :yfkgf ul/;s]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
-u_ v ju{sf] /fli6o :t/df sfo{I]fq lj:tf/ ug]{ ;+:yfn] New Capital Adequacy Framework k"0f{ ?kdf nfu'
ug{ ;Sg] k|df0f k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-3_ 3 ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] xsdf ;+lrt gf]S;fgL g/x]sf] cjlw slDtdf ! jif{ k'u]sf] x'g'
kg]{5 .
-_ sfo{If]q lj:tf/ ug]{ ;+:yfn] xfn sfo{/t sfo{If]qdf sDtLdf klg @ cw{jflif{s cjlwdf lg/Gt/?kn]
O=k|f= lgb]{zg g+= !^ adf]lhd cfkm"n] ljQLo ;|f]t ;+sng ug{ kfpg] ;Ldfsf] sDtLdf ^) k|ltzt ljQLo
;|f]t ;+sng u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .

237

o; k|of]hgsf] nflu ! lhNnf sfo{If]q /x]sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] xsdf ljQLo ;|f]t ;+sngsf] u0fgf ubf{
k|fylds k"FhLsf]ifsf] ;f tf]lsPsf] Go"gtd r"Qmf k"FhLnfO{ cfwf/ lng ;lsg] 5 .
-r_ g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 ;+:yf jf ;+:yfsf] cWoIf, ;+rfns / sfo{sf/L k|d'v sf/jfxLdf k/]sf] eP ;f]
sf/jfxL km's'jf ePsf] cjlw # jif{ k"/f ePsf] x'g' kg]{5 .
%=
sfo{If]q lj:tf/sf nflu cfj]bg;fy lgDg sfuhftx? ;+nUg x'g' kg]{ M
-s_ ljBdfg ;+:yfks / ;+rfnsx?sf] ljj/0f .
-v_ ljQLo ;+:yfsf] cfufdL % jif{sf] k|If]lkt ljQLo cj:yf, Joj;flos /0fgLlt, k|fljlws tyf Joj:yfkg
kIf / ahf/ ;+j]bgzLntf ljZn]if0f ;lxtsf] Joj;flos of]hgf .
-u_ ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ;Grfngsf nflu skf]{/]6 sfof{nod'Vo zfvf sfof{no ljBdfg sfo{If]qb]lv cGo
:yfgdf ;Grfng ug]{ ePdf ;f] sfof{nosf] ef}lts k"jf{wf/, ;"rgf k|ljlw, jLdf tyf ;'/Iff Joj:yf,
3/ef8f s/f/gfdf, k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t nufot d'Vo sd{rf/Lx?sf] of]Uotf cg'ej ;DaGwL
sfuhft .
-3_ sfo{If]q lj:tf/ eP kZrft sfod x'g] sfo{If]qnfO{ ;d]6]/ tof/ ul/Psf] shf{ gLlt, nufgL gLlt, lgIf]k
kl/rfng gLlt, jf;nft aflx/sf] sf/f]jf/ ;+rfng gLlt, cfGtl/s n]vfk/LIf0f gLlt, u}/ a}ls ;DklQ
Joj:yfkg gLlt, ;DklQ bfloTj Joj:yfkg gLlt, ;"rgf k|ljlw gLlt / cfkm\gf] u|fxs klxrfg gLlt .
-_ sfo{If]q lj:tf/ ;DaGwdf ;fwf/0f ;efn] u/]sf] lg0f{osf] k|ltlnlk .
^=
sfo{If]q la:tf/sf ;DaGwdf ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldlt;Fu cGtlqm{of u/L sfuhft k"/f ePsf] ^) lbgleq
;f] ;DaGwL k|lqmofsf] 6'+uf] nufOg]5 .
&=
sDtLdf !) lhNnf;Dd sfo{If]q ePsf] s'g} Ps ljQLo ;+:yf;+u cGo v jf u ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yf
Ps cfk;df ufleO{ /fli6o :t/df sfo{If]q lj:tf/ ug{ rfxg] ;+:yfnfO{ csf]{ Joj:yf geP;Dd ljz]if
k|fyldstf lbOg]5 .

-gf]6M dfly a'Fbf v sf] k|of]hgsf] nflu sfo{ If]q lj:tf/ eGgfn] yk lhNnfdf ;]jf lj:tf/ ug]{ Joj:Yff ;Demg' kb{5 ._

-u_ sfo{If]q ;+s'rg ;DaGwL Joj:yf


-!_
Ohfhtkqk|fKt v, u / 3 ju{sf] ;+:yf k'FhL ckof{Kttfsf] sf/0faf6 ;f]xL ju{sf]
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf /xL sfo{If]q ;+s'rg ug{ rfx]df :jLs[ltsf nflu g]kfn /fi6 a}df lgj]bg
lbg ;Sg]5 . o;/L k]z x'g cfPsf] lgj]bgsf] ;DaGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}n] cfjZos hfFra'em u/L
:jLs[lt k|bfg u/]df To:tf] ljQLo ;+:yfsf] sfo{If]q ;+s'rg x'g]5 .
-@_
b]xfosf] s'g} jf ;a} cj:yf k"/f gug]{ v, u / 3 ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfnfO{ ;f]xL
ju{df /xg] u/L pQm ;+:yfsf] sfo{If]q ;+s'rg u/fpg g]kfn /fi6 a}n] lgb]{zg lbg ;Sg]5 M
-s_ g]kfn /fi6 a}n] tf]s]sf] cjlwleq tf]s] adf]lhdsf] k'FhL gk'ofPsf],
-v_ ljut kfFr jif{b]lv nuftf/ gf]S;fgLdf /x]sf],
-u_ g]kfn /fi6 a}n] lbPsf] lgb]{zg k6s k6s pNn+3g u/L sf/afxLdf k/]sf],
-3_ g]kfn /fi6 a}n] tf]s] adf]lhd hf]lvd Joxf]g]{ sf]if sfod ug{ g;s]sf] .
-#_
pka'Fbf g+= -@_ adf]lhd s'g} ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ sf/afxL ug'{eGbf cufl8 g]kfn /fi6 a}n] To:tf]
ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ To:tf] sf/afxLsf] lj?4 ;kmfO{ k]z ug]{ dgfl;a dflkmssf] df}sf lbg]5 .
-$_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd sfo{If]q ;+s'rg ubf{ b]xfo adf]lhd ug{ ;lsg] 5M
-s_ /fli6o:t/af6 If]qLo:t/ jf $!) lhNnf jf !# lhNnf jf ! lhNnfdf .
-v_ If]qLo:t/af6 $!) lhNnf jf !# lhNnf jf ! lhNnfdf .
-u_ $!) lhNnfaf6 !# lhNnf jf ! lhNnfdf .
-3_ !# lhNnfaf6 ! lhNnfdf .

238

-3_ ufEg]ufleg] ;DaGwL Joj:yf


a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf ^( jdf]lhd Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf Ps cfk;df ufEg] jf
ufleg] ;DaGwdf o; a}+saf6 hf/L a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf Ps cfk;df ufEg] jf ufleg] ;DaGwL ljlgodfjnL,
@)^* adf]lhd x'g]5 .
-_ vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?nfO{ hf/L ul/Psf] PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] ufEg]ufleg] /
:t/f]Gglt x'g] ;DaGwdf O=k|f= lgb]{zg g+= !*)^* tyf ;f] kZrft @)^( c;f/d;fGt;Dd hf/L
ePsf o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

239

cg';"rL !*=!
>L g]kfn /fi6 a}+s
s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
afn'jf6f/, sf7df8f}+ .

laifoM ======= ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfdf kl/0ft x'g] ;}4flGts ;xdlt kfpF .
dxf]bo,
k|rlnt sDkgL P]g adf]lhd klAns lnld6]8 sDkgLsf] ?kdf g]kfn ;/sf/, sDkgL /lhi6f/sf]
sfof{nodf btf{ u/fO{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g adf]lhd ljut === jif{ b]lv ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ;+rfng
ub}{ cfPsf]df ;f]xL P]gsf] bkmf #^ adf]lhd dflyNnf] ju{sf] ;+:yf ==== ju{df kl/0ft ug]{ u/L ;+:yfsf] ;fwf/0f
;efaf6 lg0f{o ePsf]n] ;}4flGts ;xdlt kfpg To; a}+ssf] k"j{ :jLs[ltsf] nflu tf]lsPsf cfjZos sfuhft
;lxt of] lgj]bg k]z u/]sf 5f}+ .

cfjZos sfuhft yfg=======;+nUg 5g\ .


ejbLo,
================================================
-;+:yfsf] tkm{af6 cflwsfl/s JolQm_
gfdM
7]ufgfM
6]lnkmf]g g+ M
ofS; g+= M
Od]n 7]ufgf M
ldltM
;+:yfsf] 5fkM

240

cg';"rL !*=@
=================================================== ln=
ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks ;d"xdf /x]sf JolQmx?sf]
JolQmut ljj/0f

Kfmf]6f]

!=
@=
#=
$=
%=
^=

&=

k"/f gfd y/ M
hGd ldlt M
hGd :yfg M
gful/stf M
k"/f 7]ufgf M
-s_ :yfoL M
-!_ 6]lnkmf]g
-@_ Od]n
-v_ c:yfoL M
-!_ 6]lnkmf]g
-@_ Od]n
xfnsf] k]zf M
-s_ kmd{ jf sfof{nosf] gfd M
-v_ 7]ufgf M
-u_ Joj;fosf] k|s[ltsfd M
-3_ kbsf] gfd M
-_ 6]lnkmf]g ofS;O{d]n M
a}jflxs l:ylt M
-s_ ljjflxt cljjflxt ;DaGw ljR5]b eO{ cnu a;]]sf]
-v_ ljjflxtsf] xsdf kltkTgLsf] gfd M
-u_ kltkTgLsf] k]zf M
-3_ cfl>tx?sf] ljj/0f
k"/f gfd
;DaGw

-s_ afa'sf] gfd M


7]ufgf M
k]zf M
-v_ afh]sf] gfd M
7]ufgf M
(= z}lIfs of]Uotf M
tx
;+:yfsf] gfd,
7]ufgf
:gfts

-#_ km\ofS;
-#_ km\ofS;

pd]/

*=

cWoog jif{

241

ljifo

pkflw lnPsf] ldlt

:gftsf]Q/
ljBfjfl/lw
Joj;flos :t/
tflnd ;]ldgf/
s_
v_
u_
!)= tkfO{;Fu s'g} Joj;flos (Professional) ljifodf sfd ug]{ Ohfht 5 <
5
5}g
olb 5 eg]
-s_ Ohfhtsf] k|s[lt M
-v_ Ohfht lnPsf] ldlt M
-u_ Ohfht gDj/ M
-3_ Ohfht lbg] ;+:yf / 7]ufgf M
!!= tkfO{ s'g} Joj;flos Ifdtfsf] cfwf/df, g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 lg/LIf0f, cg'udg ug'{ kg]{ ;+:yfdf sfd
ug'{x'G5<

-olb 5 eg], ;+:yfsf] gfd, 7]ufgf / sfdsf] k|s[lt pNn]v ug'{xf];\ . ;fy}, ;DjlGwt ;+:yfaf6 ;+:yfkg
x'gsf nflu :jLs[lt kq k]z ug'x{ f];\ _ .
!@= s'g}
!#= d}n]
!=
@=

;+ul7t ;+:yfdf tkfO{sf] s'g} ljQLo :jfy{ jf lxt ufFl;Psf] 5 eg] v'nfpg' xf];\ <
of] ljQLo ;+:yfdf b]xfo jdf]lhdsf] /sd nufgL u/]sf] 5' .
;+:yfdf nufgL u/]sf] /sd ?====== ===== ======= -cIf/]kL=============== =============== ===_ .
;+:yfsf] s'n hf/L k'FhLsf] k|ltzt ================== . of] z]o/ o; a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] r'Qmf k'FhLsf]
!% k|ltzteGbf a9L 5}g .
!$= tkfO{ s'g} kmf}Hbf/L cleof]udf kg'{ ePsf] 5 <
5
5}g
!%= tkfFO{+n] cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf;+u shf{ sf/f]jf/ ug'{ ePsf] 5 <
5
5}g
-5 eg] lj:t[t ljj/0f v'nfpg' xf];\ <_
!^= lgDg k|Zgx?sf] hjfkm 55}gdf lbg'xf];\ M
5
5}g
-s_ tkfO{+sf] lj?4df cbfntdf s'g} ck/flws sf/jfO{ lj?4 d'2f rn]sf] 5 <
-v_ tkfO{+n] sfg"g pNn+3g u/]sf] sf/0faf6 ;hfoF kfpg' ePsf] 5 <
5
5}g
-u_ tkfO{+ ;+nUg ePsf] s'g} ;+:yf 6f6 kN6]sf] 5 <
5
5}g
-3_ tkfO{+n] sfd u/]sf] jf ;+rfns ePsf] jf tkfO{+n] % -kfFr_ k|ltzt eGbf a9L z]o/ nufgL u/]sf]
;+:yf shf{ e'QmfgL ug{ g;s]sf] sf/0f slxNo} sfnf];"rLdf k/]sf] 5, 5}g .
5
5}g
-_ u}/ sfg"gL ?kdf ljb]zL d'b|f sf/f]jf/df ;+nUg x'g' ePsf] 5 < 5 5}g
-r_ tkfO{+ ;+nUg ePsf] ;+:yf slxNo} ck/flws s[ofsnfkdf ;+nUg ePsf] 5 <
5
5}g
-5_ tkfO{nfO{+ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] shf{ sf/f]jf/df b'?kof]u u/]sf] / ;Gtf]ifhgs gePsf] egL a}+s
tyf ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 s'g} clen]v u/]sf] 5 <
5
5}g
-h_ tkfO{ shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|sf] sfnf];"rLdf kg'{ ePsf] 5 <
5
5}g
olb k/]sf] eP ;f] ;"rLaf6 k'ms'jf ePsf] ldltn] sDtLdf ltg jif{ k'/f ePsf] 5 < 5
5}g
-em_ tkfO{+ cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] axfnjfnf sd{rf/L, ;~rfns, n]vfk/LIfs sfg"gL jf cGo
;Nnfxsf/ x'g'x'G5 < 5
5}g
-`_ tkfO{+ lwtf]kq bnfn jf ahf/ lgdf{tf /xg' ePsf]] 5 <
5
5}g
-6_ tkfO{ s'g} ;fj{hlgs ck/fw u/]sf], sfg"g pNn+3g u/]sf] jf k|rlnt sfg"g jdf]lhd lj36gdf
k/]sf] s'g} ;+:yfdf sd{rf/L jf ;NNffxsf/sf] ?kdf /xg' ePsf] 5 <
5
5}g
-7_ tkfO{ k|rlnt sfg"g jdf]lhd bfdf;flxdf kg'{ ePsf] 5 <
5
5}g

242

-8_

tkfO{n] s'g} /fhg}lts kbdf lgjf{lrt jf dgf]lgt k|ltlglwsf] ?kdf sfdsfh ul//xg' ePsf] 5 <
5
5}g
-9_ tkfO{nfO{ k|rlnt sfg"g jdf]lhd s'g} k]zf jf Joj;fo ug{ /f]s nufOPsf] 5 <
5
5}g
-0f_ tkf+O{n] nufgL u/]sf] cGo kmd{sDkgL;+ul7t ;+:yf g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] lg/LIf0f tyf ;'kl/j]If0f
ug{ rfx]df dGh'/ 5 .
5
5}g
-t_ tkfO{n] o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf ;+:yfkssf] x}l;otn] nufgL
ug'{ePsf] 5 <
5
5}g -5 eg] lj:t[t ljj/0f v'nfpg' xf];_
!&= ;do ;dodf g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] lgwf{/0f u/] cg'?k d]/f] a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] k'FhL k'ofpg] k|ltj4tf
hfx]/ ub{5' .
dfly pNn]v ul/Psf] ljj/0f l7s ;fFrf] xf] . oL s'g} klg ljifodf hfFra'em5fgljg tyf d}n] lbPsf]
ljj/0f ;fj{hlgs ug{ d]/f] d~h'/L 5 . e'm7f] ePdf o;}sf cfwf/df a}+s ;+:yfkgf ug]{ Ohfht glbPdf
d]/f] d~h'/L 5 .
b:tvt M
gfd M
ldlt M
7]ufgf
M
6]lnkmf]g
M

243

cg";"rL !*=#
================================== ln=
ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfks ;d"xdf /x]sf ;+:yf
-kmd{,sDkgL,;+ul7t ;+:yf_x?sf] ljj/0f

!=

@=

#=

:jb]zL ;+:yf -kmd{, sDkgL tyf ;+ul7t ;+:yf_ M


-s_ ;+:yfsf] gfd M
-v_ ;+:yf btf{ ldlt M
-u_ k|ltlglwTj ug]{ JolQm
gfdM
kbM
ljb]zL nufgLsf] xsdf M
-s_ ;+:yfsf] gfd M
-v_ ;+:yf btf{ ldlt M
-u_ k|ltlglwTj ug]{ JolQm
gfdM
kbM
;]jfsf] clen]v -ljut % jif{sf]_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf jf s'g} klg k|sf/sf] lgIf]k ;DjGwL Jojzfo
;~rfng ug]{ ;+:yf eP ;f] sf] lj:t[t ljj/0f M
;+:yfsf] gfd, 7]ufgf

$=

%=
^=
&=

*=

cjlw

kb

lgs6td
;'kl/j]Ifssf] gfd

;+:yfsf] gfdaf6 s'g} Joj;flos (Professional) ljifodf sfd ug]{ Ohfht 5 <
olb 5 eg]
-s_ Ohfhtsf] k|s[lt M
-v_ Ohfht lnPsf] ldlt M
-u_ Ohfht gDj/ M
-3_ Ohfht lbg] ;+:yf / 7]ufgf M
;+:yf ljut b'O{ jif{ b]lv ;~rfng d'gfkmfdf /x]sf] 55}g < 5
5}g

sfd 5f]8\g'sf] sf/0f

5}g

;+:yfsf] b'O{ cf=j=sf] ljQLo ljj/0f o;};fy ;+nUg 5 .


;+:yfaf6 nufgL u/L cGo kmd{, sDkgL, ;+ul7t ;+:yfdf s'g} ljQLo :jfy{ jf lxt ufFl;Psf] 5 eg]
v''nfpg' xf]; .
of] ljQLo ;+:yfdf b]xfo jdf]lhdsf] /sd nufgL u/]sf 5f}+ .
!= ;+:yfdf nufgL u/]sf] /sd ?====== ===== ======= -cIf/]kL=============== =============== ===_ .
@= ;+:yfsf] s'n hf/L k'FhLsf] k|ltzt ================== . of] z]o/ o; ljQLo ;+:yfsf] r'Qmf k'FhLsf] !%
k|ltzteGbf a9L /x]sf] 5}g .
;+:yfsf] cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf;+u shf{ sf/f]jf/ 5 <
5

5}g

-5 eg] lj:t[t ljj/0f v'nfpg' xf];\ <_

244

(=

lgDg
-s_
-v_
-u_
-3_

k|Zgx?sf] hjfkm 55}gdf lbg'xf];\ M


;+:yfsf] lj?4df cbfntdf s'g} ck/flws sf/jfO{ lj?4 d'2f rn]sf] 5 <
5
5}g
;+:yfn] sfg"g pNn+3g u/]sf] sf/0faf6 ;hfoF kfPsf] 5 <
5
5}g
;+:yfn] nufgL u/]sf] cGo s'g} ;+:yf 6f6 kN6]sf] 5 <
5
5}g
;+:yfn] sfd u/]sf] jf ;+rfns ePsf] jf ;+:yf+n] % -kfFr_ k|ltzt eGbf a9L z]o/ nufgL u/]sf]
;+:yf shf{ e'QmfgL ug{ g;s]sf] sf/0f slxNo} sfnf];"rLdf k/]sf] 5 <
5
5}g
-_ ;+:yf u}/ sfg"gL ?kdf ljb]zL d'b|f sf/f]jf/df ;+nUg ePsf] 5 <
5
5}g
-r_ tkfO{sf] ;+:yfnfO{+ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] shf{ sf/f]jf/df b'?kof]u u/]sf] / ;Gtf]ifhgs gePsf]
egL a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 s'g} clen]v u/]sf] 5 <
5
5}g
-5_ ;+:yf shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|sf] sfnf];"rLdf k/]sf]] 5 <
5
5}g
olb k/]sf] eP ;f] ;"rLaf6 k'ms'jf ePsf] ldltn] sDtLdf tLg jif{ k"/f ePsf] 5 < 5
5}g
-h_ ;+:yf cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;~rfns, n]vfk/LIfs sfg"gL jf cGo ;Nnfxsf/ 5 <
5 5}g
-em_ ;+:yf lwtf]kq bnfn jf ahf/ lgdf{tf /x]sf]] 5 <
5
5}g
-`_ ;+:yf s'g} ;fj{hlgs ck/fw u/]sf], sfg'g pNn+3g u/]sf] jf k|rlnt sfg'g jdf]lhd lj36gdf
k/]sf] s'g} ;+:yfdf ;NNffxsf/sf] ?kdf /x]sf]] 5 <
5
5}g
-6_ tkfO{sf] ;+:yf k|rlnt sfg'g jdf]lhd bfdf;flxdf k/]sf]] 5 <
5
5}g
-7_ ;+:yfnfO{ k|rlnt sfg'g jdf]lhd s'g} k]zf jf Joj;fo ug{ /f]s nufOPsf] 5 <
5
5}g
-8_ ;+:yfn]] nufgL u/]sf] cGo kmd{sDkgL;+ul7t ;+:yf g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] lg/LIf0f tyf ;'kl/j]If0f
ug{ rfx]df dGh'/ 5 .
5
5}g
-9_ ;+:yfn] o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf ;+:yfkssf] x}l;otn] nufgL
u/]sf]] 5 <
5
5}g -5 eg] lj:t[t ljj/0f v'nfpg' xf];_
!)= ;do ;dodf g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] lgwf{/0f u/] cg'?k xfdLn] a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] k'FhL k'ofpg] k|ltj4tf
hfx]/ ub{5f}+ .
dfly pNn]v ul/Psf] ljj/0f l7s ;fFrf] xf] . oL s'g} klg ljifodf hfFra'em5fgljg tyf d}n] lbPsf]
ljj/0f ;fj{hlgs ug{ d]/f] d~h'/L 5 . e'm7f] ePdf o;}sf cfwf/df dflyNnf] ju{df kl/0ft x'g] Ohfht
glbPdf d]/f] d~h'/L 5 .
b:tvt M
gfd
M
ldlt
M
7]ufgf M
6]lnkmf]g M

245

cg';"rL !*=$

>L g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
afn'jf6f/, sf7df8f}+ .
laifoM dflyNnf] ju{sf] ljQLo sf/f]af/ ug]{ :jLs[lt kfpF .
dxf]bo,

To; a}+ssf] k=;+= =================== ldlt =====================sf] kqaf6 ====== ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf

?kdf kl/0ft ug{ ;}4flGts ;xdlt k|fKt ePsf]df tf]lsPsf zt{x? k'/f u/L ;s]sf] x'Fbf cfjZos sfuhft Pj+
Ohfhtkq b:t'/ ;lxt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf #^ adf]lhd ==== ju{sf] ;+:yfsf]
?kdf ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ug]{ Ohfhtkq kfpgsf] nflu of] lgj]bg k]z u/]sf 5f}+ .

cfjZos sfuhft yfg=======;+nUg 5g\ .


ejbLo,

================================================
-;+:yfsf] tkm{af6 cflwsfl/s JolQm_
gfdM
7]ufgfM
6]lnkmf]g g+ M
ofS; g+= M
Od]n 7]ufgf M
ldltM
;+:yfsf] 5fkM

246

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= !()^(

laifoM ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL lgjf/0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf .

o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfkm\gf] u|fxssf] klxrfg ug{] ;DaGwL :ki6
sfo{ljlw cjnDjg ug{ / ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL s[ofsnfkdf nufgL ug]{ sfo{ lgjf/0f ug]{ ;DaGwdf
;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f P]g, @)^$ sf] bkmf $$v sf] k|of]hgsf nflu g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf
&( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L] of]] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
!= gLlt, k|lqmof / cEof;
-!_ ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ;DjGwL sfo{sf] lgoGq0f Pj+ lg/f]k0fsf nflu
Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f P]g, @)^$, ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f
lgjf/0f lgodfjnL, @)^^ / o; lgb]{zgn] tf]s] adf]lhd cfjZos gLlt, k|lqmof / cEof;sf] th{'df
u/L sfof{Gjo ug'{ kg]{5 .
-@_ pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhdsf] gLlt, k|lqmof / cEof;df b]xfosf ljifodf cfjZos tyf pko'Qm Joj:yf ug'{
kg]{5M
-s_ hf]lvddf cfwfl/t k|lqmof ;lxt u|fxssf] u|fxs d'Nofsg k4lt -Customer Due Deligince_
nfO{ cfjZostf cg';f/ nfu" ug]{,
-v_ u|fxssf] cBfjlws clen]v sfod ug]{,
-u_ sf/f]jf/ tyf cGo ljj/0f ;'/lIft /fVg],
-3_ ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f P]g, @)^$ tyf o; lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf g+=!& cg';f/ ljQLo hfgsf/L
OsfO{df ;Ldf ;DjGwL sf/f]jf/ ljj/0f k7fpg],
-_ ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f P]g, @)^$, tyf o; lgb]{zgn] tf]s] cg'?ksf z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/sf]
ljj/0f ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{df k7fpg], /
-r_ o; lgb]{zgsf] kfngf ug{ cfjZos kg]{ cfGtl/s gLlt, k|lqmof, k|0ffnL / lgoGq0fsf pkfox?sf]
th{'df ug]{ .
-#_ g]kfn aflx/ s'g} zfvf jf ;xfos sDkgL dfkm{t sf/f]jf/ u/L /x]sf Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s jf ljQLo
;+:yfx?n] o; lgb]{zg tyf ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL lgoGq0f ;DjGwL
k|rlnt sfg"g tyf lgodx?nfO{ To:tf sf/f]jf/sf ;DjGwdf klg nfu" ug'{ kg]{5 . To:tf] :yfgdf
/x]sf zfvf jf ;xfos sDkgLnfO{ ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f P]g, @)^$, ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f
lgodfjnL, @)^^, o; lgb]{zgsf] sfof{Gjogdf s'g} k|ltjGw jf Jojwfg ePdf ;f]sf] hfgsf/L o;
a}+snfO{ lbg' kg]{5 .
@= hf]lvddf cfwfl/t k|0ffnLsf] k|of]u u/L u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt sfod ug]{
-!_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf u|fxssf] klxrfg Pj+ d'Nofgsf nflu k|of]u ug]{
u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt -Customer Due Diligence_ n] b]xfosf s'/fx? ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5M
-s_ u|fxs / u|fxssf] lxtflwsf/Lsf] klxrfg ug]{,
-v_ u|fxs / u|fxssf] lxtflwsf/Lsf] af/]df cfjZos ;"rgf ;+sng ug]{ / cfjZostf cg';f/
u|fxssf] hf]lvd ljj/0f tof/ ug]{,
-u_ gofF u|fxsx? l:jsf/ ug]{ gLlt nfu" ug]{,
-3_ u|fxs / u|fxssf] lxtflwsf/Lsf] ;"rgf tyf ljj/0f lgoldt?kdf cBfjlws ug]{, /
-_ u|fxssf] sf/f]jf/sf] ljj/0fnfO{ lgoldt?kdf cg'udg ug]{ .
-@_ hf]lvdsf cfwf/df cyf{t pRr hf]lvddf /x]sf u|fxssf] nflu kl/:s[t -Enhanced Customer Due
Diligence_ tyf sd hf]lvddf /x]sf u|fxssf] nflu ;fdfGo u|fxs d"Nofg k4ltsf] -Simplified
Customer Due Diligence_ nfu" ug'{ kg]{5 .
#= u|fxssf] klxrfg
-!_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] a]gfdL tyf sfNklgs gfddf s'g} klg vftf vf]Ng' jf
/fVg' x'b}g .

247

-@_

Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfkm\gf u|fxs tyf lxtflwsf/Lsf] jf:tljs kl/ro yfxf
kfpg' kg]{5 . u|fxs eGgfn] b]xfosf -jf To:tf] ;DjGw :yfkgf ug{ vf]Hg]_ JolQmx?nfO{ hgfpF5M
-s_ Joj;flos ;DjGw ePsf,
-v_ Ps k6s jf k6s] ?kdf o; lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf !& sf] pka'Fbf -!_ df tf]lsPsf] ;Ldf jf ;f] eGbf
a9L sf/f]jf/ ug]{,
-u_ o; lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf !$ df pNn]v eP cg'?ksf] ljB'tLo dfWodaf6 :yfgfGt/0fsf] sfo{df
;+nUg, /
-3_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] sf/f]jf/ ubf{ s'g} ;dodf ;f] JolQm ;DklQ
z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ;DjGwL sfo{df ;+nUg ePsf] jf x'g ;Sg]
cf+zsf /x]sf] sf/f]jf/ jf Joj;fodf ;+nUg ePsf] .
-#_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] b]xfosf s'g} klg ;dodf u|fxssf] pko'Qm klxrfg sfod
ug{ cfjZos kl/ro lng] / ;f]sf] plrt d"Nofsg ug'{ kg]{5 .
-s_ Joj;flos ;DjGwsf nflu cg'/f]w ubf{,
-v_ lgZrt ;Ldf leqsf] k6s] sf/f]jf/ ubf{,
-u_ ljB'tLo dfWodaf6 :yfgfGt/0f ubf{,
-3_ s'g} JolQm ;+sf:kb sf/f]jf/ jf sfo{df ;+nUg ePsf] kfOPdf, /
-_ s'g} JolQmsf] ;DjGwdf klxn] g} k|fKt ul/;s]sf] klxrfg ;DjGwL sfuhftdf s'g} lsl;dsf]
z+sf jf b'ljwf pTkGg ePdf .
-$_ k|fs[lts JolQmsf] ;DjGwdf klxrfg sfod ubf{ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] o;
lgb]{zgsf] cg';"rL !(=! df pNn]v u/] cg"?ksf sfuhft, tYofF, ;"rgfx? k|fKt u/L ;f]nfO{
:jtGq / e/kbf]{ >f]taf6 k'i6L ug'[{ kg]{5 .
-%_ sfg"gL JolQm jf ;+:yfkgfx?sf] ;DjGwdf klxrfg sfod ubf{ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfx?n] o; lgb]{zgsf] cg';"rL !(=! df pNn]v u/] cg"?ksf sfuhft, tYofF, ;"rgfx? k|fKt
u/L To;nfO{ :jtGq / e/kbf]{ >f]taf6 k'i6L ug'{ kg]{5 .
-^_ ;j} k|fs[lts tyf sfg"gL JolQmsf] klxrfg :yflkt ug]{ sfuhft tyf hfgsf/Lx?sf] k|ltlnlk a'em\g
;lsg] lsl;dn] Jojl:yt u/L /fVg' kg]{5 .
-&_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] k|To]s sfof{nozfvfdf cg';"rL !(=! adf]lhdsf] sfuhft
nufot cGo sfuhftx? sfof{Gjog clws[t jf tf]lsPsf] sd{rf/Laf6 k|dfl0ft u/fO{ /fVg' kg]{5 .
-*_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] s'g} JolQm, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+:yfnfO{ shf{ k|jfx ubf{ o;} ;fy ;+nUg
cg';"rL !(=@ adf]lhdsf] ljj/0f clgjfo{ ?kdf lng' kg]{5 .
$= u|fxssf] lxtflwsf/Lsf] lgwf{/0f
-!_ s'g} u|fxsn] Ps jf Ps eGbf j9L lxtflwsf/Lsf] nflu sf/f]jf/ ul//x]sf] s'/f ;'lglZrt ug{sf nflu
Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfjZos dfkb08x? lgwf{/0f ug'{ kg]{5 . obL u|fxssf]
lxtflwsf/L ePdf Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] To:tf lxtflwsf/Lsf] klxrfgsf] nflu
cfkm" ;Gt'i6 x'g]u/L cfjZos ;"rgf tyf tYofFs ljleGg >f]taf6 k|fKt u/L ;f]sf] k'li6 ;d]t ug'{
kg]{5 . lxtflwsf/Lsf] ;DjGwdf k|fKt ul/g] ;"rgf o; lgb]{zgsf] cg';"rL !(=! df tf]lsP cg'?k
x'g]5 .
-@_ sfg"g4f/f lgodg ul/Psf lwtf]kq ahf/df ;'lrs[t klJns lnld6]8 sDkgL tyf ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f
tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL lgoGq0f ;DjGwL cGt//fli6o dfkb08 nfu" u/]sf] d'n'ssf
sfg"g4f/f lgodg tyf ;'kl/j]If0f ul/Psf lwtf]kq ahf/df ;"lrs[t ePsf ljb]zL sDkgLx?sf] xsdf
o; lgb]{zgsf] cg';"rL !(=! df pNn]v ePsf sfuhft / ljj/0fsf cltl/Qm cGo yk hfgsf/L
cfjZos kg]{ 5}g . Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] To:tf] sDkgLsf] /lhi68{ sfof{no
/x]sf] d'n'sn] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL lgoGq0f ;DjGwL cGt//fli6o
dfkb08 nfu" u/]gu/]sf] s'/f Financial Action Task Force (FATF), Asia/Pacific Group on
Money Laundering (APG) h:tf / ;f]xL k|sf/sf cGo If]qLo ;+:yfx?, International Monetary
Fund / World Bank h:tf cGt/f{li6o ;+:yfx?4f/f cfkm\gf] j]j;fO6df k|sflzt l/kf]6{ tyf
ljj/0fx?sf cfwf/df lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Sg]5g\ .
-#_ cGo sfg"gL JolQmsf ;Gbe{df Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] To:tf] u|fxssf] jf:tljs
wgL jf lgoGq0fdf /fVg] k|fs[lts jf sfg"gL JolQmsf] af/]df b]xfo adf]lhdsf] hfgsf/L lng' kg]{5 M
-s_ o;} a'Fbfsf] pka'Fbf -!_ sf] Joj:yf cg'?k s'g} sDkgL, ;Lldt bfloTj ePsf] ;fem]bf/L kmd{, jf
o:t} k|sf/sf] cGo ;+:yfx?sf ;DjGwdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf k|To]s k|fs[lts JolQmsf]] ljj/0fM

248

-!_
-@_

bz k|ltzt jf ;f]eGbf j9L z]o/ vl/b u/]sf] jf dtbfgsf] clwsf/ k|fKt u/]sf],
sDkgL, ;Lldt bfloTj ePsf] ;fem]bf/L kmd{, jf o:t} k|sf/sf] cGo ;+:yfx?sf]
Joj:yfkgdf ;+nUg,
-#_
sfg"gL JolQmsf] lgoGq0f ug]{ jf lgoGq0fsf] clwsf/ k|of]u ug]{ .
-v_ u'7L jf o:t} k|sf/sf ;+:yfsf ;DjGwdf ;f]sf] ;~rfns, 6i6L / lxtflwsf/Lsf] klxrfg sfod
ug]{ .
-$_ z]o/ :jfy{sf] ck|ToIf :jfldTj b]xfo adf]lhd :yflkt ug'{ kg]{5M
-s_ sDkgL, ;Lldt bfloTj ePsf] ;fem]bf/L kmd{, jf o:t} k|sf/sf] cGo ;+:yf / u'7Ln] wf/0f u/]sf]
z]o/df ;dfg'kflts ?kdf To:tf] ;+:yfsf] z]o/xf]N8/, ;fem]bf/ cyjf lxtflwsf/L, /
-v_ kl/jf/sf] ;b:on] wf/0f u/]sf] z]o/sf] ;DjGwdf kl/jf/sf] k|To]s ;b:on] wf/0f u/]sf] z]o/
-kl/jf/ eGgfn] klt, kTgL, 5f]/f, 5f]/L, wd{k'q, wd{k'qL, afa', cfdf, ;f}t]gL cfdf, xh'/af,
xh'/cfdf, bfh' efO{, lbbL alxgL / gftL gfltgfnfO{ hgfp+5 ._
-%_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;Dj4 ;j} ;"rgfsf] tyf hfgsf/Lx?sf] k|ltlnlk a'em\g
;lsg] lsl;dn] Jojl:yt u/L /fVg' kg]{5 .
:kli6s/0fM lxtflwsf/L eGgfn] s'g} u|fxssf] dflns jf clGtd?kdf lgoGq0f ug]{ k|fs[lts JolQm -h;sf]
nfe x'g] u/L sf/f]jf/ ul/G5 ;f] JolQm_ ;Demg' kb{5 . of] zAbn] s'g} sfg"gL JolQm jf ;+:yfnfO{
lgoGq0fdf /fVg] clGtd clwsf/ k|of]u ug]{ JolQmnfO{ ;d]t hgfpF5 .
%= l9nf u/L k'i6L ug{ ;lsg]
-!_ b]xfosf] cj:yfdf Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] o; lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf g+= $ cg';f/
u|fxssf] ljj/0f tyf kl/rosf] k'i6L s]xL ;do l9nfu/L klg ug{ ;Sg]5g .
-s_ Jojxfl/s?kdf t'?Gt} k'i6L ug{ ;Dej gePsf] cj:yfdf h'g ;dodf ;Dej 5 ;f] ;dodf,
-v_ ;fdfGo ?kdf Joj;fosf] ;~rfngdf x:tIf]k ug{ gldNg] ;dodf,
-u_ ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ;DjGwL hf]lvdnfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf
Jojl:yt u/]sf] ;dodf
-@_ l9nfu/L u|fxssf] klxrfg k'i6L ug]{ cj:yfdf x'g ;Sg] hf]lvdnfO{ Jojl:yt ug{ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s
tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] To:tf u|fxsn] ug{ ;Sg] sf/f]jf/sf] ;Vof, /sd / k|sf/df cfjZos ;Ldf
jGb]h nufpg ;Sg]5g .
^= u|fxssf] hf]lvd ljj/0f tof/ ug]{
Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf k|To]s u|fxsdf lglxt hf]lvdsf] juL{s/0f u/L -cTolws
hf]lvd, dWod hf]lvd / sd hf]lvd_ ;f]xL cg'?k pgLx?sf] ljj/0f tof/ u/L /fVg' kg]{5 . o:tf] ljj/0fdf
o; lgb]{zg cg'?ksf] u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt k'/f ug{ ;lsg] kof{Kt ;"rgf tyf hfgsf/L x'g' kg]{5 . o:tf]
ljj/0fdf u|fxs -lxtflwsf/L olb 5 eg]_sf] af/]df kof{Kt hfgsf/L lng'sf ;fy} pQm u|fxsn] Ohfhtkq
k|fKt a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yf;Fu /fVg vf]h]sf] ;DjGw / cfjZos eP /sd tyf ;DklQsf] >f]tsf] af/]df ;d]t
pNn]v ug{' kg]{5 .
&= t];|f] kIfsf] k|of]u
-!_ o; lgb]{zgsf] kfngsf] nflu t];|f] kIfsf] k|of]u ug]{ ePdf ;f]sf] hf]lvd ;d]t Go"gLs/0f x'g] u/L o;
;DjGwdf cfjZos cfGtl/s gLlt / k|lqmof ;lxt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] t];|f] kIfaf6 ul/Psf]
u|fxs d"Nofg k4ltnfO{ cjnDag ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-@_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f P]g, @)^$ / cGo k|rlnt sfg"g
cGt/ut o; a}+s jf ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{af6 lgodg ul/g] ;+:yfx?af6 ePsf] u|fxs d"Nofg
k4ltnfO{ klg dfGotf lbg ;Sg]5 .
-#_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfkm" ljZj:t ePdf o; lgb]{zg adf]lhdsf] u|fxs d"Nofg
k4lt k'/f ug'{ kg]{ u/L lgodgsf] bfo/fdf /x]sf] s'g} u}/ cfjfl;o t];|f] kIfn] u/]sf] u|fxs d"Nofg
k4ltnfO{ klg dfGotf lbg ;Sg]5 . o;/L dfGotf lbg u}/ cfj;Lo t];|f] kIf ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf
cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ;DjGwL cGt//fli6o:t/sf dfkb08 cg'?ksf ;+oGq cGt/ut,
Ohfhtkq k|fKt u/]sf] tyf ;'kl/j]If0f ul/g] To:tf dfkb08sf] pNn+3gsf sf/0f s'g} sf/jfxLdf
gk/]sf] jf ;f] ;DjGwdf s'g} k|Zg gp7]sf] / ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL
;DjGwL cGt//fli6o dfkb08sf] sfof{Gjog u/L /x]sf] :yfgdf x'g' kg]{5 . o;/L dfGotf lbFbf
Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] lgj]bgsf ;DjGwdf k|fKt ;"rgf / ;DjlGwt ;+:yfn] pQm
d'n'sdf ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ;DjGwL cGt//fli6o dfkb08sf]
sfof{Gjog u/]gu/]sf] lgwf{/0f ug'{ kg]{5 .

249

-$_ t];|f] kIfn] tof/ u/]sf] ljj/0fnfO{ cfwf/ lnFbf k|To]s k6s Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfx?n] ;DjlGwt ;+:yfsf] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ;DjGwL gLlt,
k|lqmof / o; lgb]{zg cg'?ksf] u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt ;DjGwL ;"rgf klg lng' kg]{5 . o;/L ;DjlGwt
sfuhftsf] k|ltlnlk lng g;lsg] cj:yfdf Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx? To:tf u|fxssf]
klxrfg ;DjGwL sfuhft tyf cGo ;"rgfsf] k|lt hlt ;Sof] l56f] k|fKt ug{ cfjZos sbd rfNg'
kg]{5 / ljgf s'g} lanDj To:tf] ljj/0f lng ;Sg] s'/fdf cfkm" ljZj:t x'g' kg]{5 .
-%_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL
;DjGwL cGt//fli6o dfkb08sf] sfof{Gjog gug]{ elg o; a}+s jf ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{n] klxrfg
u/]sf jf :jtGq ;"rgfx?sf] cfwf/df ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ;DjGwL
cGt//fli6o dfkb08sf] sfof{Gjog gu/]sf] elg ljZjf; ug'{ kg]{ kof{Kt cfwf/ / sf/0f /x]sf t];|f]
kIfn] tof/ u/]sf] u|fxs d"Nofg ;DjGwL ljj/0fnfO{ :jLsf/ ug{ x'b}g .
-^_ o; lgb]{zg cg'?ksf] u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt k'/f ug'{ kg]{ clGtd bfloTj ;DjlGwt Ohfhtkq k|fKt
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] g} x'g]5 .
*= gofF u|fxssf] :jLsf/
Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] o; lgb]{zg adf]lhd cfkm\gf] jf lxtflwsf/Lsf] kl/ro v'nfpg
jf k'i6L x'g g;Sg] jf hf]lvd ljj/0f tof/ ug{ kof{Kt ;"rgf ;+sng ug{ g;lsg] s'g} JolQmnfO{ u|fxssf]
?kdf :jLsf/ ug{ x'b}g . o:tf] cj:yfdf ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{n] hf/L u/]sf] lgb]{zg / o; lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf
!( sf] pka'Fbf -!_ cg';f/ z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/sf] ?kdf lnO{ ;f]sf] ljj/0f ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{df k7fpg'
kg]{5 .
(= u|fxssf] ;"rgf lg/Gt/ ?kdf sfod /fVg]
Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfkm\gf u|fxsx?sf] ;DjGwdf lg/Gt/ ?kdf cfjZos ;"rgf /
ljj/0f ;+sng u/L /fVg' kg]{5 . u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt -CDD) k|lqmof cGt/ut ;+sng ul/Psf sfuhft,
tYof+s, jf ;"rgfx? Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] lglZrt ;dodf cfjZos ;dLIff u/L
Jojl:yt ?kdf /fVg' kg]{5 .
!)= u|fxssf] sf/f]jf/sf] lg/Gt/ ?kdf cg'udg ug]{
-!_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfkm\gf u|fxsx?sf] sf/f]jf/ / pgLx?;Fusf] ;DjGwsf]
lg/Gt/ ?kdf cg'udg ug'{ kg]{5 . o:tf] cg'udgn] Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] klxrfg
u/] cg'?k g} u|fxsn] sf/f]jf/ u/] gu/]sf] s'/f tyf u|fxssf] hf]lvd ljj/0f, cfjZostf cg';f/
/sd jf ;DklQsf] >f]t / klxn] g} lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] /sd jf sf/f]jf/sf] ;Ldf / k|sf/ ;d]tnfO{
;d]6\g' kg]{5 .
-@_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;j} h6Ln sf/f]jf/, cfly{s / sfg"gL p2]Zo gePsf
c:jfefljs ?kn] 7"nf b]lvg] jf c:jfefljs k|s[ltsf sf/f]jf/nfO{ ljif]z lgu/fgLsf ;fy x]g'{ kg]{5 .
Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] o:tf sf/f]jf/sf] p2]Zo tyf cfwf/x? kQf nufO{ To:tf]
hfgsf/L lnlvt ?kdf /fVg' kg]{5 . Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] o:tf] hfgsf/L ljQLo
hfgsf/L OsfO{{, n]vfk/LIfs Pj+ cGo ;Ifd lgsfon] k/LIf0f ug{ ;Sg] u/L kfFr aif{;Dd ;'/lIft
?kdf /fVg' kg]{5 . Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] s'g} sf/f]jf/nfO{ cfly{s / sfg"gL p2]Zo
gePsf c:jfefljs?kn] 7"nf jf c:jfefljs k|s[ltsf sf/f]jf/ egL kQf nufO{ ;s]kl5 To:tf]
sf/f]jf/nfO{ ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{n] hf/L u/]sf] lgb]{zg / o; lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf !( sf] pka'Fbf -!_
cg';f/ z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/sf] ?kdf k7fpg' kg]{]5 .
!!= u|fxs;Fusf] ;DjGwsf] ;dflKt
Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] s'g} gofF u|fxssf] jf ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f P]g, @)^$ nfu"
x'g' klxn]sf u|fxssf] klg o; lgb]{zg cg'?ksf] u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt ;Dkg ug{ g;Sg] cj:yf ljBdfg
ePdf u|fxs;Fusf] ;DjGwnfO{ :ylut u/L To:tf] sf/f]jf/nfO{ o; lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf g+= !( sf] pka'Fbf -!_
cg';f/ z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/sf] ?kdf klg k7fpg' kg]{5 .
!@= pRr hf]lvdo'Qm u|fxsx?sf nflu kl/is[t u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt cjnDjg ug]{
-!_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL
;DjGwL ck/fwsf] pRr hf]lvddf /x]sf, pRr kb:y JolQm, /fhgLlts ?kdf k|efjzfnL JolQmx?
-PEPs_ / cfdg] ;fdg] geO{ sf/f]jf/ ug]{ u|fxsx?sf nflu kl/:s[t u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt -Inhanced
CDD_ cjnDjg ug'{ kg]{5 . kl/:s[t u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt -Inhanced CDD_ n] cGo s'/fsf cltl/Qm
;DklQsf] >f]t / sf/f]jf/ /sdsf] >f]tnfO{ klg ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 .

250

-@_

pRr hf]lvddf /x]sf u|fxsnfO{ klxrfg k|lqmofsf] x/]s r/0fdf kl/is[t u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt
-Inhanced CDD_ nfu" ug'{ kg]{5 .
-#_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] Joj:yfkg txsf] dflyNnf] clwsf/Ln] :jLs[lt glbP;Dd
pRr hf]lvddf /x]sf u|fxsx?;Fu ;DjGw :yfkgf ug{ x'b}g .
-$_ b]xfosf] cfwf/df s'g} u|fxsnfO{ pRr hf]lvddf /x]sf] lgwf{/0f ug{' kg]{5M
-s_
cfdg] ;fdg] geO cGo tl/sfn] ;DjGw :yfkgf ePsf] u|fxs,
-v_
u}/ cfjf;Lo, jf To:tf] JolQmsf] /fli6otf, xfn j;f]jf; /x]sf] d'n's jf klxn]sf] j;f]jf;
/x]sf] d'n's ;d]tsf cfwf/df ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ;DjGwL
ck/fwsf] pRr hf]lvddf /x]sf] :yfgsf u|fxs,
-u_
;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ;DjGwL ck/fwsf] lgoGq0fdf pko'Qm
:t/ sfod ug{ g;s]sf] d'n's jf If]q;Fu ;DjlGwt,
-3_ /fhgLlts ?kdf k|efjzfnL JolQmx? -PEPs_ jf ltgsf kl/jf/sf ;b:o / ;DjlGwt JolQmx?,
-_
w]/} g]6jy{ ePsf], /sd jf ;DklQsf] >f]t :ki6 gePsf] jf lghL a}+ls Joj;fodf ;+nUg
ePsf] u|fxs,
-r_
;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ;DjGwL ck/fwdf ;+nUg x'g ;Sg]
z+sf:kb Joj;fodf ;+nUg ePsf] u|fxs,
-5_
JolQmut ;DklQ wf/0f ug]{ ;fwgsf] ?kdf /x]sf] sfg"gL JolQm,
-h_ :ki6 cfly{s tyf sfg"gL p2]Zo ljgf g} hl6n k|s[ltsf] :jfldTj ;+/rgf ePsf sfg"gL JolQm,
-em_ gf]ldgL z]o/xf]N8/ jf wf/s z]o/ ePsf] sDkgL,
-`_ cTolws e|i6frf/ /x]sf] elg lrlgPsf] d'n's jf cGo cfwf/df pRr hf]lvddf /x]sf] If]qsf
u|fxs, /
-6_
gubsf] j9L k|of]u x'g] Joj;foLs If]qsf] sf/f]jf/df ;+nUg ePsf u|fxs .
-%_ o;} a'Fbfsf] pka'Fbf -$_ df pNn]lvt cfdg] ;fdg] geO{ x'g] sf/f]jf/n] cGo s'/fsf cltl/Qm b]xfosf
sf/f]jf/ ;Demg' k5{M
-s_
OG6/g]6af6 :yflkt ;DjGw jf x'nfs dfkm{t :yflkt ;DjGw jf o:t} cGo k|sf/n] :yflkt
;DjGw,
-v_
OG6/g]6af6 k|bfg ul/g] ;]jf tyf sf/f]jf/,
-u_
ATM sf] k|of]u u/L ul/g] sf/f]jf/,
-3_
6]lnkmf]g a}+ls,
-_
km\ofS; jf cGo o:t} k|sf/sf dfWodaf6 lgb]{zg jf lgj]bg lbO ePsf sf/f]jf/, /
-r_
klxn] g} e'QmfgL u/]sf, gljs/0f ug{ ldNg] jf s'g} vftf;Fu hf]l8Psf sf8{ dfkm{t ul/g] /sd
lgisf;g jf e'QmfgL ;DjGwL sf/f]jf/ .
-^_ cfdg] ;fdg] geO{ x'g] sf/f]jf/df ul/g] kl/is[t u|fxs d"Nofg k4ltdf b]xfosf ljifo ;d]6g' kg]{5 M
-s_
gf]6/L jf cGo ljZjf; of]Uo JolQmn] k|dfl0ft u/]sf] sfuhft,
-v_
k|ToIf?kdf sf/f]jf/ ul/g] u|fxs;Fu dfu ul/g] sfuhftsf cltl/Qm yk sfuhftsf] k|flKt,
-u_
:jtGq?kdf k'li6 ug]{ jf u|fxs;Fu ;Dks{ :yfkgf ug]{ k|lqmofsf] ljsf; ePsf] k|0ffnL .
-&_ /fhgLlts ?kdf k|efjzfnL JolQmx? -PEPs_ sf] lgwf{/0f b]xfo adf]lhdsf] k|lqmofaf6 ug{' kg]{5M
-s_
;Defljt u|fxs;Fu k|fKt ul/g] ;Dj4 ;"rgfsf] cfwf/df,
-v_
;fj{hlgs?kdf pknJw ;"rgfsf] cfwf/df,
-u_
pknAw ePdf /fhgLlts ?kdf k|efjzfnL JolQmx? -PEPs_ sf] tYofFs -Data Base_ df kx'Fr
:yflkt u/]/ .
-*+_ kl/is[t u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt k|of]u ubf{ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ln, j0f{, /+,
a}jflxs ;DjGw, wd{, jf /fli6otfsf] cfwf/df u}/ sfg"gL e]befj x'g glbg] tkm{ cfjZos zt{stf
ckgfpg' kg]{5 .
:ki6Ls/0fM pRr kb:y JolQm eGgfn] :jb]z jf s'g} ljb]zL d'n'sdf /fhg}lts, Joj;flos, ;fdflhs,
ljQLo, k|zf;lgs, Jofkfl/s, cf}Bf]lus If]qdf pRr txdf sfo{/t jf sfo{ ul/;s]sf JolQm,
pRr ;fj{hlgs lhDd]jf/Ldf /x]sf jf /lx;s]sf /fi6 k|d'v, ;/sf/ k|d'v, dGqL, g]kfn ;/sf/
jf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] k"0f{ :jfldTjdf ePsf] ;+:yfsf] k|yd >]0fL jf ;f] eGbf dflysf kbflwsf/L,
/fhgLlts bnsf g]tfx?, lghL jf ;fdflhs If]qsf pRr kb:y kbflwsf/L ;Demg' kb{5 . of]
zAbn] To:tf JolQmsf kl/jf/sf ;b:o tyf glhssf ;xof]uL ;d]tnfO{ hgfp5 .
!#= sd hf]lvdo'Qm u|fxsx?sf nflu ;/n u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt cjnDjg ug{ ;Sg]

251

-!_

Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfk"mn] u/]sf] lnlvt hf]lvd d"Nofgsf cfwf/df sd
hf]lvd o'Qm u|fxssf] ;/n u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt cjnDjg ug{ ;Sg]5g . Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] o:tf] k4lt cjnDjg ubf{ cfjZos kg]{ sfuhft / hf]lvd lgwf{/0fsf cfwf/x?
af/]df o; a}+saf6 dfu eO{ cfPdf pknJw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
-@_ ;fdfGotof ;j} u|fxsx?sf nflu o; lgb]{zgdf pNn]lvt u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt cjnDjg ug{' kg]{5 .
Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] u/]sf] d"Nofgdf ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL
sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ug]{ hf]lvd sd /x]sf], ;DjlGwt u|fxs / lxtflwsf/Lsf] jf/]df ;fj{hlgs ?kdf
g} hfgsf/L pknJw ePsf], jf /fli6o k|0ffnLdf pko'Qm lgoGq0f / k/LIf0fsf] Joj:yf /x]sf] cj:yfdf
;/n u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt cjnDjg ug{ ;lsg]5 .
-#_ hf]lvd sd ePsf u|fxs jf sf/f]jf/x? pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf b]xfo adf]lhd /x]sf 5gM
-s_ o; a}+sn] ;'kl/j]If0f ug]{ ;+:yfx?
-v_ o; lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf & sf] pka'Fbf -#_ df pNn]v eP cg'?k pko'Qm lgodg / ;'kl/j]If0f
cGt/ut /x]sf ljb]zL ljQLo ;+:yfx?,
-u_ g]kfn lwtf]kq af]8{n] lgodg ug]{ :6s PS;r]Ghdf ;"lrs[t ePsf] klJns sDkgL / ljQLo
hfgsf/L OsfO{n] l:js[t u/]sf / k|sfzg -Disclosure_ ;DjGwL pko'Qm lgodg / ;'kl/j]If0f
cGt/ut /x]sf ljb]zL :6s PS;r]Ghdf ;"lrs[t ePsf klJns sDkgLx?,
-3_ ? !,)),))) eGbf sd jflif{s sf/f]jf/ ePsf art tyf rNtL vftfx? .
-$_ o;} a'Fbfsf] pka'Fbf -#_ sf] v08 -v_ / -u_ df pNn]v ePsf u}/ cfjf;Lo tyf ljb]zL sDkgLx?sf]
xsdf To:tf sDkgLx? /x]sf] :yfg jf d'n'sn] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo
nufgL ug]{ sfo{nfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{ ;DjGwdf /x]sf cGt//fli6o dfkb08x?sf] kfngf u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;DjlGwt d'n'sn] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL
sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ug]{ sfo{nfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{ ;DjGwdf /x]sf cGt//fli6o dfkb08x?sf] kfngf u/]
gu/]sf] ;DjGwdf lgwf{/0f ubf{ g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] k|sflzt u/]sf] ;"lr jf k|ltj]bg, FATF, APG,
IMF, World Bank h:tf lgsfox?sf j]j;fO6df k|sfzg ePsf] cfwf/df ug'{ kg]{5 .
-%_ o; a}+sn] s'g} d'n's jf If]qn] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ug]{ sfo{nfO{
lgoGq0f ug]{ ;DjGwdf /x]sf cGt//fli6o dfkb08x?sf] kfngf gu/]sf] elg hfgsf/L u/fPsf] jf
lj:j:t :jtGq ;"rgfx?sf cfwf/df ;DjlGwt Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] g} ;DklQ
z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ug]{ sfo{nfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{ ;DjGwdf /x]sf
cGt//fli6o dfkb08x?sf] kfngf gu/]sf] elg kQf nufPsf], jf cGo s'g} sf/0fn] ;f] ;DjGwL hf]lvd
/x]sf] elg z+sf ug'{ kg]{ sf/0f ePsf :yfgsf u|fxssf] xsdf eg] ;/n u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt nfu"
ug{ x'b}g .
!$= ljB'tLo dfWodaf6 ul/g] :yfgfGt/0f -Wire Transfer_ ;DjGwL gLlt / k|lqmof
-!_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfkm"n] ljB'tLo dfWodaf6 k|fKt ug]{ ;j} :yfgfGt/0fsf]
;DjGwdf pTklQstf{sf] k"0f{ ;"rgf k|fKt ug]{ / ;f]sf] ;Totf k'i6\ofO{ k|fKt ug{' kg]{5 .
-@_ pTklQstf{sf] k"0f{ ;"rgfdf b]xfosf s'/fx? kg]{5gM
-s_
pTklQstf{sf] gfd,
-v_
pTklQstf{sf] vftf gDj/ -vftf gDj/ gePsf] cj:yfdf 5'} klxrfg gDj/_,
-u_
pTklQstf{sf] kl/ro kq gDj/ jf 7]ufgf.
-#_ ;Ldf jf/kf/ x'g] ljB'tLo dfWodaf6 ul/g] :yfgfGt/0fx?sf] ;DjGwdf cfb]z lbg] Ohfhtkq k|fKt
a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;fd'lxs :yfgfGt/0f ul/g] ljk|]if0fsf] nflu tf]lsPsf cj:yfx?df afx]s
pTklQstf{sf] k"0f{ ljj/0f ;lxtsf] ;"rgf jf e'QmfgL] cfb]z k7fpg' kg]{5 .
-$_ :jb]zL ljB'tLo dfWodaf6 ul/g] :yfgfGt/0f ;DjGwdf cfb]z lbg] ;+:yfn] b]xfosf dWo] s'g} Ps
;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-s_
pTklQstf{sf] k"0f{ ljj/0f ;lxtsf] ;"rgf jf e'QmfgL cfb]z, jf
-v_
vftf gDj/ jf vftf gDj/ gePsf] u|fxssf] ;DjGwdf 5'} klxrfg gDj/ ;lxtsf] ;"rgf jf
e'QmfgL cfb]z .
-%_ qm]l86 sf8{ jf 8]lj6 sf8{ jf cGo s'g} lsl;dsf] sf8{x? dfkm{t x'g] /sd :yfgfGt/0fsf ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] To:tf sf8{ hf/L ubf{ cGo ;+:yfx?f/f hf/L
sf8{x?dfkm{t e'QmfgL ubf{ To:tf sf8{sf wf/sx?sf] k"0f{ ;"rgf lnOPsf] x'g' kb{5 .

252

-^_

e'QmfgL lbg] ;+:yf jf ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{n] dfu u/]sf] tLg sfo{lbg leq pTklQstf{sf] k"0f{ ljj/0f
pknJw u/fpg ;Sg] cj:yfdf dfq o;} a'Fbfsf] pka'Fbf -$_ sf] v08 -v_ adf]lhdsf] k|lqmof
cjnDjg ug{ ;lsg]5 .
-&_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] k7fPsf] ;Ldf jf/kf/ ;fd'lxs ljB'tLo dfWodaf6 ul/g]
:yfgfGt/0fn] :jb]zL ljB'tLo dfWodaf6 ul/g] :yfgfGt/0f ;DjGwdf tf]lsPsf k|lqmof k'/f u/]sf]
cj:yfdf o;nfO{ :jb]zL ljB'tLo dfWodaf6 ul/g] :yfgfGt/0f h:t} u/L ug{ ;Sg]5g .
-*_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] u}/ tflnsfo'Qm sf/f]jf/x? h;n] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf
cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ug]{ sfo{sf] hf]lvdnfO{ a9fpg] ub{5g To:tfnfO{ ;fd'lxs
:yfgfGt/0f ug{ lbg' x'b}g .
-(_ ;Dj4 ljB'tLo sf/f]jf/sf ;DjGwdf e'QmfgL k|lqmofdf ;+nUg x'g] ;j} dWo:y tyf e'QmfgL lbg]
;+:yfx?n] pTklQstf{sf] ;"rgf lng' kg]{5 .
-!)_ pTklQstf{sf] k"0f{ ljj/0f gePsf ljB'tLo ljk|]if0fsf] e'QmfgL lbg] Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s jf ljQLo
;+:yfn] To:tf] sf/f]jf/nfO{ ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ug]{ sfo{sf]
hf]lvdo'Qm /x]sf] dfGg' kg]{5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf ;DjlGwt Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;j
eGbf klxn] cfb]z lbg] ;+:yfaf6 pTklQstf{sf] ;DjGwdf 5'6 ljj/0f dfu ug'{ kg]{5 . olb 5'6 ljj/0f
k|fKt gePdf pTklQstf{sf] k"0f{ ljj/0fsf] cefjdf To:tf] sf/f]jf/nfO{ ;+sf:kb sf/f]jf/sf] ?kdf lnO{
;f]sf] ljj/0f ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{nfO{ lbg' kg]{5 . o;sf cltl/Qm Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfn] To:tf] sf/f]jf/ ug{ OGsf/ klg ug{ ;Sg]5 . pko'{Qm cj:yfdf e'QmfgL lbg] ;+:yfn] o;
lgb]{zgsf] kfngf gug]{ ;+:yf;Fu sf/f]jf/ ug{ k|ltjGw nufpg] jf ;DjGw ;dfKt ug{ klg ;Sg]5 .
:ki6Ls/0fM != ljB'tLo dfWodaf6 :yfgfGt/0f eGgfn] ljB'tLo dfWodsf] k|of]u u/L s'g} a}+s jf ljQLo
;+:yf dfkm{t s'g} JolQmsf] /sd Ps :yfgaf6 csf]{ :yfgdf k7fpg] sfo{nfO{ ;Demg' kb{5 .
o;/L /sd k7fpg] / k|fKt ug]{ JolQm Pp6} jf cnu cnu x'g ;Sb5g .
@= pTklQstf{ eGgfn] vftfjfnf jf vftf geP klg s'g} a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ Ps :yfgaf6
csf]{ :yfgdf ljB'tLo dfWodaf6 /sd :yfgfGt/0f ug{ cg'/f]w ug]{ JolQm ;Demg' kb{5 .
!%= ;Ldf jf/kf/ s/];kf]08]G6 a}ls jf o:t} ;DjGw ;DjGwL gLlt / k|lqmof
-!_ s ju{sf a}+s tyf /fli6o:t/sf v ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] s/];kf]08]G6 a}ls ;DjGwdf
cfjZos gLlt, k|lqmof, tyf lgoGq0f k|0ffnLsf] th{'df u/L nfu" ug'{ kg]{5 . s/];kf]08]G6 a}ls ;]jf
k|bfg ug{] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] csf]{ kIfn] nfu" u/]sf ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df
ljQLo nufgL ug]{ sfo{ ;DjGwL ;+oGq k|efjsf/L eP gePsf] d"Nofg ug'{ kg]{5 . o;sf nflu a}+s
tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] csf]{ kIfsf] af/]df kof{Kt ;"rgf lnO{ p;sf] Joj;fosf] af/]df a'em\g' kg]{5 .
;fj{hlgs ?kdf pknJw ;"rgfsf cfwf/df To:tf] ;+:yfsf] ;fv lgwf{/0f ug]{, ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf
cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL lgoGq0f ;DjGwL ;+oGqsf] ;DjGwdf cg';Gwfg ePsf] jf
lgodgsf/L lgsfosf] sf/jfxLdf k/] gk/]sf] ;d]t Plsg ug'{ kg]{5 . s'g} a}+s tyf /fli6o:t/sf
v ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] s/];kf]08]G6 a}lssf] nflu s'g} ljb]zL a}+s;Fu ;DjGw :yflkt ubf{ jf
lg/Gt/tf lb+bf csf]{ kIf ;DjlGwt clwsf/ k|fKt lgsfojf6 k|efjsf/L ?kdf ;'k/Lj]If0f eO/x]sf] s'/f
lgZrt ug'{ kg]{5 .
-@_ s'g} a}+s tyf /fli6o:t/sf v ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfkm" btf{ ePsf] :yfgdf sfof{no g/x]sf]
jf s'g} klg lgodgdf /x]sf ljQLo ;d"xdf g/x]sf] s'g} ljb]zL a}+s;Fu -;]n a}+s h:tf_ s/];kf]08]G6
a}lssf] ;DjGw :yflkt ug{ jf lg/Gt/tf lb+g x'b}g .
-#_ s/];kf]08]G6 a}lssf] nflu s'g} ljb]zL a}+ssf] af/]df hfgsf/L ln+bf cGo s'/fx?sf cltl/Qm ;DjlGwt
a}+ssf] Joj:yfkg, d'Vo Joj;foLs lqmofsnfk /x]sf] :yfg, ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df
ljQLo nufgL ug]{ sfo{ lgoGq0f ;DjGwL k|of;, ;DjlGwt d'n'ssf] lgodg tyf ;'kl/j]If0fsf] k|0ffnL
/ vftfsf] p2]Zo nufotsf ljifodf hfgsf/L lng' kg]{5 .
-$_ a}+s tyf /fli6o:t/sf v ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo
nufgL ug]{ sfo{ lgoGq0f ;DjGwL cGt//fli6o dfkb08x?sf] kfngf gug]{ d'n'sdf btf{ ePsf] jf
/x]sf] a}+s;Fu s/];kf]08]G6 a}lssf] nflu ;DjGw :yflkt ubf{ ljz]if Wofg lbg' kg]{5 . o:tf]
cfj:yfdf kl/:s[t u|fxs d"Nofg k4lt cjnDjg ug'{sf cltl/Qm To:tf] a}+ssf] dflns jf
lxtflwsf/Lsf] af/]df / p;sf] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ug]{ sfo{
lgoGq0f ;DjGwL gLlt / k|lqmofsf] af/]df ;d]t hfgsf/L lng' kg]{5 .
-%_ a}+s tyf /fli6o:t/sf v ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] s/];kf]08]G6 vftfx? dfkm{t x'g] sf/f]jf/sf]
lgoldt cg'udgsf nflu cfjZos gLlt, k|lqmof / lgoGq0f k|0ffnLsf] th'{df u/L nfu" ug'{ kg]{5 .

253

-^_

a}+s tyf /fli6o:t/sf v ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] s/];kf]08]G6 vftf dfkm{t x'g] sf/f]jf/df csf]{
kIfn] p;sf u|fxsn] g} s/];kf]08]G6 vftfx? -k]ojn y|' PsfpG6_ k|of]u ug{ kfpg] u/L ;'ljwf lbPsf]
5 eg] To:tf] cj:yfdf laz]if zts{tf ckgfpg' kg]{5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf csf]{ kIfn] cfkm\gf u|fxssf]
o; lgb]{zg adf]lhdsf] d"Nofg k4lt cjnDjg u/]sf] / cfkm'n] dfu]sf avt To:tf] u|fxssf] ljj/0f
csf]{ kIfaf6 k|fKt x'g] s'/fsf] ;'lgZrttf ug'{ kg]{5 .
:kli6s/0fM != s/];\kf]G8]06 a}+ls eGgfn] csf]{ a}+ssf] k|ltlglwsf] ?kdf ljb]zdf lgIf]k, e'QmfgL, Sn]ol/
nufotsf ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ sfo{nfO{ ;Demg' kb{5 .
@= k]Pjn y|' PsfpG6 -Payable-through accounts) eGgfn] t];|f] kIfn] sf/f]jf/ ug{ ;Sg] u/L
s'g} a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfdf vf]lnPsf]] vftf ;Demg' kb{5 .
!^= clen]v ;'/lIft tl/sfn] /fVg]
-!_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL ;j} sf/f]jf/ tyf ljQLo hfgsf/L
OsfO{df k7fPsf o; lgb]{zg adf]lhdsf z+sf:kb tyf ;Ldf sf/f]jf/sf] clen]v sf/f]jf/ ePsf]
ldltn] slDtdf kfFrjif{ -cflwsfl/s lgsfon] tf]s]sf] cj:yfdf ;f] eGbf a9L klg_ ;Dd ;'/lIft /fVg'
kg]{5 . of] Joj:yf ;DjGw jf sf/f]jf/ rfn' /x]sf] jf ;dfKt ePsf] b'j} cj:yfdf nfu" x'g]5 .
-@_ k|To]s sf/f]jf/ k"0f{ klxrfg ug{ ;lsg] / cfjZos kbf{ kmf}hbf/L cleof]udf cleof]hg ubf{ k|df0fdf
lng ;Sg] lsl;dn] sf/f]jf/sf] ljj/0f /fVg' kg]{5 . To:tf] sf/f]jf/ ljj/0fdf b]xfosf s'/fx? pNn]v
ug'{ kg]{5 .
-s_
u|fxssf] -lxtflwsf/L ;d]tsf]_ gfd, 7]ufgf -klxrfg ;DjGwL cGo dWo:yf/f /flvPsf] ljj/0f_
-v_
sf/f]jf/sf] k|s[lt / ldlt,
-u_
k|of]u ePsf] d'b|fsf] k|sf/ / dfqf, /
-3_
sf/f]jf/df k|of]u ePsf] vftf gDj/ / ;f]sf] k|sf/ .
!&= ;Ldf sf/f]jf/ ljj/0f k7fpg' kg]{
-!_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] b]xfosf ;Ldf leqsf] ?k}ofF tyf ;f] j/fj/sf] ljb]zL d'b|fsf]
sf/f]jf/sf] ljj/0f To:tf] sf/f]jf/ ePsf] ldltn] !% lbg leq cg';'rL !(=# sf] 9fFrfdf ljQLo
hfgsf/L OsfO{ ;dIf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-s_ s'g} u|fxsn] Ps} k6s jf k6s k6s u/L Ps lbgdf u/]sf] ?= !) nfv jf ;f] eGbf j9L /sdsf]
gub sf/f]jf/,
-v_ s'g} u|fxsnfO{ Ps} k6s jf k6s k6s u/L Ps lbgdf u/]sf] ?= !) nfv jf ;f] eGbf j9L /sd
a/fj/sf] ljb]zL d'b|fsf] e'QmfgL jf g]kfnsf] ;Ldf jf/kf/ x'g] u/L u/]sf] ljB'tLo jf cGo
:yfgfGt/0f,
-u_ s'g} u|fxsn] Ps} k6s jf k6s k6s u/L Ps lbgdf u/]sf] ?= % nfv jf ;f] eGbf j9L /sdsf]
d'b|f ;6xL sf/f]jf/ .
-@_ bz nfv jf ;f] eGbf a9Lsf] lgIf]k lng] ;DjGwdf Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] 5'6}
sfo{ljlw tof/ u/L ;f]xL cg'?k ;~rfng / n]vf /fVg] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fy}, To:tf] sf/f]jf/ jf
/sdsf] >f]t ;d]t k|fKt u/L u|fxs d"Nofg ljj/0fdf ;d]t cBfjlws u/L /fVg' kg]{5 .
o; k|of]hgsf nflu u|fxssf] :jM3f]if0ff (self declaration) klg dfGo x'g]5 . ;fy}, s'g} lgIf]kstf{n]
:jM3f]if0ff ubf{ To:tf] /sd cft+sjfb, nfu' kbfy{sf] sf/f]jf/, dfgj a]rljvg / ;+ul7t ck/fw
nufotsf cj}w ;|f]taf6 cfh{g ePsf] xf]Og egL :jM3f]if0ff u/]df ;d]t dfGo x'g]5 .
-#_ olb s'g} sf/f]jf/ ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ug]{ p2]Zon] ul/Psf] elg
s'g} Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ nfu]df To:tf] sf/f]jf/ dfly pNn]lvt ;Ldf eGbf
dflysf] eP jf geP klg o; lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf !( sf] pka'Fbf -!_ cg';f/ z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/sf] ?kdf
ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{df k7fpg' kg]{5 .
-$_ o:tf ljj/0fx? ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{n] tf]s] adf]lhd laB'tLo jf cGo dfWodaf6 k7fpg ;lsg]5 .
!*= ljj/0f k7fpg 5'6
-!_ o; lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf !& sf] pka'Fbf -!_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] b]xfosf ;/sf/L sfof{no, ;+:yf / JolQmx?n] u/]sf] sf/f]jf/sf] ljj/0f ljQLo
hfgsf/L OsfO{df k7fpg kg]{ 5}g .
-s_
g]kfn ;/sf/ jf g]kfn ;/sf/ cGtu{tsf] sfof{no jf lgsfon] u/]sf] sf/f]jf/,

254

ljz]if P]g cGtu{t :yflkt lgsfon] u/]sf sf/f]jf/,


Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;+:yfut ?kdf cfkm} jf cGo Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s
ljQLo ;+:yf jf ;/sf/L lgsfo;+u u/]sf] sf/f]jf/,
-3_
klAns lnld6]8 sDkgLn] cGo klAns sDkgL, ;/sf/L jf cw{ ;/sf/L sfof{no, ;+3, ;+:yf,
sDkgL jf lgsfo, ljz]if sfg"g adf]lhd :yflkt lgsfo;+u u/]sf] sf/f]jf/,
-_
k'g/jLdf Joj;fosf] sfd sf/f]jf/ ubf{ jLdf sDkgLn] u/]sf] sf/f]jf/,
-r_
s'g} Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] u|fxsnfO{ k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd shf{
;fk6L jf ;'lawf k|bfg u/]sf] sf/f]jf/,
-5_
;+o'Qm /fi6 ;+3, ;f] cGt{utsf sfof{no tyf o;sf lalzi6Ls[t lgsfo / cGt//fli6o
;+:yfx?n] u/]sf] sf/f]jf/,
-h_
s'g} a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf sd{rf/LnfO{ lbPsf] ;]jf ;'lawf jfktsf] sf/]fjf/, /
-em_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] hf/L u/]sf] r]sdfkm{t s'g} Ps a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfdf /x]sf]
vftfaf6 csf]{ a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfdf /x]sf] vftfdf g]kfnleq /sd 6fG;km/ -gubdf afx]s_
ePsf] sf/f]jf/ .
-@_ a'Fbf !* sf] pka'Fbf -!_ n] k|bfg u/]sf] 5'6 Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;DklQ
z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ug]{ p2]Zon] ul/Psf] elg cfz+sf u/]sf] sf/f]jf/sf
xsdf nfu" x'g] 5}g . To:tf sf/f]]jf/sf] ljj/0f ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{n] hf/L u/]sf] lgb]{zg cg'?k
ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{df k7fpg' kg]{5 .
!(= z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/sf] ljj/0f k7fpg]
-!_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f P]g, @)^$ sf] bkmf & cg'?k s'g}
/sd b]xfo adf]lhd /x]sf] z+sf nfu]df jf z+sf ug'{ kg]{ kof{Kt cfwf/ ePdf ;f]sf] ljj/0f ljQLo
hfgsf/L OsfO{df k7fpg' kg]{5 .
-s_ ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f P]g, @)^$ n] tf]s]sf jf pQm P]g cGt{ut g]kfn ;/sf/n] /fhkqdf
;"rgf k|sfzg u/L tf]s]sf ck/fw jf ck/flws cfh{g;Fu hf]l8Psf] jf ;DjlGwt /x]sf], jf
-v_ ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f P]g, @)^$ n] tf]s] adf]lhd cft+safb, cft+sjfbL sfo{, cft+sjfbL
;+u7g, jf cft+sjfbL sfo{df nufgL;Fu hf]l8Psf] jf ;DjlGwt /x]sf], jf
-u_ ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{n] hf/L u/]sf] lgb]{zgdf tf]lsPsf cfwf/df z+sf:kb b]lvPsf] .
-@_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;j} z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/ / sf/f]jf/sf] k|of; ;d]tsf] ljj/0f
ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{df k7fpg' kg]{5 . ljj/0f k7fpg] bfloTj cGo s'g} lsl;dn] ;Lldt x'g] 5}g .
-#_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] z+sf:kb b]lvg] ljQLs} z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/sf] ljj/0f oyfzSo
rfF8f] k7fpg' kg]{5 .
-$_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/sf] ljj/0fdf ;j} sf/f]jf/sf] /sd / ;Dj4
hfgsf/L o; a}+sn] hf/L u/]sf] lgb]{zg cg'?k k7fpg' kg]{5 .
-%_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/sf] ljj/0f o; lgb]{zgsf] cg';"rL !(=$
df lbOPsf] 9fFrfdf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
-^_ o; lgb]{zg adf]lhdsf ljj/0fx? g]kfn /fi6 a}+s, ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{, afn'jf6f/, sf7df08f}sf]
7]ufgfdf k7fpg' kg]{5 . o; lgb]{zg adf]lhd Od]naf6 ;d]t k7fpg' kg]{ ljj/0fx? ljQLo hfgsf/L
OsfO{sf] Od]n 7]ufgf reportfiu@nrb.org.np dfkm{t k7fpg' kg]{5 . o; ;DaGwdf yk hfgsf/L lng'
k/]df pQm OsfO{sf] kmf]g g+= $$!(*)$,$$!(*)%,$$!(*)& -Ext. $!$,$!&,$!*_ km\ofS;M g+=
$$$!)%! df ;Dks{ ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
:ki6Ls/0fM ck/flws cfh{g eGgfn] s'g} k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf?kdf s'g} ck/flws sfo{af6 k|fKt ePsf]
;DklQ jf cfly{s nfe ;Demg' kb{5 . ;fy} of] zAbn] To:tf] ;DklQaf6 a9] j9fPsf] jf k"0f{ jf
cf+lzs?kn] :j?k kl/jt{g u/]sf] ;DklQnfO{ ;d]t hgfpF5 .
@)= cgflws[t JolQmnfO{ ;"rgf lbg k|ltjGw / bfloTjaf6 ;+/If0f
-!_ ;"rgf lbg jf bfloTjaf6 ;+/If0f ug]{ ;DjGwdf b]xfo adf]lhd ug'{ kg]{5 M
-s_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf, ;f]sf ;~rfns, kbflwsf/L / sd{rf/Lx? -:yfO{ /
c:yfO{_ s;}n] klg ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{{df k7fPsf] ;Ldf sf/f]jf/ jf z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/ jf
;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ug]{ ;DjGwL ck/fwsf] ;DjGwdf ePsf] jf
-v_
-u_

o; v08sf] k|of]hgsf nflu ljz]if P]g cGtu{t :yflkt lgsfo eGgfn] s'g} vf; lgsfo :yfkgf ug{ ag]sf]
P]g cGt{ut :yflkt lgsfo ;Demg' k5{ .

255

eO{/x]sf] cg';Gwfg jf cGo ;Dj4 ;"rgfx? v08 -v_ df pNn]v ePsf] cj:yfdf / k|rlnt
sfg"gn] tf]s]sf] cj:yfdf afx]s s'g} klg lsl;dn] JoQm ug{ jf k|s6 ug{ x'b}g .
-v_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f P]g, @)^$ sf] s'g} Joj:yfsf]
sfof{Gjog ul//x]sf] lgsfon] dfu u/]sf avt To:tf] hfgsf/L k|s6 ug'{ kg]{5 .
-u_ s;}n] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f P]g, @)^$ sf] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu afx]s z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/sf]
ljj/0f tof/ ug]{, ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{ jf cGo ;/sf/L lgsfonfO{ ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf
cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL ug]{ ;DjGwL sfo{sf] af/]df ljj/0f k7fpg] JolQmsf] kl/ro v'Ng
;Sg] s'g} klg k|sf/n] k|s6 ug{ x'b}g .
-3_ s;}n] klg Gofosf] k|of]hgsf nflu cfjZos ePsf] elg Gofolwz jf d'2f x]g]{ clwsf/Ln] k|s6
ug{ cfb]z lbPsf]df afx]s z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/sf] ljj/0f jf ;f]df ;dfj]z ePsf cGo hfgsf/L
To:tf] ljj/0f tof/ ug]{, To:tf] sf/f]jf/ ;DkGg ug]{, ljj/0f k7fpg] JolQmx?sf] kl/ro jf
kl/ro v'Ng] u/L s'g} klg k|s6 ug{ x'b}g .
-@_ ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f P]g, lgod / o; lgb]{zgsf] Joj:yf cg'?k c;n lgotn] ljj/0f k7fPsf]
jf hfgsf/L lbPsf] sf/0fn] s'g} klg ;"rs ;+:yf jf To;sf ;~rfns, lk|G;Lkn, kbflwsf/L,
;fem]bf/, k]zfut Joj;foL jf sd{rf/LnfO{ a}+ls jf cGo s'g} klg k]zfut uf]Kotf e+u u/]sf]
cf/f]kdf o; a}+sn] s'g} klg sf/jfxL ug{] 5}g .
@!= cfGtl/s gLlt, k|lqmof, k|0ffnL / lgoGq0f
-!_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] o; lgb]{zgsf] kfngf x'g] u/L cfjZos cfGtl/s gLlt,
k|lqmof tyf lgoGq0f k|0ffnLsf] th'{df u/L nfu" ug'{ kg]{5 . To:tf] k|0ffnLdf slDtdf ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f
lgjf/0f P]g @)^$, ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f lgodfjnL @)^^, o; lgb]{zgsf Joj:yfx?sf]
sfof{Gjog ug]{ Joj:yfksLo :t/sf] sfof{Gjog clws[t lgo'Qm ug]{ Joj:yfx? ug'{ kg]{5 .
-@_ sfof{Gjog clws[t tyf cGo ;Dj4 sd{rf/Ln] u|fxs klxrfg tyf u|fxs klxrfg k4lt cg'?ksf
ljj/0f, sf/f]jf/sf] ljj/0f, / cGo ;Dj4 hfgsf/Lx? ;dod} k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
sfof{Gjog clws[tn] :jtGq?kdf sfo{ ug]{ tyf p;sf] cfkm\gf] ;'kl/j]Ifs eGbf dflyNnf] txsf]
clwsf/L jf ;~rfns ;ldlt jf ;dfg :t/sf] cGo s'g} ;ldlt ;dIfsf] kx'FrnfO{ ;'lglZrt ug'{
kg]{5 .
-#_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] sfof{Gjog clws[tsf] gfd, 7]ufgf, of]Uotf, ;Dks{ gDj/,
Od]n nufotsf ljj/0f o; a}+s / ljQLo hfgsf/L OsfO{ ;dIf k7fpg' kg]{5 . sfof{Gjog
clws[tsf] kl/jt{g jf cGo ljj/0fdf kl/jt{g ePdf ;f]sf] ;d]t hfgsf/L k7fpg' kg]{5 .
-$_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;~rfns ;ldltn] slDtdf q}dfl;s ?kdf ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f
lgjf/0f P]g @)^$, ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f lgjf/0f lgodfjnL @)^^, o; lgb]{zgsf Joj:yfx?sf]
sfof{Gjogsf] cj:yfsf] af/]df ;dLIff ug'{ kg]{5 / cw{jflif{s ?kdf ;dLIff k|ltj]bg ljQLo hfgsf/L
OsfO{df k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-%_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL
ug]{ ;DjGwL ck/fwsf] lgoGq0f ;DjGwdf cfjZos ;"rgfx? cfk;df cfbfg k|bfg ug'{ kg]{5 .
-^_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] oL gLlt, k|lqmof tyf lgoGq0fsf ;+oGqx?sf] sfof{Gjog
eP gePsf] k/LIf0f ug]{ ;DjGwdf cfjZos ;|f]t tyf :jtGq n]vfk/LIf0f -gd'gf k/LIf0f ;d]t_
;DjGwL Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
-&_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df x'g] nufgL
lgoGq0f ug{ ljsl;t eO{/x]sf ;+oGqx? / ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df k|of]u eO{/x]sf
tl/sf / k|j[lQx?, ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df x'g] nufgL ;DjGwL ck/fw lgoGq0f ug{
ag]sf sfg"gsf] sfof{Gjog ug{ k"/f ug'{ kg]{ bfloTj, u|fxs klxrfg k|lqmof / z+sf:kb sf/f]jf/sf]
ljj/0f k7fpg] tl/sf ;d]tsf af/]df cfk\mgf sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ cfjZos tflnd Pj+ hfgsf/Lsf] Joj:yf
lg/Gt/ ?kdf ug'{ kg]{5 .
-*_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] sd{rf/L 5gf}6 ubf{ pko'{Qm dfkb08 ;lxtsf] 5gf}6
k|lqmof cjnDjg ug'{ kg]{5 .
@@= gofF k|ljlwsf] b'?kof]u x'g glbg] u/L gLlt tyf k|lqmof th'{df u/L nfu" ug]{
-!_ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df x'g] nufgL
;DjGwdf x'g ;Sg] k|ljlwsf] b'?kof]u /f]Sg cfjZos gLlt tyf k|lqmof th'{df u/L nfu" ug'{ kg]{5 .

256

-@_

Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] o:tf] gLlt tyf k|lqmofn] cfdg] ;fdg] geO{ x'g]
Joj;foLs ;DjGw jf sf/f]jf/;Fu ;DjlGwt ljz]if hf]lvdnfO{ ;d]t ;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{5 . o:tf] gLlt
tyf k|lqmof u|fxs;Fu ;DjGw :yflkt ubf{ / u|fxssf] d"NofFsg k4lt cjnDjg u/L nfu" ug'{ kg]{5 .
@#= 3 ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL ljz]if Joj:yfM
o; lgb]{zgdf h'g;'s} s'/f pNn]v eP tfklg 3 ju{sf n3' ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] xsdf cfkm\gf] sfo{
k|s[lt adf]lhdsf] u|fxs :jLsf/ k|lqmof, u|fxssf] kl/ro ug]{ k|lqmof, u|fxssf] sf/f]jf/sf] cg'udg
k|lqmof / hf]lvd Joj:yfkg k|lqmof h:tf ljifodf s]lGb|t eO{ cfgf] u|fxs klxrfg (Know your
Customers) sfo{ljlw tof/ ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fy}, cfgf] u|fxsx? jLrsf] sf/f]jf/sf] clen]v -O{n]S6f]lgs
/]s8{ ;d]t_ sf/f]jf/ ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] kfFr jif{;Dd ;'/lIft /fVg' kg]{5 .
@$= sf/jfxL / ;hfo
-!_ o; lgb]{zgsf] s'g} klg Joj:yfsf] pNn+3g ug]{ sd{rf/L tyf kbflwsf/L sf/jfxLsf] efuLbf/ x'g]5 .
-@_ o; lgb]{zgsf] Joj:yf sfof{Gjog gug]{ Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf / To:tf] a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfsf sd{rf/L tyf kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{ g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* adf]lhdsf] sf/jfxL,
hl/jfgf jf tf]lsPsf cGo sf/jfxL x'g]5 .
@%= vf/]hL / arfp
-!_ o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf]] u|fxs klxrfg ;DaGwL Joj:yf O=k|f= lgb]{zg g+= !()^* af6 hf/L
ul/Psf] lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt
;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_ pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;} lgb]{zg
adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

257

cg';"rL !(=!
u|fxssf] d'NofFsg k4lt -klxrfg_ sfod ug]{ sfo{ljlw
Ohfhtkq k|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] u|fxssf] k|s[lt cg';f/ b]xfosf ljj/0f tyf sfuhft k|fKt ug'{
kg]{5 . ;DjlGwt ;+:yfn] cfjZos 7fg]df u|fxssf] cGt/jftf{ ;d]t lng ;Sg]5 .
-c_
lgIf]k u|fxssf] ;DaGwdf
-s_
JolQmut vftf
(1)
:ki6 gfd, y/
(2)
lktfsf] gfd
(3)
>Ldfg\>LdtLsf] gfd
(4)
:yfoL 7]ufgf -7]ufgf k|dfl0ft ug]{ cfjZos sfuhft x'g'kg]{ . To:tf sfuhftx?df
gful/stfsf] k|df0fkq, /fxbfgL, kfgL tyf lah'nLsf] lan, cfjZos k/]df ;DalGwt
a}+s sd{rf/Ln] :ynut e|d0f u/L tof/ u/]sf] gS;f, dtbftf kl/rokq, nfnk"hf{
cflb _
xfn j;f]jf; ul//x]sf] k'/f 7]ufgf
(5)
(6)
hGd ldlt
(7)
6]lnkmf]g gDa/ -ePdf pNn]v ug]{_
(8)
gful/stfkf;kf]6{ gDa/ lnPsf] ldlt / sfof{no
(9)
g]kfn ;/sf/ jf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] :jfldTj ePsf] ;+:yf jf lghL If]qsf] ;+:yfdf sfd
ug]{ sd{rf/L eP kl/rokqsf] 5jLlrq
(10)
kmf]6f]
(11)
cGo cfjzos sfuhftx? -a}+sljQLo ;+:yf :jo+n] tf]Sg ;Sg]_
-v_
;fem]bf/L jf JolQmut kmd{sf] vftf
(1)
kmd{sf] gfd
(2)
7]ufgf
(3)
6]lnkmf]gdf]jfOn gDa/ -ePdf pNn]v ug]{_
(4)
;fem]bf/ ;a}sf] gfd / tLgsf] 7]ufgf -kmf]g g+= ;lxt_
(5)
;fem]bf/sf] kmf]6f]
(6)
kmd{ /lhi6]zgsf] k|df0fkq
(7)
:yfgLo lgsfo jf cGo ;/sf/L lgsfodf btf{ eO{ :yfoL n]vf gDa/ k|fKt u/]sf]
k|df0fkq
(8)
kmd{sf ;fem]bf/ jLr ePsf] sa'lnotgfdf
(9)
;fem]bf/ kmd{ eP cfly{s tyf k|zf;lgs sf/f]jf/ ug]{ ;DaGwdf lbPsf] clVtof/gfdf
cGo cfjZos sfuhftx? -a}+sljQLo ;+:yf :jo+n] tf]Sg ;Sg]_
(10)
-u_
sDkgLsf] vftf
(1)
sDkgLsf] gfd
(2)
/lhi68{ sfof{no /x]sf] :yfg
(3)
k"/f 7]ufgf -6]lnkmf]g, ofS; ;d]t_
(4)
;+:yfkgf / u7g ;DaGwL k|df0fkq tyf sDkgLsf] k|aGwkq / lgodfjnL
(5)
;~rfns ;ldltsf ;b:ox?sf] gfd / 7]ufgf -ePdf kmf]g gDa/ ;d]t pNn]v ug]{_
(6)
;~rfns ;ldltsf ;b:ox?sf] kmf]6f]
(7)
vftf vf]Ng] / vftf ;~rfng ug]{ ;DaGwdf ;~rfns ;ldltn] u/]sf] lg0f{o /
clVtof/L
(8)
;~rfns ;ldltn] sfo{sf/L k|d'v / cGo clws[t sd{rf/LnfO{ cfly{s sf/f]jf/sf]
;DaGwdf k|bfg u/]sf] clVtof/L
(9)
cGo cfjZos sfuhftx? -a}+sljQLo ;+:yf :jo+n] tf]Sg ;Sg]_
-3_
Snau}/;/sf/L ;+3;+:yfsf] vftf
(1)
Sna tyf u}/;/sf/L ;+3 ;+:yfsf] gfd
(2)
7]ufgf
(3)
;+:yf btf{ k|df0fkqsf] k|dfl0ft 5ljlrq
(4)
ljwfg

258

(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)

-_

-r_

-5_

-h_

sfo{ ;ldltsf] gfd / 7]ufgf -ePdf kmf]g gDa/ ;d]t pNn]v ug]{_
6]lnkmf]g gDa/
vftf vf]Ng] ;DaGwL sfo{ ;ldltsf] lg0f{o
Sna jf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfsf] ;+rfnssfo{sf/L ;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lx?sf] kmf]6f]
vftf ;~rfng tyf cfly{s sf/f]jf/ ;DaGwL clVtof/L
cGo cfjZos sfuhftx? -a}+sljQLo ;+:yf :jo+n] tf]Sg ;Sg]_
;xsf/L ;+:yfsf] vftf
(1)
;+:yfsf] gfd
(2)
7]ufgf
(3)
kmf]g g+= -ePdf pNn]v ug]{_
(4)
;+:yfsf] ljlgod
(5)
;~rfns ;ldltsf ;b:ox?sf] gfd / 7]ufgf -ePdf kmf]g gDa/ ;d]t pNn]v ug]{_
(6)
;~rfns ;ldltsf ;b:ox?sf] kmf]6f]
(7)
;+:yf btf{ ;DaGwL k|df0fkqsf] k|dfl0ft 5ljlrq
(8)
vftf vf]Ng] ;DaGwL ;+rfns ;ldltsf] lg0f{o / cfly{s sf/f]jf/ ug]{ ;DaGwL clVtof/L
(9)
cGo cfjZos sfuhftx? -a}+sljQLo ;+:yf :jo+n] tf]Sg ;Sg]_
;fj{hlgs u'7L jf lghL u'7Lsf] vftf
(1)
gfd
(2)
7]ufgf
(3)
kmf]g g+= -ePdf pNn]v ug]{_
(4)
ljwfg
(5)
u'7L :yfkgf ;DaGwL ePsf] sa'lnotgfdf
(6)
u'7L ;+rfnssf] gfd / 7]ufgf
(7)
u'7L ;+rfnssf] kmf]6f]
(8)
u'7L :yfkgf ;DaGwL k|df0fkqsf] k|dfl0ft 5ljlrq
(9)
;~rfnsJoj:yfkg ;ldltsf ;b:ox?sf] gfd / 7]ufgf
(10)
vftf vf]Ng] ;DaGwL ;~rfnsJoj:yfkg ;ldltsf] lg0f{o / cfly{s sf/f]jf/ ;DaGwL
clVtof/L
(11)
cGo cfjZos sfuhftx? -a}+sljQLo ;+:yf :jo+n] tf]Sg ;Sg]_
:s"n jf SofDk;sf] vftf
(1)
:s"n jf SofDk;sf] gfd
(2)
7]ufgf
k|aGwkq / lgodfjnL
(3)
(4)
;+:yf :jLs[ltsf] k|df0fkqsf] k|dfl0ft 5ljlrq
(5)
:s"n jf SofDk;sf] k|d'v kbflwsf/Lsf] gfd, y/, 7]ufgf, kmf]g g+= / kmf]6f]
(6)
;~rfnsJoj:yfkg ;ldltsf ;b:ox?sf] gfd / 7]ufgf -ePdf kmf]g gDa/ ;d]t
pNn]v ug]{_
(7)
;~rfnsJoj:yfkg ;ldltn] vftf vf]Ng] ;DaGwL u/]sf] lg0f{o / cfly{s sf/f]jf/
;DaGwL lbPsf] clVtof/L
(8)
cGo cfjZos sfuhftx? -a}+sljQLo ;+:yf :jo+n] tf]Sg ;Sg]_
cGt//fli6o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfsf] vftf
;+:yfsf] gfd
(1)
(2)
7]ufgf
(3)
;dfh sNof0f kl/ifb\ / ;+:yf jLr s'g} ;Demf}tf ePsf] eP ;Demf}tfsf] k|ltlnkL
(4)
g]kfn ;/sf/;Fu s'g} ;Demf}tf ePsf] eP ;f] ;Demf}tf
(5)
;DalGwt b]z jf ;f] b]zsf] /fhb"tfjf;sf] l;kmfl/z kq
(6)
;+:yfsf] ljwfg
(7)
;+:yfsf] b'O{ k|d'v kbflwsf/L tyf ;+rfnssf] gfd, y/, 7]ufgf, kmf]g g+= / kmf]6f] /
7]ufgf k|dfl0ft ug]{ sfuhftx?
(8)
g]kfnl:yt ;f] ;+:yfsf tk{msf6 lgo"Qm ePsf] k|ltlglw jf k|d'vsf] gfd, y/, kmf]6f]
;lxt 7]ufgf k|dfl0ft x'g] sfuhft

259

(9)
(10)

-em_

-`_

-6_

-7_

;+:yfn] vftf vf]Ng lbPsf] clVtof/L / cfly{s sf/f]jf/ ug{ lbPsf] clVtof/L
cGo cfjZos sfuhft -a}+sljQLo ;+:yf :jo+n] tf]Sg ;Sg]_
ljb]zL JolQmsf] vftf
(1)
k"/f gfd, y/, 7]ufgf
(2)
lktf jf kltsf] gfd
(3)
Dofb ggf3]sf] le;fsf] k|dfl0ft 5ljlrq
(4)
kf;kf]6{sf] k|ltlnkL
(5)
sfo{/t ;+:yfsf] l;kmfl/z kq -sd{rf/L eP_
(6)
g]kfnsf] k"/f 7]ufgf jf ;Dks{ :yfg
(7)
cGo cfjZos sfuhftx? -a}+sljQLo ;+:yf :jo+n] tf]Sg ;Sg]_
ljb]zL sDkgLsf] vftf
(1)
lab]zL sDkgL btf{ ePsf] sfuhft
(2)
sDkgLsf] k|aGwkq, lgodfjnL
(3)
a}b]lzs sDkgLn] vftf vf]Ng lbPsf] clVtof/L tyf sf/f]jf/ ug{ lbPsf] clVtof/L
(4)
/lhi68{ 7]ufgfJofkfl/s 7]ufgf k|dfl0ft ug]{ sfuhft
(5)
a}b]lzs sDkgLsf] k|d'v b'O{ kbflwsf/Lx?sf] gfd, y/, 7]ufgf, kmf]6f], kmf]g g+= ;lxt
JolQmut ljj/0f / 7]ufgf k|dfl0ft x'g] sfuhft
(6)
g]kfnsf] k"/f 7]ufgf, ;+ks{ :yfg jf ;+ks{ JolQm
(7)
cGo cfjZos sfuhft -a}+sljQLo ;+:yf :jo+n] tf]Sg ;Sg]_
s'6g}lts lgof]u/fhb'tfjf;sf] vftf
(1)
lgof]u/fhb'tfjf;sf] kq
(2)
vftf ;~rfng ;DaGwL clVtof/L
(3)
vftf ;~rfnssf] gfd, y/, 7]ufgf, kmf]6f] tyf 7]ufgf k|dfl0ft x'g] sfuhft
(4)
cGo cfjZos sfuhft -a}+sljQLo ;+:yf :jo+n] tf]Sg ;Sg]_
u}/cfjf;Lo g]kfnL gful/ssf] vftf
(1)
k"/f gfd, y/, 7]ufgf
(2)
lktfsf] gfd
(3)
>Ldfg\>LdtLsf] gfd
(4)
cfo ;|f]t v'Ng] sfuhftx?
(5)
/f]huf/bftf ;+:yf ;Fusf] ;Demf}tfkqlgo'lQmkq
(6)
kf;kf]6{sf] k|dfl0ft 5ljlrq
(7)
g]kfnsf] k"/f 7]ufgf jf ;+ks{ :yfg
cGo cfjZos sfuhftx? -a}+sljQLo ;+:yf :jo+n] tf]Sg ;Sg]_
(8)

260

cg';"rL !(=@
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf C0fsf] nflu lgj]bg lb+bf v'nfpg'kg]{ laa/0fsf] 9fFrf
ldltM ====================
-?= xhf/df_
C0f lnPsf] cGo a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] gfd
aSof}tf /sd -ldlt_
Dofb gf3]sf] 55}g
!=
======= a}+sljQLo ;+:yf
rfn' k'FhL shf{
cfjlws shf{
cGo shf{
u}/sf]ifdf cfwfl/t ;'ljwf
hDdf
@=

======= a}+sljQLo ;+:yf


rfn' k'FhL shf{
cfjlws shf{
cGo shf{
u}/sf]ifdf cfwfl/t ;'ljwf

hDdf
s'n hDdf
pk/f]Qm adf]lhd dxfdLn] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] ljj/0f 7Ls 5 e'mf 7x/] sfg'g adf]lhd sf/jfxL ePdf d~h'/L 5
egL ;xL ug]{M
clwsf/ k|fKt clwsf/Lsf] b:tvtM
JolQmsf] gfdkmd{, sDkgL / ;+:yfsf] gfd / 5fkM

261

cg';"rL !(=#
Threshold Transaction Report (TTR) Form
for Banks and Financial Institutions
Name of Reporting Institution:
S. Name and address of Branc
N. the person holding h
account
(including
legal)

Date of Nature of Account


Amount
Transacti Transaction Type and Involved
on
No.

Source
of
Fund

Remar
ks

Signature :
(Compliance Officer or authorized officer)
Name
:
Designation :
Phone
:
Email
:
Fax
:
Date
:

262

cg';"rL !(=$
Suspicious Transaction Report (STR) Form for Banks and Financial Institutions
A. Reporting Institution :
1. Name of the Institution/Branch:
B. Details of Customer :
1. 1. Name of the account holder/s/customer:
2. Address:
3. Profession(if applicable):
4. Nationality(if applicable):
5. Other account(s) number (if any):
6. Other business (if nay):
7. Father/Mothers name (if applicable):
8. Date of birth/establishment:
C. Account/Transaction Details
1 Account Number/Transaction:
2. Nature of the account/transaction*:
(Current/savings/loan/other, pls. specify)
3. Nature of ownership:
(Individual/proprietorship
/partnership/company/other, pls. specify)
4.Date of opening/transaction:
5. Other account(s) number/transaction
(if any):
6. Amount:
7. Others:
*Cash/Transfer/Clearing/TT/etc. Add paper if necessary

263

D. Reasons for considering the transaction(s) as unusual/suspicious?


(Mention summery of suspicion and consequence of events)
a.

Identity of clients

b.

Activity in account

c.

Background of client

d.

Multiple accounts

e.

Nature of transaction

f.

Value of transaction

g.
Other reason (Pls. Specify)
E. Suspicious Activity Information
Summary characterization of suspicious activity:
a.

Corruption/Gratuit
y

e.

False statement

h.

Structuring

b.

Cheque fraud

f.

E
or wire frauds i.
(debit/credit or other
card)

Mysterious
Disappearance/behavior

c.

Tax evasion

g.

Identity Theft

j.

Counterfeit instrument

d.

Loan fraud

h.

Terrorist Financing

k.

Misuse of Position or Self

F. Has the suspicious transaction/activity had a material impact on or


otherwise affected the financial soundness of the bank/fI?
Yes
G. Has the bank/FI taken any action in this context? If yes, give details.

Signature (Compliance Officer or authorized officer) :


Name :
Phone :
Email:
Fax:

264

Date:

No

cg';"rL !(=%
Internal Record Form of STR Submission for Banks and Financial Institutions
Name of Reporting Institution:
S.N.

Name and address of Branch


the person holding
account
(including
legal)

Date
of Nature of Amount
Transaction
Transaction

Reasons to Rem.
be
suspicious

Signature :
(Compliance Officer or authorized officer)
Name
:
Designation :
Phone
:
Email
:
Fax
:
Date
:

265

Signatu
re

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= @))^(
laifo M ;xfos sDkgL ;DaGwL Joj:yf .
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+sljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;xfos sDkgL vf]Ng] ;DaGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%*
sf] bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .

!=

3 ju{sf] n3'ljQ ;xfos sDkgL ;DaGwL Joj:yf


!=
!=!=

!=@=

!=#=

!=$=

!=%=

!=^=

@=
#=

Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] :jfldTjdf Pp6f 5'} 3 ju{sf]


n3'ljQ ;+:yf vf]nL ;f] ;xfos sDkgL (Subsidiary Company) dfk{mt\ ljkGg ju{df shf{ k|jfx
ug{ rfx]df b]xfosf gLltut tyf k|s[ofut Joj:yfx?sf] clwgdf /xL ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
;xfos sDkgLsf ?kdf :yflkt eO{ n3'ljQ sf/f]af/ ug]{ 3 ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yfsf] xsdf
Psf3/ kl/jf/, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;l7t ;+:yf jf Ps} ;d"xsf sDkgLsf] z]o/ nufgLsf]
clwstd xb r'Qmf k'FhLsf] @% k|ltztdf 5'6 lbOg] gLlt cg'?k Ohfhtkqk|fKt s jf v
jf u ju{sf ;+:yfsf] ;xfos sDkgL -3 ju{sf] n3'ljQ ;+:yf_ df ;+:yfks z]o/ :jfldTj
r'Qmf k'FhLsf] Go"gtd %! k|ltzt tyf clwstd &) k|ltzt;Dd /xg ;Sg]5 .
d'Vo sDkgLn] cfkm\gf] ljQLo ljj/0f k]z ubf{ ;xfos sDkgLsf] ljQLo ljj/0fx? klg PsLs[t
(Consolidated) ?kdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . ;f] k|of]hgfy{ n]vf gLlt / ljQLo ljj/0f O=k|f=lgb]{zg
g+=$ sf] ;DalGwt yk cg';"rLdf tf]lsP adf]lhd k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fy}, ;xfos sDkgLsf] n]vf
gLlt, ;"rgf k|ljlw tyf cGo gLltk|0ffnLx? (Policies, Procedures and Systems) d'Vo
sDkgL;+u ;fd~h:otf sfod x'g] u/L Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] tyf ;xfos sDkgLsf] k'FhL kof{Kttf
;DaGwL u0fgf 5'f5'} ?kdf / PsLs[t -Consolidated_ ?kdf ug'{ kg]{5 . PsLs[t
-Consolidated_ ?kdf u0fgf u/Lg] k'FhLsf]if ;DalGwt ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ tf]s] adf]lhdsf]
-s, v, u / 3 ju{sf] nflu qmdzM !), !!, !! / * k|ltzt_ dfkb08 Pj+ lgb]{zg k"/f
ug'{ kg]{5 .
d'Vo tyf ;xfos sDkgLlar x'g] sf/f]af/ k|lt:kwf{Tds ahf/ d"No (Arm's Length
Transaction) df cfwfl/t x'g' kg]{5 . d'Vo tyf ;xfos sDkgLaLr x'g] sf/f]af/df kf/blz{tf
sfod /fVg oL sDkgLx?aLr x'g] sf/f]jf/df ljQLo :jfy{ /xg] x'Fbf To:tf] sf/f]af/ (Related
Party Transactions) nfO{ b'j} sDkgLn] ;DalGwt kIfaLr x'g] sf/f]af/ (Related Party
Transactions) zLif{s cGt{ut v'nfpg -Disclose_ kg]{5 .
To:tf sf/f]jf/ eP kl5 lgoldt?kdf k|sflzt ug'{ kg]{ ljQLo ljj/0fdf ;f] sf/f]jf/af/] lj:t[t
hfgsf/L k|bfg ug'{ kg]{5 . k|ltikwf{Tds ahf/ d"Nodf sf/f]af/ gu/]df /jf To:tf sf/f]jf/af/]
lj:t[t ljj/0f lgb]{zgfg';f/ k|sflzt gu/]df g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] kl/R5]b !!
adf]lhd hl/jfgf;hfo x'g]5 .
zfvfsfof{no :yfkgf tyf ;+rfngsf ;DaGwdf o; a}+saf6 hf/L lgb]{zg g+= !$ adf]lhd
s, v / u ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ug'{ kg]{ b]xfosf Joj:yfx? ;xfos sDkgL :yfkgf ug]{
k|of]hgfy{ klg nfu" x'g]5 .
-s_
o; a}+ssf] gLltut Joj:yf tyf lgb]{zgn] tf]s]sf] Go"gtd r'Qmf k'FhL k"/f u/]sf] .
-v_
l7s cl3Nnf] dlxgfsf] ljQLo ljj/0fdf o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] k+"hLsf]if k"/f u/]sf] .
-u_
l7s cl3Nnf] qodf;df lgliqmo shf{ % k|ltzteGbf a9L gePsf] .
n3'ljQ sf/f]af/ ug]{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt 3 ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yf -;xfos sDkgL_ n] ljBdfg
Joj:yf adf]lhd slDtdf #) k|ltzt z]o/ ;j{;fwf/0fsf] nflu laqmL ug'{ kg]{5 .
n3'ljQ sf/f]af/ ug]{ ;xfos sDkgL 3 ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ?kdf /xg] x'gfn]
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] 3 ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yf

266

$=

%=

^=

@=

-;xfos sDkgL_ df u/]sf] ;+:yfks z]o/ nufgL tyf shf{ k|jfxnfO{ o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg
adf]lhd ljkGg ju{ shf{ cGtu{t u0fgf ul/g] 5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt o:tf] 3 ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yfdf u/]sf] z]o/ nufgL /sdnfO{ k|fylds k'FhLaf6
36fO{ k'FhLsf]if sfod ug'{ kg]{] ljBdfg k|fjwfgnfO{ ljkGg ju{df x'g] nufgLnfO{ k|f]T;flxt ug{
o; k|of]hgfy{ 5'6 lbOg] 5 . ;fy}, ;xfos sDkgLsf ?kdf :yflkt eO{ n3'ljQ sf/f]af/ ug]{
3 ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yfdf nufgL eO{ ljQLo :jfy{ :yflkt ePsf] v08df ;d]t ljQLo :jfy{
ePsf] ;+ul7t ;+:yfx?df ul/Psf] z]o/ nufgL /sdnfO{ k|fylds k'FhLaf6 36fpg' kg]{ ljBdfg
k|fjwfgnfO{ klg 5'6 lbOg] 5 .
n3'ljQ sf/f]af/ ug]{ 3 ju{sf] ljQLo ;+:yfsf] xsdf Psf3/ kl/jf/, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;l7t
;+:yf jf Ps} ;d"xsf sDkgLsf] z]o/ nufgLsf] clwstd xb r'Qmf k'FhLsf] @% k|ltzt;Dd
x'g;Sg] ljBdfg Joj:yf /x]sf]df o;/L ;xfos sDkgL :yfkgf ug{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt -s, v
/ u ju{sf_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 cg'/f]w eO{ cfPdf To:tf] z]o/ nufgLsf] ;Ldfdf 5'6
lbO{g] 5 .
3 ju{sf] n3'ljQ sf/f]af/ ug{ Ohfhtkqsf] nflu k|:tfljt o:tf] ;xfos sDkgL o;
a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt 3 ju{sf] 5'6\6} ljQLo ;+:yf -Separate Entity_ sf] ?kdf /xg] x'gfn]
To:tf] ljQLo ;+:yfsf] lgodg, lg/LIf0f, ;'kl/j]If0f / cGo Joj:yfx? a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf
;DaGwL P]g, @)^# tyf ljBdfg cGo Joj:yf cg'?k g} x'g] 5 .

dr]{G6 a}+ls+u ;DaGwL sfo{ ug{] ;xfos sDkgL :yfkgf ;DaGwL Joj:yf

Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfkm\gf] :jk'FhL -Equity_ nufgL
u/]/ 5'} ;xfos sDkgL dfkm{t g]kfn lwtf]kq af]8{af6 cg'dlt lnO{ nufgL ;DaGwL ljBdfg gLltut
Joj:yf tyf cGo k|rlnt sfg"gL Joj:yfsf] clwgdf /xL dr]{G6 a}+ls+u ;DaGwL sfo{ ug{ sDtLdf %!
k|ltzt :jfldTj x'g] ;xfos sDkgL -Subsidiary Company_ :yfkgf u/L sf/f]af/ ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yfsf
;DaGwdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf] gLltut Joj:yf sfod ul/Psf]] 5 .
-!_
dr]{06 a}ls ;DaGwL sfo{ ug]{ 5'} ;xfos sDkgLdf nufgL ubf{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v /
u ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ljQLo :jfy{ :yflkt x'g] ePsf]n] pQm ;xfos sDkgLdf
ul/Psf] s'n nufgL /sdnfO{ k'FhLsf]if u0fgf ubf{ k|fylds k'FhLaf6 36fO{ k'FhLsf]if sfod ug'{
kg]{]5 .
-@_
O=k|f= lgb]{zg g+= * df ePsf cGo Joj:yfnfO{ oyfjt sfod /fvL] o;}u/L Ohfhtkqk|fKt
;+:yfn] ;+ul7t ;+:yfx?sf] z]o/ tyf l8a]~r/df nufgL ubf{ nufgL x'g] ;+:yfsf] r'Qmf k'FhLsf]
!) k|ltztdf ggf3\g] u/L dfq nufgL ug'{ kg]{5 . eGg] Joj:yf o; k|of]hgsf nflu 5'6 k|bfg
ul/Psf] 5 .
-#_
;xfos sDkgLsf] lgodg, lg/LIf0f, ;'kl/j]If0f / cGo Joj:yfx? g]kfn lwtf]kq af]8{n] to u/]sf]
gLlt lgb]{zg tyf ljBdfg cGo Joj:yf cg'?k x'g]5 . o; Joj:yfaf6 pQm ;xfos sDkgLdf
g]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] tkm{af6 cfjZostf cg';f/ lg/LIf0f;'kl/j]If0f ug{ afwf k'u]sf] dflgg] 5}g .
-$_
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt d'Vo sDkgLn] cfkm\gf] ljQLo ljj/0f k]z ubf{ ;xfos sDkgLsf]
ljQLo ljj/0fx? ;d]t PsLs[t?kdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . ;f] k|of]hgfy{ n]vf gLlt / ljQLo ljj/0f
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+=$ sf] ;DalGwt yk cg';"rLdf tf]lsP adf]lhd k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fy}, ;xfos
sDkgLsf] n]vf gLlt, ;"rgf k|ljlw tyf cGo gLltk|0ffnLx? -Policies, Procedures and
Systems) d'Vo sDkgL;+u ;fd~h:otf sfod x'g] u/L Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
-%_
d'Vo tyf ;xfos sDkgLaLr x'g] sf/f]af/df kf/blz{tf sfod /fVg oL sDkgLx?aLr x'g]
sf/f]jf/df ljQLo :jfy{ /xg] x'Fbf To:tf] sf/f]af/ -Related Party Transactions_ nfO{ b'j}
sDkgLn] ;DalGwt kIfaLr x'g] sf/f]af/ -Related Party Transactions_ zLif{s cGt{ut v'nfpg'
-Disclose_ kg]{5 .
-^_
To:tf] sf/f]jf/ eP kl5 lgoldt?kdf k|sflzt ug'{ kg]{ ljQLo ljj/0fdf ;f] sf/f]jf/af/] lj:t[t
hfgsf/L k|bfg ug'{ kg]{5 . k|lt:kwf{Tds ahf/ d"Nodf sf/f]af/ gu/]df /jf To:tf] sf/f]jf/ af/]
lj:t[t ljj/0f lgb]{zgfg';f/ k|sflzt gu/]df g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] kl/R5]b !!
adf]lhd h'g;'s} hl/jfgf;hfo x'g ;Sg]5 .
-&_
;xfos sDkgLn] b]xfosf sfo{ ug{ ;Sg] 5}gg\ M
-s_
lwtf]kq bnfnL ;DaGwL Joj;fo ,
-v_
cfkm"n] hf/L u/]sf] lwtf]kqsf] Jofkf/ .

267

-*_

#=

;xfos sDkgLn] ljQLo ;|f]t ;+sng ug]{ k|of]hgn] bfloTj:j?k lgisfzg ug]{ s'g} klg
;'/If0fkqx?df d'Vo sDkgL -Parent Company_ n] nufgL ug{ gkfpg] / ;f] ;'/If0fkqsf]
lwtf]df shf{ k|jfx ;d]t ug{ kfpg] 5}g .
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf]] ;xfos sDkgL ;DaGwL Joj:yf O=k|f= lgb]{zg g+= @))^* af6
hf/L ul/Psf] lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u
;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

268

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= @!)^(
ljifoM On]S6f]lgs dfWodaf6 x'g] a}ls -O{a}ls_ ;]jf ;DaGwdf .
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] b]xfosf] Joj:yf kfngf u/L On]S6f]lgs dfWodaf6 x'g] a}+ls -O{
a}ls_ ;]jfx? k|bfg ug{u/fpg x'g g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L of]
lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
!=
zfvf/lxt a}+ls+ ;]jf -Branchless Banking_ ;DaGwdf
-!_ o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] o; a}+ssf] :jLs[lt lnO{ cfkmgf] ;+:yfdf
vftf ePsf u|fxsx?nfO{ cfk"m jf cfk"mf/f lgo'Qm Joj;flos cflwsfl/s k|ltlglw-Ph]G6_sf]
;xfotfn] Point of Transaction d]zLgsf] dfWodaf6 Smart Card/Magnetic Card k|of]u u/L
b]xfo adf]lhdsf zfvf/lxt a}ls ;]jfx? k|bfg ug{ ;Sg] 5g\M
-s_
vftfdf gub hDdf ug]{, e'QmfgL k|bfg ug]{ / /sdfGt/ ug{] .
-v_
u|fxssf] vftfsf] df}Hbft jf sf/f]jf/ ljj/0f -:6]6d]06_ k|bfg ug{] .
-u_
:jLs[t shf{ /sd e'QmfgL lbg] tyf ls:tf /sd hDdf ug]{ .
-@_ zfvf/lxt a}ls ;]jf ;Grfng ug]{ ePdf ;+rfns ;ldltaf6 ;f] ;DaGwL gLltut Joj:yf kf/Lt
u/L k|lqmofut Joj:yf ;d]t u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
-#_ zfvf/lxt a}ls ;]jf ;Grfng ug]{ :jLs[ltsf] nflu o; a}+s ;dIf cfj]bg ubf{ ;+rfns
;ldltsf] lg0f{o ;lxt b]xfosf sfuhftx? ;+nUg u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5M
-s_
k|fljlws k"jf{wf/ -Hardware, Software, Data Communication/Transmission
Mechanism) ;DaGwL ljj/0f,
-v_
k|ltlglwdfkm{t ;Grfng ug]{ ePdf To:tf] k|ltlglw 5gf}6sf cfwf/x?, 5gf}6 ul/Psf]
k|ltlglw;+u x'g] ;Demf}tfkq tyf pQm k|ltlglwnfO{ lbOg] tflnd cflb ;DaGwL ePsf]
Joj:yf,
-u_
zfvf/lxt a}ls ;]jf ;Grfng ug]{ :yfgsf] ;'/Iff / gubsf] jLdf ;DaGwdf ePsf
Joj:yfx?,
-3_
ljBdfg ;+rf/ ;fwg (PSTN, Cellular Communications) sf] Industry Standard
Security Features,

-_
-r_

zfvf/lxt a}ls ;]jf ;Grfngsf] sfo{If]q / ;DalGwt zfvfx?sf] ljj/0f,


e'QmfgL ;DaGwL pTkGg ljjfb ;dfwfg ug]{ ;DaGwL k|fjwfg, lhDd]jf/L tyf Ifltk"lt{
;DaGwL Joj:yfx?, /
-5_
;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+ssf/L ultljlwdf ljQLo nufgL lgoGq0fsf] nflu ckgfOg]
Joj:yfx? .
-$_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfk"m jf cfk'mf/f lgo'Qm Joj;flos cflwsfl/s k|ltlglw-Ph]G6_ dfkm{t
;d]t zfvf/lxt a}+ls ;]jf ;Grfng ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ . Ph]G6dfkm{t To:tf] ;]jf ;+rfng ug]{ ePdf
k|ltlglw 5gf}6sf] nflu k|ltlglwsf] ;Ifdtf k/LIf0f u/L lkIf aLr a'Fbf g+= & sf] clwgdf /xL
;Demf}tf ePsf] x'g' kg]{ 5 .
-%_ Zffvf/lxt a}+ls ;]jf ;Grfngsf] :jLs[lt k|bfg ubf{ b]xfosf zt{x? tf]Sg ;lsg] 5M
-s_
zfvf/lxt a}ls ;]jf ;Grfngsf] :jLs[lt k|fKt u/]sf ldltn] ^ dlxgfleq tf]lsP
adf]lhdsf] ;]jf ;Grfng ul/;Sg' kg]{ 5 . o:tf] sf/f]jf/ ;Grfng u/]kl5 ;f]sf]
hfgsf/L o; ljefu / ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefunfO{ lbg' kg]{ 5 . sy+sbflrt
tf]lsPsf] ;dofjlwleq To:tf] ;]jf ;Grfng ug{ g;s]df o; a}+saf6 k|bfg ul/Psf]
:jLs[lt :jtM /2 ePsf] dflgg] 5 .

269

-v_

@=

#=

dxfgu/kflnsfpkdxfgu/kflnsfgu/kflnsf afx]ssf If]qx?df dfq o:tf] ;]jf


;Grfng ug{ :jLs[lt lbOg] 5 .
-u_
zfvf/lxt a}ls ;]jf pkef]u ug{ OR5's u|fxs;+u a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] lnlvt
cfj]bg lng' kg]{ 5 .
-3_
u|fxsn] u/]sf] k|To]s sf/f]af/sf] c;/ oyfzL3| u|fxssf] vftfdf b]lvg] u/L clen]v
;'/lIft u/L /fVg] / sf/f]jf/sf] uf]Kotf sfod x'g] Aoj:yf ug{' kg{] 5 .
-_
zfvf/lxt a}+ls ;]jf ;DaGwL sf/f]jf/ g]kfnL ?k}ofdf dfq ug'{ kg]{5 .
-r_
u|fxsnfO{ :ki6 / ;/n g]kfnL efiffdf ;]jf ;DaGwL cfjZos hfgsf/L k|bfg ug]{
Aoj:yf ug'{ kg{] 5 .
-5_
sf/f]af/ ;DkGg u/]kl5 u|fxsn] :ki6 a'em\g] u/L ;f] sf] hfgsf/L k|bfg ug{] Aoj:yf
ldnfpg' kg{] 5 .
-h_
o:tf] sf/f]jf/ ;DaGwL hf]lvdsf] Joj:yfkg ug]{ bfloTj ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfsf] x'g]5 .
-em_
k|rlnt sfg'g, ;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL lgjf/0f tyf o;
a}+saf6 hf/L lgb]{zgsf] clwgdf /xL zfvf/lxt a}ls ;]jf ;Grfng ug'{ kg]{ 5 .
-^_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] zfvf/lxt a}ls ;]jf k|bfg ug'{ k"j{ cfkm\gf u|fxs;+u a'Fbf g+= ^ sf]
clwgdf /xL ;Demf}tf ug'{ kg]{ 5 .
-&_ dfly h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] ePtf klg /fli6o:t/b]lv afx]ssf v, u / 3 ju{sf ljQLo
;+:yfnfO{ zfvf/lxt a}ls ;]jf ;Grfngsf] :jLs[lt k|bfg ubf{ a}+sn] cGo zt{x? ;d]t yk ug{
;Sg] 5 .
df]afO{n a}+ls ;]jf ;DaGwdf
-!_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] o; a}+ssf] :jLs[lt lnO{ cfk\mgf u|fxsx?nfO{ tf]lsPsf
zt{x?sf] clwgdf /xg] u/L b]xfo adf]lhdsf df]jfO{n a}ls ;]jf k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]5g\ M
-s_
u|fxssf] vftfdf /x]sf] df}Hbftsf] hfgsf/L k|bfg ug{] .
-v_
u|fxssf] cfb]z adf]lhd t];|f] kIfsf] vftfdf /sdfGt/ ug]{ .
-u_
sf/f]af/ ;DkGg ePkl5 P;PdP; dfkm{t ;ts{tf ;Gb]z -SMS Alert) k|bfg ug{] .
-3_
u|fxssf] vftfsf] sf/f]jf/ ljj/0f -:6]6d]G6_ k|bfg ug{] .
-_
r]s a'ssf] lgldQ cg'/f]w :jLsf/ ug{] .
-r_
u|fxs;+u ePsf] lnlvt ;Demf}tf jf u|fxssf] cfb]z cg';f/ j:t' v/Lb jf ;]jf pkef]u
u/] jfktsf] /sd e'QmfgL ug]{ .
-@_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] df]jfOn a}+ls sf/f]af/ ;Grfng ug'{ k"j{ ;+rfns ;ldltaf6 o;
;DaGwL gLltut Joj:yf kf/Lt u/L k|s[ofut Joj:yf ;d]t u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
-#_ of] lgb]{zg hf/L x'g' cl3 g} o; ;DaGwL sf/f]jf/ ;+rfng ul//x]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n]
of] lgb]{zg hf/L ePsf] tLg dlxgf leq o; lgb{]zg adflhdsf] :jLs[lt lng' kg]{5 .
-$_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] sf/f]jf/df lglxt hf]lvdsf] d"Nofg u/L sf/f]jf/sf] ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ug'{
kg]{ 5 / ;f]sf] hfgsf/L o; a}+snfO{ lbg' kg]{ 5 .
-%_ 3 ju{sf n3'ljQLo ;+:yfsf] xsdf o; a}+sn] yk zt{ tyf ;Ldf tf]sL df]jfOn a}ls sf/f]jf/
;Grfngsf] :jLs[lt lbg ;Sg] 5 .
O{G6/g]6 a}+lsu ;]jf ;DaGwdf
-!_ o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s v / u ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfkm\gf] ;+:yfdf
vftf ePsf u|fxsnfO{ tf]lsPsf zt{x?sf] clwgdf /xL OG6/g]6sf] dfWodaf6 b]xfosf ;]jfx?
k|bfg ug{ ;Sg] 5g\M
-s_ u|fxssf] vftfdf /x]sf] df}Hbft, a}+s :6]6d]G6 k|fKt ug]{u/fpg] .
-v_ r]sa's hf/L ug{ cfb]z lbg], vftf /f]Ssf /fVg], kf;j8{ kl/jt{g ug]{ h:tf cfb]z
adf]lhdsf ;]jfx? k|bfg ug]{ .
-u_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 cfjZos ;"rgf jf hfgsf/Lx? k|fKt ug]{u/fpg] .

270

$=

%=

-3_ u|fxssf] cfb]z cg';f/ cfkm\gf] u|fxssf] vftfdf /sd hDdf ug]{ jf 6fG;km/ ug{]{u/fpg] .
-_ u|fxs;Fu ePsf] ;Demf}tf jf cfb]z cg';f/ j:t' v/Lb jf ;]jf pkef]u u/] jfktsf] /sd
e'QmfgL ug]{u/fpg] .
-@_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] OG6/g]6 a}+ls ;]jf ;Grfng ug'{ k"j{ ;+rfns ;ldltaf6 o; ;DaGwL
gLltut Joj:yf kfl/t u/L k|s[ofut Joj:yf ;d]t u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 . o;sf] hfgsf/L o; a}+ssf]
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefunfO{ u/fpg' kg]{5 . of] lgb]{zg hf/L x'g' k"j{ o; lsl;dsf]
;]jf ;Grfng ul/;s]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] To:tf] gLltut tyf k|s[ofut Joj:yf ;lxt b'O{
dlxgf leq ;f]sf] hfgsf/L o; a}+snfO u/fpg' kg]{ 5 .
-#_ OG6/g]6sf] dfWodaf6 x'g] ;a} lsl;dsf] a}+ls sf/]fj/ g]kfnL ?k}ofdf dfq ug{ kfOg] 5 . t/
ljb]zL d'b|fdf vftf ePsf u|fxsnfO{ hfgsf/Ld"ns ;]jf lbg / g]kfnL ?k}ofdf /sdfGt/ ug{ o;
Joj:yfn] jfwf k'ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
O{sf8{ sf/f]jf/ ;]jf ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v, / u ju{sf ;+:yfn] u|fxs;+u ;Demf}tf u/L u|fxssf] cfb]zfg';f/ /sd
e'QmfgL ug]{, hDdf ug]{ tyf /sdfGt/ ug]{, sf/f]jf/ ljj/0f k|fKt ug]{, cGo cfjZos ;"rgf tyf
hfgsf/Lx? k|fKt ug]{, a:t' v/Lb tyf ;]jf pkef]u u/] jfktsf] /sd e'QmfgL ug{] k|of]hgsf] nflu
b]xfosf zt{ tyf k|s[ofsf] clwgdf /xL cfkm\gf u|fxssf] gfddf 8]lj6 sf8{lk|k]8 sf8{qm]l86 sf8{
hf/L ug{ ;Sg]5g\M
-s_
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] sf8{sf] dfWodaf6 sf/f]jf/ ;+rfng ug]{ ePdf ;+rfns ;ldltaf6 ;f]
;DaGwL gLltut Joj:yf kfl/t u/L k|s[ofut Joj:yf u/]sf] x'g' kg]{ 5 . ;f] ;DaGwL hfgsf/L
o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu / ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefunfO{ u/fpg' kg]{
5.
-v_
of] lgb]{zg hf/L x'g'k"j{ o; lsl;dsf] ;]jf ;Grfng ul/;s]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n]
To:tf] gLltut tyf k|s[ofut Joj:yf ;lxt sf/f]jf/ ;+rfngsf] hfgsf/L b'O{ dlxgf leq o;
a}+snfO{ u/fpg' kg]{ 5 .
-u_
sf/f]jf/ ;Grfng ubf{ pTkGg x'g] hf]lvd / ;f]sf] Joj:yfkg, u|fxs;+usf] ;Demf}tf, ;DklQ
z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL sfo{df ljQLo nufgL lgjf/0f ;DaGwL hf/L lgb]{zgsf] kl/kfngf x'g]
Joj:yf ;DalGwt Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] ldnfpg' kg]{ 5 .
-3_
o:tf] sf8{ ;DaGwL ;]jf ;+rfng ubf{ nfUg] ;a} lsl;dsf ;]jf z'Ns, Jofh tyf xhf{gf
;DaGwL Joj:yfx? u|fxs;+usf] ;Demf}tfkqdf pNn]v ug'{ kg]{ 5 .
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] pQ/bfloTj / k|ltj4tf
o; lgb]{zgdf plNnlvt ;j} k|sf/sf On]S6f]lgs a}+ls sf/f]jf/ ;Grfng ug]{ ;DaGwdf gLltut tyf
k|lqmofut Joj:yf tof/ ubf{ sf/f]af/ ;DaGwL pTkGg ljjfb tyf ;d:of ;dfwfgsf] clGtd pQ/bfloTj
;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] x'g]5 eGg] k|lta4tf ;lxt b]xfosf ljifo ;d]t :ki6 pNn]v ug'{' kg]{
5 M
-s_
On]S6f]lgs a}+ls sf/f]jf/ ;DaGwL ;]jf tyf z'Nssf] ;DaGwdf k|bfg u/]sf] cjf:tljs Pjd
ck"0f{ hfgsf/Lsf sf/0f u|fxsn] a]xfg'{ kg{] gf]S;fgLsf] Ifltk"lt{ .
-v_
On]S6f]lgs a}+ls sf/f]jf/sf] nflu k|of]u x'g] k|ljlw, sDKo"6/ g]6js{, sf8{ lgdf{tf, df]jfOn
kmf]g ;+rfns, POS/POT d]lzg nufotaf6 pTkGg ;d:of / ;f]af6 u|fxsdf x'g hfg] Iflt .
-u_
;DklQ z'4Ls/0f tyf cft+sjfbL s[ofsnfkdf nufgL lgjf/0f ;DaGwL o; a}+saf6 hf/L
lgb]{zgsf] kl/kfngf .
-3_
On]S6f]lgs a}+ls ;]jf lng] u|fxsnfO{ cflwsfl/s ?kdf dfGotf lbgsf nflu laleGg r/0fdf
h:t}M l;:6ddf kx'Fr, sf/f]af/, cfb]z, nufotsf ;]jfdf kx'Frsf nflu k"/f ug'{ kg{] k|s[of .
-_
cgflws[t tyf u}/ sfg"gL ?kdf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] klxrfg k|of]u u/L x'g] lqmofsnfk
lj?4 ul/g] sf/afxL .
-r_
sf/f]af/sf] k|efjsfl/tf / cfGtl/s lgoGq0f k|0ffnLsf] ;Dk"0f{ lhDd]jf/L ;DalGwt a}+s jf
laQLo ;+:yfsf] x'g] ;DaGwL s'/f .

271

-5_

^=

&=

On]S6f]lgs a}ls ;DaGwL sf/f]jf/df lgxLt /0fgLlts hf]lvd, ;~rfng tyf sf/f]af/ hf]lvd,
Aoj;flos hf]lvd, k|fljlws hf]lvd, sfg"gL hf]lvd nufot ;j} k|sf/sf hf]lvd Joj:yfkg .
a}+sljQLo ;+:yf / u|fxs aLrsf] ;Demf}tf
o; lgb]{zgdf plNnlvt On]S6f]lgs a}+ls sf/f]af/ ug{] a}+s tyf laQLo ;+:yfn] sDtLdf b]xfosf
laifox? :ki6 u/L u|fxs;+u lnlvt ;Demf}tf ug'{ kg]{5 . u|fxsn] k]z u/]sf] cfj]bg kmf/fddf pNn]v
ePsf] zt{ tyf jGb]hnfO{ ;d]t u|fxs;+u ;Demf}tf u/] ;/x dfGg ;lsg] 5 .
-s_
;Demf}tf ;lhn} a'lemg] u/L :ki6 / bf]xf]/f] cy{ gnfUg] u/L g]kfnL efiffdf n]lvPsf] x'g' kg{]5 .
s'g} u|fxsn] o:tf] ;Demf}tf c+u|]hL efiffdf ug{ rfx]df ;f] ug{ o; Joj:yfn] jfwf k'ofPsf]
dflgg] 5}g .
-v_
On]S6f]lgs a}ls ;]jf k|bfos a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf / ;]jf k|bfg ug{] clVtof/ k|fKt clestf{
jLr tyf ;]jf k|bfos / u|fxs jLrsf] sf/f]jf/ jfkt nfUg] z"Ns ;DaGwL hfgsf/L u/fpg' kg]{
5.
-u_
u|fxsnfO{ s] slt ;do oL ;]jfx? pknJw x'g ;S5g\ eGg] Joxf]/fsf] ;fy} s'g} kl/l:yltj;
;]jf k|bfg ug{ g;lsg] cj:yfdf ;f] sf] hfgsf/L k|bfg ug'{ kg{]5 .
-3_
s'g} klg sf/0fn] a}+sn] k|bfg u/]sf] ;]jfdf ;]jf k|bfos jf a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] sdL
sdhf]/L jf uNtLsf sf/0f u|fxsnfO{ x'g] gf]S;fgL / ;]jf pkof]ustf{af6 ePsf sdL
sdhf]/Laf6 ;]jf k|bfosnfO{ x'g hfg] gf]S;fgLsf] Ifltk"lt{ ;DaGwdf :ki6 pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
-_
u|fxsn] ug{] sf/f]af/df lglxt hf]lvdnfO{ sd ug{ cfjZos pkfox? h:t}M j]j;fO{6sf] k|of]u,
POS/POT d]zLg, cfO{ l8, kf;j8{, kf;j8{ kl/jt{g nufotsf laz]iftf / ;'/Iffsf nflu
cjnDag ug'{ kg{] laz]if Aoj:yfx? pNn]v x'g' kg]{ 5 .
-r_
u|fxssf] sf/f]af/ ;DaGwL uf]klgotf / a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfleq ;fj{hlgs ug{ ;lsg]
hfgsf/Lx? pNn]v x'g' kg]{ 5 .
-5_
u|fxs;Fu ul/Psf] sf/f]af/sf] hfgsf/L jf ;"rgf k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd afx]s cGo t];|f]
kIfnfO{ ;fj{hlgs gul/g] k|lta4tf JoQm ePsf] x'g' kg]{ 5 .
-h _ u|fxsaf6 ;]jf ;DaGwdf cfPsf u'gf;f tyf ;d:ofx?nfO{ ;dfwfg ug{] k|s[of / ;DalGwt
clwsf/Lsf] Joj:yf x'g' kg]{ 5 .
-em_ nfdf] ;do;Dd ;]jf glnPsf u|fxsx?sf] ;]jf lgis[o x'g] jf gx'g] ;DaGwdf pNn]v x'g' kg]{ 5
.
-`_
u|fxsn] ;fj{hlgs sDKo"6/ jf cGt/fli6o g]6js{ k|of]u u/L sf/f]af/ ubf{ pTkGg x'g] hf]lvd
;DaGwL s'/f :ki6 ?kdf pNn]v x'g' kg]{5 .
-6_
a}+s tyf laQLo ;+:yf jf u|fxssf] tkm{af6 s'g} klg zt{ jf ;Demf}tfsf] pNn+3g x'g uPdf
axg ug'{ kg{] bfloTj jf sf/afxL ;DaGwL Aoj:yf :ki6 ?kdf pNn]v x'g' kg]{5 .
-7_
cGo cfjZos s'/fx? .
cflwsfl/s Joj;flos k|ltlglw;+usf] ;Demf}tf ;DaGwdf
o; lgb]{zgdf plNnlvt On]S6f]lgs a}ls ;]jf cfk"mf/f lgo'Qm cflwsfl/s Joj;flos k|ltlglwdfkm{t
;Grfng ug{] k|of]hgsf] nflu ul/g] lkIfLo ;Demf}tfdf cGo ljifox?sf cltl/Qm b]xfosf ljifox?df
:ki6 pNn]v x'g' kg]{ 5M
-s_ ;]jf k|bfos a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf, cflwsfl/s Joj;flos k|ltlglw / u|fxssf] If]qflwsf/, sfd,
st{Ao / pQ/bfloTj, cGo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] k|ltlglw x'g kfpg]gkfpg] ljifo, u|fxsaf6
k|fKt z"Ns tyf cfosf] afF8kmfF8 .
-v_ a}s jf laQLo ;+:yfn] cfkm" / Ph]06 aLr s'g} klg cj/f]w ;[hgf eO{ clws hf]lvd pTkGg x'g]
cj:yfaf6 ;t{s /xg tof/ ul/Psf] cfsl:ds of]hgf .
-u_ u'gf;f] ;'g'jfO{, ljjfb ;dfwfg / e'QmfgL ;DaGwL ;d:of ;dfwfgsf] clGtd lhDd]jf/L .
-3_ sf/f]jf/nfO{ ;'/lIft / e/kbf]{ agfpg] ljifo h:t} ;km\6j]o/, j]j;fO{6sf] ;'/Iff, u|fxssf] cfOl8
/ kf;j8{ tyf ;f]sf] kl/jt{g cflb .
-_ lgodgsf/L lgsfo jf tf]lsPsf] clwsf/Laf6 ul/g] lg/LIf0f tyf ;'kl/j]If0f cGtu{t cfjZos
tYof+s laj/0f, ;"rgf tyf sfuhft pknAw u/fpg] ljifo .

272

*=

(=

!)=
!!=
!@=

-r_ ;Demf}tfsf] cjlw, ;Demf}tf gjLs/0f tyf ;Demf}tf ;+zf]wgsf Joj:yf .


k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ;DaGwL Joj:yf
a}+s tyf laQLo ;+:yfn] o; lgb]{zgdf pNn]v eP adf]lhdsf sfo{x? cfk"mf/f lgo'Qm k|ltlglw dfkm{t
u/fpg] ePdf To:tf] k|ltlglw 5gf}6 ubf{ b]xfo adf]lhd ;Ifdtf k/LIf0f ug'{ kg{]5M
-s_
On]S6f]lgs a}ls sf/f]jf/ ;DaGwL ;]jf ;Grfng ubf{ pTkGg x'g ;Sg] laleGg k|sf/sf
hf]lvdnfO{ k"0f{ Aoj:yfkg ug{ ;Ifd k|ltlglwsf] klxrfg ug{] ;+oGqsf] lasf; ug'{ kg{]5 .
;+efljt hf]lvdnfO{ sd ug{sf nflu k|efjsf/L / k|df0fof]Uo k|s[of ;+:yf cfkm}n] canDag ug'{
kg{] 5 .
-v_
s'g} klg gofF k|ltlglw rog ug'{ cl3 Go"gtd cfwf/e"t dfkb08 tyf rog k|s[of to ug'{ kg]{
5.
-u_
k|ltlglwsf] k|efjsf/L Aoj:yfkgsf nflu ;DalGwt a}+s jf laQLo ;+:yf4f/f lglZrt ;dosf]
cGt/fndf k|ltlglwsf] sfo{;Dkfbgsf] k/LIf0f ug{] Aoj:yf ug'{ kg{] 5 . o;sf nflu clu|d
?kdf r]tfjgLsf] k"j{;+s]t (Early Warning Signal) to u/L ;'wf/sf pkfox? cjnDag ug'{
kg{] 5 .
t];|f] kIf ;]jf k|bfossf] k|of]u
On]S6flgs a}ls sf/f]af/sf nflu cfjZos k|flalws ;]jf pkof]u ug{ o:tf] ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ t]:f|f]
kIf;+u cnu} ;Demf}tf ug'{ kg{] 5 . o:tf] ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ l;nl;nfdf Operator nufot o; a}+sn]
Ohfhtkqcg'dltdq glbPsf cGo kIfx?sf] ;d]t o; a}+sn] lg/LIf0f tyf ;'kl/j]If0f ug{ ;Sg]
Joj:yf To:tf] ;Demf}tfdf v'nfpg' kg]{5 . t];|f] kIf rog ug'{ cl3 Go"gtd cfwf/e"t dfkb08 tyf
rog k|s[of to ug'{ kg]{5 . k|fljlws ;]jf k|bfos;+u ;Demf}tf ubf{ k|ljlwdf cfPsf] ;d:ofaf6
a}+sljQLo ;+:yf tyf u|fxsnfO{ k'Ug hfg] Iflt / ;f]sf] Ifltk"lt{ ug{] Joj:yf nufot To:tf] sDkgLsf]
sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ ;d]t :ki6 pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
laj/0f k]z ug{]
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf laQLo ;+:yfn] g]=/f=a}+s lgb]{zg kmf=g+= (=!% adf]lhdsf] ljj/0f dfl;s ?kdf
o; a}+s ;dIf k]z ug'{kg]{ 5 .
lgb]{zg kfngf gu/]df x'g] sf/jfxL
On]S6f]lgs a}ls ;DaGwL o; lgb]{zgsf] kfngf gu/L ;f] ;DaGwL s'g} sfd sf/f]jf/ u/]df g]kfn /fi6
a}+s P]g, @)%* adf]lhd sf/jfxL x'g] 5 .
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_
o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
ldlt @)^(.)#.)& df hf/L a}=lj=lg=lj=gLltkl/kq#@)^*^( / ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^(
c;f/d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf o;} ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .

273

g]kfn /fi6 a}+s


s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu
O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= @@)^(
laifo M ljljw Joj:yf ;DaGwdf .
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] kfngf ug'{ kg]{ ljljw Joj:yf ;DjGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf]
bkmf &( n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L b]xfosf] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 .
!=
jLdf clestf{sf] ?kdf sfo{ ug{ ;Sg] ;DaGwdf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DjGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf $& pkbkmf -!_ sf] v08 -;_, pkbkmf -@_ sf] v08
-if_, pkbkmf -#_ sf] v08 -km_ adf]lhd s, v, / u ju{sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] /fi6 a}+sn]
tf]s]sf cGo sfo{ ug]{ Joj:yf cGt/ut /xL Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] rfx]df k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd
;DjlGwt lgsfosf] :jLs[lt lnO{ cfkm\gf u|fxsx?sf] nflu dfq jLdf clestf{sf] ?kdf sfo{ ug{ ;Sg]
5g\ .
@=
sDKo"6/ ;km\6j]o/sf] k|of]uvl/b ug{] ;DaGwdf
k|ltlnlk clwsf/ P]g, @)%( n] sDKo"6/ ;km\6j]o/nfO{ af}l4s ;DklQsf] ?kdf JofVof u/]sf] Pj+ u}/
sfg'gL tyf gSsnL sDKo"6/ ;km\6j]o/sf] k|of]u sfg'gf/f g} lgif]w u/]sf] x'Fbf a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfx?n] gSsnL sDKo"6/ ;km\6j]o/af6 aRg ;fjwfgL Pj+ ;ts{tf ckgfpg' kg]{5 .
#=
k'FhL a[l4 ;DjGwdf
a}+sljQLo ;+:yf ;+:yfkgf Pj+ ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ug]{ Ohfhtkq ;DjGwL gLltut Pj+ k|s[ofut Joj:yf,
@)^# df ul/Psf] Aoj:yf cg';f/ o; a}+ssf] ldlt @)^#!@!# df ePsf] lg0f{oeGbf cl3
;~rfngdf /lx/x]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] b]xfo adf]lhd k"/f ug'{ kg]{ k'FhL of]hgf ;DaGwdf
b]xfosf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .
-!_ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] juL{s/0f / Go"gtd r'Qmf k'FhL ;DaGwL Joj:yf
ju{
s
v

/fli6o:t/
?= @)) s/f]8
?= ^$ s/f]8

If]qLo:t/*

?= #) s/f]8 a/

3
*
a/
b/
c/
#

-@_

b/

?= @) s/f]8
?= !) s/f]8

?= ^ s/f]8

$!) lhNnf*

?= #) s/f]8 a/
?= @) s/f]8

?= @ s/f]8

c/

!# lhNnf*

?= #) s/f]8 a/
?= !) s/f]8
?= #) s/f]8 a/
?= !) s/f]8
?= ! s/f]8

sf7df8f}+ pkTosf afx]s . o:tf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] sfo{ If]qkl/of]hgf tf]lsPsf lhNnfx?df ;Lldt /xg] .
lnlh sf/f]jf/ ug]{ ljQLo ;+:yfsf] xsdf dfq nfu" x'g] .
n3'ljQ sf/f]jf/ dfq ug]{ ljQLo ;+:yf .
kxf8L If]qsf yk % lhNnfdf ;d]t .
ljsf; If]qleq ;~rfng x'g] .

pko'{Qm ;dodf ;~rfngdf /lx/x]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfxn] @)&) cfiff9 d;fGtleq
gofF Joj:yf ul/P cg';f/sf] r'Qmf k'FhL ;dfg'kflts kdf afFsL jif{xdf k"/f ug{ @)^$
cfiff9 d;fGtnfO{ cfwf/ jif{sf] kdf lnO{ cf=j= @)^$.^% b]lv x/]s jif{ gk'u /sdsf]
;dfg'kflts b/n] a[l4 ub}{ n}hfg' kg]{ / ;f]xL adf]lhdsf] Jofj;flos of]hgf k'FhL of]hgf
(Capital Plan) k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . o;/L k'FhL k'ofpFbf plNnlvt k'FhLdf sDtLdf *) k|ltzt r'Qmf
k'FhL / afFsL @) k|ltzt k|fylds k'FhLdf u0fgf x'g] cGo >f]taf6 ;d]t k"/f ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .

274

$=

%=

^=

t/, a}+sljQLo ;+:yf ;+:yfkgf ;DaGwL gofF gLltut Pj+ k|s[ofut Joj:yfsf] ljz]if Joj:yf
cGtu{t :yflkt Ps lhNn] ljQLo ;+:yfsf] xsdf !# lhNnfsf nflu tf]lsPsf] r'Qmf k'FhL
;dfg'kflts ?kdf afFsL jif{x?df k'/\ofpg clgjfo{ x'g] 5}g .
-#_
lj=;+=@)&) cfiff9 d;fGtleq dfly plNnlvt k|fjwfg jdf]lhd tf]lsPsf] jif{sf] r'Qmf k'FhL k"/f
gug]{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?nfO{ b]xfo adf]lhdsf] sf/jfxL x'g] 5 . o; k|of]hgsf] nflu
r'Qmf k'FhL k"/f gePsf] jif{nfO{ cfwf/ jif{sf] ?kdf lnOg] 5 .
-s_
cf=j= @)^$.^% df tf]lsPsf] r'Qmf k'FhL gk'ofpg]nfO{ nfefFz /f]Ssf /fVg] .
-v_
cf=j= @)^%.^^ df tf]lsPsf] r'Qmf k'FhL gk'ofpg]nfO{ lgIf]k ;+sng ug{ ;d]t
k|ltjGw nufO{g] .
-u_
cf=j= @)^^.^& df tf]lsPsf] r'Qmf k'FhL gk'ofpg]nfO{ shf{ nufgLdf ;d]t k|ltjGw
nufO{g] .
-3_
cf=j= @)^&.^* df tf]lsPsf] r'Qmf k'FhL gk'ofpg]nfO{ shf{ c;'nL tyf lgIf]k e'QmfgL
jfx]ssf ;Dk"0f{ sf/f]jf/df k|ltjGw nufO{g] . ;f] cjlwkl5 Ohfhtkq /2 ug]{tkm{
;d]t sf/jfxL cufl8 a9fOg] .
-_
dfly plNnlvt r'Qmf k'FhL gk'u ePsf b'O{ jf ;f]eGbf a9L a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:Yffx?n]
plNnlvt cjlwleq cfk;df ufleg] u/L o; a}+s ;dIf k|:tfj k]z u/]df tL b'j}
;+:yfdf sfod /x]sf] k'FhLnfO{ hf]8L r'Qmf k'FhL k|of]hgsf] nflu u0fgf ul/g] .
-$_
s'g} JolQm kmd{, sDkgL, Psf3/ kl/jf/ jf ;+ul7t ;+:Yffjf6 ;+:Yffks z]o/df nufgL ubf{ o;
a}+saf6 Ohfhtkq k|fKt s'g} Ps a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:Yffdf a9Ldf !% k|ltzt / cGo a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfx?df r'Qmf k'FhLsf] a9Ldf Ps k|ltzt;Dd dfq nufgL ug{ ;lsg]5 . ljutdf Ps
eGbfa9L a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfdf ;+:yfks jf ;+:yfks ;d"x eO{ nufgL u/]sf] /sd of] gLlt
nfu" ePsf] ldltn] % jif{leq cfjZos k|lqmof k'ofO{ a]rljvg u/Lx6fO{ plNnlvt ;Ldfleq
;Lldt x'g] Joj:yf sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .
-%_
ljutdf n3' ljQ ;+:yfx?sf] z]o/ k|lt JolQm Psf3/ kl/jf/, kmd{, sDkgL jf ;+ul7t ;+:yf
jf Ps} ;d"xsf sDkgLn] @% k|ltzteGbf a9L z]o/ lnPsf] ePdf @)^* cfiff9 d;fGtleq @%
k|ltztsf] ;Ldfleq Nofpg' kg]{5 .
-^_
o; a}+saf6 ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ug{ Ohfhtkq k|fKt u/]sf s'g} a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:Yffdf Psf3/
kl/jf/, kmd{, sDkgL, ;+ul7t ;+:yf jf Pp6} ;d"xsf] sDkgLaf6 PseGbf a9L JolQm ;+rfns
kbdf dgf]goglgjf{rg x'g ;Sg] 5}g . t/ n3' ljQsf] sf/f]jf/ ug]{ 3 ju{sf] ljQLo
;+:yfsf] xsdf pk/f]Qm Joj:yf nfu" x'g] 5}g .
Ps} kl/jf/kmd{sDkgL;d"xaf6 Ps eGbf a9L JolQm Pp6} ;+:yfdf ;~rfns /x]sf] eP cfufdL
;fwf/0f ;ef jf a9Ldf Psjif{leq h'g klxnf x'G5 ;f]xL adf]lhd Joj:yf u/L Pshgf dfq ;~rfns
/xg] Joj:yf ldnfpg' kg]{5 .
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;+:yfkgf Pj+ ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ug]{ Ohfhtkq ;DaGwL gLltut Pj+ k|s[ofut
Joj:yf, @)^# sf] a'Fbf !=# df pNn]v eP adf]lhdsf gofF a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] tf]lsPsf] r'Qmf
k'FhL k'ofpg] k|lta4tfsf] Dofb @)^& r}q d;fGt;Dd sfod ul/Psf] 5 .
o;/L @)^& r}q d;fGt;Dddf tf]lsPsf] r'\Qmf k'FhL gk'/\ofpg] To:tf ;+:yfx?nfO{ r'\Qmf kF'hL gk'u'Gh]n
;Ddsf nflu b]xfosf sf/jfxL ul/g] 5 M
-s_ zfvf lj:tf/ ug{ /f]s nufpg]
-v_ gub nfef+z ljt/0f ug{ /f]s nufpg] .
Long Form Audit Report ;DaGwdf
Long Form Audit Report nfO{ ;do ;fk]If / k|efjsf/L agfpg o;};fy ;+nUg 9fFrf -cg';"rL @!=*_
cg';f/ nfu" ul/Psf] 5 . pQm Long Form Audit Report nfO{ o; a}+ssf] web-site: www.nrb.org.np
sf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu cGt/ut /flvPsf] x'gfn] ;f]xL web-site af6 ;"rgf k|fKt u/L
cfgf] ;+:yfsf] afXo n]vfk/LIfsaf6 ;f] Long Form Audit Report s} 9fFrfdf tof/ ul/Psf] clGtd
n]vfk/LIf0f k|ltj]bgnfO{ ;f]em} o; a}+sdf cfOk'Ug] u/L k7fpg] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
k'FhL of]hgf k]z ug]{ ;DaGwdf
a'Fbf g+= $ adf]lhd ;~rfngdf /lx/x]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfxn] @)&) cfiff9 d;fGtleq gofF
Joj:yf ul/P cg';f/sf] r'Qmf k'FhL a[l4 ub}{ n}hfg' kg]{ ;Gbe{df x/]s jif{ gk'u /sdsf] ;dfg'kflts

275

&=

*=

(=

b/n] j[l4 ub}{ n}hfgsf] nflu k'FhL of]hgf (Capital Plan) agfO{ o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf
lgodg ljefu / ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf k7fpg' kg]{5 .
o; k|of]hgsf nflu r'Qmf k'FhL eGg] zAbn] ;fwf/0f z]o/ jfktsf] r'Qmf k'FhL -af]g; z]o/ tyf xsk|b
z]o/_ nfO{ dfq a'emfpg] / ;f] r'Qmf k'FhLdf ;fwf/0f z]o/ afktsf] k|:tfljt af]g; z]o/nfO{ ;d]t
;dfj]z ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
shf{ ckn]vg ;DaGwL ljlgod agfpFbf cjnDag ug'{ kg]{ dfu{bz{g ;DaGwdf
-!_ Ohfhtkqk|+fKt ;+:yfn] s] s:tf shf{ c;'n x'g g;Sg] x'g\ lgwf{/0f ug]{ cfwf/ tof/ u/L To:tf] shf{
ckn]vg ug]{ af/] cfcfgf] ;~rfns ;ldltaf6 ljlgod th'{df u/L o; a}+saf6 :jLs[lt lnO{ nfu"
ug'{ kg]{5 .
-@_ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?n] b]xfosf k|lqmofx? k"/f u/L shf{ ckn]vg ug{ ;Sg]5g\ .
-s_
shf{ v/fa au{df k/L !)) k|ltzt shf{ gf]S;fgL Aoj:yf eO{ ;s]sf] x'g'kg]{ .
-v_
shf{ c;"nLsf] nflu k|rlnt P]g tyf gLlt adf]lhd lwtf] ;'/If0fsf] lnnfd laqmLsf]
k|lqmof ;DkGg u/]sf] x'g'kg]{ .
-u_
shf{sf] lwtf] ;'/If0f lnnfd laqmL x'g g;s]sf] cj:yfdf clgjfo{ ?kdf lwtf] ;sf/
u/]sf] x'g'kg]{ .
-#_ C0fL / C0f;Fu ;DjlGwt kIfx?nfO{ o; a}+ssf] lgb]{zg adf]lhd shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb| ln= sf]
sfnf];"rLdf ;dfj]z ul/;s]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
-$_ ckn]vg ul/Psf] shf{sf] xsdf To:tf] shf{ :jLs[t x'Fbf s'g tx jf s;sf] lg0f{oaf6 :jLs[t ePsf]
xf] < / To:tf] shf{sf] ;'/If0f afkt /flvPsf] lwtf]sf] d"Nof+sg s;/L ul/Psf] xf] < ;fy}, To:tf] shf{
c;'nLsf] nflu s] s:tf] k|of;x? ul/of] < o;/L ckn]vgdf hfg'kgf{sf] cf}lrTotf cflb af/]
clen]vdf hgfpg' kg]{5 .
-%_ Ohfhtkqk|+fKt ;+:yfn] ckn]vg ul/Psf shf{sf] c;'nLsf nflu Pp6f 5'} shf{ c;'nL OsfOsf]
:yfkgf u/L To:tf] shf{x?sf] c;'nLsf nflu ;DjlGwt ;+:yfn] lg/Gt/ k|of; hf/L /fVg' kg]{5 .
-^_ Ohfhtkqk|+fKt ;+:yfn] ckn]vg u/]sf shf{x?sf] cBfjlws lja/0f 5'} /lhi6/ v8f u/L /fVg'
kg]{5 .
-&_ Ohfhtkqk|+fKt ;+:yfn] rfn' jif{df ckn]vg ul/Psf shf{x?sf] ljj/0f -dfly pka'Fbf g+= $ df
pNn]lvt a'Fbfx? ;dfj]z u/L_ jflif{s k|ltj]bgdf clgjfo{ ?kn] pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
-*_ Ohfhtkqk|+fKt ;+:yfn] shf{ ckn]vg ;DaGwdf sfg'gdf :ki6?kdf Joj:yf gu/L :ki6
dfu{lgb]{zg jf lgb]{lzsf ;d]tsf] cefjdf ldgfxf tyf ckn]vg sfo{ ubf{ lg0f{ostf{dfly
cToflws clwsf/ /xg hfg] ;DefJotfnfO{ x[bo+ud u/L ljj]sflwsf/ k|of]u x'g glbg C0f /sd
ldgfxf jf ckn]vgaf6 eljiodf kg{ ;Sg] k|efj ;d]tnfO{ dWogh/ /fvL ;f] ;DaGwdf :ki6
tyf kf/bzL{ gLltut Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
-(_ Ohfhtkqk|+fKt ;+:yfn] ckn]vg ul/Psf shf{x?sf] ljj/0f cfly{s aif{ ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] !%
lbgleq ;DalGwt ;'kl/j]If0f laefu / shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb| ln= df k7fpg' kg]{5 .
:yfoL t/ntf ;'ljwf (SLF) ;DaGwdf
-s_
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf cfcfgf
:jfldTjdf /x]sf] g]kfn ;/sf/sf] 6]h/L laN; / ljsf; C0fkqsf] lwtf]df To:tf C0fkqxsf]
c+lst d"Nosf] () k|ltzt;Ddn] x'g cfpg] /sd cNksfnLg :yfoL t/ntf ;'ljwf -shf{_
pknJw u/fpg ;lsg]5 .
-v_
:yfoL t/ntf ;'ljwfsf] Aofhb/ lgwf{/0f ubf{ kl5Nnf] (!lbg] 6]h/L ljnsf] efl/t cf};t
Aofhb/ jf k|rlnt a}+sb/dWo] h'g a9L 5, To;df # k|ltzt ljGb'n] k]gfn b/ hf]8L pQm b/
sfod ul/Psf] 5 .
v, u / 3 ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ljb]zL ljlgdo ;DjGwL sfo{ ug]{ ;DaGwdf
b]xfo adf]lhdsf Ohfhtkqk|fKt ljQLo ;+:yfx?nfO{ o; a}+ssf] ljb]zL ljlgdo Joj:Yffkg ljefuaf6
:jLs[lt k|fKt u/L ljb]zL ljlgdo ;DjGwL b]xfo jdf]lhdsf yk sfo{ ug{ kfpg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .
-s_
v, u / 3 ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] lgodfg';f/ OHffhtkq k|fKt u/L Ogjf8{ /]ld6\ofG;
-Inward Remittance_ sf] sfo{ ug{ ;Sg] .
-v_
v / u ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ef/tLo d'b|fsf] vl/b tyf laqmL ;DaGwL sfo{x? ug{ ;Sg]

276

-u_
-3_

!)=

!!=

!@=

/fli6o:t/sf v ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ljb]zL d'b|fsf] lgIf]k :jLsf/ ug{ ;Sg] .
/fli6o:t/sf v ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ljb]zL d'b|fsf] vl/bljqmL ug{, kf;kf]6{ afkt
;6xL ;'ljwf k|bfg ug{, ljb]zL d'b|fdf vftf vf]Ng tyf Nostro Account vf]Ng ;Sg] .
-_
v / u ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] :jLs[t k|fKt a}+ssf] ;xfos Ph]06 eO{ g]kfnL / ef/tLo
d'b|fsf] Debit / Credit sf8{ hf/L ug{ ;Sg] .
-r_
/fli6o:t/ afx]ssf v ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;d]t ljb]zL d'b|f vl/b u/L g]kfn /fi6 a}+s
jf jfl0fHo a}+sx?nfO{ laqmL ug{ ;Sg] .
-5_
3 ju{sf ;+:yfn] ;DalGwt lgsfosf] :jLs[lt lnO{ ;j{;fwf/0faf6 ef/tLo d'b|f vl/b ug{
;Sg] tyf ;f] d'b|f a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?nfO{ dfq laqmL ug{ ;Sg] .
-h_
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] pkl:ylt Go"g /x]sf tf]lsPsf #) lhNnfdf vf]lnPsf u ju{sf
ljQLo ;+:yfsf zfvf sfof{nox?n] k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd ljb]zL ljlgdo ;6xL Ohfhtkq
lnO{ ljb]zL d'b|f vl/b u/L g]kfn /fi6 a}+s jf jfl0fHo a}+sx?nfO{ laqmL ug{ ;Sg] .
:jb]zL /sdfGt/sf] sf/f]af/ ;DaGwdf
:jb]zL /sdfGt/sf] sf/f]af/ ug{ rfxg] Ohfhtkqk|fKt v / u ju{sf ljsf; a}+s tyf ljQ
sDkgLxn] cfkm"n] :jb]zL /sdfGt/sf] sf/f]af/ ug{ rfx]sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf] jfl0fHo a}+s;+u
;xdlt -Memorandum of Understanding_ u/L tyf Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfkm\g} zfvf jf cGo Ph]G;Lx? dfkm{t :jb]zL /sdfGt/sf] sf/f]af/ ug{ rfx]df
/sdfGt/ ;DaGwL ;Dk"0f{ hf]lvd s ju{sf] jfl0fHo a}+sn] axg ug]{ u/L o; a}+ssf] :jLs[ltsf] nflu
cg'/f]w u/]df :jLs[lt k|bfg ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
lnvt g]kfnL efiffdf tof/ ug]{ ;DaGwdf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] h'g;'s} k|sf/sf] shf{ k|jfx ubf{ C0fL tyf hdfgtstf{
-JolQmkmd{sDkgL ;+:yf_ tyf sf/0fL -C0fLhdfgt lbg] ;d]t_ af6 tof/ ug]{u/fpg] sfuhftx?
-h'g;'s} lnvt, hdfgLkq jf dGh'/Lgfdf_ k|rlnt P]g sfg'g adf]lhd b]jgfu/L lnkL g]kfnL efiffdf
tof/ ug{' kg]{5 . t/ ;DjlGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] cfGtl/s k|of]hgsf] nflu To;/L g]kfnL
efiffdf tof/ ul/Psf lnvtx? c+u|]hL efiffdf cg'jfb u/L clen]vdf /fVg eg] kfOg] 5 .
ljb]zL gful/sx?;+u x'g] sf/f]jf/df / ljb]zL a}+ls+u sf/f]jf/df dfq k|of]u x'g] lnvtx?sf] xsdf eg]
-h:t}M k|lttkq_ g]kfnL efiffdf tof/ ug{ clgjfo{ ul/Psf] 5}g .
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] shf{;+u ;DalGwt C0f k|:tfj kq -Offer Letter_, shf{ td;'s -Loan Deed_,
lwtf]aGws lnvt -Mortgage Deed_, Hypothecation Agreement / Trust Receipt Agreement clgjfo{?kdf
b]jgfu/L lnkL g]kfnL efiffdf tof/ ug'{kg]{ / Consortium Loan Agreement, Letter of Assignment, Letter
of Guarantee sf] xsdf xfnnfO{ c+u|]hL efiffdf ;d]t tof/ ug{ ;lsg] 5 . ;fy}, oL sfuhftx?nfO{ klg
qmlds ?kdf g]kfnL efiffdf tof/ ub}{ hfg] gLltut Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{5 .
lnvthdfgLkq tof/ ubf{ hdfgL /sd, C0fsf] cjlw, C0fsf] k|of]hg, k|d'v C0fL, ;fIfL,
hdfgtstf{sf] gfd, 7]ufgf, ;f] sf] ;gfvt nufotsf ljifox? tyf cGo k|sf/sf lnvtx?df ;d]t
b]xfo adf]lhdsf ljifox?nfO{ oyf]lrt :yfgdf clgjfo{ ?kn]] pNn]v ug'{ kg]{5 .
lnvtdf :ki6;+u pNn]v x'g'kg]{ ljifox?

sf/0fLsf] gfd, 7]ufgf, ldlt, JolQmsf] xsdf gful/stfkf;kf]6{ gDa/ tyf ltg k':t],

Dofb, cjlw, k|of]hg,


sf/0fLsf] ;DaGwdf ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yff/f ;gfvt,

/sd,
;fIfL -Witness_,

x:tfIf/ klxrfg ug]{ k|of]hgsf] nflu ;DalGwt sf/0fLsf] gfd,

cGo cfjZos b]lvPsf ljifox? .


;+:yfks z]o/wgLx?sf] ljj/0f ;DaGwdf
cfly{s jif{ @)%(^) b]lv :yfkgf e} ;+rfngdf cfPsf afl0fHo a+}s, ljsf; a}+s / ljQ sDkgLx?sf]
?= @) nfv eGbf a9Lsf]] ;+:yfks z]o/ wf/0f ug]{ ;+:yfks z]o/wgLx?sf] ljj/0f lgDg 9fFrfdf
cfGtl/s /fh:j ljefu, nflhDkf6df pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
l;=g+= a}sljQLo ;+:yfsf] gfd z]o/wgLsf] gfd 7]ufgf kmf]g g+= nufgL u/]sf] /sd s}lkmot

277

!#=
!$=

!%=

!^=

!&=

ATM df CCTV sf] Joj:yf ;DaGwdf


Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] Automated Teller Machine (ATM) x?df CCTV Sofd]/f
nufot cGo ;'/Iff ;DaGwL k|jGwx? clgjfo{ ?kdf ug'{ u/fpg' kg]{ 5 .
SWIFT Message sf] dfWodaf6 /sdfGt/ ug{] ;DaGwdf
SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication) k|ljlw h8fg u/]sf a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] SWIFT Message sf] dfWodaf6 o; a}+s;+u sf/f]jf/ ubf{ b]xfo adf]lhd ul/Psf] 5 M
s=
o:tf] sf/f]jf/sf nflu cfOtaf/b]lv laxLaf/;Dd ck/fGx @M)) jh];Dd /sdfGt/sf] nflu
cg'/f]w eO{ cfPdf ;f]xL lbg /sdfGt/ ul/g] .
v=
ck/fGx @M)) jh] kl5 /sdfGt/sf] nflu cg'/f]w eO{ cfPsf] cj:yfdf ;f] lbg kl5sf] csf]{
sfo{lbgdf /sdfGt/ ul/g] .
u=
z'qmaf/ lbgsf] !!M#) jh];Dd /sdfGt/sf] nflu cg'/f]w e} cfPdf ;f]xL lbg /sdfGt/ ul/g] .
3=
z'qmaf/ lbgsf] !!M#) jh] kl5 /sdfGt/sf] nflu cg'/f]w eO{ cfPsf] cj:yfdf ;f] lbg kl5sf]
csf]{ sfo{lbgdf /sdfGt/ ul/g] .
clGtd C0fbftf ;'ljwf ;DaGwdf
cGt/a}+s / v'nf ahf/ tyf :yfoL t/ntf ;'ljwfaf6 cfjZos t/ntf cfk"lt{ x'g g;s]sf] cj:yfdf
o; a}+sdf vftf /x]sf jfl0fHo a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ a9Ldf ^ dlxgfsf] nflu k|rlnt a}+sb/ &
k|ltztdf # k|ltzt yk u/L clGtd C0fbftf ;'ljwf lbOg] 5 . o; a}+sdf clgjfo{ df}Hbft sfod
ug{sf] nflu /fv]sf] gub df}Hbft, g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;'/If0fkq / c;n shf{sf] lwtf]df o:tf] ;'ljwf
k|bfg ul/g] 5 .
ljz]if k'g/shf{b/ -Special Refinance Rate_ ;DaGwdf
o; a}+saf6 lgof{t pBf]u, U0f pBf]u, ;fgf tyf 3/]n' pBf]u / j}b]lzs /f]huf/Lsf] nflu tf]lsPsf
ju{sf JolQmxnfO{ k|jfx x'g] shf{sf] k'g/shf{b/nfO{ !=% k|ltzt sfod ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy}, g]kfn
;/sf/n] kl/eflift u/] cg';f/ blnt, hghflt, pTkLl8t tyf dlxnf ju{nfO{ /fxt k'ofpg / j}b]lzs
/f]huf/ k|j4{gdf ;xof]u k'ofpg k|bfg ul/Psf] shf{sf] lwtf] ;'/If0fdf !=% k|ltzt b/df k'g/shf{
;'ljwf pknAw u/fOg] 5 . of] ;'ljwf pkof]u ubf{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;DalGwt u|fxsaf6 $=%
k|ltzteGbf a9L Aofh lng kfpg] 5}gg\ .
cfo;|f]t -Income Source_ ;DaGwdf
h'g;'s} k|of]hgsf] nflu kF"[hL a[l4 ug]{ ;Gbe{df a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf ;+:yfks;+:yfks ;d"xsf]
z]o/ vl/b ubf{ ;+:yfks z]o/wgLxn] tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf -a}+sljQLo ;+:yf ;+:yfkgf Pj+ ljQLo

sf/f]jf/ ug{] Ohfhtkq ;DjGwL gLltut Pj+ k|s[ofut Aoj:yfM @)^# sf] ;+zf]lwt cg';"rL # sf] a'Fbf
g+= !^ sf] ljj/0f _ nufgL x'g] /sdsf] cfo;|f]t;DaGwL ljj/0f clgjfo{ kdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . ;f] sf]

!*=

!(=

clen]v ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cBfjlws u/L /fVg' kg]{ tyf ;f] ;DaGwL ;Dk"0f{ clen]vsf]
k|ltlnlk o; a}+ssf] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefudf ;d]t k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
ljb]zL a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?nfO{ k|fljlws ;]jf k|bfg ug{ ;lsg] ;DaGwdf
g]kfnaf6 ljb]zdf k+"hLut nufgL ug]{ u/L k+"hL vftf v'Nnf gul/Ptf klg Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf
jfl0fHo a}+sx?n] cfkm\gf] k|aGwkqdf pNn]lvt ljifodf o; a}+ssf] k"j{:jLs[lt lnO{ ljb]zdf k+"hLut
nufgL gx'g] u/L ljb]zL a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?nfO{ u}x sf]ifdf cfwfl/t laleGg k|fljlws ;]jf
-Technical Service_ k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]5g\ .
;]km l8kf]lh6 eN6, ns/ ;]jf ;+rfng ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt /fli6o:t/sf] u ju{sf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;]km l8kf]lh6 eN6, ns/ ;]jf - Safe Deposit Vault,
Locker Service_ pknAw u/fpFbf b]xfo adf]lhdsf] zt{x?sf] clwgdf /xL ;+rfng ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
!=
;+:yfsf] r'Qmf k'FhL o; a}+sn] tf]s] adf]lhd k'u]sf] x'g' kg]{ .
@=
;+:yfsf] ;]km l8kf]lh6 eN6 ;Grfngsf] nflu 5'} lgb]{lzsfljlgod x'g' kg]]{ .
#=
;+:yfn] cfk"m;+u lgIf]k / shf{sf] sf/f]jf/ u/]sf cfkm\gf u|fxsx?nfO{ dfq ;]km l8kf]lh6
eN6sf] ;]jf pknJw u/fpg' kg]{ .
$=
;]km l8kf]lh6 eN6 ;Grfng ug'{ cufj} ;'/Iffsf] nflu CCTV h8fg x'g'kg]{ ;fy} cnfd{ k4lt Alarm System) sf] Joj:yf u/L ;f] cnfd{ k4ltaf6 ;/sf/L ;'/Iff lgsfo;Dd ;"rgf k|jfx ug{
;lsg] lsl;dsf] Joj:yf clgjfo{ ?kdf x'g'kg]{ / ;f]sf] hfgsf/L o; a}+snfO{ lbg' kg]{ .

278

@)=

@!=

@@=

@#=

@$=

%=

;fOhsf] cfwf/df ;]km l8kf]lh6 eN6sf] juL{s/0f u/L ;f]xL cg'?k clgjfo{ jLdf u/]sf] x'g' kg]{
;+rfng ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqkqk|fKt v / u ju{sf ;+:yfx?n] b]xfosf] zt{x?sf] clwgdf /xL Automated Teller
Machine (ATM) /fVg ;Sg]] 5g\ .
!=
k"jf{wf/ tyf e'QmfgL k|0ffnLsf] ;'/Iffsf] k"0f{ bfloTj ;DalGwt ;+:yfsf] g} x'g]5 .
@=
;]jf z'Ns ;DaGwL Joj:yf :ki6?kdf k|sflzt ug'{ kg]{5 .
#=
o;} lgb]{zgsf] a'Fbf g+= ( sf] v08 -_ cg';f/ o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt afl0fHo a}+s;+u
;Dj4tf sfod u/L ;Demf}tf u/]/ ;xfos Ph]06sf] ?kdf o:tf] sfo{ ug{ afwf kg]{ 5}g .
$=
/fli6o:t/sf v / u ju{sf ;+:yf afx]s cGo ;+:yfn] cfkm\gf] :jLs[t sfo{If]qdf ;Lldt
/xg] u/L cfkm\gf u|fxsx?nfO{ dfq ;]jf k|bfg ug{ cfkm\g} 5'} ATM /fVg ;Sg] 5g\ .
lnnfdL ubf{ :jfldTj tyf ef]uflwsf/ x:tfGt/0f ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfn] af]nsjf]nsf] dfWodaf6 lwtf] lnnfdL -Auction_ ubf{ ;DalGwt af]nsjf]njfnf
-Bidder_ JolQm jf ;+:yfsf] gfddf g} pQm ;DklQsf] :jfldTj tyf ef]uflwsf/ -Ownership & Possession_
x:tfGt/0f ug'{ kg]{5 .
;fwf/0f;+:yfks z]o/x? hkmt ug]{ ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfx?sf] ;fwf/0f z]o/ tyf ;+:yfks z]o/df sf/jfxLdf k/]sf JolQm / lghsf]
Psf3/ kl/jf/n] nufgL u/]sf] cj:yfdf To:tf ;fwf/0f;+:yfks z]o/x? hkmt u/L lnnfd ug]{ /
To;/L k|fKt x'g cfpg] /sd shf{ r'Qmf ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu pkof]u ug{' kg]{5 .
;fOgaf]8{ tyf n]6/Kof8 ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ljQLo sf/f]jf/ ug]{ s, v, u / 3 ju{sf ;+:yfx?sf] ;fOgaf]8{ tyf n]6/Kof8 x]bf{
:ki6?kdf s'g ju{ tyf slt lhNnfdf sfo{ If]q ePsf] ljQLo ;+:yf xf] egL 5'6\ofpg sl7g eO{
;j{;fwf/0f hgtfdf e|d kg{;Sg] b]lvPsf] x'Fbf o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkq k|fKt s, v, u / 3 ju{sf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfgf] ;fOgaf]8{ tyf n]6/Kof8df ;+:yfsf] gfdsf] l7s tn clgjfo{?kdf
sf]i7df b]xfo adf]lhdsf] jfSof+z pNn]v ug'{u/fpg' kg]{5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf
pNn]v ug'{ kg]{ jfSof+z
Ohfhtk|fKt s ju{sf ;+:yfx?n]
g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 s ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf
Ohfhtk|fKt v ju{sf ;+:yfx?n]
g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 v ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf -===== lhNnf
sfo{ If]q ePsf]_
Ohfhtk|fKt u ju{sf ;+:yfx?n]
g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 u ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf -===== lhNnf
sfo{ If]q ePsf]_
Ohfhtk|fKt 3 ju{sf ;+:yfx?n]
g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 3 ju{sf] Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yf -===== lhNnf
sfo{ If]q ePsf]_
ATM

gf]6M /fli6:t/sf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] sfo{If]q ;DaGwL ljj/0f pNn]v ug{ clgjfo{ x'g] 5}g .

r]s dfkm{t\ sf/f]af/ ug]{ ;DaGwdf


Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;DklQ z'l4s/0f -dlg nfp08l/_ lgjf/0f P]g, @)^$ sf]
p2]ZonfO{ ;d]t ;xof]u k'ofpg ?=%) nfv jf ;f]eGbf a9Lsf] /sd e'QmfgL ubf{ clgjfo{ ?kdf
PsfpG6k]oL r]s dfkm{t\ ug'{ kg]{]5 .
@%= Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] k|fljlws ;]jf ;Demf}tf -Technical Service Agreement,
TSA_ cGtu{t Seconded Staff sf] ?kdf cfPsfcfpg] u}/ g]kfnL gful/sx?sf] xsdf ljBdfg >d
P]g tyf lgodfjnL cg';f/ >d :jLs[lt lng'kg]{ Joj:yf /x]sf]n] ;f]xL adf]lhd :jLs[lt lnP/ dfq sfo{
ug{'u/fpg' kg]{5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+o'Qm nufgL -Joint Venture_ sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] k|fljlws ;]jf ;Demf}tf
-TSA) ;DaGwdf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf / ljb]zL nufgLstf{aLr ;Demf}tf u/L k|ljlw x:tfGt/0f ubf{
ljb]zL nufgL tyf k|ljlw x:tfGt/0f P]g, @)$( sf] bkmf -#_ adf]lhd ljefu -ljefu eGgfn] g]kfn
;/sf/sf] pBf]u ljefu jf 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]u ljefu eGg] ;Demg' k5{_ ;dIf :jLs[lt lng'kg]{
sfg'gL Joj:yf /x]sf]n] pQm sfg'gL Joj:yfsf] kl/kfngf ug{'u/fpg' kg]{5 .
@^= ?U0f pBf]u x]g]{ 8]:s ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ?U0f pBf]ux?sf] clen]v Joj:yfkg, cg'udg / ;d:of
;dfwfgdf ;3fp k'ofpg] k|of]hgsf nflu shf{ ljefu cGtu{t Pp6f 5'} ?U0f pBf]u x]g]{ 8]:s tf]Sg'
kg]{5 .

279

@&=

@*=
@(=

#)=
#!=

#@=

a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf !( -v_ df ;+ul7t If]q;+u ;DalGwt lgsfosf]
JofVof gePsf] t/ pQm If]qdf sfo{/t JolQmsf] sfof{g'ejn] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;+rfngdf ;xof]u
k'uf]; eGg] x]t' o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt ug]{ s ju{sf] jfl0fHo a}+s tyf v ju{sf] /fli6o
:t/sf] ljsf; a}+ssf] xsdf ;+ul7t If]q egL o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+sljQLo
;+:yf;xsf/LnfO{ dfq dfGotf lbg ;lsg] 5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf / /fli6o :t/sf v ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfcfgf] ;+rfns
;ldltn] tf]s]sf] dfkb08leq /xL Forward, Options, Swap , Futures h:tf ljleGg 8]l/e]l6E; -Derivatives_
pks/0f ;DaGwL sf/f]jf/x? ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
OhfhtkqkfKt 3 ju{sf n3' ljQ ;+:yfx?nfO{ $ b]lv !) lhNnf;Dd sfo{;+rfngsf] nflu Go"gtd
r'Qmf k'FhL ?= @ s/f]8 cfjZos kg]{ gLltut Joj:yf ePsf]df n3' ljQ ;DjGwL sf/f]jf/nfO{ kxf8L
If]qdf ;d]t lj:tf/ ug]{ p2]Zon] ?=@ s/f]8 r'Qmf k'FhLdf ;+:yfkgf ePsf n3' ljQ ;DjGwL sf/f]jf/
ug]{ 3 ju{sf ;+:yfn] lgoldt !) lhNnfsf cltl/Qm sfo{If]q :jLs[lt ;DjGwL ljBdfg k|s[ofut
Joj:yf ;d]tsf] clwgdf /xL yk % j6f kxf8L lhNnf ;d]t u/L hDdf !% lhNnfdf sfo{qmd ;~rfng
ug{ ;Sg] 5g\ .
n3' shf{ 8]:s :yfkgf ug{] ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] n3', ;fgf / demf}nf pBf]udf shf{ k|jfx tyf kx'Fr j[l4sf
nflu shf{ ljefu cGtu{t Pp6f 5'} 8]:s :yfkgf ug{' kg]{5 .
;fd'lxs nufgL sf]if ;+rfng ug{] ;DaGwdf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# sf] bkmf $& sf] pkbkmf -!_ sf] v08 -;_ sf] k|of]hgsf nflu
b]xfosf zt{x?sf] clwgdf /xL o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf a+}sx?n] ;fd"lxs nufgL sf]if
;+rfng ug{ ;Sg]] 5g\ .
zt{x?M
-!_ of]hgf Joj:yfkg;Fu ;DalGwt sfo{sf nflu ;xfos sDkgL v8f ug'{kg]{ / To:tf] sDkgL v8f ubf{
x'g uPsf] nufgLnfO{ o; a}+sn] tf]s] cg';f/sf] hf]lvd ef/ k|bfg ug]{ .
-@_ ljQLo sf/f]af/ ;~rfng ePsf] kfFr jif{ k"/f ePsf] x'g' kg]{ .
-#_ kl5Nnf] tLg jif{b]lv nuftf/ d'gfkmf u/]sf] x'g' kg]{ .
-$_ g]6jy{ wgfTds x'g' kg]{ .
-%_ ;~rfns jf sfo{sf/L k|d'v o; a}+ssf] sf/afxLdf gk/]sf] / To:tf] sf/jfxLdf k/]sf] eP ;f]
km's'jf ePsf] # jif{ k'u]sf] x'g' kg]{ .
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pknJw u/fpg] ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s v / u ju{sf a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:Yffx?nfO{ g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf]
bkmf $( / %) adf]lhd b]xfosf] zt{ tyf dfkb08sf] clwgdf /xL k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf (Refinancing
Facilities) pknJw u/fOg]] 5 . - ;DjlGwt cg';"rLx? @!=!,@!=@, @!=# _ .
zt{ tyf dfkb08x? M
-!_
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] k|fylds k'FhLsf] a9Ldf $) k|ltzt;Dd dfq k|bfg
ul/g] 5 .
-@_
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf k|fKt ug{sf nflu a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfgf] ljQLo l:ylt v'nfO{ o;
a}+sn] tf]lslbPsf] 9fFrfdf lgj]bg lbg' kg]{5 .
-#_
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pkof]u ug]{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] c;n shf{sf] ;'/If0fdf k'g/shf{ lng]
ePdf ljut Ps jif{b]lv nuftf/ ?kdf c;n ju{df juL{s[t ePsf] shf{sf] e'QmfgL cjlw eGbf
sd cjlwsf] nflu cg';"rL @!=! adf]lhdsf] ljj/0f e/L pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
-$_
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf c;n shf{sf] lwtf]df a9Ldf *) k|ltzt;Dd k|bfg ul/g] 5 . ;'/If0f:j?k
lbOPsf] lwtf] ;'/If0fdf o; a}+ssf] klxnf] bfjL (First Charge) /xg]5 .
-%_
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ k|bfg ul/g] k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf a9Ldf ^
dlxgfsf] nflu aflif{s &=) k|ltzt Aofhb/df pknAw x'g] / k'g/shf{ afktsf] Aofhb/ shf{sf]
;fFjf e'QmfgL ubf{sf] avt Psd'i6 ?kdf ;fFjf Aofh e'Qmfg ug'{ kg]{5 . tf]lsPsf] cjlwleq
k'g/shf{sf] ;fjfFAofh e'StfgL gu/]df ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;f] cjlwdf k|sflzt
u/]sf] shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] clwstd Aofhb/ g} k]gfn Aofhb/ sfod ul/g]5 . g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn]
C0fL a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] s'g} klg vftf vr{ -Debit_ u/L /sd c;'npk/ ug]{5 .

280

-^_

k'g/shf{ dfu ubf{ ;DalGwt ;+:yfn] shf{df lnPsf] Aofhb/ o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] Aofhb/df
clwstd # k|ltzt;Dd dfq yk Aofh sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pkof]u ug{ o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] k'FhL kof{Kttf cg'kft -Capital Adequacy Ratio_ sf]
cltl/Qm yk )=% k|ltzt cltl/Qm k'FhL kof{Kttf cg'kft sfod u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
:jb]zL lgIf]k tyf k|fylds k'FhLdf s"n shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] c+z *) k|ltzteGbf a9L ePsf
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] k'g/shf{ pkof]u ubf{sf] ;dodf sfod /x]sf] shf{ lgIf]k cg'kft a9\g
glbO{ b]xfo adf]lhdsf] shf{ lgIf]k cg'kft sfod ug'{ kg]{5 .

-&_
-*_

s| ;+
!=

shf{ lgIf]k cg'kftsf] c+z


*) b]lv *% k|ltzt ;Ddsf] xsdf

@=

*% b]lv () k|ltzt ;Ddsf] xsdf

#=

() k|ltzt eGbf dflysf] xsdf

gf]6M

-(_
-!)_

-!@_
-!#_
-!$_

slDtdf @
slDtdf #
slDtdf %
ug'{ kg]{5 .

:jb]zL lgIf]k tyf k|fylds k'FhLdf s"n shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] cg'kft g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] hf/L u/]sf] kl/kqn] u/]sf]
Joj:yf adf]lhd sfod u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .

k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pkof]u ug{ cfj]bg ug]{ Ohfhtkqk|fKt ;+:yfsf] shf{ ;fk6LdWo] l/on :6]6
If]qdf k|jflxt shf{ o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] ;Ldfleq /x]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
o; a}+saf6 k|bfg x'g] k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf lgDg lnlvt k|of]hgsf nflu ;f]xL If]q jf k|of]hgsf]
c;n shf{ lwtf] /fv]/ dfq k|jfx ug'{' kg]{5 .
-s_
-u_
-_
-5_

-!!_

k'g/shf{ e'QmfgL ubf{ sfod ug'{kg]{ shf{ lgIf]k cg'kft


k'g/shf{ pkof]u ubf{sf] ;dodf sfod /x]sf] cg'kftdf
k|ltzt ljGb'n] 36fpg'kg]{ jf *) k|ltztdf emfg'{ kg]{5 .
k'g/shf{ pkof]u ubf{sf] ;dodf sfod /x]sf] cg'kftdf
k|ltzt ljGb'n] 36fpg'kg]{ jf *% k|ltztdf emfg'{ kg]{5 .
k'g/shf{ pkof]u ubf{sf] ;dodf sfod /x]sf] cg'kftdf
k|ltzt ljGb'n] 36fpg'kg]{ jf o; a}+saf6 hf/L kl/kqfg';f/

lgof{t If]q
cf}iflw pTkfbg pBf]u
ko{6g pBf]u
cGo pTkfbgd"ns pBf]u

-v_
-3_
-r_
-h_

;fgf tyf demf}nf pBf]u


s[lif If]q
l;d]G6, kmnfd pBf]u
ljB't pTkfbg kl/of]hgf tyf ljB't k|zf/0f nfOg, s]jnsf/

o:tf] k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf lgDg lnlvt k|of]hgdf pkof]u ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-s_
k|of]hg gv'Ng] JolQmut shf{
-v_
3/hUuf vl/bl/on :6]6Jofkfl/s dxn lgdf{0f (Commercial Complex) shf{
-u_
;jf/L ;fwg shf{ (Hire purchase financing/Auto Loan)
-3_
z]o/ lwtf] shf{ (Margin type Lending)
-_
r'/f]6, lj+8L, l;uf/, ;'lt{, v}gL nufot ;'lt{hGo pBf]u / dlb/f tyf dlb/fhGo
pBf]unfO{ shf{ .
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pkof]u ug]{ ;DaGwdf ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;+rfns ;ldltn]
u/]sf] lg0f{osf] k|ltlnkL lgj]bg;fy ;+nUg u/L o; a}+snfO{ pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
g]kfn /fi6 a}+s / k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pkof]u ug]{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf
;DaGwdf td;'s (Promissory Notes) df x:tfIf/ ug'{ kg]{5 .
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwfdf tf]lsPsf] e'QmfgL cjlw cl3 g} k"j{e'QmfgL -Prepayment_ ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfxn] lgIf]kdf lbg] / shf{df lng] Aofhb/sf aLrsf] km/s (spread) o;
a}+saf6 lgoldt cg'udg ul/g] 5 . ;fy}, a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfxnfO{ k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf k|bfg
ubf{ lgIf]k tyf shf{sf] Aofh b/ aLrsf] cGt/ (Effective Interest Spread) nfO{ klg cfwf/sf]
?kdf lnOg]5 .

-!%_ ljkGg ju{ shf{df u0fgf x'g] u/L a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 dlxnfxf/f ;+rflnt n3'
pBdnfO{ k|jfx ePsf] # nfv;Ddsf] shf{nfO{ ;f] shf{sf] lwtf] ;'/If0fdf o; a}+saf6
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pknAw u/fOg] 5 .

-gf]6M k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf cGtu{t k|afx ePsf] shf{ ;DaGwL ljj/0f cg';"rL @!=$ sf] 9fFrfdf ;DalGwt
;'kl/j]If0f ljefudf dfl;s ?kdf dlxgf ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] !% lblgleqdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . _

281

##=

#$=

hnljB't pTkfbg kl/of]hgfnfO{ k'g/shf{ pknJw u/fpg] ;DaGwdfM


Ohfhtkqk|fKt s v / u ju{sf a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:Yffx?nfO{ g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf]
bkmf $( / %) adf]lhd b]xfosf] zt{ tyf dfkb08sf] clwgdf /xL hnljB't pTkfbg kl/of]hgfdf
ePsf] shf{ nufgLdf k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf (Refinancing Facility) pknJw u/fpg ;lsg] 5 .
zt{ tyf dfkb08x? M
-!_
k'g/shf{sf] nflu a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfaf6 ;DalGwt hnljB't pTkfbg kl/of]hgfnfO{
k'g/shf{ pknJw u/fO{ lbg l;kmfl/z ;lxt o; a}+s ;dIf tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf cfj]bg k]z ug'{
kg]{ 5 .
-@_
a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] k'g/shf{sf] nflu cfj]bg ubf{ ;DalGwt kl/of]hgf ;~rfngsf] jt{dfg
cj:yf, ljQLo ljj/0f / kl/of]hgf ;Da4 kmd{sDkgL / ;+rfnssf] sfnf];"rL ;DaGwL
hfgsf/L lnO{ l;kmfl/z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-#_
cfj]bg ;fy k'g/shf{ dfu ug]{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] cfgf] ljQLo cj:yf emNsfpg]
kl/;"rsx? v'nfpg' kg]{5 . tf]lsPsf] k"FhLsf]if k"/f ePsf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ dfq
k'g/shf{ pknJw u/fOg] 5 .
-$_
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf c;n ju{df /x]sf] ;DalGwt kl/of]hgfdf k|jfx ePsf] shf{sf] ;'/If0fdf dfq
pknJw u/fOg] 5 . o:tf] shf{ ljut 5 dlxgfb]lv c;n ju{df juL{s[t eO{ Go"gtd csf]{ 5
dlxgf shf{sf] e'QmfgL cjlw afFsL /x]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
-%_
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf ;DalGwt kl/of]hgfsf] c;n shf{sf] lwtf]sf] a9Ldf *) k|ltzt jf a}+s tyf
ljQLo ;+:yfsf] k|fylds k"FhLsf] a9Ldf ^) k|ltzt;Dd dfq k|bfg ul/g] 5 . ;'/If0f:j?k
lbOPsf] lwtf] ;'/If0fdf o; a}+ssf] klxnf] bfjL (First Charge) /xg]5 .
-^_
k'g/shf{ @% d]ufjf6;Dd ljB't pTkfbg ug]{ hnljB't kl/of]hgfnfO{ a9Ldf ^ dlxgfsf] nflu
dfq pknJw u/fOg] 5 .
-&_
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf aflif{s ^=%) k|ltzt Aofhb/df pknAw u/fOg] 5 . ;DalGwt a}+s jf ljQLo
;+:yfn] o:tf] k'g/shf{ k|of]u ug]{ kl/of]hgfaf6 k'g/shf{ pkof]u u/]sf] /sddf ;f]xL ldltb]lv
clwstd !)=)) k|ltztdf ga9\g] u/L Jofhb/ sfod ug'{ kg]{ 5 .
-*_
k'g/shf{sf] ;fFjf / Jofh Ps d'i6 ?kdf tf]lsPsf] cjlwleq e'QmfgL ug'{ kg]{ 5 . tf]lsPsf]
cjlwleq k'g/shf{sf] ;fjfFAofh e'StfgL gu/]df ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;f] cjlwdf
k|sflzt u/]sf] shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] clwstd Aofhb/ g} k]gfn Aofhb/ sfod u/L c;"npk/ ul/g]
5 . o; a}+sn] C0fL a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] s'g} klg vftf vr{ -Debit_ u/L To:tf] k'g/shf{
c;'npk/ ug{ ;Sg] 5 .
-(_
tf]lsPsf] e'QmfgL cjlw cufj} cf+lzs jf ;Dk"0f{ k'g/shf{ e'QmfgL ug{ ;lsg] 5 . k'g/shf{
jfktsf] ;fFjf cf+lzs ?kdf e'QmfgL ug]{ ePdf ;f] ldlt;Ddsf] ;Dk"0f{ k'g/shf{sf] Jofh /sd
;d]t e'QmfgL ug'{ kg]{ 5 .
-!)_ k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pkof]u ug]{ a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf k|fKt ug{ o; a}+ssf
gfpFdf td;'s ul/lbg' kg]{ 5 .
-!!_ k'g/shf{ pkof]u ul//x]sf] kl/of]hgf lwtf] /fvL k'gM k'g/shf{ lng rfx]df xfn pkof]u u/]sf]
k'g/shf{ r'Qmf u/]sf] x'g'kg]{ 5 . o;/L cl3Nnf] k'g/shf{ r'Qmf e};s]kl5 cfufdL cjlwsf]
nlfu k'g/shf{ pknAw u/fpg ;lsg]5 .
s[lif If]q ;DaGwL k'g/shf{M
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf a+}sx?nfO{ g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf $( / %)
adf]lhd b]xfosf] zt{ tyf dfkb08sf] clwgdf /xL s[lif If]qdf ePsf] shf{ nufgLdf k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf
(Refinancing Facility) pknJw u/fpg ;lsg] 5 .
zt{ tyf dfkb08x? M
-!_
s[lif If]q;Fu ;DalGwt kl/of]hgfsf] nflu ;DalGwt a}+sn] k'g/shf{ lng l;kmfl/z ;lxt o;
a}+s ;dIf tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf cfj]bg k]z ug'{ kg]{ 5 .

282

-@_

#%=

a}+sn] k'g/shf{sf] nflu cfj]bg ubf{ ;DalGwt kl/of]hgf ;~rfngsf] jt{dfg cj:yf, ljQLo
ljj/0f / kl/of]hgf ;Da4 kmd{sDkgL / ;+rfnssf] sfnf];"rL ;DaGwL hfgsf/L lnO{
l;kmfl/z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-#_
cfj]bg ;fy k'g/shf{ dfu ug]{ a}+sn] cfgf] ljQLo cj:yf emNsg] kl/;"rsx? v'nfpg' kg]{5 .
tf]lsPsf] k"FhLsf]if k"/f ePsf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ dfq k'g/shf{ pknJw u/fOg] 5 .
-$_
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf c;n ju{df /x]sf] ;DalGwt kl/of]hgfdf k|jfx ePsf] shf{sf] ;'/If0fdf dfq
pknJw u/fOg] 5 . o:tf] shf{ ljut 5 dlxgfb]lv c;n ju{df juL{s[t eO{ Go"gtd csf]{ 5
dlxgf shf{sf] e'QmfgL cjlw afFsL /x]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
-%_
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf ;DalGwt kl/of]hgfsf] c;n shf{sf] lwtf]sf] a9Ldf *) k|ltzt jf a}+ssf]
k|fylds k"FhLsf] a9Ldf ^) k|ltzt;Dd dfq k|bfg ul/g] 5 . ;'/If0f:j?k lbOPsf] lwtf]
;'/If0fdf o; a}+ssf] klxnf] bfjL (First Charge) /xg]5 .
-^_
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf a9Ldf ^ dlxgfsf] nflu dfq pknJw u/fOg] 5 .
-&_
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf aflif{s ^=%) k|ltzt Aofhb/df pknAw u/fOg] 5 . ;DalGwt a}+sn] o:tf]
k'g/shf{ k|of]u ug]{ kl/of]hgfaf6 k'g/shf{ pkof]u u/]sf] /sddf ;f]xL ldltb]lv clwstd
!)=)) k|ltztdf ga9\g] u/L Jofhb/ sfod ug'{ kg]{ 5 .
-*_
k'g/shf{sf] ;fFjf / Jofh Ps d'i6 ?kdf tf]lsPsf] cjlwleq e'QmfgL ug'{ kg]{ 5 . tf]lsPsf]
cjlwleq k'g/shf{sf] ;fjfFAofh e'StfgL gu/]df ;DalGwt a}+sn] ;f] cjlwdf k|sflzt u/]sf]
shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] clwstd Aofhb/ g} k]gfn Aofhb/ sfod u/L c;"npk/ ul/g] 5 . o; a}+sn]
C0fL a}+ssf] s'g} klg vftf vr{ -Debit_ u/L To:tf] k'g/shf{ c;'npk/ ug{ ;Sg] 5 .
-(_
tf]lsPsf] e'QmfgL cjlw cufj} cf+lzs jf ;Dk"0f{ k'g/shf{ r'Qmf ug{ ;lsg] 5 . k'g/shf{
jfktsf] ;fFjf cf+lzs ?kdf e'QmfgL ug]{ ePdf ;f] ldlt;Ddsf] ;Dk"0f{ k'g/shf{sf] Jofh /sd
;d]t e'QmfgL ug'{ kg]{ 5 .
-!)_ k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pkof]u ug]{ a}+sn] k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf k|fKt ug{ o; a}+ssf gfpFdf td;'s ul/lbg'
kg]{ 5 .
-!!_ k'g/shf{ pkof]u ul//x]sf] kl/of]hgf lwtf] /fvL k'gM k'g/shf{ lng rfx]df xfn pkof]u u/]sf]
k'g/shf{ r'Qmf u/]sf] x'g'kg]{ 5 . o;/L cl3Nnf] k'g/shf{ r'Qmf e};s]kl5 cfufdL cjlwsf]
nlfu k'g/shf{ pknAw u/fpg ;lsg]5 .
lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pknJw u/fpg] ;DaGwdf
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s, v / u ju{sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ o; a}+sn] ;do ;dodf tf]s]sf]
b/df lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pknAw u/fpg ;lsg] 5 .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf jfl0fHo a}+sx?n] lgof{t k|lttkq -Export L/C Pre-shipment and Postshipment) sf cfwf/df lgof{td"ns Joj;fonfO{ g]kfnL d'b|fdf k|jfx u/]sf] shf{sf] nflu b]xfosf] zt{
tyf dfkb08sf] cwLgdf /x]/ lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf -Export Refinancing Facilities_ pknAw u/fpg
;lsg] 5 . -;DjlGwt cg';"rLx? @!=%, @!=^ / @!=&_ .
zt{ tyf dfkb08x? M
-!_
ef/tLo / kl/jTo{ ljb]zL d'b|fdf k|lttkq sf/f]af/df ;+nUg /x]sf Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf
jfl0fHo a}+sx?n] ut qodf;sf] cfgf] ljQLo l:ylt v'nfO{ o; a}+sn] tf]lslbPsf] 9fFrfdf
lgj]bg lbO{ lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwfsf] nflu cfj]bg ug{ kfpg] 5g\ .
-@_
ut qodf;df o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] Go"gtd k'FhL kof{Kttf cg'kft -CAR_ tyf k'FhL of]hgf
cg';f/sf] r'Qmf k'FhL k"/f gu/]sf a}+sx?nfO{ o; a}+sn] lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf lbg OGsf/ ug{
;Sg]5 .
-#_
shf{ ;"rgf s]Gb|af6 ;fv ;"rgf lnPsf]] x'g' kg]{5 .
-$_ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;DalGwt ;/sf/L lgsfosf] :jLs[lt k|fKt tyf k|fyldstfdf k/]sf b]xfosf
j:t'x?sf] lgof{tsf] nflu lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pkof]u ug{ lgDg adf]lhd k|fyldstfqmd
lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] 5 .
-s_
cn}+rL, cb'jf, lrof, skmL, Xof08Lqmf6, h8La'6L, dx, h';, k'ik tyf k'ikhGo pTkfbg

283

nufotsf s[lifhGo pTkfbgx? .


-v_
g]kfnL xft] sfuh, rfFbLsf uxgf, sDKo'6/ ;6j]o/, h'6 / lgof{tof]Uo j:t' pTkfbg
ug]{ 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]u .
-u_
5fnfhGo j:t', klZdgf, un}+rf, ufd]{G6, sfk]{6, png sfk]{6 .
-3_
rfprfp, ;fgf 6fG:kmd{/, cfO/g :6Ln, h:tfkftf tyf ss{6kftf .
-_
sfuh, KnfOp8, wfuf], kf]lni6/ ofg{, h'6, tf/ .
-r_
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] tf]s]sf cGo a:t'x? .
Ohfhtkqk|fKt s ju{sf jfl0fHo a}+sx?n] o; a}+s ;dIf lgof{t k'g/shf{ dfu ubf{ cfkm";+u
lgof{t sf/f]af/ u/]sf lgof{tstf{x?dWo]af6 k|fyldstf ;"rL tof/ u/L Export L/C/Export
Documentary Bill sf] cfwf/df shf{ dfu ug'{ kg]{5 .
-%_
lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwfsf] nflu cfj]bg ug]{ a}+sx?af6 dfu ePsf] s'n /sd tyf lgof{t
k'g/shf{sf] nflu o; a}+sn] jflif{s ?kdf Joj:yf u/]sf] s'n ah]6 /sdn] vfDg] ePdf lgof{t
k|lttkqlgof{t aLn /sdsf] a9Ldf *) k|ltzt;Dd lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf k|bfg ug{ ;lsg]5 .
lgof{t k'g/shf{sf] ah]6 eGbf a9L dfu ePdf k|fyldstf ;"rLsf Export L/C/Export
Documentary Bill nfO{ cfwf/ dfgL k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pknAw u/fOg] 5 .
-^_
o; a}+saf6 k|bfg ul/g] lgof{t k'g/shf{sf] jflif{s Aofhb/ !=%) k|ltzt sfod ul/Psf] 5 .
a}+sx?n] of] ;'ljwf pkof]u u/L shf{ k|jfx ubf{ ;DalGwt lgof{tstf{ C0fLaf6 a9Ldf $=)
k|ltzt;Dd dfq Aofh lng' kg]{5 .
-&_
o; a}+saf6 k|bfg ul/g] lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf lnPsf a}+sx?n] k'g/shf{ afktsf] ;fFjf, Aofh
Psd'i6 e'Qmfg ug'{kg]{ 5 . o:tf] shf{sf] ;fFjf Aofh e'QmfgL ug]{ Dofb Export L/C jfkt
ljb]zaf6 e'QmfgL k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] rf/ sfo{lbgleq clgjfo{?kdf ;fFjf Aofh e'QmfgL ug'{
kg]{5 .
-*_ k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf e'QmfgL cjlw cl3 g} e'QmfgL -Pre-payment_ ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
-(_ tf]lsPsf] cjlwleq k'g/shf{sf] ;fFjfAofh e'StfgL gu/]df ;DalGwt a}+sn] ;f] cjlwdf
k|sflzt u/]sf] shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] clwstd Aofhb/ g} xh{gf Aofhb/ sfod ul/g]5 . g]kfn
/fi6 a}+sn] C0fL a}+ssf] s'g} klg vftf vr{ -Debit_ u/L afFsL /sd c;'npk/ ug]{5 .
-!)_ lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwfsf] lwtf] ;'/If0f:j?k Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+sn] k|To]s k'g/shf{sf] nflu
cfk"mn] lgof{t shf{ k|jfx u/L k'g/shf{sf] nflu of]Uo egL k|dfl0ft ul/Psf] Export L/C/Export
Documentary Bill sf] ;DalGwt a}+saf6 k|dfl0ft k|ltlnlk / a}+sn] k'g/shf{sf] nflu o;
a}+snfO{ n]lvlbPsf] td;'snfO{ lnOg]5 .
-!!_ ;xljQLos/0f cGtu{t k|jfx ePsf lgof{t shf{x?sf] xsdf cu'jf (Lead_ a}+s dfkm{t o;
lgb]{zgsf] clwgdf /xL lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwfsf nflu cg'/f]w ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
-!@_ cf=j=@)^^^& df lgof{t k'g/shf{sf] nflu ?= Ps cj{sf] ah]6 ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] 5 .
lgof{t k'g/shf{sf] nflu dfu a9L ePsf] cj:yfdf xfnnfO{ k|lt C0fL tyf If]qut clwstd
;Ldf b]xfo cg';f/ x'g] tyf k|fyldstfsf cfwf/df ;dfg'kflts ?kdf k'g/shf{sf] Joj:yf
ul/g]5 . o; ;'ljwf cGtu{t k|jfx ul/g] shf{sf] Go"gtd /sd ?= Ps nfv / ;f] /sdn] efu
hfg] /sd a/fa/ x'g]5 .
If]q
hDdf lgof{t k'g/shf{ /sd
-s_ 7"nf tyf demf}nf pBf]u
-v_ 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]u
-u_ s[lifhGo pTkfbg
-3_ cGo

-!$_

If]qut jh]6 ;Ldf


?=! cj{
?=#) s/f]8
?=#) s/f]8
?=#) s/f]8
?=!) s/f]8

k|lt C0fL clwstd ;Ldf


?=# s/f]8
?= &% nfv
?= &% nfv
?= @% nfv

of] Joj:yf cGtu{t Export L/C vf]Ng] kmd{sDkgL;+:yfn] cGo JolQmkmd{sDkgL;+:yfaf6


pTkflbt ;fdfg vl/b u/L lgof{t ug]{ ePdf ;f] ;fdfg pTkfbg ug]{
JolQmkmd{sDkgL;+:yfnfO{ klg lgof{tstf{ ;/x (Deemed Exporter) dflgg] 5 tyf pQm
Deemed Exporter nfO{ lgof{t ul/g] ;fdfg pTkfbgsf] nflu a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?af6
k|jfx x'g] shf{sf] nflu klg Export L/C vf]Ng] kmd{sDkgL;+:yf / pTkfbs -Deemed

284

aLr ePsf] lkIfLo ;Demf}tfsf] cfwf/df lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf lbg ;lsg] 5 .
of] Joj:yf cGtu{t Deemed Exporter eO{ pTkfbg sfo{df ;+nUg ePsf JolQmkmd{
sDkgL;+:yfnfO{ k|jfx ePsf] shf{sf] cfwf/df lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf dfu ePsf] cj:yfdf ;f]xL
lgof{tsf] nflu Exporter sf] ?kdf ;+nUg kmd{sDkgL;+:yfnfO{ k|jfx u/]sf] shf{sf] cfwf/df
lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pknAw u/fOg] 5}g .
-!%_ lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf k|fKt ul//x]sf a}+sx?n] tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf lgof{t shf{sf] dfl;s ljj/0f
d;fGt ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] !% lbgleq o; a}+sdf k]z ug'{ kg]{5 . ;fy} o; a}+sn] ;do ;dodf
dfu u/]sf] cGo ljj/0f ;d]t k]z ug'{ kg]{5 .
-!^_ Cash Against Documents (CAD) sf] cfwf/df lgsf;L ug]{sf] xsdf o; a}+ssf] ljb]zL ljlgdo
ljefusf] O=k|f= kl/kq ;+Vof $)# ldlt @)^#.!@.!! tyf ;f] ljifo;+u ;DalGwt ;do ;dodf
hf/L cGo lgb]{zg adf]lhdsf] lgof{t sf/f]jf/ ug{ o; lgb]{zgn] afwf k'ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
-!&_ Ps k6s lnPsf] lgof{t k'g/shf{ dfly plNnlvt Joj:yf adf]lhd r'Qmf ul/;s]kl5 k'gM
lgof{t ug{sf] nflu lgof{t k'g/shf{ dfu ug{ ;lsg]5 .
Electronic Cheque Clearing ;DaGwdf
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a+}s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] nflu g]kfn lSnol/ xfp;n] k]z u/]sf] Nepal
Exporter_

#^=

Electronic Cheque Clearing (ECC) Rule Book, Nepal Electronic Cheque Clearing (ECC)
Operating Rule / Cheque Standard & Specification nfu" ug]{ / g]kfn lSnol/ xfp; lnld6]8sf]

lgodg, lg/LIf0f, sf/f]af/sf ;DaGwdf b]xfosf] lgodg hf/L ul/Psf]5 .


-!_ ECC sf] sf/f]af/ ;lsP kZrft ;]6nd]G6sf nflu ECC Rule Book df h'g';'s} s'/f n]lvPsf]
ePtf klg g]kfn lSnol/ xfp; lnld6]8n] On]S6f]lgs dfWodaf6 a}+s tyf ljQLo ;F:yfxsf]
vr{ jf hDdf ug]{ /sdsf] clGtd ;f/f+z (Net Clearing Position) o; a}+ssf] a}+ls
sfof{nodf k7fpg] ;DaGwdf lgDg tLg ;qxnfO{ dfq k|f/lDes ?kdf ;~rfng ug]{ M

lSnol/ ;q

Net Clearing Position

k|fKt ug]{ ;do

;]6nd]G6 x'g] ;do

lgoldt lSnol/ ;q

lbpF;f] #M)) ah]

lbpF;f] #M!) ah]

k'/fgf 9fFrfsf r]s8f6 lSnol/ ;q

lbpF;f] #M)) ah]

lbpF;f] #M!) ah]

klxnf] PS;k|]; lSnol/ ;q

laxfg !!M#) ah]

laxfg !!M$) ah]

(Regular Clearing Session)


(Non-Standard Cheque/Draft
Clearing Session)

(First Express Clearing Session)

-@_

-#_
-$_
-%_

ECC sf/f]af/sf] vr{ jf hDdf /sdsf] clGtd ;f/f+z (Net Clearing Position) o; a}+sdf
cfPkl5 ;DalGwt ;b:oxsf] vftfdf vr{ jf hDdf (Debit or Credit) ug]{ l;nl;nfdf

sy+sbflrt vftfdf /sd ck'u ePdf ;f]sf] Joj:yf ug{ o; a}+sf/f a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfxsf nflu lx;fa ldnfg lbg (Business Settlement Day) sf nflu k|rlnt a}+sb/
cg'?k Aofh lnO{ /sd k"lt{ ug]{ Joj:yf sfod ug]{ / ;f] sf] ef]lnkN6 clgjfo{ ?kdf lx;fa
ldnfg ug'{kg]{ . sy+sbflrt lx;fa ldnfg x'g g;s]sf] v08df bf];|f] lbg a}+sb/sf] bf]Aa/, t];|f]
lbgb]lv t]Aa/ a}+s b/sf b/n] xhf{gf nufpg] .
ECC k"0f{ ;~rfngdf cfPkl5 o; a}+ssf] a}+ls sfof{nodf e'QmfgL tyf lx;fa ldnfg s]Gb|
(Payment & Settlement Centre) v8f u/L cfjZostf cg';f/ ;f] sfof{non] Payment &
Settlement ;DaGwL sfo{sf] ;'kl/j]If0f ug]{ .
g]kfn lSnol/ xfp;df cfa4 eO{ ECC sfo{ ug{ rfxg] a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] g]kfn
lSnol/ xfp;af6 ECC ;+rfngdf cfPsf] Ps jif{ leq lgwf{l/t Standard sf r]sx 5kfO{
u/L ;f] k|0ffnL dfkm{t sf/f]af/ ug]{ .
plNnlvt Nepal ECC Rule Book, Nepal ECC Operating Manual, and Cheque
Standard & Specification df o; a}+saf6 cfjZostf cg';f/ ;+zf]wg x'g ;Sg] .

285

plNnlvt Nepal ECC Rule Book, Nepal ECC Operating Manual / Cheque Standard &
Specification o;};fy ;+nUg 5 .
ljb]zL d'b|fsf] r]s lSnol/ ;DaGwdf
g]kfn lSnol/ xfp;af6 ldlt @)^*.(.!$ b]lv On]S6f]lgs r]s lSnol/ cGtu{t ljb]zL d'b|fsf] r]s
lSnol/ x'g] ePsf] x'Fbf pQm ldltb]lv ljb]zL d'b|fsf] r]s lSnol/sf] sf/f]jf/ ;f]xL lSnol/ xfp;
dfkm{t ug{'u/fpg' kg]{ 5 . g]kfn lSnol/ xfp;sf] ;b:otf lnO{ g;s]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf]
xsdf xfnnfO{ k"j{jt Joj:yf cg'?k r]s lSnol/ ul/g] 5 .
g]kfnL d'b|fsf] r]s lSnol/ ;DaGwdf
-!_
g]kfn lSnol/ xfp; ln= af6 ldlt @)^*.!@.@& ut] b]lv On]S6f]lgs dfWodaf6 g]kfnL
d'b|fsf] r]s lSnol/ x'g] ePsf] x'Fbf pQm ldltb]lv g]kfnL d'b|fsf] r]s lSnol/sf] sf/f]jf/ ;f]xL
lSnol/ xfp; dfkm{t ug{'u/fpg' kg]{ 5 .
-@_
On]S6f]lgs dfWodaf6 x'g] r]s lSnol/sf] sf/f]jf/df ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn]
cfkm\gf u|fxsx?;+u s'g} lsl;dsf] z'Ns lng kfOg] 5}g .
-#_
g]kfn lSnol/ xfp; ln= sf] ;b:otf lnO{ g;s]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?sf] xsdf csf]{
Joj:yf geP;Dd k"j{jt Joj:yf cg'?k r]s lSnol/ ul/g] 5 .
ljleGg kqklqsfx?df sd z'Nsdf a}+s Jofn]G; ;l6{lkms]6 pknJw u/fOg] 5 egL lj1fkg k|sflzt x'g]
u/]sf] / o:tf] sfo{ k|rlnt sfg'g adf]lhd o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx? afx]s
cGo JolQm jf ;+:yfn] ug{ gkfpg] Joj:yf /x]sf] x'Fbf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cfkm\gf u|fxsx?nfO{
o; lsl;dsf] lj1fkg k|sflzt u/L a}+s a}n]G; ;l6{lkms]6 pknJw u/fpg] sfo{ gug]{gu/fpg] Joj:yf
ug{ of] lgb]{zg hf/L ul/Psf] 5 . olb o;/L lj1fkg k|sfzg u/fO{ a}n]G; ;l6{lkms]6 hf/L ug]{ u/fpg]
sfo{df a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx? k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf ?kdf ;+nUg /x]sf] kfOPdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g,
@)%* adf]lhd sf/jfxL x'g]5 .
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt 3 ju{sf n3' ljQ ljsf; a}+s, cg'dltkqk|fKt ;Lldt a}+ls sf/f]jf/ ug]{
;xsf/L ;+:yf tyf ljQLo dWo:ytfsf] sfo{ ug]{ u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?n] s'g} JolQm;d"x
;b:o;d'xnfO{ ?=#) xhf/ eGbf a9L shf{ k|bfg ubf{ ;DalGwt zfvf sfof{nosf] sfo{If]q leq kg]{
o; a}+saf6 Ohfhtkqk|fKt 3 ju{sf n3' ljQ ljsf; a}+s, ;Lldt a}+ls sf/f]jf/ ug]{ ;xsf/L ;+:yf
tyf ljQLo dWo:ytfsf] sfo{ ug]{ u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?af6 u|fxssf] shf{ ;DaGwL ;"rgf lng'lbg' kg]{
Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{ 5 . o;/L shf{ ;"rgf lnFbflbFbf u|fxs;Fu ;f] jfkt s'g} lsl;dsf] z'Ns lng kfOg]
5}g .
vf/]hL / arfp
-!_ o; a}+saf6 o;cl3 hf/L ul/Psf b]xfosf lgb]{zgx? vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 M
PsLs[t lgb]{zg, @)^* sf] ljljw ;DaGwL Joj:yf O=k|f=lgb]{zg g+= @!)^* af6 hf/L ul/Psf]
lgb]{zg tyf ;f] kZrft ldlt @)^( c;f/ d;fGt;Dd hf/L ePsf pko{'Qm ljifo;+u ;DjlGwt
;Dk"0f{ kl/kqx? .
-@_
pka'Fbf -!_ adf]lhd vf/]h ul/Psf lgb]{zg tyf kl/kq adf]lhd eP u/]sf sfd sf/jfxL o;}
lgb]{zg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 .
-^_

#&=

#*=

#(=

$)=

$!=

b|i6JoM PsLs[t lgb]{zgsf] ljljw Joj:yf ;DaGwL lgb]{zgdf o; cl3 ;dfj]z ePsf sfnf];"rL ;DaGwL
sf/jfxL / km's'jf ;DaGwL lgb]{zgkl/kq tyf cg';"rLx?, Tamil Rehabilitation Organization (TRO)
;DaGwL kl/kq tyf ;f] ;DaGwL cg';"rLx?, ;xsf/L / ljQLo dWo:ytf ug]{ u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?nfO{
hf/L lgb]{zg Pj+ Psk6s dfq k|of]udf cfO{ k|efj ;dfKt x'g] vfnsf kl/kqx? o; lgb]{zgaf6 x6fO{
;DalGwt k"j{ kl/kqlgb]{zgx? -o; a}+ssf] Website: www.nrb.org.np sf] Archive df ;d]t pknAw
ePsf]_ af6} nfu" x'g] Joj:yf sfod ul/Psf] 5 .

286

cg';"rL @!=!

c;n shf{ ljj/0f


qm=;+=

C0fLsf] gfd

shf{
zLif{s

shf{ k|jfx ldlt

e'QmfgL
ldlt

shf{ /sd

;'/If0fsf]
ljj/0f

dfly plNnlvt ljj/0fx? l7s ;fFrf] xf], ;j} shf{x? c;n shf{df juL{s[t 5g\, em'7f 7x/] sfg'g
adf]lhd ;xF'nf a'emfpFnf . sy+sbflrt oL shf{x? lgis[o shf{df kl/0ft eP ;f] sf] hfgsf/L g]kfn
/fi6 a}+snfO{ pknAw u/fO{ ;f] sf] ;fdf csf]{ c;n shf{ ;'/If0fsf ?kdf pknAw u/fpg] k|lta4tf
JoSt ub{5f}+ .

========= a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] tk{maf6


b:tvt M
gfd M
kb M
5fkM
ljefusfof{no M
Olt ;Dat\ @) == ;fn ============ dlxgf =======ut] /f]h ======= z'ed\

287

cg';"rL @!=@

-k'g/shf{ td;'ssf] gd"gf_


lnlvtd wgLsf gfd sf=lh= sf=d=g=kf= j8f g+= !! yfkfynLl:yt g]kfn /fi6 a}+s, a}ls sfof{no cfu] ;f] /sd C0f
lng] C0fLsf] gfd ========, s]Gb|Lo sfof{no /x]sf]================ a}+sljQLo ;+:yf lnld6]8n] g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 k'g/shf{
k|bfg ug{] ;DaGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf $( n] u/]sf] Joj:yf cGtu{t g]kfn /fi6 a}+s;Fu cfhsf
ldltdf ?= ============ ==========-cIf/]kL ================================================ ============== dfq_ shf{ lnPsf] l7s ;fFrf] xf] .
pQm shf{ lnPsf] /sd afkt C0fLn] cfgf] lgDg adf]lhdsf] u|fxs C0fLnfO{ k|jfx u/]sf] shf{ dWo] p7fpg afFsL ^
dlxgfeGbf a9L e'QmfgL cjlw afFsL ePsf], efsf ggf3]sf] / ljut Ps jif{b]lv nuftf/ ?kdf c;n ju{df juL{s[t shf{
dWo] tkl;nsf kl/of]hgfsf] c;n shf{ lwtf] ;'/If0f, g]kfn /fi6 a}+s tyf k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pkof]u ug]{ a}+s tyf ljQLo
;+:yfn] k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pkof]u ug]{ ;DaGwdf x:tfIf/ u/]sf] td;'s / k|ld;/L gf]6 k'g/shf{ ;'ljwfsf] nflu lwtf]
;'/If0fsf] ?kdf /flv lbPsf 5f}+ . tkl;n adf]lhdsf] lwtf] ;'/If0fdf /flvPsf] c;n shf{sf] ljj/0f tyf zt{x? / o;
;DaGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 hf/L ljBdfg gLltut Joj:yf tyf g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] ;do ;dodf tf]s]sf] zt{dfkb08
kfngf ug]{5f}+ . zt{x? kfngf gu/]df pQm lwtf] tyf C0fL a}+ssf] cGo rncrn ;DklQ ;d]taf6 pQm /sd c;'n u/L
lng' egL a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] lg0f{o;xdlt ;d]t /x]sf]n] g]kfn /fi6 a}+s, a}+ls sfof{no,
yfkfynL, sf7df8f}+df a;L of] td;'s n]vL wgL g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf r9fof}+ .
tkl;n
s=
lwtf]sf] ljj/0f
kl/of]hgfsf] gfd

lwtf] ;'/If0fdf /flvPsf] c;n shf{sf] ljj/0f

v=

g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 k|fKt k'g/shf{

zt{x?M
1. a9Ldf ^ dlxgf cjlwsf nflu dfq of] k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 .
2. k'g/shf{ afkt wgL a}+snfO{ jflif{s ;os8f == k|ltztsf b/n] Aofh;lxt Psd'i6 ?kdf ;fFjf Aofh a'emfpg'
kg]{5 .
3. k'g/shf{ dfu ubf{ ;DalGwt a}+sn] shf{df lnPsf] Aofhb/ o; a}+sn] tf]s]sf] Aofhb/df a9Ldf === k|ltzt;Dd
yk Aofh sfod ug{ ;Sg]5 .
4. lgwf{l/t ;doleq k'g/shf{ e'Stfg gu/]df e'Qmfg x'g afFsL /sddf ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] ;f]
cjlwdf k|sflzt u/]sf] shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] clwstd Aofhb/ g} k]gfn Aofhb/ x'g]5 . g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] C0fL
a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] s'g} klg vftf vr{ -Debit_ u/L /sd c;'n pk/ ug{ ;Sg]5 .
5. k'g/shf{ pkef]u u/]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;fFjfAofh e'StfgL Dofb ;dfKt ePsf] lbg
;f] /sd e'StfgL gu/]df g]kfn /fi6 a}+sl:yt ;DalGwt ;+:yfsf] h'g;'s} vftf vr{ n]vL shf{ c;"npk/ ul/
lng / ;f] sf] vr{ ug]{ clVtof/L g]kfn /fi6 a}+snfO{ lbOPsf] 5 . o;df kl5 s'g} ph'/L jf bflj ul/g] 5}g .
6. lwtf]sf] ?kdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+snfO{ lbO{Psf] td;'sdf pNn]lvt shf{sf] hf]lvdtf nufot ;a} lhDd]jf/L
;DalGwt a}+sljQLo ;+:yfs} x'g]5 .
7. C0fL a}+sn] lwtf] :j?k /fv]sf] td;'sdf pNn]v ePsf] u|fxssf] rncrn dfn a:t' / g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6
shf{ lnO{ nufgL u/]sf] pBf]u tyf Joj;fo ;d]tsf] g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] h'g;'s} avt lg/LIf0f ubf{ pknAw
u/fpg' kg]{5 .
8. g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] k|bfg u/]sf] k'g/shf{ ;'ljwfsf] ;DaGwdf ;do ;dodf ljj/0f dfu]sf] avt tf]lsPsf]
Dofbleq C0fL a}+sn] pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
9. lwtf] ;'/If0fdf lnOPsf] ;'/If0fdf klxnf] bfjL (First Charge) g]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] x'g]5 .
10. C0f k|of]u ;DaGwdf o;};fy ;+nUg gLltut zt{ tyf dfkb08x? kfngf ug]{ k|lta4tf JoQm ul/Psf] 5 . ;f]
adf]lhd gu/]df k|rlnt g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* tyf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g, @)^# cg';f/
;hfo ePdf d~h'/L 5 .
11. zt{ / dfkb08df cfjZostf cg';f/ g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] kl/dfh{g jf ;+zf]wg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
g]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] tk{maf6
=========a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] tk{maf6 clVtof/k|fKt JolQm
b:tvt M
b:tvt M
gfd
M
gfd M
kb
M
5fkM
kb M
5fk M
ljefusfof{no M
ljefusfof{no M
Olt ;Dat\ @) == ;fn ============ dlxgf =======ut] /f]h ======= z'ed\

288

cg';"rL @!=#
-k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pkof]u ug]{ ;DalGwt a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] n]6/Kof8df_
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwfsf] nflu k|lt1fkq -Promissory Note_ sf] gd"gf
======================, s]Gb|Lo sfof{no /x]sf] ======================= a}+sljQLo ;+:yf lnld6]8n] g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g,
@)%* sf] bkmf $(= n] u/]sf] Joj:yf cGtu{t g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 cfhsf ldltdf ?= ============ ==========
cIf/]lk ================================================ ============== dfq_ k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf k|fKt u/]sf] l7s ;fFrf] xf] . g]kfn
/fi6 a}+s jf ;f] a}+sn] cfb]z u/]sf] kIfnfO{ dfu]sf] ;dodf =========== k|ltzt jf g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] tf]s]sf]
Aofhb/n] x'g cfpg] Aofh /sd / ;fjfF /sd ?= ============ ==========
-cIf/]kL
================================================ ============== dfq_ ltg{ a'emfpg ======================= a}+sljQLo ;+:yf
lnld6]8 sj'n ub{5 / dfu u/]sf] avt glt/]df jf ga'emfPdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] h'g;'s} tl/sfn] c;'npk/ u/L
lnPdf o; a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] dGh'/L 5 egL ;f] ;+:yfsf] tkm{af6 clVtof/k|fKt dxfdL of] k|lt1fkqsf]
lnvtdf b:tvt ub{5'5f}+ .

JolQm

=========a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] tk{maf6 clVtof/k|fKt


b:tvt
gfd
kb
;+:yfsf] 5fk
ljefusfof{no

Olt ;Dat\ @) == ;fn ============ dlxgf =======ut] /f]h ======= z'ed\

289

M
M
M
M
M

cg';"rL @!=$
ldltM @)^== . == . ==
>Ldfg\ sfo{sf/L lgb]{zsHo",
g]kfn /fi6 a}+s,
=====================;'kl/j]If0f ljefu,
sf7df08f}+ .

ljifoM shf{sf] dfl;s ljj/0f .*


dxf]bo,
To; ljefusf] k=;+= =============== ================== ldlt =============== =================df hf/L kl/kqn] u/]sf]
Joj:yf cg';f/ c;n shf{sf] lwtf]df txfFaf6 o; ;+:yfnfO{ pknAw ePsf] k'g/shf{ ;'ljwfaf6 ljleGg
If]qzLif{sdf k|jfx ePsf] shf{sf] dfl;s ljj/0f b]xfo adf]lhd /x]sf] 5 .
shf{sf] ljj/0f
s}lkmot
shf{sf]
shf{ jfkt
shf{
shf{
shf{sf]
qm=;+= C0fLsf]
shf{
aSof}tf
/flvPsf]
efsf
k|jfx
:jLs[t
gfd
zLif{s
;'/If0fsf]
gf3\g]
ldlt
;Ldf
ljj/0f
ldlt

dlxgf ;dfKt ePsf] !% lbgleq k]z ug]{ .


===================== a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] tk{maf6
b:tvt M
gfd M
kb
M
5fk M
ljefusfof{no M

290

cg';"rL @!=%
ldltM @)^== . == . ==

>Ldfg\ sfo{sf/L lgb]{zsHo",


g]kfn /fi6 a}+s,
a}]+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefua}ls+u sfof{no,
sf7df08f}+ .

ljifoM lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf pknAw u/fpg] ;DaGwdf .

dxf]bo,
To; ljefusf] k=;+=
ldlt
df hf/L kl/kqn] u/]sf] Joj:yf cg';f/sf] lgof{t
k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf o; a}+snfO{ cfjZos k/]sf] x'Fbf tkl;ndf pNn]v ul/P cg';f/sf] ljj/0f ;lxt k'g/sh{f
kfpg of] lgj]bg lbPsf] 5'5f}+ .
!=
k'g/shf{ dfu ePsf] /sd M
@=
;'/If0f jfkt /flvg] lwtf] ;'/If0fsf] ljj/0f M
lgof{t shf{sf] ljj/0f
s}lkmot
Cl0fsf] gfd
lgof{t shf{
shf{sf] :jLs[t shf{sf] aSof}tf
shf{ jfkt
zLif{s
;Ldf
/flvPsf]
;'/If0fsf] ljj/0f

-#_

shf{ r'Qmf ul/g] ldlt


pko'{Qm lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwfsf] ;fFjf / Aofh pNn]lvt ldltleq} e'QmfgL ul/g]5 . sy+sbflrt
e'QmfgL gePsf] v08df o; a}+ssf] g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf /x]sf] h'[g;'s} vftf vr{ u/]/ c;'npk/ ug{ o;}
kq;fy :jLs[lt lbOPsf] 5 . ;fy}, lwtf] jfkt dfly pNn]lvt ;a} lgof{t ;DaGwL sfuhftx? g]kfn
/fi6 a}+sn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] dfkb08 / k|rlnt g]kfn sfg'g cg';f/ g} ePsf] Joxf]/f klg k|dfl0ft
ul/Psf] 5 . o;df s'g} km/s ePsf] kfOPdf o; a}+sn] g} ;f] sf] lhDd]jf/L lng] Joxf]/f klg cg'/f]w 5
.
k|df0f sfuhftsf] gTyLM

===================== a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] tk{maf6


b:tvt M
gfd

kb

5fk

ljefusfof{no M

291

cg';"rL @!=^

ldltM @)^== . == . ==

>Ldfg\ sfo{sf/L lgb]{zsHo",


g]kfn /fi6 a}+s,
a}]+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf lgodg ljefu,
sf7df08f}+ .
ljifoM lgof{t shf{sf] dfl;s ljj/0f .
dxf]bo,

To; ljefusf] k=;+= =============== ================== ldlt =============== =================df hf/L kl/kqn] u/]sf]
Joj:yf cg';f/sf] lgof{t shf{sf] dfl;s ljj/0f b]xfo adf]lhd /x]sf] 5 .
qm=;+=

C0fLsf]
gfd

lgof{t
shf{
zLif{s

shf{sf]
:jLs[t
;Ldf

lgof{t shf{sf] ljj/0f


shf{
shf{ efsf
k|jfx
gf3\g]
ldlt
ldlt

shf{sf]
aSof}tf

shf{ jfkt
/flvPsf]
;'/If0fsf]
ljj/0f

===================== a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] tk{maf6


b:tvt

gfd

kb

5fk

ljefusfof{no M

292

s}lkmot

cg';"rL @!=&
-lgof{t k'g/shf{ td;'ssf] gd"gf_
lnlvtd wgLsf gfd sf=lh= sf=d=g=kf= j8f g+= !! yfkfynLl:yt g]kfn /fi6 a}+s, a}ls sfof{no cfu] ;f] /sd C0f
lng] C0fLsf] gfd ========, s]Gb|Lo sfof{no /x]sf]================ a}+s lnld6]8n] g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 lgof{t k'g/shf{ k|bfg ug{]
;DaGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf $( n] u/]sf] Joj:yf cGtu{t g]kfn /fi6 a}+s;Fu cfhsf ldltdf ?=
============ ==========-cIf/]kL ================================================ ============== dfq_ shf{ lnPsf] l7s ;fFrf] xf] . pQm shf{
lnPsf] /sd afkt C0fLn] cfgf] lgDg adf]lhdsf] lgof{tstf{ u|fxs C0fLnfO{ k|jfx u/]sf] shf{dWo] p7fpg afFsL ePsf],
efsf ggf3]sf], c;n ju{df juL{s[t k"0f{ ;'/lIft shf{x?sf] Export Letter of Credit/Export Documentary Bill sf] o;
a}+saf6 k|dfl0ft k|ltlnlk / a}+sn] k'g/shf{sf] nflu o; a}+snfO{ n]lvlbPsf] td;'snfO{ lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwfsf] nflu
lwtf] ;'/If0fsf] ?kdf /flvlbPsf 5f}+ . tkl;n adf]lhdsf] lwtf] ljj/0f tyf zt{x? / o; ;DaGwdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6
hf/L ljBdfg gLltut Joj:yf tyf g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] ;do ;dodf tf]s]sf] zt{dfkb08 kfngf ug]{5f}+ . zt{x? kfngf
gu/]df pQm lwtf] tyf C0fL a}+ssf] cGo rncrn ;DklQ ;d]taf6 pQm /sd c;'n u/L lng' egL a}+ssf] ;~rfns
;ldltsf] lg0f{o;xdlt ;d]t /x]sf]n] g]kfn /fi6 a}+s, a}+ls sfof{no, yfkfynL, sf7df8f}+df a;L of] td;'s n]vL wgL
g]kfn /fi6 a}+sdf r9fof}+ .
tkl;n
s=
lwtf]sf] ljj/0f
lgof{t shf{sf] ljj/0f
lwtf] ;'/If0fsf] ljj/0f
g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 k|fKt lgof{t k'g/shf{
=
v=
zt{x?M
!=
lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf cGtu{tsf] shf{sf] ;fFjf Aofh e'QmfgL ug]{ Dofb Export Letter of Credit jfkt
ljb]zaf6 e'QmfgL k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] rf/ sfo{lbgleqdf clgjfo{?kdf ug'{kg]{5 . k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf e'QmfgL cjlw
cl3 g} k"j{e'QmfgL -Pre-payment_ ;d]t ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
@=
lgof{t k'g/shf{ afkt wgL a}+snfO{ jflif{s ;os8f === k|ltztsf b/n] Aofh;lxt Psd'i6 ?kdf ;fFjf Aofh
a'emfpg' kg]{5 .
#=
a}+sx?n] of] ;'ljwf pkof]u u/L shf{ k|jfx ubf{ ;DalGwt lgof{tstf{ C0fLaf6 a9Ldf ==== k|ltzt;Dd dfq Aofh lng'
kg]{5 .
$=
lgwf{l/t ;doleq lgof{t k'g/shf{ e'Stfg gu/]df e'Qmfg x'g afFsL /sddf ;DalGwt a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn]
;f] cjlwdf k|sfl;t u/]sf] shf{ tyf ;fk6sf] clwstd Aofhb/ g} k]gfn Aofhb/ x'g]5 . g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn]
C0fL a}+s jf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] s'g} klg vftf vr{ -Debit_ u/L /sd c;'npk/ ug{ ;Sg]5 .
%=
lwtf]sf] ?kdf g]kfn /fi6 a}+snfO{ lbO{Psf] td;'sdf pNn]lvt shf{sf] hf]lvd nufot ;a} lhDd]jf/L ;DalGwt
a}+ssf] g} x'g]5 .
^=
C0fL a}+sn] lwtf] :j?k /fv]sf] td;'sdf pNn]v ePsf] u|fxssf] rncrn dfn a:t' / g]kfn /fi6 a}+saf6 shf{
lnO{ nufgL u/]sf] pBf]u tyf Joj;fo ;d]tsf] g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] h'g;'s} avt lg/LIf0f ubf{ pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
&=
lgof{t k'g/shf{ ;'ljwf lng] a}+sx?n] tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf lgof{t shf{sf] x/]s ;Ktfx cGTosf] cyf{t\
z'qmjf/;Ddsf] ;fKtflxs ljj/0f o; a}+sdf k]z ug'{kg]{5 . g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] k|bfg u/]sf] lgof{t k'g/shf{
;'ljwfsf] ;DaGwdf ;do ;dodf cGo ljj/0f dfu]sf] avt tf]lsPsf] Dofbleq C0fL a}+sn] pknAw u/fpg'
kg]{5 .
*=
lgof{t k'g/shf{ pkef]u u/]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;fFjfAofh e'StfgL Dofb ;dfKt ePsf] lbg ;f] /sd
e'StfgL gu/]df g]kfn /fi6 a}+sl:yt ;DalGwt ;+:yfsf] h'g;'s} vftf vr{ n]vL shf{ c;"npk/ ul/ lng / ;f] sf]
vr{ -Debit_ ug]{ clVtof/L g]kfn /fi6 a}+snfO{ lbOPsf] 5 . o;df kl5 s'g} ph'/L jf bflj ul/g] 5}g .
(=
lwtf] ;'/If0fdf lnOPsf] ;'/If0fdf klxnf] bfjL (First Charge) g]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] x'g]5 .
!)=
C0f k|of]u ;DaGwdf o;};fy ;+nUg gLltut zt{ tyf dfkb08x? kfngf ug]{ k|lta4tf JoQm ul/Psf] 5 . ;f]
adf]lhd gu/]df k|rlnt g]kfn /fi6 a}+s P]g, @)%* tyf a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yf ;DaGwL P]g @)^# cg';f/ ;hfo
ePdf d~h'/L 5 .
!!=
zt{ / dfkb08df cfjZostf cg';f/ g]kfn /fi6 a}+sn] kl/dfh{g jf ;+zf]wg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
g]kfn /fi6 a}+ssf] tk{maf6
a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf] tk{maf6 clVtof/k|fKt JolQm
b:tvt
M
b:tvt
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293

cg';"rL @!=*

LONG FORM AUDIT REPORT


Of
.. LIMITED

For the year ended .. Ashad 20


(Corresponding to ..July 20)

Auditor:

M/s
.

294

1.

2.

3.

AUDIT APPROACH
1.1
Brief description of the Audit plan with focus on the following areas, at minimum:
Declaration of Independence of Audit Firm and Members
Standards followed
Composition of the audit team
Audit schedule
1.2
Brief description of the Audit process and procedures
Audit areas' Risk Assessment
Audit procedures adapted to mitigate identified Audit Risks
Quality control mechanism
1.3
Brief description of the Sampling Procedure and sample size
Sampling methodology
Sample size
Use of system based approaches
1.4
Remarks on the execution of audit plan
Execution of audit and the audit plan
Problems encountered during the audit, if any
Limitations of scope of Audit, if any.
RISK MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Opinion on the following:
2.1
Credit Risk Management Systems
2.1.1 Brief description and comment on the adequacy of credit appraisal systems,
2.1.2 Brief description and comment on the adequacy of credit monitoring systems,
2.1.3 Brief description and comment on the adequacy of the credit recovery systems,
2.1.4 Adequacy of Policies and procedure for Write off of Loans,
2.1.5 Adequacy of Policies, guidelines and Controls over Off Balance Sheet Items.
2.1.6 Comment on the concentrations in the credit and investment portfolio,
2.1.7 Risk Management Committees and their effectiveness,
2.1.8 Overall audit opinion on Credit risk management.
2.2
Market Risk (Interest Rate, Liquidity and Foreign Exchange) Management Systems
2.2.1 Adequacy of policies, procedures and guidelines for the market risk management.
2.2.2 Adequacy of the system for measuring, monitoring and mitigation of Market risk.
2.2.3 Risk Management Committees and their effectiveness
2.2.4 Overall audit opinion on Market & liquidity risk management.
2.3
Operational Risk Management System
2.3.1 Adequacy of policies, procedures and guidelines for the Operational risk management.
2.3.2 Adequacy of the system for measuring, monitoring and mitigation of Operational Risk.
2.3.3 Risk Management Committees and their effectiveness
2.3.4 Overall audit opinion on Operational risk management.
INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
Opinion on the following areas:
3.1
Effectiveness of the Audit committee
3.2
Effectiveness of the Internal Audit Function
3.3
Rectification of the deficiencies identified in the previous internal and external audit
reports
3.4
Adequacy of the controls in Credit operations
3.5
Adequacy of the controls in Treasury operations
3.6
Adequacy of the controls in Branch operations
3.7
Adequacy of control over Nostro Bank Operations
3.8
Adequacy of the controls in procedures related to expenditure
3.9
Adequacy of the control over fixed assets.
3.10
Adequacy of the Management Information System (MIS)
3.11
Adequacy of controls over e-banking and Card Operations
3.12
Adequacy of controls in Information Technology and related support functions.
3.13
Effectiveness of the Inter-branch and agency Reconciliation function
3.14
Adequacy of controls to prevent and/or minimize Fraud and forgeries

295

4.

3.15
Instances of Fraud and Forgery in the review period
3.16
Existence, adequacy & effectiveness of system audit
3.17
Other Control Issues, if any
3.18
Auditors overall assessment of the internal control system
COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE RULES AND REGULATIONS
Prevailing Statute, Act, Directive and Regulation, at minimum, in the following areas
4.1
Nepal Rastra Bank Act 2058
State whether the conditions as stipulated in Section 86 of Nepal Rastra Bank Act 2058
prevails, if yes please specify.
4.2
Bank and Financial Institution Act 2063
4.2.1 Whether fees and benefits of Chairman and board members are as specified in AOA/MOA
4.2.2 Appointment, qualification and benefits of the chief executive
4.2.3 Profit Appropriation to General Reserve
4.2.4 Appropriation to Exchange Fluctuation Reserve
4.2.5 Distribution of Dividend
4.2.6 Whether the activities are within the scope as defined by BAFIA?
4.2.7 Whether prohibited activities are being pursued?
4.2.8 Control & notification of dormant deposit accounts and unclaimed dividend
4.3
Foreign Exchange Rules and Regulations
4.3.1 Whether payments of goods imported and service import are made as per circulars.
4.3.2 Whether deposit accounts of foreign currency are opened and operated as per circulars.
4.3.3 Whether card transactions are done as per circulars.
4.3.4 Whether foreign exchange transactions are properly recorded and reported in a timely
manner.
4.3.5 Whether investment in foreign currency are made as per standard approved by the Board of
Directors.
4.3.6 Whether payments of exports are received and reported timely as per circulars.
4.3.7 Whether transactions of Indian currency are made as per circulars.
4.4
Minimum Capital fund (Directive No. 1)
4.4.1 Computation of Core Capital, Supplementary Capital and Capital Fund
4.4.2 Computation of Risk Weighted Assets
4.4.3 Comment on the Capital Plan
4.4.4 Overall opinion on capital adequacy
4.5
Loan Classification and Loan Loss Provisioning (Directive No.2)
4.5.1 Comment on the Assets Quality and Classification
4.5.2 Adequacy of Loan Loss Provisions
4.5.3 Whether the rescheduling/restructuring comply with the provisions of the directive
4.5.4 Loan Loss Provisions in case of restructuring and rescheduling of loans
4.5.5 Loan Classification and loan loss provision in respect of force loans
4.5.6 Loan Classification and loan loss provision in respect of loan against personal/corporate
guarantees
4.5.7 Whether the adjustment and Write back of loan loss provision comply with the provisions
of the directive
4.5.8 Overall opinion on Loan classification & provisioning
4.6
Single Obligor Limit & Sectoral Cedit Limit (Directive No.3)
4.6.1 Bank's procedures to identify a group of related borrowers
4.6.2 Comment on the Facilities in excess of Single Obligor Limits, if any
4.6.3 Loan Loss Provision in case of borrowers availing facilities in excess of the SOL
4.6.4 Review and ratification mechanisms for excessive exposures in respect of sectoral credit.
4.6.5 Comments on any exceptions on loan to real estate sector.
4.7
Acounting Policy & Format of the Financial Statement (Directive No.4)
4.7.1 Comment on the Consistency of the Accounting Policies and financial reporting
framework.
4.7.2 Recognition of interest income from loans and advances
4.7.3 Reconciliation of Interest Receivable and Interest Suspense

296

4.7.4
4.7.5
4.7.6
4.8
4.8.1
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.9
4.9.1
4.9.2
4.9.3
4.9.4
4.9.5
4.9.6
4.10
4.11
4.11.1
4.11.2
4.11.3
4.11.4
4.11.5
4.11.6
4.11.7
4.11.8
4.12
4.13
4.13.1
4.13.2
4.13.3
4.13.4
4.14
4.14.1
4.14.2
4.14.3
4.14.4
4.15
4.15.1
4.15.2
4.15.3
4.15.4
4.15.5
4.16
4.16.1
4.16.2
4.17
4.17.1
4.17.2
4.18
4.18.1

Recognition of other interest, fees and commission and expenses.


Publication of annual accounts and periodical highlights
Non-compliance/deviations in accounting policies followed as compared to prescribed
accounting policies by NRB/Nepal Accounting Standard
Risk Minimization (Directive No 5)
Mechanisms to minimize liquidity risk
Use of GAP Analysis and other mechanisms to measure and manage interest rate risk
Mechanisms to minimize foreign exchange risk
Corporate Governance (Directive No.6)
Formulation and implementation of required plans, policies and guidelines
Code of conduct of Directors, Chief Executive and Employees
Cases of conflict of interest of Directors, Chief Executive and Employees
Mechanism to identify related parties promoters, directors or senior management.
Lending to directors, chief executive, employees (except as per employee rules) and their
related parties, if any
Level of Corporate governance and compliance of directives related to corporate
governance.
Implementation of Supervisory Findings (Directive No.7)
Auditor's finding on the status of compliance of directions given by NRB based on its
onsite inspections and offsite supervision.
Investments (Directive No.8)
Investments in unlisted companies
Investment in companies with financial interest
Investment in shares of other bank/FIs
Investments arising out of Underwriting Commitments
Investment in shares and debentures exceeding the limits
Review of the investment portfolio
Adequacy of provisioning requirements
Adequacy of investmet adjustment fund requirements
Reporting Requirements (directive No.9)
Comment upon the reliability of mechanism used for NRB reporting and the accuracy of
such returns
Sale or Transfer of Promoters Share (Directive No. 10)
Sale or transfer against the statutory requirements
Sale or pledge of promoter shares, during the lock-in period
Where the promoter of the Bank is an entity, unauthorized transfer of ownership of such
entity.
Where the promoter of the Bank is an entity, the availability of audited financial statement
of such entity for verification.
Consortium Financing (Directive No.11)
Formation and dissolution of consortium
Fulfillment of the specified duties of lead bank/member bank, where applicable.
Frequency of consortium meetings where it is lead bank/FI
Adherence to the spirits of consortium
Credit Information and Blacklisting (Directive No.12)
Periodic Submission of information to CIC
Mechanism to obtain required information from borrowers
Credit Information at the time of sanction/renewal/restructuring/rescheduling of facilities
Recommending defaulted borrower to the CIC for blacklisting
Lending to individual/firm/company included in the blacklist
Cash Reserve/Statutory Liquidity Requirement (Directive No. 13)
Comment on any exceptions on the maintenance of CRR as stipulated by the directive
Comment on any exceptions on the maintenance of SLR as stipulated by the directive
New Branch/Office Operation (Directive No. 14)
Unauthorized branches/offices/extension counters/remittance counters
Unauthorized transactions
Interest Rates (Directive No. 15)
Interest rate determination procedures

297

4.18.2
4.18.3
4.19
4.19.1
4.19.2
4.19.3
4.20
4.20.1
4.20.2

Mechanism to determine cost of fund, yield on earning assets and interest spread
Publication of interest rates
Mobilization of Financial Resources (Directive No. 16)
Concentration of deposits
Resource mobilization beyond the limit
Issuance of debenture and other debt instruments
Deprived Sector Lending (Directive No.17)
Comment on the exceptions observed in the deprived sector lending
Whether the loans classified as deprived sector lending meet the stipulated pre-requisite
conditions
4.20.3 Monitoring mechanism for utilization of deprived sector lending on a half yearly basis
4.21
Merger, Acquisition and Upgradation (Directive No.18)
4.21.1 Fulfillment of the specified requirements for upgradation by the financial institution, where
applicable.
4.21.2 Whether the minimum capital, capital structure meet the stipulated pre-requisite conditions
for merger and/or acquisition, where applicable.
4.21.3 Trading status of stocks in the stock exchange.
4.21.4 Compliance of regulatory provisions on the Merger, Acquisition and Upgradation including
Fit & Proper Test mentioned in BAFIA, 2063 NRB Act, 2058 and Unified Directives.
4.21.5 Overall opinion on Merger, Acquisition and Upgradation.
4.22
AML/CFT (Directive No.19)
4.22.1 AML/CFT policies, procedures and practices formulated and followed.
4.22.2 Adequacy of mechanism, procedures and documents for customer due diligence.
4.22.3 Adequacy of risk based customer classification and monitoring.
4.22.4 Mechanism, procedures and documents for customer due diligence.
4.22.5 Protection of information and documents, including electronic data, of the customer till the
period stipulated in the Act and regulations.
4.22.6 Adequacy of filing and reporting of threshold transactions to Financial Information Unit
(FIU).
4.22.7 Adequacy of filing and reporting of the suspected cases to the internal management and
concerned supervisory authorities. Cases of reporting of money laundering and suspected
financing to terrorism to FIU.
4.23
Subsidiary Company (Directive No.20)
4.23.1 Compliance of directives of Investment in shares and other securities of subsidiary(ies).
4.23.2 Adequacy of consolidation of transactions with the subsidiary(ies).
4.23.3 Harmonized implementation of policies, procedures and systems of holding company in the
subsidiary(ies).
4.23.4 Transactions not based on competitive market price or unauthorized transactions or
transactions not based on Arm's Length relation.
4.23.5 Overall level of disclosure of Related Party Transactions in the periodic financial returns.
4.24
E-banking Directives (Directive No.21)
4.24.1 E-banking policies and procedures formulated and followed.
4.24.2 Adequacy of security maintained in the e-banking trasactions.
4.24.3 Adequacy of conditions on bilateral agreement with agents and third party.
4.25
Miscellaneous Directives (Directive No.22)
4.25.1 Whether insurance agency service offered to its clients.
4.25.2 Authenticity of computer software used.
4.25.3 Preparation of documents in the devnagari script of Nepali language as stipulated in the
directives.
4.25.4 Adequacy of security maintained in SWIFT transaction.
4.25.5 Compliance of taxation, including TDS, and mandatory provisions made by fiscal policy of
Government of Nepal.
4.25.6 Safe Deposit Vault, Locker Service availed.
4.25.7 Compliance of regulations and laws with respect to Auction.
4.25.8 Technical Service Agreement, TSA reached, where applicable.
4.25.9 Adequacy of policies, procedures and mechanism of transactions on derivative products,
where applicable.
4.25.10 Use of Refinancing Facilities availed by the NRB made as per the agreement.

298

4.26

5.

6.

Transparency and level of economy in the capital and operating expenditures.Whether


Financial Administration Bye-laws is adhered to while incurring such expenditures.
4.27
Compliance with internal rules, regulations and guidelines
Comment on the overall state of compliance with the internal rules, regulations and
guidelines.
4.28
Overall compliance of laws, regulations, circulars, directives and guidelines.
Comment on the overall state of compliance with the laws, regulations, circulars, directives
& guidelines.
OTHERS
5.1
Whether guarantees, all other contingent liabilities and off balance sheet exposures are
properly recorded and disclosed
5.2
Whether banks have entered into any contracts with related parties including the promoters,
directors, shareholders holding more than 1% and their undivided family
5.3
Compliance of pre-requisite conditions for Purchase of fixed assets
5.4
Any comments or issues, which the auditor feels appropriate to be communicated to the
supervisor and is not covered by the above.
CONCLUSION
6.1
Type of Audit opinion expressed in the final audit Report
6.1.1 Unqualified
6.1.2 Qualified
6.1.3 Adverse
6.1.4 Disclaimer
6.2
Main reason for the qualified, adverse or disclaimer opinion on the financial statement
produced, where applicable.
6.3
Areas of operation where it is exposed to excessive risk
6.4
The risk areas where bank/FI has not been able to properly address these risks
6.4
Comment on the Major Problems faced by the Bank/FI
6.5
Overall opinion of the auditor on the operation and financial standing of the Bank/FI

299

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lgo'Qm JolQm ;Demg' k5{ .
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#=
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u ju{sf a}+sljQLo ;+:yfx?n] /fi6 a}+sn] tf]s]sf] Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if sfod ug{ g;s]df b]xfo
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gofF zfvf vf]Ng /f]s nufpg] .
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kg]{ .
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300

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shf{ k|jfxdf k|ltaGw nufpg] .


vl/b jf lnh k|s[of dfkm{t yk :yL/ ;DklQ k|fKt ug{ k|ltaGw nufpg] .
/fi6 a}+ssf] k"j{ :jLs[lt lagf a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf ;+rfns tyf sd{rf/Lx?nfO{
k|f]T;fxg eQf, ;+:yf 5f]8\bf lbg] cGo ;'ljwf a[l4, Joj:yfkg z'Ns jf Joj:yfkgsf]
thljhn] lbg ;Sg] cGo Ifltk"lt{ cflb k|bfg ug{ /f]s nufpg] .
-3_
Ohfht k|fKt ;+:yfsf] k'FhLsf]if, g]kfn /fi6 a}+sf/f tf]lsPsf] Go"gtd k'FhLsf]if cg'kfteGbf
5b]lv cf7 k|ltzt;Ddsf] laGb'n] sd ePdf
-c_
v08 -u_ adf]lhdsf sf/jfxLx? ug]{ .
-cf_ tna eQf tyf cGo cfly{s ;'ljwf a[l4, gofF sd{rf/L egf{ tyf a9'jf ug{df /f]s
nufpg] .
-O_
k'FhL kof{Kttf ;DaGwL sf/jfxL k|f/De ePsf] ldltn] 5 dlxgfleqdf tf]s]sf dfkb08
cg';f/sf] k'FhLsf]if sfod gePdf a}+sljQLo ;+:yfsf ;+rfnsx? tyf sfo{sf/L
k|d'vnfO{ P]gsf] bkmf !)) sf] pkbkmf -@_ adf]lhdsf sf/jfxLx? ug]{ .
-_
Ohfht k|fKt ;+:yfsf] k'FhLsf]if, g]kfn