This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm Advanced Pathophysiology for Nurses qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm rtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwe rtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwe rtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwe
Submitted to: PROF. NAIMA T. DATUMANONG-MALA, RN, MN, MAN Submitted by: VIJULIENE J. GONZAGA, RN
A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. For this test. Nursing diagnoses Imbalanced Nutrition: More than Body Requirements related to intake in excess of activity expenditures Activity Intolerance related to poor glucose control Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity related to decreased sensation and circulation to lower extremities Risk for Injury (hypoglycemia) related to effects of insulin. you fast overnight.6 mmol/L) is normal Oral glucose tolerance test. Random blood sugar test. inability to eat Deficient Knowledge related to use of oral hypoglycemic agents 2 .Disease Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Pathophysiology Predisoposing factors >40 years old African Hispanics precipitating factors obesity lifestyle diet Environmental stress Destruction of beta cells in the pancreas ↑increased insulin resistance hyperglycemia hyperosmolarity of serum renal threshold of glucose reabsorption becomes suppressed kidney’s ability to absorb glucose glycosuria capillary thickening & closure glucose acts as osmotic diuretic ↓blood supply increased thirst vessels nerve damage polydipsia neuropathy autonomicneuropathy symmetrical loss of sensation <3: orthostatic hypotension numbness/tingling GI: gastroparesis in lower extremities Constipation wasting of intinsic muscles impairment Bloating Nausea/vomiting GU: neurogenic bladder changes in joints nausea/vomiting ↓erythropoeitin paleness blurring of vision ↓blood supply in kidneys diabetic neuropathy ↓metabolic waste excretion blindess acidosis kidney protein leakage in macula deposits on kidney tissues damaged retinal vessels protein leakage in kidney’s bld insufficient intracellular glucose supply ↓energy production satiety center of hypothalamus responds by ↑appetite fatigue polyphagia ↑BP blocked blood flow chronic elevation of blood glucose accelerated atherosclerosis glucose glycoproteins Signs and symptoms fatigue glycosuria ↑BP ↓blood supply damaged retinal vessels increased thirst nerve damage polydipsia neuropathy blurring of vision autonomicneuropathy symmetrical loss of sensation diabetic neuropathy orthostatic hypotension numbness/tingling gastroparesis in lower extremities blindess Constipation wasting of intinsic muscles Bloating changes in joints nausea/vomiting neurogenic bladder paleness Diagnostic tests Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Then you drink a sugary liquid. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5. Fasting blood sugar test. measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin. and blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next several hours. indicates average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. and the fasting blood sugar level is measured.
chemicals. lysosome. to see if hot air or gases have damaged the lungs (an inhalation injury). There is an impairment of blood supply. Site of the burned tissue.↓renal blood flow glomerular filtration rate --. kinins.↓urine GI blood supply Signs and symptoms Red. swollen skin Pain Wet or moist-looking skin Blisters Waxy white.shunting of blood to brain and heart ----. black urine Weight loss Nausea and vomiting Hemetamesis Melena Diagnostic tests Evaluating your lungs. Rule of 9’s Nursing diagnoses Impaired Gas Exchange Ineffective Airway Clearance Deficient Fluid Volume Ineffective Tissue Perfusion: Renal or Peripheral Risk for Infection Acitivity intolerance Airwy clearance Pain Immobility Thinning of protective mucus lining Superficial erosions Ulcerations Curling’s ulcer 3 zones: Zone of Coagulation – Area of direct damage. electricity direct damage to skin ↑inflammatory mediators: Serotonin. Zone of Stasis – Edematous tissues are found. and catecholamines Na-K pump failure Interstitial edema/intercostal edema ↓blood volume ↓gastric blood supply output ↑release of free radicals cellular damage protein destruction 3 zones cell necrosis acute renal failure ---------------------------. in severe cases Hypovelemic shock Hypothermia Tachycardia Tachypnea Edema Oliguria Brownish. prostaglandin. Zone of Hyperemia – Outermost zone. With coagulated skin. leathery or tan skin Blackened or charred skin. heated objects or fluids. Histamin. ↓mesenteric blood supply no bowel sounds in the ileus 3 .Disease/condition Burns Pathophysiology Predisoposing factors None precipitating factors exposure to sun. These tests might include: Chest X-ray Determining total body surface area involved.
distribution DM easy bruising Pubic hair muscle wasting buffalo hump Delayed wound truncal obesity Healing moon face Weight gain irritability euphoria depression female Na+ & H2O ↓K+ virilization retention prominent ↑BP U wave (EKG) hirsutism weight gain weak. Saliva test. Fat Steroid-induced thigh. Imaging tests. levels of cortisol drop significantly in the evening. thigh. In people without Cushing's syndrome. abn.Disease Cushing’s Syndrome Pathophysiology Predisoposing factors female 20-40 years old precipitating factors pituitary tumor adrenal tumor extrapituitary tumors long-term use of synthetic glucocorticoids chronic stress ↑cortisol insulin inhibition ↑hepatic ↑hepatic gluconeogenesis glycolysis ↑blood sugar protein loss ketonuria ↓prod’n of antibodies & lymphocytes immunosuppression ↑GI activity mood changes ↑aldosterone ↑androgen Ca+ gastric Excretion secretions bone PUD r esorption pathologic fractures osteoporosis renal calculi Glycosuria striae of breasts. irreg. Computerized tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can provide images of the pituitary and adrenal glands to detect abnormalities. abdomen abn. abdomen. to measure hormone levels in the urine and blood to determine excessive cortisol. Nursing diagnoses Fluid volume excess Activvity intolerance Impaired skin integrity Impaired mobility Sexual dysfunction Disturbed body image Altered thought process Self-care deficit Risk for infection 4 . pulse ↓libido Pubic hair muscle wasting buffalo hump edema Delayed wound Healing truncal obesity pathologic fractures amenorrhea moon face osteoporosis facial acne Weight gain renal calculi Diagnostic tests Urine and blood tests. irreg. Fat distribution depression prominent U wave Steroid-induced DM bone PUD ↑BP hirsutism easy bruising resorption weight gain weak. such as tumors. ↓libido edema pulse amenorrhea facial acne Signs and symptoms ↑blood sugar protein loss ketonuria immunosuppression Ca+ excretion gastric secretions irritability Na+ & H2O retention ↓K+ euphoria Glycosuria striae of breasts.
potassium. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia test.Disease Addison’s disease Pathophysiology Predisoposing factors Caucasian genetic female precipitating factors autoimmune or idiopathic atrophy: 80-90% PTB <20%. Imaging tests. (CT) scan of abdomen to check the size of adrenal glands and look for other abnormalities MRI scan of pituitary gland if testing indicates secondary adrenal insufficiency. ACTH stimulation test. bilateral adrenalectomy. cortisol and ACTH. sodium. Nursing diagnoses Decreased cardiac output Fluid volume deficit Imbalanced body nutrition: less than body requirements Activity intolerance Sexual dysfunction Disturbed body image Risk for impaired skin integrity Risk for imbalanced body temperature Rsk for infection 5 . therapeutic use of corticosteroids ↓cortisol ↑secretion of MSH and ACTH ↓ability to handle stress ↓hepatic glucose ↓GI activity Bronze coloration of the skin Increased pigmentation irritability hypogylcemia immunosuppression ↓aldosterone ↓Na and H2O ↑K+ ↓androgen ↓axillary & Pubic hair ↓digestive enzymes ↓circulating fluid volume arrhythmias ↓libido muscle ↓amenorVomiting cellular dehydration hypotension weakness rhea Cramps chronic diarrhea dry skin ↓cardiac output anorexia ↓urine output weakness weight loss salt craving Signs and symptoms ↓ability to handle stress ↓hepatic glucose ↓GI activity ↓Na and H2O ↑K+ ↓axillary & Pubic hair Bronze coloration of the skin irritability hypogylcemia ↓digestive enzymes ↓circulating fluid volume arrhythmias ↓libido Increased pigmentation immunosuppression ↓amenorrhea Vomiting cellular dehydration hypotension muscle weakness Cramps chronic diarrhea dry skin ↓cardiac output anorexia ↓urine output weakness weight loss salt craving Diagnostic tests Blood test.
Toxic Multinodular Goiter. ↓libido.o. A high uptake of radioiodine indicates your thyroid gland is producing too much thyroxine. Monozygotic Twins. 30-40 y. gynecomastia ↑production of thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSIs) TSIs react with muscles exopthalmos Overworked thyroid Goiter Thyroid bruit ↑SNS stimulation heat intolerance sweating Weight loss ↓concentration hyperactive GI system ↑RR hyperactive bowel sounds weight loss diarrhea ↑cardiac output normal BP ↑HR fine. Nursing diagnoses Diarrhea Disturbed body image Disturbed thought processes Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements Ineffective coping Risk for deficient fluid volume Risk for imbalanced body temperature 6 . Emotional shock. soft hair hair loss LVH Signs and symptoms Hypermetabolism ammenorrhea ↓libido gynecomastia exopthalmos Overworked thyroid ↑SNS stimulation hyperactive GI system ↑RR ↑cardiac output Goiter heat intolerance hyperactive bowel sounds Thyroid bruit sweating weight loss ↑HR Weight loss diarrhea fine.Disease Hyperthyroidism Pathophysiology Predisoposing factors Genetic. Infection. Pregnancy. measure the levels of thyroxine and TSH in your blood. Female. Excessive ingestion of Thyroid Hormone. Thyroid scan. soft hair ↓concentration hair loss Left ventricular hypertrophy Diagnostic tests Medical history and physical exam Blood tests. Radioactive iodine uptake test. stress precipitating factors Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. Toxic substances. Increased TSH Secretion ↑production of thyroid hormones Hypermetabolism altered hormone secretion ammenorrhea. Radiation Exposure.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.