SUMMARY As a result of the work reported here there has emerged a much clearer appreciation of what happens during

the course of a night's sleep, and clear explanations of the role of dreaming and the meaning of dreams. The report explores the functioning and role of the two halves of the human brain and the relationship between them. It is the right half which usually communicates with the primitive parts of the human brain and this is related to the functioning of the autonomic nervous system and the immune system. The report also relates the functioning of the brain to behaviour, showing to some extent how human behaviour is affected by the primitive instincts of our reptilian ancestors. CONTENTS THE BRAIN How the Human Brain Evolved Reptilian Brain Mammalian Brain Human Brain Brain Waves Brain Scanning SLEEP AND SLEEPING Body-Temperature and Sleep Rhythms Sleeping Deep Sleep and REM Sleep Role of DEEP Sleep Role of REM Sleep DREAMING AND DREAMS Content of Dreams Role of Dreams LEARNING, MEMORISING AND REMEMBERING (Receiving, Storing and Recalling) Types of Memory Procedural Memory Declarative Memory Associating Memories and their Components Working Memory External Memory Stored Information (Perceived Content) Learning (Memorising) and Understanding Development of Brain Functions in Humans Development of Brain Functioning in Foetus and Newborn Role of REM Sleep in Infants Changes in Sleep-wakefulness Rhythm during First Year of Infant's Life Learning by Playing and by Experience Change from Eidetic to Linear Memory CONCLUSIONS - BRAIN, MIND AND BEHAVIOUR (Human Behaviour and how the Mind works) Instincts and Instinctive Behaviour Conscious Behaviour: Learning and Evaluating, Memory and Memorising Communicating Non-verbally: Conveying Information by Using Images Instinctive Behaviour Subconscious Behaviour (Functioning) Memorising

Adapting to the Environment: Changing Instinctive Behaviour Adapting to the World in which we Live: Changing Behaviour Patterns Evaluation and Understanding The Struggle for a Better Life Main Conclusions NOTES AND REFERENCES Notes <..> References {..} ILLUSTRATIONS (Click any illustration to see the full-size chart) 1. Sleep Pattern: Day-Night-Day 2. One Sleep Period (One Night) 3. The Human Brain Relevant Current and Associated Works, Relevant Subject Index Pages and Site Overview THE BRAIN HOW THE HUMAN BRAIN EVOLVED We slowly ascended from lower life forms to what we are today, by a process of natural selection from randomly occurring changes. Each change had to prove its worth by surviving the continual battle for existence, being against being, species against species and this process has gone on for many millions of years. As far as we know the human brain evolved in three main stages {3}. Its ancient and primitive part is the innermost core reptilian brain. Next evolved the mammalian brain by adding new functions and new ways of controlling the body. Then evolved the third part of the brain, the neocortex, the grey matter, the bulk of the brain in two symmetrical hemispheres, separate but communicating. To a considerable extent it is our neocortex which enables us to behave like human beings. So the human brain consists of these three different but interconnected brains and the way in which these three brains interact with each other underlies human behaviour. {3} How the brain evolved and functions is explored and described in the immediately following chapters which cover how the brain evolved, sleep and sleeping, dreaming and dreams, and how we learn, memorise and remember. The final chapters contain conclusions which describe how the functioning of the human brain and of the human mind determine behaviour. What we see in this report raises a number of pertinent questions which need answering. Questions such as why do we have to struggle for a better life and what motivates human beings. Reptilian Brain Innermost in our brain is what is called the reptilian brain, its oldest and most primitive part. The reptilian brain appears to be largely unchanged by evolution and we share it with all other animals which have a backbone. This reptilian brain controls body functions required for sustaining life such as breathing and body temperature. Reptiles are cold-blooded animals which are warmed by the daylight sun and conserve energy by restricting activities when it is dark. The biological clock (controller) for their activity-rest cycle is located in the eye itself {10}.

behaviour relating to survival of the species. anger and fear have emerged with associated behavioural response patterns of care. Millions of neural pathways connect the hippocampal and amygdala structures to the reptilian brain and behaviour is less rigidly controlled by instincts. But the left hemisphere usually controls movement and sensation in the right side of the body. Most people (about 80 per cent) are right-handed <4> and in the vast majority of righthanded people. We saw that with the mammalian brain emerged feelings such as attachment. the mammalian brain containing organs {11. Fascinating is the way in which work is divided between the two halves of the brain. {13} The brain is actually divided into its 'hemispheres' by a prominent groove. It seems that feelings such as attachment. And for some conscious feelings about events (amygdala). 12}: For the automatic control of body functions such as digestion. the fluid balance. Territory is acquired by force and defended. while the right hemisphere similarly controls the left side of the body. And human emotional responses depend on neuronal pathways which link the right hemisphere to the mammalian brain {4} which in turn is linked to the even older reptilian brain. hypothalamus). For filing new experiences as they happen and so creating a store of experiencebased memories (hippocampus). is instinctive and responses are automatic. their different functions and the way in which they supplement and co-operate with each other. At the base of this groove lies the thick bundle of nerve fibres which enable these two halves of the brain to communicate with each other. To this extent the mammal is more consciously aware of itself in relation to the environment. {4} Human Brain And the mammalian brain became the human brain by adding the massive grey matter (neocortex) which envelopes most of the earlier brain and amounts to about 85 per cent of the human brain mass. But the right side can understand written and spoken language to some extent at least. such as sexual behaviour. body temperature and blood pressure (autonomic nervous system. fight or flight. Might is right. For experience-based recognition of danger and for responding to this according to past experience. An enormous change took place as mammals evolved from reptiles. {14} . the ability to organise speech and the ability to speak are predominantly localised in the left side of the brain. fear and anger and associated behavioural response patterns. This massive addition consists mostly of two hemispheres which are covered by an outer layer and interconnected by a string of nerve fibres.At this level of evolution. Mammalian Brain Next to evolve from the reptilian brain was the mammalian brain.

is logical and systematic. . is intuitive and imaginative. Roger Sperry. concerned with emotions and feelings. Cognition of meaning (knowing and understanding sentences. by the left hemisphere."Appreciating spatial perceptions depends more on the right hemisphere. for example) is high level processing which includes both semantic and visual processing. And behaviour involves the integration of activities in many different parts of the brain. when presented with a stimulus. Thinking in pictures is fast. and the capability for objective and logical thinking and evaluation. As well as the development of a wide range of emotions. Think of how long it takes to describe a picture. Right Hemisphere Communicates using images (pictures). {14} So a general overview of the functional division of activities between the two hemispheres would be: Left Hemisphere Communicates by using words. accompanied by changes in electrical potential. both hemispheres were active and could recognise the nature of visual stimuli as well as spoken words. The right hemisphere links to the primitive older part of the brain. concerned with matters as they are. But while the left hemisphere can express itself by verbally describing a stimulus. of care and affection. although there is a left hemisphere contribution. The left hemisphere deals with word choice. the right hemisphere can express itself non-verbally by selecting the matching stimulus. Michael Gazzaniga and their colleagues found that. and I consider that it communicates using images with its primitive 'unconscious' functions. in voltage. images and memories appear to be located all over the brain. has highly developed verbal abilities. Very small charges pass between nerve cells. Language is both spoken as well as written. And the later development of written languages and artificial images. So now the human brain includes the processing and memorising of images and of their components. the human mind brings together these abilities and skills into a comprehensive whole whose operation depends on the way in which its parts contribute and co-operate with each other. has highly developed spatial abilities. rules of grammar. or transformed into a narrative. And speech and language and associated pictures. This is especially true when handling objects" {14} and concerning abstract geometric shapes and music. in words and compare this with the speed of taking it in by looking at it. And the development of language and corresponding mental processing connected with memory and memorising. a scene. and the meaning of words. The right hemisphere apparently determines the emotional content of speech. of feelings. But images may be described. BRAIN WAVES The brain functions by sending electrical signals from one place to another. verbal and visual. But the two hemispheres are interconnected and communicate.

unlike the EEG. producing and shifting between distinct wave forms which are commonly grouped as follows: Table 1 Brain Waves Frequency band (cycles/second) 1-3 Name of Wave Band Delta Description Generally strongest when a person is in a deep dreamless sleep. intuitive states. 7} The MEG. Associated with a calm and relaxed state when the person is not thinking. or to deduce from where in the brain they originated. {1} A person's brain is active all the time. however. creative. with normal thinking. waking and sleeping. but it proved very difficult to interpret these brain waves. or can do mental arithmetic and so weaken them. Furthermore. The height of the wave is a measure of the potential difference.10 Alpha 15 . granted enough mathematical sophistication and computing power. you get a good idea of the location of the electromagnetic source in the brain. {5} BRAIN SCANNING Electroencephalograph (EEG) {1} The EEG measures electrical activity of the brain using pairs of electrodes placed at different (internationally specified) points on the scalp. And it can be used to . People can think of relaxing and so strengthen alpha waves. Associated with being alert. with processing information. It seemed that the EEG would provide the key to understanding how the brain functions. This enables people 'to perform an on-off decision. 4-7 Theta 8 . can measure the oscillating millisecond fluxes of the brain in real time.30 Beta When delta waves predominate then one is said to be in a delta state. switching a light on or off or moving a cursor on a screen'. May be associated with dreamy. Magnetoencephalograph (MEG) {2. It is used by doctors for diagnosis and research. its frequency is a measure of the rate at which electrical charges pass through a nerve cell or nerve fibre.This activity can be measured and displayed as a wave form called brain wave or brain rhythm.

It appears that we tend to go to sleep after our body temperature has began to fall and tend to wake up after it has started to rise.record magnetic and electrical fields within the brain simultaneously. and these biological clocks together control the related body-temperature and sleep-wakefulness rhythms.5 hours. for many years in the case of human beings. And our biological rhythms are adjusted accordingly. on average. So internal biological clocks (controllers) evolved for controlling activities related to the environment such as those of cold-blooded animals which need to maintain their body temperature by warming themselves in the sun. many mammals evolved into giving birth directly from the womb. . Our sleep-wakefulness rhythm (circadian rhythm) has a duration which varies from individual to individual (usually between 25 and 28 hours) but is always longer than 24 hours. Deep sleep appeared at the same time. The human brain now has much greater learning capacity.00 hours to a high at about 18. {4} The earlier mammals were reproducing themselves by hatching their young out of eggs. their young being born alive after having been developed for a considerable period within the womb." by these internal biological clocks. {10} But about 180 million years ago. now situated in the mammalian brain.5 deg C from a low at about 05. In real time. warm-blooded mammals evolved from their cold-blooded reptilian ancestors by developing the ability to maintain a constant body temperature by biological processes. {10} The body-temperature clock also controls the appearance of REM sleep. SLEEP AND SLEEPING BODY-TEMPERATURE AND SLEEP RHYTHMS Day and night alternate over 24 hours due to the rotation of the planet. And the biological clock which controls their activity-rest cycle is located within the eye. which controls the sleep-wakefulness rhythm. "The length of the geophysical day is 24 hours. tracking impulses moving (a distance of) a few millimetres at up to 200 miles per hour. People sleep. And 'usually accurate to within one or two millimetres in pre-surgical mapping'. it varies by about 0. But about 180 to 130 million years ago.00 hours. Reptiles are cold-blooded animals warmed by the daylight sun and conserve energy by restricting activities when it is dark. In mammals. and the start and length of daylight varies with the seasons.5 and 8. that is 'in perhaps 10 milliseconds'. to the external geophysical day. to the environment. {10} While the body's temperature is held at a constant level. Another biological clock controls the body-temperature rhythm. between 6. information about light and darkness is transmitted from the eye to a biological clock. Their young have to grow and learn much for a long time before they can survive independently. day by day. And in this way enabling responses to be tracked within the brain. This freed them from depending on daylight and the weather for survival.

and 'REM Sleep' during the second. In REM sleep the body's muscles are paralysed while heart beat and breathing fluctuate as they would during emotional upsets in waking life. illustrated by the frequency of the brain waves. reaching its lowest point while in deep sleep and then rises again to the wide-awake level. that is excluding the young and the elderly. When awake we can be attending or concentrating. reaching its highest level during deep sleep.SLEEPING There are key mental states each characterised by its own brain wave pattern <5>. Following Deep sleep we REM sleep after which we wake up through relaxing to being fully awake. As we progress from being awake through sleep to being awake again. on the whole we 'Deep Sleep' during the first half of the night. The illustration shows graphically what happens to the brain's electrical activity as the night progresses. changes inversely. But possibly because we cannot be certain how long we will sleep. whether our sleeping period will be interrupted unexpectedly. something like: . or we can be relaxed. the eyes move rapidly and continuously. During REM sleep (Rapid-Eye-Movement sleep). heart beat and breathing are slow and regular. DEEP sleep. that is voltage.Day Back to Contents list Deep sleep is followed by REM sleep. When asleep we could be in SHALLOW sleep. <6> Figure 1 Sleep Pattern: Day Night . or REM sleep. and then decreases again to the wide-awake level. sleep lightly (shallow) for ten to fifteen minutes before sleeping deeply. It increases when the frequency drops. Amplitude. the frequency drops. we relax. At times REM sleep is referred to as dreaming sleep and sometimes called paradoxical sleep. Considering adults. and Deep sleep as 'Stage 4' sleep. or called paradoxical sleep only when referring to animals. In order to achieve this as far as possible within a night. Deep sleep and REM sleep are divided into shorter sleep periods which alternate. During Deep sleep the body's muscles are relaxed. From being wide awake before going to sleep. Brain-wave frequency of the different sleep stages we pass through in the course of a night are outlined in Figure 1 'Sleep Pattern: Day-Night-Day'. Shallow sleep is often referred to as 'Stage 2' sleep. the brain arranges alternating periods of deep sleep followed by REM sleep <8>.

and by occasional brief periods of intermediate 'Stage 1' and 'Stage 3' sleep <6>. This shows how the two kinds of sleep alternate as Deep sleep ends and REM sleep begins and proceeds. . Deep Sleep and REM Sleep each take up about 20 to 25 percent of the night's sleep. Both Deep sleep and REM sleep appeared about 180 million to 130 million years ago in mammals as they evolved from reptiles.Table 2 One Sleep Period (One complete night) One Sleep Period (One night) Deep Sleep (minutes) REM Sleep (minutes) Beginning of Sleep Period 40 7 20 13 25 10 25 End of Sleep Period Figure 2 One Sleep Period (One Night) Back to Contents list That we Deep sleep first and that REM sleep follows Deep sleep is clearly shown in Figure 2. The remainder is largely taken up by transition 'Shallow' sleep' periods which enable brain and body to adjust to the next type of sleep. DEEP SLEEP AND REM SLEEP We have already seen much about Deep sleep and about REM sleep so this seems a good point to include in this section also what has been said so far.

<7> Persistent rapid eye movement shows that dreaming is taking place and the brain paralyses the sleeper so that the dreams cannot be acted out. each taking up about 20 to 25 percent of the night's sleep. the remainder being taken up by shallow transition sleep periods. During Deep sleep 'one is not dreaming but thinking." {4} . as follows: Deep Sleep Deep sleep appeared at about the time warm blooded mammals evolved from their coldblooded reptilian ancestors by developing the ability to maintain a constant body temperature by biological processes. after Deep sleep and before waking up through relaxing to being fully awake. Deep sleep 'dream-like experiences are more like ordinary everyday thoughts and are usually rather banal and repetitive in content'. On the whole we Deep sleep during the first half of the night. Brain waves look like the waking pattern. "The length of time taken to dream of certain events is about the same as the time it would take to experience those events in waking reality. are not usually remembered unless the dreamer wakes up from the dream itself. Deep sleep and REM sleep are divided up into shorter sleep periods which alternate.Day') During Deep Sleep the body's muscles are relaxed and heart beat and breathing are slow and regular. At this constant level there is a small but closely controlled body temperature rhythm (we tend to go to sleep after our body temperature has began to fall and tend to wake up after it has started to rise) and the body-temperature clock also controls the appearance of REM sleep. the frequency of the brain waves drops. and REM sleep during the second. In REM sleep the body's muscles are paralysed while heart-beat and breathing fluctuate as they would during emotional upsets in waking life.Deep sleep and REM sleep are the core sleep activities. As we progress from being awake through sleeping to being awake again. The eyes move rapidly and continuously.' {4} REM Sleep (Rapid-Eye-Movement sleep) REM sleep also appeared at about the time warm blooded mammals evolved from their coldblooded reptilian ancestors by developing the ability to maintain a constant level of body temperature by biological processes. Dreams tend to consist of "sensory illusions or hallucinated dramas" (imagined feelings or awarenesses). On the whole we REM sleep during the second half of the night. reaching its lowest point while in Deep sleep and then rises again to the wide-awake level. (See Figure 1 'Sleep Pattern: Day .Night . So now we can list the characteristics of Deep sleep and of REM sleep.

"during sleep. it takes precedence over other kinds of sleep until the lack of REM sleep has been made good. So human beings need REM sleep. the endocrine organs come to life and secrete into the bloodstream hormones that affect the entire body" {10}. Since during the first few months of life infants are busy acquiring new motor and perceptual skills. ." "Further findings at the Technion Sleep Laboratory demonstrated an additional advantage in awakening from REM sleep. And that during Deep sleep the body's muscles are relaxed and heart beat and breathing are slow and regular. a person awakening from REM sleep is immediately orientated in his surroundings." {10} Professor Lavie heads Haifa Technion's Sleep Laboratory. which are controlled by the right hemisphere of the brain. these findings may also explain the abundance of REM sleep at that particular time in our life". ROLE OF REM SLEEP "If REM sleep is prevented. In other words. which is of cardinal importance to a smooth transition from sleep to wakefulness. During the first few days after birth the actual amount of REM sleep is very great and Lavie concluded that "it plays a vital role in the maturing stage of the nervous system" and that "it is possible that REM sleep is particularly important for procedural types of learning in which humans acquire motor and perceptual skills. their young being born alive after having been developed for a considerable period within the womb. As reptiles evolved into mammals and mammals into human beings. at least to some extent. REM sleep appeared when. When we examined how people functioned after awakening from REM sleep. Which applies particularly to the brain which now has much greater learning capacity. Lavie also reports that REM sleep in cats "seems to be training their neural networks in mainly instinctive behaviour" and that "several studies have indicated a possibility that the consolidation of memory traces for at least certain types of learning occurs during REM sleep". These tasks. and that "REM sleep allows a smooth and rapid transition from sleep to wakefulness.ROLE OF DEEP SLEEP We saw that Deep sleep appeared about 180 million to 130 million years ago in mammals as they evolved from reptiles. The young have to grow and learn much for a long time before they can survive independently. For example. as we saw already. were performed with a lesser success rate after awakening from the Deep sleep of stages 3 and 4. complicated and interrelated physiological and biological changes took place. mammals evolved into giving birth directly from the womb. and so can be viewed as a gate to wakefulness during sleep. And it seems as if body maintenance and development takes place during Deep sleep. In Deep sleep 'one is not dreaming but thinking'. we found that they performed very well at tasks which included orientation in space. for many years in the case of human beings. He reports {10} "that in some way or other. we can maintain contact with reality during REM sleep and even decide when to wake up with the help of internal signals"." Which suggests to me that the left hemisphere is involved in Deep sleep 'dreaming' and the right hemisphere in REM sleep dreaming.

is likely to perform an essential function as otherwise the brain would not be paralysing the body to enable dreaming to take place. compared with dreams from the first half of the night. The longer they had been blind.So the role of REM sleep appears to be that of generating dreams. or are about what took place more than a week ago. and in most cases lack story or central character. central characters. CONTENT OF DREAMS The content of an individual's dreams normally corresponds with that individual's language and memories. Occasionally dreams contain information beyond the experience. and that it may take a week or so before at least some of the information which reached the working memory is processed and stored in the long-term memory. First dreams are not remembered in the morning but last dreams are. But at times dreams seem to originate from an unknown apparently internal source which has been given labels such as the 'unconscious' or the 'subconscious'. they tend to deal more with the dreamer's early childhood". a short-term working memory and a more permanent long-term memory. DREAMING AND DREAMS Dreaming. Lavie found that there were only single eye movements during their nonpictorial dream sleep. preoccupations. and both animals and humans get up and act out their dreams when the brain centres responsible for inhibiting movements during sleep are incapacitated". depends on an individual's day-to-day life. and feelings. knowledge or understanding of the dreamer. and it is these last dreams which the psychiatrist is most likely to hear. This gap seems to show that two kinds of memory are involved. and to enable us to wake up quickly and fully orientated. The dreams of the blind do not include sights or scenes but include noises. there must be an important reason for sleeping in this way and for dreaming. whatever this may be or whatever is taking place during REM sleeping periods. beliefs and culture. Dreams may deal with what happened during the day which has just passed. ROLE OF DREAMS According to Jouvet "dreams arise from bursts of activity in biologically ancient parts of the brain. and. experiences. {10} Lavie records that early-REM-period dreams deal with the present. likes and dislikes. . the sense of contact and emotional experiences. But "dream reports made in the early hours of the morning are richer in detail. Important also because it takes place regularly as a matter of routine and as all individuals are normally subject to this procedure. {4} Theta rhythms have been observed not only in REM sleep periods in humans but also in animals when performing activities such as hunting on which survival depends. but do not as a rule deal with the events of the seven days or so which come in between. the sparser the eye movements of blind people and so Lavie showed that grouped eye movements indicate dream pictures. In other words. of filing away memories for later use.

But only some of this information is selected and stored. I also think that similarities or dream components which after the event has occurred are said to have predicted it or to refer to it. even scientific ones" and may "also be an inspiration for artistic creativity (for discovery and creativity)" and have also been the source of literary and musical inspiration." {10} According to Lavie."Instincts are an innate form of behaviour . Selection seems to be necessary as otherwise it may take far too long to recall any specific memory or possibly because we may not have sufficient capacity for storing everything in our brain. cannot at this time be credited with being more than coincidences. Storing and Recalling) Human beings are learning all the time. Bearing in mind the vast total number of dreams being dreamt every night by so many people world-wide. Dreams caused by gods are 'good' dreams sent to guide us. Dreams which predict events would be based on the situation as it exists just before the dream is dreamt. patterns of motor behaviour which are not learned but stamped on the nervous system before birth. Beliefs that certain events took place are apparently being implanted and referred to as memories. Some people consider that dreams may be caused "by supernatural agencies such as gods or demons and are to be understood as messages. Jouvet hypothesised "that one of the roles of paradoxical sleep was to train the neural networks which are related to instinctive behavior". Dreams may "provide help in solving problems (or solutions to everyday problems).in other words. . and the dream itself introduces another factor into the situation which has been predicted. Massive volumes of information are being received continually. dream interpretation . {16} LEARNING. the neural networks linked to instincts are checked every night". without being trained to do so. is almost certainly false'. or copulation are instinctive." {4} An inquiry commissioned by the Royal College of Psychiatrists <2> has concluded that any memory of severely traumatic events 'recovered through . defense. and so becomes available for recalling later when required.. There are many stories indicating that at least some dreams may be predicting events. dreams caused by demons are 'bad' dreams sent to destroy us" and "people have tried to distinguish between 'good' and 'bad' dreams and to find rules for discovering what they mean. and that "because of the decisive importance of the instincts to the survival of the species. storing information and then recalling it when it is required. "that during paradoxical sleep these neural networks are activated independently of the muscles which are linked to the nerve cells and inhibited by the brain stem"... The behavioral patterns of numerous species which involve attack.. Dream interpretations "usually reflect the training and personal convictions of the therapist". and the animal performs these actions from birth. MEMORISING AND REMEMBERING (Receiving.

Distinctions have been drawn also between different kinds of memory and memories. This type of memory is long-lasting. Component memories are continually being associated with other old or new component memories. are stored in different locations. play football or play an instrument. {11. Working Memory The working memory enables the brain to evaluate the mass of incoming information and select what is to be retained and memorised and what is to be rejected. TYPES OF MEMORY Memory and memories have been defined or classified in different ways. Associating Memories and their Components Suppose we remember a person saying something. so that a memory can be recalled from remembering just one of its components. namely 'procedural memory' with information about how to proceed when doing something. They are associated with each other. and 'declarative memory' which contains what we know. Both procedural and declarative memories are long-term memories and we also have a working (short-term) memory which enables the brain to evaluate the mass of incoming information and select what is to be retained and memorised and what is to be rejected. smells. by training.But on the other hand we may not be able to recall a specific memory when we want to remember it. sound of voice. episodic (events as part of a sequence). enormously increasing the range and flexibility of what can be recalled. Procedural Memory This memory stores information about how to proceed when doing something. No one really knows where this enormous database is located but it seems that each type of component memory is located in a kind of memory location of its own. components such as shape of face. tastes and what we touch. or the shape of his face. eidetic (detailed mental images) and visual (images as seen). 14} Declarative Memory This is long-term memory and it contains all you have experienced or learned. habits or skills which are learned by repetition and which can be changed by many repetitions. The memories are actions. In addition to what we see. And so we may be able to recall a person's name by remembering the colour of his hair. . cross-indexed if you like. stores information such as how to drive a car. all the information gained by you from childhood onwards. some stored information may have been forgotten. Established is that there are two main types of memory. The component parts of this memory. colour of hair. such as semantic (verbal). we also remember other sensory information such as sounds.

what is stored is the perceived content of the received information. and older information with other older information.. ." But our memory consists of much more than just verbal memories. of our social organisation and physical environment. that the process of associating amounts also to the seeking of meaningful associations. . and their components. associating and selecting) procedures. Even so. photographs. information relating to what words mean and imply. Continually associating new information with older information." Our memory includes a verbal memory which "means the possibility of learning and remembering without manifest behaviour. television and computerised manipulation of text and images. And images. at some time and in some way. retrieval. that is information which consists of words and is about words. Including what happened.External Memory In addition we have the vast mass of externally prepared and stored information which is accumulating. right or wrong. STORED INFORMATION (PERCEIVED CONTENT) Much of what we are storing includes semantic information. "Many." {6} The information one receives may be fact or fiction. including events and sequences of events. understood or misunderstood. the animal's behaviour is reliably modified in such a way as to make its response more appropriate" {6} <3> Pointing out that human memory is very different from that of a non-human animal. intended to inform or to mislead. if not all. but this capacity is lost to most as they grow up. It is because of the meaningful way in which we associate over such large volumes of stored information. often clearly and in detail <1>. All of which spread and proliferated together with corresponding search (recall. So to me it seems that all the information we take in and retain results in a more comprehensive view and deeper understanding of the world in which we live. the information we have taken in affects and changes what we do. followed by pictures. LEARNING (MEMORISING) AND UNDERSTANDING Rose defines an animal's learning by "learning is a response by an animal to a novel situation such that. It has accumulated ever since people told stories to their young who in turn retold them to later generations and ever since writing was invented and the printed word accumulated. films and videos. Rose says that "procedural memory dominates the lives of non-human animals. People with an eidetic (image-retaining) memory remember images.. is much more than random cross-referencing. changes our behaviour. but declarative memory profoundly shapes our every act and thought. when it happened and the sequence in which it happened. that is scenes. young children apparently do normally see and remember eidetically. What is in young children an apparently general capacity has become a remarkable rarity in adults. in the end. Thus. when confronted subsequently with a comparable situation.

. {10} Lavie notes that it is during the first months of life that the longest duration of REM sleep occurs and that this coincides with the time when sleep becomes consolidated into a single and continuous sleep period. but the space once occupied by the lost cells is taken up by an increase in the branching and synaptic connections made by those that remain. of rapidly approaching objects. Since during the first few months of life infants are busy acquiring new motor and perceptual skills. REM sleep is low and near adult level. such as sheep." {10} We already saw that Jouvet hypothesised that one of the roles of REM sleep in animals was to train the neural networks which are related to instinctive behaviour. ." Role of REM Sleep in Infants Lavie pointed out that in animals which are born fairly mature. of strangers. and at the same time a pattern of coordination between the sleep-wakefulness rhythm and the demands of the external environment slowly begins to develop". "such as rats. In species which are born immature. This changes gradually until at about six months "the baby begins sleeping almost through the night and the sleepwakefulness rhythm stabilises at twenty-four hours".DEVELOPMENT OF BRAIN FUNCTIONS IN HUMANS Development of Brain Functioning in Foetus and Newborn Rose describes how the human brain develops before and after birth.. Changes in Sleep-wakefulness Rhythm during First Year of Infant's Life A baby wakes and sleeps roughly every four hours in its first month. such as maternal bonding. environmental exploration and play." He added that common childhood fears "of the dark. In kittens. We also saw that during the first few days after birth the actual amount of REM sleep in babies is very great and Lavie concluded that "it plays a vital role in the maturing stage of the nervous system" and that "it is possible that REM sleep is particularly important for procedural types of learning in which humans acquire motor and perceptual skills. initial amounts of paradoxical (REM) sleep are very large. Children do not distinguish between dreams and waking life until they are three or four years old. early warning devices put there by evolution because of the constant dangers in the ancestral environment". are all . {10} Stevens {4} says "REM sleep is thought to play an important role in developing the infant brain and in activating those neural programmes responsible for basic and characteristic patterns of behaviour. cats. and then by a steady drop in numbers. these findings may also explain the abundance of REM sleep at that particular time in our life". and humans. saying "Early brain development in the foetus and newborn is itself associated first with a massive proliferation of cells. but can usually understand the difference when between five and eight years old. And so during the first year "a single and continuous sleep period and a period of continuous wakefulness begin to emerge. during the first ten days of life paradoxical (REM) sleep occupies 90 percent of their time.

as we consciously or unconsciously learn to select salient information that we need to commit to memory from the environment around us. that all input is registered and ordered "so as to enable each individual to build up his or her own criteria of significance". A primitive animal's memory seems to be largely procedural. Social responsibility. about family relations and about bringing up a family. from the mass of information now available to us from sources external to ourselves. of learning about social co-operation and conflict. is instinctive and responses are automatic. Each new experience adds to our knowledge and plays a part in shaping our view of the community and society in which we live.BRAIN. MIND AND BEHAVIOUR (Human Behaviour and How The Mind Works) INSTINCTS AND INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOUR We saw that instincts are an innate form of behaviour. Both procedural and declarative memories are long-term memories. defence and sexual behaviour. CONSCIOUS BEHAVIOUR: LEARNING AND EVALUATING. without being trained to do so. there evolved the ability for storing new experiences as they happen and so creating a store of experience-based memories.. And learning by experience and by gaining knowledge continues while we are alive. helps to determine our behaviour. Rose considers that at birth all types of input are likely to be seen as about equally relevant. including conflict management. of the world at large. such as attack. But at some time before puberty most of us cease to remember eidetically. {15} From infant through child and adolescent to being an adult. the taking on of responsibility for others. if not all. but that this capacity is lost to most as they grow up. It seems that children remember everything. Territory is acquired by force and defended." {6} CONCLUSIONS . young children apparently do normally see and remember eidetically <1>. 'there is for most of us a transition in how we perceive and remember the world . MEMORY AND MEMORISING As mammals evolved from reptiles. Behaviour relating to survival of a species. Change from Eidetic to Linear Memory We already saw that many.Learning by Playing and by Experience Playing is a way of learning how to behave. Eidetic memory gives equal importance to all inputs so that all inputs are analysed. Might is right. are processed and stored. but declarative memory is located and used in a different way. that is a form of behaviour which is not learned but which the animal performs from birth.. giving and sharing with others. . and helps to determine what we do and how we do it. we go through a long period in which we learn through playing and by experience. and also absorb information from external memory. the caring. can be and is being taught.

sound of voice. {6} <3> So we are strengthening neural pathways or associations by frequently using or recalling them. Including also the meaning of words and what is implied. What is being memorised includes what we are taught. seem to be reduced to lower levels of awareness. flight.Human beings are learning all the time. Subconscious Behaviour (Functioning) . with their different aspects and can be recalled by recalling an aspect associated with the memory one wishes to recall. weakening memory components which are not being used. shape. Aspects such as colour. of accessibility. however. Aspects like shape of face. Infrequently recalled memories would seem to be overlaid by more frequently used ones. Component memories are continually being associated with other old or new component memories. event. crossindexed if you like. So only a part of the incoming information is retained and stored. enormously increasing the range and flexibility of what can be recalled. phrase. place. Dreaming does so by generating situations which require responses of the fight. Some is retained. Hence using neural pathways holds memories at higher. Human beings store memories by means of changed neural pathways. that is memorised. Memories are associated. so becoming available for recalling later when required. And in addition we have the vast mass of externally prepared and stored information which is accumulating at an accelerating pace. And when it happened and the sequence in which it happened. and memory components which are more frequently used than others. COMMUNICATING NON-VERBALLY: CONVEYING INFORMATION BY USING IMAGES Instinctive Behaviour Dreaming trains animals and human beings in instinctive responses and then keeps instinctive behaviour fully trained. A dream produces a corresponding response which. makes them more readily available. the rest rejected. A process which continually keeps available memory components which relate to those of current interest. Frequent replaying strengthens corresponding neural pathways and so trains the individual to respond and to respond quickly. by means of biochemical changes. colour of hair. Aspects of memories <9> are stored in different locations. by means of persistent modifications to the structure of neurons and their synaptic connections. The incoming information is evaluated and we memorise only information which seems to matter. time. Massive volumes of information are being received. date. Retained short-term (working) memories are converted to long-term memories. is not translated into action as the dreamer's body is normally paralysed by the mind for duration of dreaming (REM) sleep. affection kind. memorising information and then recalling it when it is required. more easily accessible levels of memory. what happens to us and to others and any lessons learned as a result.

. one's knowledge and experience can be consciously applied towards modifying the mind's subconscious control of body functions for the benefit of the individual. delving deeper into stored memories and associations. the added functions included organs such as the autonomic nervous system for the automatic control of body functions. body temperature and blood pressure. In this way keeping long-term memories intact and relevant by continually associating and reassociating their various parts. This process at the same time would seem to weaken those memory components we are not thinking about or which are not being used. A key finding of this report is that the right hemisphere of the human brain is able to communicate by using images with the brain's older and more primitive component organs which have no verbal skills. and also those which generate conscious feelings with associated behavioural response patterns. So we are strengthening neural pathways or associations by frequently using or recalling them. Becoming more intuitive by going through likely or apparently associated filed images or other stored memory components (aspects) in their different locations. of functions such as digestion. As the night progresses this process seems to become more intuitive. Hence it is possible to direct and use the mind's subconscious maintenance and control capabilities. And for some conscious feelings about events. Communicating with one's autonomic nervous system by visualising is a conscious activity. And this enables us to communicate intentionally (that is 'consciously') with our autonomic nervous system and ask it by visualising to control body functions and to affect our body's immune system. Memorising It is while REM sleeping that dreams are generated and that we appear to be filing away (memorising) memories for later use. ADAPTING TO THE ENVIRONMENT: CHANGING INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOUR A key feature which distinguishes mammals from the reptiles from which they evolved would seem to be that the mammalian brain contains organs for the experience-based recognition of danger and for responding to this according to past experience. associating with earlier memories and their aspects.As mammals evolved from reptiles. Millions of neural pathways connect the organs which generate experience-based memories. Any or all our senses can be included when visualising. Clinical trials have shown remarkable success in areas such as the treatment of cancer and heart disease. tending to go back in time towards childhood. Much of dreaming may then be the creating and recalling of associations. the fluid balance. and so enable environmental experience and knowledge to be applied for one's benefit. That is. to the reptilian parts of the mammalian brain.

The mammalian brain includes the older reptilian brain and is linked to it. including conflict management. With the mammalian brain emerged feelings such as attachment. can be and is being taught. The outcome itself is evaluated and becomes part of our memories. particularly when repeated frequently. . These memories can be recalled when required and in this way will affect our future behaviour.It seems that feelings such as attachment. and what happens as a result. the caring. A trace is left. EVALUATION AND UNDERSTANDING Behaviour of the primitive animals from which human beings evolved is instinctive. Might is right. we go through a long period in which we learn through playing and by experience. others weakened by not being used. depends on evaluating the situation. giving and sharing with others. is also memorised if thought relevant. And the action we take. Playing is one way of learning how to behave. from the mass of information now available to us from sources external to ourselves. defence or sexual. It seems that on the whole people may not be able to recall feelings. anger and fear have emerged with associated behavioural response patterns. fear and anger together with associated behavioural response patterns. about family relations and about bringing up a family. such as attack. Territory is acquired by force and defended. neural pathways are changed. that most people can only recall how they felt about something at the time. Each new experience adds to our knowledge and plays a part in shaping our view of the community and society in which we live. From infant through child and adolescence to being an adult. the taking on of responsibility for others. Additionally we also absorb information from external memory. and helps to determine our behaviour. Which means that behaviour relating to survival. of learning about social co-operation and conflict. What happens to us and what we do. what we do. what happens to us. is automatic. and modified according to the environment in which we find ourselves. Mammalian behaviour is less rigidly controlled by instincts. memories are formed. changes neural pathways. what we know and how we feel about it. It also seems that instinctive behaviour has to be controlled. Neural pathways are created and strengthened by being used. and that the mammalian and human parts of the brain play a major part in this. And learning by experience and by gaining knowledge continues while we are alive. What human beings do. Social responsibility. in every generation. of the world at large. We react accordingly and it seems as if memories are being created which modify instinctive behavioural responses. So it seems that instinctive behaviour can be modified by feelings of care and affection and also by experience. ADAPTING TO THE WORLD IN WHICH WE LIVE: CHANGING BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS We adapt to the world in which we live in much the same way. and that behaviour is less rigidly controlled by instincts.

The human brain (see Figure 3 'The Human Brain') includes the mammalian brain and human emotional responses depend on neuronal pathways which link the right hemisphere to the mammalian brain. Images may be described. We are continually gaining information by learning. . Hence behaviour is not only determined by feelings but also by knowledge. understanding and reason. And so the right hemisphere communicates using images (pictures) and has highly developed spatial abilities. and then for other people and the community. It takes human beings many years to bring up their children and it is the right hemisphere which is concerned with a wide range of emotions and feelings of care and affection for the young and for the family. of feelings. So the human brain includes the processing and memorising of images and of their components. Speech. and the capability for objective and logical thinking and evaluation. Communicating by using images is fast. The mind evaluates this incoming information and decides what is to be retained and memorised. Behaviour is aimed at survival of the young and of the family. Hence the right hemisphere communicates with the 'subconscious' functions of the older part of the brain by using images. or transformed into a narrative. by reading or studying. is logical and systematic. And the later development of written languages and artificial images. that is thinking and communicating by using words. and then is for the good of family. has highly developed verbal and semantic abilities. learning from the experiences of others. It also includes a wide range of emotions. primitive (reptilian) instinctive urges and behaviour are overlaid by mammalian care and affection for one's young and human care and affection for one's family and community. of care and affection. The left hemisphere communicates by using words. is concerned with emotions and feelings. concerned with matters as they are. The right hemisphere is linked to the primitive older part of the brain which has no verbal. and the development of language and corresponding mental processing connected with memory and memorising. is intuitive and imaginative. seems to have evolved later. Figure 3 The Human Brain Back to Contents list For human beings. other people. gaining verbal information and pictorial images from external memory. community. rejecting the remainder. Information about what has been happening to oneself is treated in the same way. semantic or reasoning ability and so functions subconsciously (below the level of consciousness). by the left hemisphere.

Add that those dominating others may in this way acquire power over others.And when something is happening to oneself. estimating meaning and importance. are different people. cannot be recalled. we do not memorise feelings. However. held in check only by the fear of consequences. So to me it seems that all the information we take in and retain results in a more comprehensive view and understanding of the world in which we live. and older information with other older information. The eidetic memory of young children usually changes to linear memory as they become more adult. THE STRUGGLE FOR A BETTER LIFE When identical same-sex twins are brought up in exactly the same environment and treated exactly the same (clothing included). they usually behave and feel much the same. and from misusing. at some time and in some way. of our social organisation and physical environment. It appears that as we grow older so we start evaluating and then cease merely to take in such information as we come across. we recall relevant information from memory. add other available information. gaining understanding. In this way continually becoming more aware of explanations and causes. people. What happens as a result of the action we took is again evaluated and memorised for later use. is much more than random cross-referencing. and before taking action we evaluate all the information we now have. Such a system rewards primitive inhuman brutal (beastlike) behaviour (acquiring territory by force. And thus. relevance and reliability. . bearing on or reference to the matter in hand. might is right). And memorising images is fast and this would seem to apply to their component parts and to associating. that the process of associating amounts also to the seeking of meaningful associations. Continually associating new information with older information. Usually one is more dominant while the other is more emotional. Evaluation means estimating significance. In other words. We memorise both verbal and image information. It is apparently easier for people who are 'cold and calculating' to be dominant. or social and economic gains from using. possibly because they may originate within the earlier mammalian parts of the brain . As we become adult we start to evaluate and develop and extend our evaluating skills. In other words. the actual feeling is not reproduced. when one is doing something or planning to do something. So we are continually evaluating information and this is a key feature of the human mind. changes our behaviour. as adults what we memorise and how we recall and use recalled information is then governed by reason and aids understanding. What is recalled is how we felt at the time. But identical same-sex twins brought up as individuals have different personalities. to dominate those who are 'emotional'. in the end. the information we have taken in affects and changes what we do. It is because of the meaningful way in which we associate over such large volumes of stored information. whether it can be relied on.

seemingly legalising. And. It is the right half which usually communicates with the primitive parts of the human brain. need to be treated well and looked after. shelter. Humane behaviour is based on feelings of care and affection for the young and for the family. affection and esteem. what is also needed is dedicated effort. struggling against those who wish to dominate others. strength and power to achieve a humane way of living. showing to some extent how human behaviour is affected by the primitive instincts of our reptilian ancestors. against those who wish to oppress so as to exploit. This has the effect of brutalising society. high quality of life and living. friendly and trustful co-operation and companionship. clothing) and secure existence. against those who wish to exploit others. From this emerges a sense of social responsibility: people matter and are important.We also see that dominating others is conditioned. {8. by media and other opinion-forming sources. 9} which shows people struggling to achieve a humane way of life. inconsiderate and unfeeling behaviour towards other people. The report also relates the functioning of the brain to behaviour. self-realisation and development. And "people will co-operate with each other and work hard and well to satisfy these needs and gain much satisfaction from doing so". That is. one's knowledge and experience can be consciously applied towards modifying the mind's subconscious control of body functions for the benefit of the individual. and so enable environmental experience and knowledge to be applied for one's benefit. A throw-back to the level of the unthinking unfeeling primitive animal. each struggling to advance at their own level of development and achievement. are entitled to share equally. in the hostile environment in which humanity finds itself. Hence it is possible to direct and use the mind's subconscious maintenance and control capabilities. What we see is a world-wide struggle for a humane life {8. and clear explanations of the role of dreaming and the meaning of dreams. and then for other people and the community. Part of the hostile environment is an almost intentional-seeming conditioning which frequently portrays brutal behaviour as a norm. that is unnatural. Any or all our senses can be included when visualising. behaviour which is destructive of humane behaviour. Struggling to achieve the satisfaction of needs which are entirely in line with what we have seen here in this report about the evolution and development of the human brain and human mind. independence from domination by others. understanding and reason. Needs and wants such as those for survival (food. This enables us to communicate intentionally (that is 'consciously') with our autonomic nervous system and ask it by visualising to control body functions and to affect our body's immune system. . The report explores the functioning and role of the two halves of the human brain and the relationship between them. 9} MAIN CONCLUSIONS As a result of the work reported here there has emerged a much clearer appreciation of what happens during the course of a night's sleep. A key finding of this report is that the right hemisphere of the human brain is able to communicate by using images with the brain's older and more primitive component organs which have no verbal skills. Backed up by knowledge. making acceptable. to achieve a good standard of living and a high quality of life.

chemical and electrical processes which are and may be taking place in the brain.NOTES AND REFERENCES NOTES <1> The name 'photographic' memory is not an adequate description of this kind of memory since the memoriser can manipulate the image. <8> Much can happen during the course of a night. providing fascinating insights based on comprehensive knowledge clearly expressed in meaningful language. memorising or recalling information. . <9> Memories of images and of speech. and of the structures of neurons. "watered-down" guidelines were issued in October 1997. These brief transition sleep periods are not listed or described in Figure 1. nor are they discussed in this report. and a revised version of the original report is to be published as an article in the British Journal of Psychiatry in April 1998 "thus distancing the College from the controversy". 'Paradoxical' refers to the apparent contradiction between brain activity resembling waking life while the body's muscles are paralysed. This book contains much detailed and background information. <4> Implies that the left side of the brain has more highly developed hand-controlling circuits. their synaptic connections and electrical properties. Correlations and illustrations are my own. {6} <2> The original report was submitted to the Royal College of Psychiatrists in the summer of 1996. physiological. {14} <5> The summary descriptions given here are based to a considerable extent on information published by Professor Peretz Lavie {10}. Visual. <3> This book {6} is a comprehensive description of the biochemical. Also covered is the author's leading work on what takes place in the brain when learning. is short. verbal and audio (sound) memories. One can wake up early or late. <7> REM sleep is sometimes called 'paradoxical' sleep or 'dreaming' sleep. Alternating the periods of the two kinds of sleep is a procedure which ensures that REM sleep follows Deep sleep at least to some extent even when the night's sleep is interrupted. <6> What are commonly known as 'Stage 1' and 'Stage 3' sleep periods are brief periods of intermediate transition sleep during which brain and body adjust from one activity to the next.

wustl.html 13/8/97 Brain and Mind (Cogito) { 2} { 3} { 4} { 5} { 6} { 7} { 8} { 9} {10} {11} {12} {13} .solhaam.html 13/8/97 Hypothalamus and autonomic nervous system Diana Weedman Molavi Washington University School of Medicine http://thalamus. 1993 The Life of the Brain Professor Steven Rose Guardian.REFERENCES { 1} How it Works: Electroencephalograph Helen Davies Guardian.edu/course/limbic.org/ Manfred Davidmann The Will to Work: What People Struggle to Achieve http://www. 11/09/96 The Making of Memory (From molecules to mind) Professor Steven Rose Bantam Books.solhaam. 10/11/96 A Triune Concept of the Brain and Behaviour P D MacLean University of Toronto Press. 14/05/96 Scanner can see Brain in Action John Illman Observer.org/ Manfred Davidmann The Enchanted World of Sleep Peretz Lavie Yale University Press.wustl. 1996 Scientists aim to 'talk' to patients in coma Tim Radford Guardian. 1973 Private Myths: Dreams and Dreaming Anthony Stevens Penguin Books.edu/course/hypoANS. 1996 Limbic system Diana Weedman Molavi Washington University School of Medicine http://thalamus. 01/12/94 Motivation Summary http://www.

http://www.edu/romig/cogito/brain_and_mind.educ. 12/1/98 {15} {16} . Spring 1996 http://www2.umdnj.edu/~neuro/neuro/handouts/cortex2.html Sep 1997 {14} Cerebral Cortex II Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Lecture Handout. Producer: Angela Kaye Broadcast on 5/1/92 by BBC 1 Based on book 'The Altruistic Person' by Professor Sam Oliner Row over Psychiatrists who Destroy Lives Rory Carroll Guardian.html To Give or Not To Give 'Everyman' TV documentary Editor: Jane Drabble.drake.