cover.

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The Global Enablng Trade Report 2010

Engaging in international trade has long been viewed as key to national prosperity and
well-being. In the current context of the global economic crisis, further enabling trade
across borders will be essential to strengthening the forces that drive recovery, just as
trade has played a central role in spreading the downturn across the globe.
Against this background, The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 measures and analyzes
institutions, policies, and services enabling trade in national economies around the world,
highlighting for policymakers a country’s strengths and the challenges to be addressed.
The Report includes the most current data and recent analysis of the factors enabling
trade in industrialized and emerging economies.
The Report presents the rankings of the Enabling Trade Index (ETI), developed by the

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010
Report
2010

World Economic Forum in collaboration with international trade experts and leaders
from the logistics and transport industry. It is a comprehensive index intended to
capture the full range of issues that contribute to impeding trade, ranking nations
according to factors that facilitate the free flow of goods across national borders and
to destination. The printed short version of the Report contains detailed profiles for 23
selected countries, while the full electronic version details the results for all 125
economies covered—4 more than last year.
Written in a nontechnical language and style, the Report appeals to a broad audience that
includes policymakers, business leaders, and members of the academic community. It
provides a yardstick to measure the extent to which countries have in place the
necessary attributes for facilitating the free flow of goods, and it aims to provoke
dialogue among stakeholders about how best to improve the situation to offset the
present crisis and, ultimately, raise the prosperity of the world’s citizens.
The full Report can be downloaded at www.weforum.org/getr.
Lawrence | Drzeniek Hanouz | Doherty | Moavenzadeh

ISBN-13: 978-92-95044-84-5

Robert Z. Lawrence, Harvard University
Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, World Economic Forum
Sean Doherty, World Economic Forum
John Moavenzadeh, World Economic Forum

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

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World Economic Forum
Geneva, Switzerland 2010

The Global Enabling Trade
Report 2010
Robert Z. Lawrence, Harvard University
Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, World Economic Forum
Sean Doherty, World Economic Forum
John Moavenzadeh, World Economic Forum
Editors

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

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The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 is
published by the World Economic Forum
within the framework of the Global
Competitiveness Network and the Industry
Partnership Programme for Logistics and
Transport.

World Economic Forum
Geneva
Copyright © 2010
by the World Economic Forum
Published by World Economic Forum
www.weforum.org

Professor Klaus Schwab
Executive Chairman, World Economic Forum
Robert Greenhill
Chief Business Officer, World Economic
Forum

All rights reserved. No part of this publication
may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
or otherwise without the prior permission of
the World Economic Forum.
ISBN-13: 978-92-95044-84-5

EDITORS

At the John F. Kennedy School of Government,
Harvard University:
Robert Z. Lawrence, Albert L. Williams
Professor of Trade and Investment
At the World Economic Forum:
Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Director, Senior Economist
Sean Doherty, Associate Director, Head of
Logistics and Transport Industry
John Moavenzadeh, Senior Director, Head
of Mobility Industries

This book is printed on paper suitable for
recycling and made from fully managed and
sustained forest sources.
Printed and bound in Switzerland by SRO-Kundig
The full version of the Report with Profiles
of all 125 economies is available at
www.weforum.org/getr.

LOGISTICS AND TRANSPORT TEAM

Katerina Soulounia, Team Coordinator,
Mobility Industries

GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS NETWORK

Jennifer Blanke, Director, Senior Economist,
Head of Global Competitiveness Network
Ciara Browne, Associate Director
Thierry Geiger, Associate Director,
Economist, Global Leadership Fellow
Irene Mia, Director, Senior Economist
Carissa Sahli, Team Coordinator
Pearl Samandari, Community Manager
Eva Trujillo Herrera, Research Assistant

A special thank you to Hope Steele for her
excellent editing work and Neil Weinberg for
his superb graphic design and layout.
The terms country and nation as used in this
Report do not in all cases refer to a territorial
entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. The terms cover
well-defined, geographically self-contained
economic areas that may not be states but
for which statistical data are maintained on a
separate and independent basis.

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Contents

Partner Institutes

v

Preface

xi

by Robert Greenhill, World Economic Forum

Part 1: The Enabling Trade Index Results

1

1.1 Fostering Recovery by Facilitating Trade: The Enabling
Trade Index 2010

3

by Robert Z. Lawrence, Harvard University; and Sean Doherty,
Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Thierry Geiger, and Eva Trujillo
Herrera, World Economic Forum

iii

Part 2: Country/Economy Profiles

33

How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles ...............................35
List of Countries/Economies ........................................................39
Country/Economy Profiles............................................................40

Technical Notes and Sources

291

About the Authors

297

Acknowledgments

301

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Partner Institutes

The World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness
Network is pleased to acknowledge and thank the following organizations as its valued Partner Institutes,
without which the realization of The Global Enabling
Trade Report 2010 would not have been possible:

Belgium
Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School
Lutgart Van den Berghe, Professor, Executive Director
and Chairman, Competence Centre Entrepreneurship,
Governance and Strategy
Bieke Dewulf, Associate, Competence Centre Entrepreneurship,
Governance and Strategy
Wim Moesen, Professor

Albania
Institute for Contemporary Studies (ISB)
Artan Hoxha, President
Elira Jorgoni, Senior Expert and Project Manager
Denalada Kuzumi, Researcher

Benin
Micro Impacts of Macroeconomic Adjustment Policies
(MIMAP) Benin
Epiphane Adjovi, Business Coordinator
Maria-Odile Attanasso, Deputy Coordinator
Fructueux Deguenonvo, Researcher

Algeria
Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée
pour le Développement (CREAD)
Youcef Benabdallah, Assistant Professor
Yassine Ferfera, Director
Argentina
IAE- Universidad Austral
María Elina Gigaglia, Project Manager
Eduardo Luis Fracchia, Professor
Armenia
Economy and Values Research Center
Manuk Hergnyan, Chairman
Sevak Hovhannisyan, Board Member and Senior Associate
Gohar Malumyan, Research Associate
Australia
Australian Industry Group
Nicholas James, Economist
Tony Pensabene, Associate Director, Economics & Research
Heather Ridout, Chief Executive
Austria
Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO)
Karl Aiginger, Director
Gerhard Schwarz, Coordinator, Survey Department
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan Marketing Society
Fuad Aliyev, Executive Director
Ashraf Hajiyev, Project Coordinator
Saida Talibova, Consultant
Bahrain
Bahrain Competitiveness Council, Bahrain Economic
Development Board
Nada Azmi, Business Intelligence Specialist, Economic
Planning & Development
Jawad Habib, Senior Partner, BDO Jawad Habib
Rima Al Kilani, Director, International Marketing
Bangladesh
Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD)
Khondaker Golam Moazzem, Senior Research Fellow
Kazi Mahmudur Rahman, Senior Research Associate
Mustafizur Rahman, Executive Director

Bosnia and Herzegovina
MIT Center, School of Economics and Business in Sarajevo,
University of Sarajevo
Zlatko Lagumdzija, Professor
Zeljko Sain, Executive Director
Jasmina Selimovic, Assistant Director
Botswana
Botswana National Productivity Centre
Joseph Jonazi, Research Consultant and Statistician
Dabilani Buthali, Manager, Information and
Research Services Department
Thembo Lebang, Executive Director
Brazil
Fundação Dom Cabral
Carlos Arruda, Executive Director, International Board
and Professor and Coordinator of the Competitiveness
and Innovation Center
Marina Araújo, Economist and Researcher of the
Competitiveness and Innovation Center
Movimento Brasil Competitivo (MBC)
Cláudio Leite Gastal, Director President
Denise Alves, Projects Coordinator
Elisa de Araújo, Projects Assistant
Bulgaria
Center for Economic Development
Anelia Damianova, Senior Expert
Burkina Faso
lnstitut Supérieure des Sciences de la Population (ISSP),
University of Ouagadougou
Samuel Kabore, Economist and Head of Development Strategy
and Population Research
Burundi
University Research Centre for Economic and Social
Development (CURDES), National University of Burundi
Richard Ndereyahaga, Head of CURDES
Gilbert Niyongabo, Dean, Faculty of Economics
& Management
Cambodia
Economic Institute of Cambodia
Sok Hach, President
Chan Vuthy, Senior Researcher
Poch Kongchheng, Junior Researcher

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Cameroon
Comité de Compétitivité (Competitiveness Committee)
Lucien Sanzouango, Permanent Secretary
Canada
Institute for Competitiveness and Prosperity
Tamer Azer, Researcher
Roger Martin, Chairman and Dean of the Rotman
School of Management, University of Toronto
James Milway, Executive Director
Chad
Groupe de Recherches Alternatives et de Monitoring
du Projet Pétrole-Tchad-Cameroun (GRAMP-TC)
Antoine Doudjidingao, Researcher
Gilbert Maoundonodji, Director
Celine Nénodji Mbaipeur, Programme Officer
Chile
Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez
Ignacio Briones, Associate Professor of Economics,
School of Government
Leonidas Montes, Dean, School of Government
Camila Chadwick, Project Coordinator
China
Institute of Economic System and Management
National Development and Reform Commission
Zhou Haichun, Deputy Director and Professor
Chen Wei, Research Fellow
Dong Ying, Professor

vi

China Center for Economic Statistics Research,
Tianjin University of Finance and Economics
Lu Dong, Professor
Jian Wang, Associate Professor
Hongye Xiao, Professor
Bojuan Zhao, Professor
Huazhang Zheng, Associate Professor
Colombia
National Planning Department
Alvaro Edgar Balcazar, Entrepreneurial Development Director
Carolina Rentería Rodríguez, General Director
Mauricio Torres Velásquez, Advisor
Colombian Council of Competitiveness
Hernando José Gomez, President
Côte d’Ivoire
Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie de Côte d’Ivoire
Jean-Louis Billon, President
Jean-Louis Giacometti, Technical Advisor to the President
Mamadou Sarr, Director General
Croatia
National Competitiveness Council
Martina Hatlak, Research Assistant
Kresimir Jurlin, Research Fellow
Mira Lenardic, General Secretary
Cyprus
Cyprus College Research Center
Bambos Papageorgiou, Head of Socioeconomic
and Academic Research
The Cyprus Development Bank
Maria Markidou-Georgiadou, Manager, International
Banking Services Unit and Business Development
Czech Republic
CMC Graduate School of Business
Tomas Janca, Executive Director

Denmark
Copenhagen Business School, Department of
International Economics and Management
Lise Peitersen, Administrative Director
Casper Rose, Professor
Ecuador
ESPAE Graduate School of Management,
Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL)
Elizabeth Arteaga, Project Assistant
Virginia Lasio, Acting Director
Sara Wong, Professor
Egypt
The Egyptian Center for Economic Studies
Hanaa Kheir-El-Din, Executive Director and Director of Research
Naglaa El Ehwany, Deputy Director and Lead Economist
Malak Reda, Senior Economist
Estonia
Estonian Institute of Economic Research
Evelin Ahermaa, Head of Economic Research Sector
Marje Josing, Director
Estonian Development Fund
Kitty Kubo, Head of Foresight
Ott Pärna, Chief Executive Officer
Ethiopia
African Institute of Management, Development and Governance
Tegegne Teka, General Manager
Finland
ETLA—The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy
Petri Rouvinen, Research Director
Pasi Sorjonen, Head of the Forecasting Group
Pekka Ylä-Anttila, Managing Director
France
HEC School of Management, Paris
Bertrand Moingeon, Professor and Deputy Dean
Bernard Ramanantsoa, Professor and Dean
Gambia, The
Gambia Economic and Social Development Research
Institute (GESDRI)
Makaireh A. Njie, Director
Georgia
Business Initiative for Reforms in Georgia
Giga Makharadze, Founding Member of the Board of Directors
Tamar Tchintcharauli, Executive Director
Mamuka Tsereteli, Founding Member of the Board of Directors
Germany
WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management, Vallendar
Ralf Fendel, Professor of Monetary Economics
Michael Frenkel, Professor, Chair of Macroeconomics
and International Economics
Ghana
Association of Ghana Industries (AGI)
Carlo Hey, Project Manager
Cletus Kosiba, Executive Director
Tony Oteng-Gyasi, President
Greece
SEV Hellenic Federation of Enterprises
Michael Mitsopoulos, Coordinator, Research and Analysis
Thanasis Printsipas, Economist, Research and Analysis
Guatemala
FUNDESA
Edgar A. Heinemann, President of the Board of Directors
Pablo Schneider, Economic Director
Juan Carlos Zapata, General Manager

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

Guyana
Institute of Development Studies, University of Guyana
Karen Pratt, Research Associate
Clive Thomas, Director
Hong Kong SAR
Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce
David O’Rear, Chief Economist
Federation of Hong Kong Industries
Alexandra Poon, Director
The Chinese General Chamber of Commerce

Jordan
Ministry of Planning & International Cooperation
Jordan National Competitiveness Team
Hiba Abu Taleb, Primary Researcher
Hussein Abwini, Primary Researcher
Kawthar Al-Zou’bi, Primary Researcher
Kazakhstan
JSC “National Analytical Centre of the Government and the
National Bank of the Republic of Kazakhstan”
Ayana Manasova, Chairperson
Aibek Baisakalov, Expert Analyst

Hungary
KOPINT-TÁRKI Economic Research Ltd.
Ágnes Nagy, Project Manager
Éva Palócz, Chief Executive Officer

Kenya
Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi
Mohamud Jama, Director and Associate Professor
Paul Kamau, Research Fellow
Dorothy McCormick, Associate Professor

Iceland
Innovation Center Iceland
Karl Fridriksson, Managing Director of Human Resources
and Services
Rosa Signy Gisladottir, Manager, Marketing and Media Relations
Thorsteinn I. Sigfusson, Director

Korea, Republic of
College of Business School, Korea Advanced Institute of
Science and Technology – KAIST
Ingoo Han, Senior Associate Dean and Professor
Ravi Kumar, Dean and Professor
Youjin Sung, Manager, Exchange Programme

India
Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)
Chandrajit Banerjee, Director General
Tarun Das, Chief Mentor
Virendra Gupta, Head, International and Trade Fairs

Kuwait
Economics Department, Kuwait University
Abdullah Alsalman, Assistant Professor
Mohammed El-Sakka, Professor
Reyadh Faras, Assistant Professor

Indonesia
Center for Industry, SME & Business Competition Studies,
University of Trisakti
Tulus Tambunan, Professor and Director

Kyrgyz Republic
Economic Policy Institute “Bishkek Consensus”
Lola Abduhametova, Program Coordinator
Marat Tazabekov, Chairman

Ireland
Competitiveness Survey Group, Department of Economics,
University College Cork
Eleanor Doyle, Professor, Department of Economics
Niall O’Sullivan
Bernadette Power

Latvia
Institute of Economics, Latvian Academy of Sciences
Helma Jirgena, Director
Irina Curkina, Researcher

National Competitiveness Council
Adrian Devitt, Manager
Caoimhe Gavin, Policy Advisor
Gráinne Greehy, Graduate Trainee
Israel
Manufacturers’ Association of Israel (MAI)
Shraga Brosh, President
Dan Catarivas, Director
Yehuda Segev, Managing Director
Italy
SDA Bocconi School of Management
Secchi Carlo, Full Professor of Economic Policy, Bocconi University
Paola Dubini, Associate Professor, Bocconi University
Francesco A. Saviozzi, SDA Assistant Professor,
Strategic and Entrepreneurial Management Department
Jamaica
Mona School of Business (MSB), The University of the
West Indies (UWI)
Patricia Douce, Project Administrator
William Lawrence, Director, Professional Services Unit
Evan Duggan, Executive Director and Professor
Japan
Hitotsubashi University, Graduate School of International
Corporate Strategy (ICS)
in cooperation with Keizai Doyukai Keizai (Japan Association
of Corporate Executives)
Yoko Ishikura, Professor
Kiyohiko Ito, Vice-President and General Manager for Policy
Studies, Keizai Doyukai

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Lesotho
Mohloli Chamber of Business
Semethe Raleche, Chief Executive Officer
Libya
National Economic Development Board
Entisar Elbahi, Director, Relations and Supported Services
Lithuania
Statistics Lithuania
Ona Grigiene, Head, Economical Survey Division
˘
Algirdas Semeta,
Director General
Luxembourg
Chamber of Commerce of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
François-Xavier Borsi, Attaché, Economic Department
Marc Wagener, Attaché, Economic Department
Carlo Thelen, Chief Economist, Member of the Managing Board
Macedonia, FYR
National Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness Council (NECC)
Dejan Janevski, Project Coordinator
Zoran Stavreski, President of the Managing Board
Saso Trajkoski, Executive Director
Madagascar
Centre of Economic Studies, University of Antananarivo
Pépé Andrianomanana, Director
Razato Raharijaona Simo, Executive Secretary
Malawi
Malawi Confederation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry
Chancellor L. Kaferapanjira, Chief Executive Officer

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Malaysia
Institute of Strategic and International Studies (ISIS)
Tan Sri Mohamed Jawhar Hassan, Chairman and
Chief Executive Officer
Mahani Zainal Abidin, Director-General
Steven C.M. Wong, Assistant Director-General
Malaysia Productivity Corporation (MPC)
Dato’ Nik Zainiah Nik Abd. Rahman, Director General
Lee Saw Hoon, Senior Director
Mali
Groupe de Recherche en Economie Appliquée et
Théorique (GREAT)
Massa Coulibaly, Coordinator
Mauritania
Centre d’Information Mauritanien pour le Développement
Economique et Technique (CIMDET/CCIAM)
Khira Mint Cheikhnani, Director
Lô Abdoul, Consultant and Analyst
Habib Sy, Analyst
Mauritius
Joint Economic Council of Mauritius
Raj Makoond, Director
Board of Investment
Dev Chamroo, Director, Planning & Policy
Manisha Dookhony, Manager, Planning & Policy
Raju Jaddoo, Managing Director

viii

Mexico
Center for Intellectual Capital and Competitiveness
Erika Ruiz Manzur, Executive Director
René Villarreal Arrambide, President and Chief Executive Officer
Jesús Zurita González, General Director
Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad (IMCO)
Gabriela Alarcon Esteva, Economist
Manuel J. Molano Ruiz, Deputy General Director
Roberto Newell Garcia, General Director
Ministry of the Economy
Felipe Duarte Olvera, Undersecretary for Competitiveness
and Standardization
Gerardo de la Peña, Technical Secretary for Competitiveness
Jose Antonio Torre, Chief of Staff, ProMéxico Trade & Investment
Paulo Esteban Alcaraz, Research Director, ProMéxico
Trade & Investment

Nepal
Centre for Economic Development and Administration (CEDA)
Ramesh Chandra Chitrakar, Professor and Director of Research
Menaka Rajbhandari Shrestha, Researcher
Santosh Kumar Upadhyaya, Researcher
Netherlands
Erasmus Strategic Renewal Center,
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Frans A. J. Van den Bosch, Professor
Henk W. Volberda, Professor
New Zealand
Business New Zealand
Marcia Dunnett, Manager, Sector Groups
Phil O’Reilly, Chief Executive
The New Zealand Institute
Rick Boven, Director
Benedikte Jensen, Research Director
Nigeria
Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG)
Felix Ogbera, Associate Director, Research
Sam Ohuabunwa, Chairman
Chris Okpoko, Senior Consultant, Research
Norway
BI Norwegian School of Management
Eskil Goldeng, Researcher
Torger Reve, Professor
Oman
The International Research Foundation
Salem Ben Nasser Al-Ismaily, Chairman
Mehdi Bin Ali Bin Juma, Expert for
Economic Research, the Omani Centre for Investment
Promotion & Export Development (OCIPED)
Pakistan
Competitiveness Support Fund
Arthur Bayhan, Chief Executive Officer
Stephen Manuel, Manager Media & Communication
Imran Naeem Ahmad, Communication Specialist
Paraguay
Centro de Análisis y Difusión de Economia Paraguaya (CADEP)
Dionisio Borda, Research Member
Fernando Masi, Director
María Belén Servín, Research Member

Mongolia
Open Society Forum (OSF)
Munkhsoyol Baatarjav, Manager of Economic Policy
Erdenejargal Perenlei, Executive Director

Peru
Centro de Desarrollo Industrial (CDI), Sociedad Nacional
de Industrias
Néstor Asto, Project Director
Luis Tenorio, Executive Director

Montenegro
Institute for Strategic Studies and Prognoses (ISSP)
Maja Drakic, Project Manager
Petar Ivanovic, Chief Executive Officer
Veselin Vukotic, President

Philippines
Makati Business Club
Alberto A. Lim, Executive Director
Michael B. Mundo, Chief Economist
Mark P. Opulencia, Deputy Director

Morocco
Université Hassan II, LASAARE
Fouzi Mourji, Professor of Economics

Poland
The Economic Institute, The National Bank of Poland
Mateusz Pipien, Director
Zbigniew Zólkiewski, Deputy Director
Piotr Boguszewski, Advisor

Mozambique
EconPolicy Research Group, Lda.
Peter Coughlin, Director
Donaldo Miguel Soares, Researcher
Ema Marta Soares, Assistant

Management Observatory
Monika Nowacka, Projects Director
Ireneusz Tomczak, Chairman of the Board

Namibia
Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit (NEPRU)
Lameck Odada, Consultant
Klaus Schade, Principal Researcher

Warsaw School of Economics
Bogdan Radomski, Associate Professor

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

Portugal
PROFORUM, Associação para o Desenvolvimento da Engenharia
Ilídio António de Ayala Serôdio, Vice President of the
Board of Directors

Sri Lanka
Institute of Policy Studies
Manoj Thibbotuwawa, Research Officer
Ruwan Jayathilaka, Research Officer

Forum de Administradores de Empresas (FAE)
Pedro do Carmo Costa, Member of the Board of Directors
Adilia Lisboa, General Director

The Ceylon Chamber of Commerce
Harin Malwatte, Secretary General

Qatar
Qatari Businessmen Association (QBA)
Issa Abdul Salam Abu Issa, Secretary-General
Ahmed El-Shaffee, Economist
Romania
Group of Applied Economics (GEA)
Anca Rusu, Program Coordinator
Liviu Voinea, Executive Director
Russian Federation
Bauman Innovation
Alexei Prazdnitchnykh, Principal, Associate Professor
Katerina Marandi, Consultant
Stockholm School of Economics, Russia
Igor Dukeov, Area Principal
Carl F. Fey, Associate Dean of Research
Saudi Arabia
National Competitiveness Center (NCC)
Awwad Al-Awwad, Deputy Governor for Investment
Khaldon Mahasen, Manager, Investment Performance Assessment
Senegal
Centre de Recherches Economiques Appliquées (CREA),
University of Dakar
Diop Ibrahima Thione, Director
Serbia
Center for Advanced Economic Studies (CEVES)
Jasna Atanasijevic, Member of the CEVES Council
of Directors
Dus˘ ko Vasiljevic, Member of the CEVES Council
of Directors
Singapore
Economic Development Board
Lim Hong Khiang, Director Planning 2
Chua Kia Chee, Head, Research and Statistics Unit
Cheng Wai San, Head, Planning
Slovak Republic
Business Alliance of Slovakia (PAS)
Robert Kicina, Executive Director
Martin Toth, Researcher
Slovenia
Institute for Economic Research
Peter Stanovnik, Senior Researcher
University of Ljubljana
Mateja Drnovs˘ek, Professor, Faculty of Economics
Ales˘ Vahc˘ic˘, Professor, Faculty of Economics
Art Kovac˘ic˘, Senior Researcher, Faculty of Business Sciences
South Africa
Business Leadership South Africa
Friede Dowie, Director
Michael Spicer, Chief Executive Officer
Business Unity South Africa
Jerry Vilakazi, Chief Executive Officer
Vic Van Vuuren, Chief Operating Officer
Spain
IESE Business School, International Center for Competitiveness
María Luisa Blázquez, Research Associate
Alessandro Cembalo, Research Assistant
Antoni Subirà, Professor

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Sweden
Center for Strategy and Competitiveness,
Stockholm School of Economics
Christian Ketels, Senior Research Fellow
Örjan Sölvell, Professor
Switzerland
University of St. Gallen, Executive School of Management,
Technology and Law (ES-HSG)
Franz Jaeger, Professor
Beat Bechtold, Project Manager
Syria
Ministry of Economy and Trade
Amer Housni Louitfi, Minister of Economy and Trade
State Planning Commission
Tayseer Al-Ridawi, Head of State Planning Commission
Syrian Enterprise Business Center (SEBC)
Tamer Abadi, Director
Taiwan, China
Council for Economic Planning and Development, Executive Yuan
Tain-Jy Chen, Chairman
J. B. Hung, Director, Economic Research Department
Chung Chung Shieh, Researcher, Economic Research Department
Tajikistan
The Center for Sociological Research “Zerkalo”
Qahramon Baqoev, Director
Ol’ga Es’kina, Researcher
Alikul Isoev, Sociologist and Economist
Tanzania
Research on Poverty Alleviation (REPOA)
Joseph Semboja, Professor and Executive Director
Lucas Katera, Director, Commissioned Research
Cornel Jahari, Researcher, Commissioned Research Department
Thailand
Sasin Graduate Institute of Business Administration,
Chulalongkorn University
Pongsak Hoontrakul, Senior Research Fellow
Toemsakdi Krishnamra, Director of Sasin
Piyachart Phiromswad, Faculty of Economics
Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI)
Somchai Jitsuchon, Research Director
Chalongphob Sussangkarn, Distinguished Fellow
Yos Vajragupta, Senior Researcher
Tunisia
Institut Arabe des Chefs d’Entreprises
Majdi Hassen, Executive Counsellor
Chekib Nouira, President
Turkey
TUSIAD Sabanci University Competitiveness Forum
Dilek Cetindamar, Director and Professor
Funda Kalemci, Project Specialist
Uganda
Makerere Institute of Social Research, Makerere University
Robert Apunyo, Research Associate
Delius Asiimwe, Senior Research Fellow
Catherine Ssekimpi, Research Associate

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Ukraine
CASE Ukraine, Center for Social and Economic Research
Dmytro Boyarchuk, Executive Director
Vladimir Dubrovskiy, Leading Economist
United Arab Emirates
Economic & Policy Research Unit (EPRU), Zayed University
Nico Vellinga, Professor
Dubai Competitiveness Council
Adel Alfalasi, Executive Director
Khawla Belqazi, Special Projects Manager
United Kingdom
LSE Enterprise Ltd, London School of Economics
and Political Science
Adam Austerfield, Project Director
Jane Lac, Project Coordinator
Robyn Klingler, Graduate Researcher
Uruguay
Universidad ORT
Isidoro Hodara, Professor
Venezuela
CONAPRI - Venezuelan Council for Investment Promotion
Gladis Genua, Executive Director
Litsay Guerrero, Manager, Economic Affairs
Vietnam
Central Institute for Economic Management (CIEM)
Dinh Van An, President
Phan Thanh Ha, Deputy Director, Department of
Macroeconomic Management
Pham Hoang Ha, Senior Researcher, Department of
Macroeconomic Management

x
Institute for Development Studies in HCMC (HIDS)
Nguyen Trong Hoa, Professor and President
Du Phuoc Tan, Head of Department
Trieu Thanh Son, Researcher
Zambia
Institute of Economic and Social Research (INESOR),
University of Zambia
Mutumba M. Bull, Director
Patricia Funjika, Staff Development Fellow
Jolly Kamwanga, Coordinator
Zimbabwe
Graduate School of Management, University of Zimbabwe
A.M. Hawkins, Professor
Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,
Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
INCAE Business School, Latin American Center for
Competitiveness and Sustainable Development (CLACDS)
Arturo Condo, Rector
Lawrence Pratt, Director, CLACDS
Luis Reyes, Project Manager, CLACDS
Marlene de Estrella, Director of External Relations
Latvia, Lithuania
Stockholm School of Economics in Riga
Karlis Kreslins, Executive MBA Programme Director
Anders Paalzow, Rector

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Preface
ROBERT GREENHILL
Chief Business Officer, World Economic Forum

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 is being released
at a time when global trade is recovering from the
deepest slump it has experienced since World War II.
Events over the past half decade have tested the international trading system in many ways. Trade flows reached
historic highs in April 2008, only to see their sharpest
drop in generations a few months later.Yet, despite initial
concerns, determined not to repeat the mistakes of the
Great Depression, governments for the most part resisted
protectionist pressures. As a result, the turnaround has
been remarkable. Following a decline of 12.2 percent in
2009, the World Trade Organization (WTO) estimates
that trade will rebound by 10 percent in 2010.
The sharp contraction in trade volumes during the
economic crisis served as a reminder of the crucial role
trade plays for economic growth and poverty reduction.
There is no doubt that, in the same way trade has contributed to spreading the downturn across the globe, it
can foster the nascent recovery. Policymakers can support
this process by reducing domestic barriers to trade. By
doing so, governments will benefit not only their own
economies, but also those of their trading partners,
thereby contributing to a virtuous cycle of recovery. In
recent years, market uncertainties have also highlighted
the importance of smoothing the path between buyers
and sellers and reducing the cost and uncertainty of the
transaction itself.
The Global Enabling Trade Report’s assessment of
obstacles to trade continues to provide a timely
reminder of the fundamental attributes that govern a
nation’s ability to fully benefit from trade. These are
captured in the Enabling Trade Index, which stands at
the core of this Report and includes four broad categories:
market access, border administration, transport and
telecommunications infrastructure, and the business
environment.
The Report offers a foundation for stimulating
dialogue, providing a yardstick of the extent to which
countries enjoy the factors facilitating the free flow of
goods and identifying areas where improvements are
most needed. By ranking countries according to the
barriers to trade they have in place, the Report continues
to serve as a reminder of the widespread prosperity
increase and poverty reduction associated with the
expansion of international trade in the recent past.
The Report is a result of work undertaken within
the context of the World Economic Forum’s Industry

Partnership Programme for the Logistics and Transport
Industry. Over the past two years, the Forum has engaged
key industry leaders, academics, and international organizations active in the trade arena to identify the main
obstacles to trading across borders and to develop the
Enabling Trade Index. Following refinements to the Index
in last years edition, this year’s focus lies in analyzing the
evolution in country-level performance over time.
The Report is downloadable from
www.weforum.org/getr and contains detailed profiles
for all 125 economies covered by the study, of which 23
are included in the printed edition. The profiles provide
an overview of the results on all indicators included in
the Enabling Trade Index.
The Global Enabling Trade Report would not have
been possible without the distinguished academics and
practitioners who have shared with us their knowledge
and experience. We thank our Data Partners—the
Global Express Association (GEA), the International Air
Transport Association (IATA), the International Trade
Centre (ITC), the United Nations Conference on Trade
and Development (UNCTAD), The World Bank, and
the World Trade Organization (WTO) for making traderelated data available. We are grateful to the Industry
Partners supporting this Report—Agility, Brightstar
Corp., Deutsche Post DHL, FedEx, GeoPost, Stena,
TNT, Transnet, UPS, and Volkswagen.
We also wish to thank the lead authors of this
volume, Robert Z. Lawrence of Harvard University and
Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz from the World Economic
Forum for their commitment and leadership, and Sean
Doherty, Thierry Geiger, and Eva Trujillo Herrera for
their contributions. And we would like to express our
gratitude to John Moavenzadeh for his strategic guidance
on the project. Appreciation goes also to Jennifer Blanke
and other team members of the Global Competitiveness
Network and Logistics and Transport teams: Ciara
Browne, Irene Mia, Carissa Sahli, Pearl Samandari, and
Katerina Soulounia. Last but not least, this Report would
have not been possible without the hard work and
enthusiasm of our network of 150 Partner Institutes
worldwide, who carry out the Executive Opinion
Survey, which is at the basis of this work.

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Part 1
The Enabling Trade Index Results

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CHAPTER 1.1

Fostering Recovery by
Facilitating Trade: The Enabling
Trade Index 2010
ROBERT Z. LAWRENCE, Harvard University
SEAN DOHERTY, MARGARETA DRZENIEK HANOUZ,
THIERRY GEIGER, and EVA TRUJILLO HERRERA,
World Economic Forum

World trade is recovering from the deepest recession
seen since World War II—indeed, declines in trade have
been greater than for similar periods during the Great
Depression.1 Although the World Trade Organization
(WTO) still forecasts that it could take several years for
trade volumes to recover and surpass their 2008 peaks,
the process of recovery has clearly accelerated. In fact,
according to the WTO, in 2010 the volume of world
trade is expected to grow at a rate of 9.5 percent.2
Many studies have confirmed that the dominant
reason for the decline in trade values was not increased
protectionism but rather the drop in demand that resulted from simultaneous and interactive reactions around
the world to the failure of Lehman Brothers.3 This precipitous drop in demand had adverse effects both on the
prices of widely traded primary commodities and on
the volume of trade, which the WTO reports fell by
12.2 percent in 2009. Trade is double and treble counted
as products pass from country to country along global
supply chains. As a result of these chains, a decline in
orders for imports in one country can reduce exports
and imports in several others. It is also striking that the
drop in services trade has typically been much smaller
than the drop in goods trade. Goods are generally storable. The particularly large drops in the volume of finished and intermediate manufactured goods trade reflect
the fact that purchases of these products can be postponed or cancelled when demand dries up. As a result, a
drop in demand leaves sellers with unwanted inventories
that have to be worked off before new orders are
placed. This is not the case for services. In 2009, orders
for goods picked up and the recovery is now evident
both in higher commodity prices and increased trade
volumes; full recovery, however, will require a renewal in
durable goods purchases.
As a result of these changes in trade flows, traders
around the world have seen a rollercoaster ride of transport costs over the last few years. Prices mounted and
bottlenecks sprung up as strong trade flows tested capacity limits. This was followed by a dramatic drop as the
entry of new capacity coincided with savage cuts in trade
volumes. More recently, the restocking of inventories,
the adoption of slow-steaming by carriers, and general
economic brightening have led to rising transport rates.
The deep drop in global trade between 2008 and
2009 represented a real-world stress test for the global
trading system. It also provides an opportunity to examine whether the progress toward a more open global
trading system made in previous decades is likely to be
permanent. The evidence is not all yet in, and a final
judgment can be given only when the recovery is complete, but overall the evidence justifies a tentative answer
in the affirmative.

The authors would like to thank Xavier Pichot from the International
Trade Centre for compiling data used in the preparation of this chapter.

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Restraint in protectionist measures
There are of course many examples of countries taking
measures that discriminate against foreign firms and
products. Pressures from high unemployment do raise
demands for protection, and government stabilization
measures such as stimulus packages and bailouts have
created opportunities to supply it. In addition, there are
various legal forms of administered protection that can
be applied through procedures such as anti-dumping
duties, countervailing duties, and safeguards.
The most extensive monitoring of such actions is
being undertaken by the Global Trade Alert (GTA), a
group of independent analysts located in many countries. In their report, issued in December 2009, they
document almost 300 measures that they classify as
being of a “beggar-thy-neighbor” nature that had been
implemented in the first post-crisis year.4 Of these
measures, 32 percent involved the discriminatory use
of bailouts and state aids. Another 20 percent took the
form of administered protection through anti-dumping
and countervailing duties. Support for this latter finding
of increases in administered protection is provided by
other data: the 2009 total number of industry requests
for trade barriers (140 product-level requests) was 20
percent higher than the total requests filed for 2008
(115), which itself was 35 percent higher than the total
requests filed in 2007 (81). In all these cases, an important question is the appropriate benchmark against
which these actions should be judged. For example,
although there has obviously been an increase in both
requests and implementations of anti-dumping, these
had actually fallen quite considerably through 2007 and,
even with the recent increases, still remain considerably
below levels typical in the period around 2000. All told,
therefore, even in this area, the response is quite in line
with the historic norms for recessions—which is actually
heartening given the depth and pervasiveness of the
current recession.5
The most impressive restraint, however, has come in
the area of market access. The international response has
been remarkable and suggests a widespread and politically
durable consensus on the desirability of maintaining open
trade in most countries. Only a seventh of all the measures detected by the GTA have involved higher tariffs,
and there are numerous examples of both unilateral and
regional trade liberalization. For example, despite the
recession, the WTO was notified by its members that 14
new regional agreements came into force in 2009. This
was quite in line with the average of 13 additional
regional agreements that have been concluded annually
since 2000.
The underlying tariff data used for this Report
confirm this impression. We were able to isolate 73
countries in our sample for which we had complete
tariff data for both 2008 and 2009; we weighted these
using 2007 trade weights to explore changes over this
period in both agricultural and industrial tariffs. For the

most part, the tariff changes were remarkably small.
Indeed, average tariffs in the sample as a whole were
basically unchanged, and there were actually small
declines on average in agriculture. There were some
exceptions, however. In particular, average tariffs in both
Brazil and Argentina rose by three percentage points
primarily because of increases in industrial tariffs. On
the other hand, there were noteworthy declines in
average tariffs—in the order of one to two percentage
points—in Mauritius, Nigeria, Mexico, Iceland, and
Ukraine. These countries were able to reduce their
tariffs in both agriculture and industry—a particularly
impressive performance in the current environment.
To some extent, the absence of tariff hikes indicates
the power of the multilateral trading system based on
rules. This argument can be made in the case of industrial countries. However, many developing countries
are actually not constrained by these rules since the rates
they apply are far lower than the rates they are legally
obliged not to exceed. In 2009, for example, the average
MFN rate at which tariffs are bound for the countries
in our sample was 31.3 percent—almost four times
higher than the average rates actually applied. Apparently
most developing countries have chosen not to raise their
tariffs, not because of legal obligations but rather
because they consider their current applied rates to be
appropriate even in the current circumstances.
Credit should also be given to the prevalence of a
global norm of not raising tariffs. A virtuous cycle has
emerged. Discipline in avoiding protectionist tariff
measures by some has led to more restrained behavior
by others. The pledges of the Group of Twenty (G-20)
countries reflect and underscore the widespread intellectual acceptance of the importance of avoiding protection
and have helped to reinforce this behavior. In addition,
political forces for open trade are at work. Increased
interdependence helps offset protectionist pressures. The
dependence of many domestic firms on imported inputs
creates domestic constituents that have much to lose
from higher barriers.
This outcome is a remarkable contrast with the
behavior exhibited in the 1930s, when countries
responded to the higher tariffs of their trading partners
by raising tariffs at home. In the 1930s, widespread
use of specific tariffs with set monetary values also
exacerbated the situation because these became more
restrictive when commodity prices fell. The promotion
of ad-valorem tariffs through the WTO has helped
limit this impact in the current situation.

Factors that enable trade
The Global Enabling Trade Report is motivated by the
view that, in addition to trade policy, trade is enabled
by a broader set of factors captured by our three other
pillars. Besides trade policy, the Enabling Trade Index
(ETI), as discussed in depth below, assesses border

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

administration, transportation and communications, and
the general business environment. There are examples
this year of some remarkable improvements in these
other pillars. While most countries did not experience
large changes in their rankings, the greatest improvements in border administration, for example, were
recorded by Cyprus (up 18 places, from 47th to 29th)
because of an improvement in the efficiency of its
import-export procedures and Ecuador (up 15 places,
from 107th to 92nd) because of more efficient customs
administration. In the area of transportation and communication, the greatest improvements in rankings took
place in Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Madagascar. And
there have been notable improvements in the business
environment in Poland, Macedonia, and Lesotho.
While the aggregate data, especially for tariffs, look
good, in each of our categories we also find countries
that are slipping. As indicated earlier, tariffs have been
raised by some countries. Not all countries improved
their border administration. The largest declines in rankings in this subindex are found in Syria and Tunisia,
both reflecting declines in customs efficiency. Some
countries have fallen behind in transportation and communications, with the largest declines for Burkina Faso,
Uganda, India, and Sri Lanka, mainly caused by deteriorating perceptions regarding the quality of transport
infrastructure. And business environments generally have
declined relatively, reflecting poor physical security in
Greece,6 Honduras, and Madagascar. Lagging in business
environment were Korea and Malaysia.
The ETI tracks actions that governments can take
to enable trade, and considerable room remains for additional measures that could stimulate trade. In the short
run, these would contribute to the recovery; over the
long run, they would enhance economic growth and
welfare. The Doha Round remains at an impasse. A successful conclusion would be the single most important
step that could be taken in the current circumstances to
ensure a more open global trading system that would
provide benefits to all WTO members. In addition to the
Round, there are many other actions beyond reducing
border barriers that can be taken to help spur trade.
Particularly for developing countries, these merit significant attention. Market access is insufficient for stimulating exports by the least developed countries. Indeed, the
ETI indicates that these countries already benefit from
relatively low trade barriers for their exports. Instead,
their supply-side capacity needs to be enhanced. This
requires improvements both in infrastructure and in
institutions. In some cases, countries can act with respect
to their tariffs and regulations through government
action without incurring major expenses. But in other
cases—such as improving the operation of the information systems available for customs, the quality of roads
and communications, or the capacity and skills of public
officials—additional financial resources are required. And

this suggests the importance of increasing Aid for Trade,
as set forth in the Doha Round.
Just as trade was a key force spreading the growth
slowdown internationally, so can trade be an important
driver in diffusing the benefits of recovery internationally.
When individual countries enable trade, they provide
benefits not only to themselves but also to other nations
with which they trade. Improved market access, more
efficient customs, and better infrastructure and business
environments offer enhanced opportunities for both
importers and exporters. Thus granting Aid for Trade to
help nations implement such measures reflects enlightened
self-interest because it enhances welfare in recipient
countries and their trading partners.

The Enabling Trade Index
The Enabling Trade Index (ETI) was developed within
the context of the World Economic Forum’s Industry
Partnership Programme for the Logistics and Transport
sector and was first published in The Global Enabling
Trade Report 2008. A number of Data Partners have
collaborated in this effort: the Global Express
Association (GEA), the International Air Transport
Association (IATA), the International Trade Centre
(ITC), the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD), the World Bank, and the
WTO. We have also received significant input from
companies that are part of the World Economic Forum’s
Industry Partnership Programme for the Logistics and
Transportation sector, namely Agility, Brightstar Corp.,
Deutsche Post DHL, FedEx, GeoPost, Stena, TNT,
Transnet, UPS, and Volkswagen.
The ETI measures the extent to which individual
economies have developed institutions, policies, and services
facilitating the free flow of goods over borders and to destination.7 The structure of the Index reflects the main
enablers of trade, breaking them into four overall issue
areas, captured in the subindexes:
1. The market access subindex measures the extent to
which the policy framework of the country
welcomes foreign goods into the economy and
enables access to foreign markets for its
exporters.
2. The border administration subindex assesses the
extent to which the administration at the border
facilitates the entry and exit of goods.
3. The transport and communications infrastructure
subindex takes into account whether the country
has in place the transport and communications
infrastructure necessary to facilitate the movement of goods within the economy and across
the border.
4. The business environment subindex looks at
the quality of governance as well as at the overarching regulatory and security environment

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Box 1: Incorporating trade agreements and trade preferences in the Enabling Trade Index
Over the past 20 years, preferential trading agreements (PTAs)
have become a key feature of the global trading system. Over
this period the number of agreements notified to the World
Trade Organization (WTO) increased more than sixfold and
account for about two-thirds of world trade today. Some 462
agreements had been notified to the WTO by February 2010,
and all WTO member countries bar one, Mongolia, belong to at
least one PTA. In addition, as trade is an important instrument
for fostering economic development, many developing countries
benefit from unilaterally granted trade preferences, such as the
Generalized System of Preference (GSP) programs operated by
the European Union and the United States.
Many aspects of trade liberalization are more feasible in
smaller country groupings that share common interests than at
the multilateral level. PTAs therefore foster deeper integration
among the concerned countries. In general, the reduction or
abolition of tariffs between two countries expands trade
between the parties.1 From an individual country perspective,
therefore, PTAs tend to enable trade. In fact, the only trade
regime that is economically more beneficial to a country than
multilateral liberalization is full liberalization of domestic barriers with preferential access to markets abroad.2
At the same time, however, preferential agreements have
a number of downsides. They make it more difficult for businesses to navigate the trade regime and may disadvantage
third countries, which can make them undesirable from a global
perspective. They may also induce countries that confer preferences to import from less-efficient preference beneficiaries at
the expense of more-efficient producers from non-recipient
countries. The WTO, which is concerned with multilateral liberalization, recognizes that, although PTAs contradict the principle
of equal treatment of all trading partners, these agreements can
support the multilateral trading system by deepening integration
and paving the way for further liberalization.3 For this reason,
the WTO framework allows these preferential agreements, but
only if they facilitate trade within the group—they are required
to cover “substantially all trade” and must not raise tariffs
toward the outside world.4
All things considered—because the Enabling Trade
Index (ETI) measures how far countries enable trade from their
individual perspectives, and given the importance of trade preferences for many developing countries in providing access to
foreign markets—a measure assessing the preferential margin
in target markets (indicator 1.06, margin of preference in destination markets) was included in the foreign market access
component of the ETI.

Notes
1 However, such tariff reduction may not lead to higher welfare
because trade may be diverted from the most-efficient producer in
a third country to a less-efficient one in the PTA.
2 This type of agreement provides access to markets that are
protected by another country, so that domestic businesses obtain
an advantage vis-à-vis third-country exporters. An additional advantage comes from the fact that the cost of protection is borne by
the consumers of the other country.
3 See WTO "Understanding the WTO."
4 See WTO "Understanding the WTO." From a dynamic perspective,
PTAs can contribute to advancing multilateral liberalization because
they can prepare the ground for it if successful restructuring
toward a more open economy takes place. This restructuring can
alter the balance of political interests within the country toward
free trade. In some cases, however, PTAs can make multilateral
liberalization less attractive, if their aims are not economic. And
in some cases PTAs can be economically more beneficial than
multilateral agreements, as partners can be chosen to maximize
welfare.

Reference
WTO (World Trade Organization). “Understanding the WTO: CrossCutting and New Issues. Regionalism: Friends or Rivals?” Available
at http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/bey1_e.htm
(accessed April 14, 2010).

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

impacting the business of importers and
exporters active in the country.
Each of these four subindexes is composed in turn
of a number of pillars of enabling trade, of which there
are nine in all. These are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Domestic and foreign market access
Efficiency of customs administration
Efficiency of import-export procedures
Transparency of border administration
Availability and quality of transport
infrastructure
Availability and quality of transport services
Availability and use of ICTs
Regulatory environment
Physical security

The domestic and foreign market access pillar measures the level of protection of an economy’s markets, the
quality of its trade regime, and the level of protection
that a country’s exporters face in their target markets.
The measures taken into account include not only tariffs
and non-tariff measures imposed by a country on all
imported goods,8 but also the share of goods imported
duty-free, the variance of tariffs, the frequency of tariff
peaks, the number of distinct tariffs, and the share of
specific tariffs. Protection in foreign markets is captured
by tariffs faced, but also by the margin of preference in
target markets negotiated through bilateral or regional
agreements. Box 1 discusses in more detail the rationale
for including the preference margin in the Index.
The efficiency of customs administration pillar measures the efficiency of customs procedures as perceived
by the private sector, as well as the extent of services
provided by customs authorities and related agencies.
The efficiency of import-export procedures pillar
extends beyond the customs administration and assesses
the effectiveness and efficiency of clearance processes by
customs as well as related border control agencies, the
number of days and documents required to import and
export goods, and the total official cost associated with
importing as well as exporting, excluding tariffs and
trade taxes.
Given the significant hindrance that corruption can
provide in trade, the transparency of border administration
pillar assesses the pervasiveness of undocumented extra
payments or bribes connected with imports and exports,
as well as overall perceived degree of corruption in each
country.
The availability and quality of transport infrastructure
pillar measures the state of transport infrastructure across
all modes of transport in each economy, as demonstrated
by the density of airports, the percentage of paved roads,
as well as the extent of transshipment connections available to shippers from each country. Also captured is the

quality of all types of transport infrastructure, including
air, rail, roads, and ports.9
The availability and quality of transport services
pillar complements the assessment of infrastructure by
taking into account the amount and the quality of services available for shipment, including the quantity of
services provided by liner companies, the ability to track
and trace international shipments, the timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, general postal efficiency,
and the overall competence of the local logistics industry (e.g., transport operators, customs brokers). This pillar
also takes into account the degree of openness of the
transport-related sectors as measured by countries’ commitments made under the General Agreement on Trade
in Services (GATS).
Given the increasing importance of information
and communication technologies (ICTs) for the management of shipments, as well as the central role these
technologies play in facilitating customs clearance and
communication, the availability and use of ICTs pillar
includes the penetration rates of these tools, such as
mobile phones and the Internet, in each country. We
add measures of the perceived use of Internet by business for buying and selling goods and an index of the
availability of government online services.
The regulatory environment pillar captures the extent
to which the economy’s regulatory environment is conducive to trade. Included are indicators that capture the
general quality of governance, but also the openness to
foreign participation, which covers the ease of hiring
foreign labor in the country (important for companies
moving goods across borders), the extent to which the
policy environment encourages foreign direct investment, the restrictiveness of capital controls, and an index
of multilateral treaties pertaining to trade signed by the
country.
The security environment is of great importance
for ensuring the delivery of goods to destination without major frictions. In this context, the physical security
pillar specifically gauges the country’s level of violence
(both in terms of general crime and violence as well as
the threat of terrorism), as well as the reliability of the
police services in their ability to enforce law and order.
Each of these pillars is made up of a number of
individual variables. The dataset includes both hard data
and survey data from the World Economic Forum’s
Executive Opinion Survey (Survey). The hard data were
obtained from publicly available sources and international organizations (for example, the ITC, UNCTAD,
the World Bank, and the WTO). The Survey is carried
out annually by the World Economic Forum among top
business executives in all economies covered by our
research. It captures their views on the business environment and provides unique data on many qualitative
aspects of the broader business environment, including a
number of specific issues related to trade. For detailed

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Figure 1: Composition of the four subindexes of the ETI

Transport and
communications
infrastructure

Border
administration

Domestic and foreign
market access

Efficiency of customs
administration

Availability and quality of
transport infrastructure

Efficiency of importexport procedures

Availability and quality of
transport services

Transparency of
border administration

Availability and
use of ICTs

Destination

Market
access

Border

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Business
environment
Subindex

Pillar

Regulatory
environment

Physical
security

8
descriptions of all the indicators included, please see the
“Technical Notes and Sources” at the end of this Report.
The nine pillars are grouped into the four
subindexes described above,10 as shown in Figure 1, and
the overall score for each country is derived as an
unweighted average of the subindexes. The details of the
composition of the ETI are shown in the Appendix.
As econometric tests of the ETI 2009 demonstrated, the Index has explanatory power with respect to an
economy’s trade performance.11 The analysis has shown
that a 1 percent increase in the ETI score in the exporting country is associated with an increase of 1.7 percent
in its exports. This effect is even higher with respect to
the importing country: the model predicts that a 1 percent improvement in the ETI score would lead to a 2.3
percent rise in imports. Taken together, these two effects
predict that a 1 percent increase in the average ETI score
of any given country pair would be associated with a 4
percent increase in bilateral trade, all else being equal.

Changes to the Index methodology
The Index methodology has undergone only minor
changes this year, which do not inhibit the ability to
compare these results with those of the 2009 edition of
the Report. In the first pillar, the weighting was adjusted
from averaging across the six indicators to a hierarchical
approach. This means that first the averages for domestic
market access and for foreign market access are calculated;

in turn, these figures are then averaged to calculate the
pillar score. This does not affect the results except for
those countries for which data for some of the indicators were not available. In the 5th pillar, the indicator
measuring road congestion was dropped because it was
too strongly correlated with the land area of countries.
In the 7th pillar, the firm-level technology absorption
variable was replaced by an indicator capturing the business usage of the Internet, and an index of government
online services was added to proxy the extent to which
governments use ICTs in their delivery of trade-related
services. Finally, in the 8th pillar, an index assessing
financial-sector performance was added,12 and we also
reintroduced the Index of Multilateral Treaties, based on
the International Trade Centre’s LegaCarta Database,
previously included in the 2008 edition of the ETI.

Country coverage
The overall country coverage has increased from 121 to
125 economies in this year’s ETI. Five new countries
were added to the Index, as relevant data became available: Botswana, Georgia, Iceland, Montenegro, and
Serbia. Unfortunately, Moldova could not be covered
this year, as data from the Survey were not available.

The Enabling Trade Index 2010 rankings
The detailed rankings from this year’s ETI are shown
in Tables 1 through 6. Table 1 shows the rankings in

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

Table 1: The Enabling Trade Index 2010 rankings and 2009 comparison
ETI 2010

ETI 2009

ETI 2010

ETI 2009

Country/Economy

Rank

Score

Rank*

Country/Economy

Rank

Score

Rank*

Singapore
Hong Kong SAR
Denmark
Sweden
Switzerland
New Zealand
Norway
Canada
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Iceland
Finland
Germany
Austria
Australia
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
Chile
United States
France
Ireland
Bahrain
Estonia
Belgium
Japan
Israel
Korea, Rep.
Taiwan, China
Oman
Malaysia
Cyprus
Spain
Mauritius
Qatar
Slovenia
Portugal
Georgia
Tunisia
Jordan
Saudi Arabia
Lithuania
Czech Republic
Montenegro
Costa Rica
Croatia
Latvia
Slovak Republic
China
Hungary
Uruguay
Italy
Armenia
Botswana
Romania
Greece
Macedonia, FYR
El Salvador
Poland
Albania
Thailand
Panama
Turkey
Peru
Mexico
Kuwait
Honduras
Serbia
Indonesia

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

6.06
5.70
5.41
5.41
5.37
5.33
5.32
5.29
5.28
5.26
5.26
5.25
5.20
5.17
5.13
5.12
5.06
5.06
5.03
5.02
5.00
4.95
4.90
4.89
4.80
4.76
4.72
4.72
4.71
4.71
4.70
4.70
4.69
4.68
4.68
4.65
4.59
4.57
4.55
4.54
4.48
4.47
4.47
4.45
4.45
4.39
4.36
4.32
4.30
4.29
4.28
4.24
4.21
4.18
4.17
4.16
4.16
4.16
4.13
4.13
4.12
4.07
4.04
4.04
4.01
3.98
3.98
3.97

1
2
4
5
3
11
7
6
13
10
n/a
8
12
9
14
18
20
19
16
17
15
24
22
21
23
29
26
25
34
28
32
27
33
35
31
30
n/a
41
37
42
40
36
n/a
43
39
44
46
49
38
51
45
64
n/a
54
47
68
56
57
63
50
53
48
65
74
59
66
n/a
62

Guatemala
Namibia
Vietnam
South Africa
Dominican Republic
Jamaica
Morocco
Egypt
Azerbaijan
Bulgaria
Nicaragua
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Ukraine
Gambia, The
Malawi
India
Zambia
Madagascar
Brazil
Kazakhstan
Ecuador
Senegal
Colombia
Philippines
Mozambique
Uganda
Argentina
Ghana
Tanzania
Bolivia
Sri Lanka
Kyrgyz Republic
Lesotho
Cambodia
Paraguay
Syria
Kenya
Benin
Ethiopia
Tajikistan
Guyana
Burkina Faso
Mali
Pakistan
Bangladesh
Russian Federation
Cameroon
Mongolia
Mauritania
Nepal
Algeria
Nigeria
Venezuela
Zimbabwe
Côte d’Ivoire
Chad
Burundi

69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125

3.97
3.96
3.96
3.95
3.94
3.92
3.90
3.88
3.88
3.87
3.85
3.85
3.84
3.83
3.82
3.81
3.80
3.78
3.76
3.74
3.74
3.74
3.72
3.72
3.71
3.67
3.64
3.63
3.60
3.59
3.59
3.58
3.57
3.57
3.53
3.50
3.49
3.49
3.47
3.43
3.42
3.41
3.39
3.39
3.38
3.37
3.35
3.33
3.30
3.27
3.14
3.05
3.04
2.98
2.90
2.88
2.79

58
60
89
61
81
79
55
75
70
72
77
102
71
67
69
76
80
73
87
93
103
83
84
82
94
85
97
86
92
88
78
101
90
91
105
108
98
96
95
114
115
104
99
100
111
109
106
113
107
110
112
117
119
118
120
121
116

* The 2009 rank is out of 121 countries. Five new countries were added to
the 2010 Index: Iceland, Georgia, Botswana, Serbia, and Montenegro. One
country covered last year, Moldova, had to be excluded this year for lack
of Survey data.

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

1.1: Fostering Recovery by Facilitating Trade

Part1.WEB.FINAL:Document 7 5/5/10 11:34 AM Page 9

9

1.1: Fostering Recovery by Facilitating Trade

Part1.WEB.FINAL:Document 7 5/5/10 11:34 AM Page 10

10

Table 2: The Enabling Trade Index 2010
SUBINDEXES
OVERALL INDEX
Country/Economy

Singapore
Hong Kong SAR
Denmark
Sweden
Switzerland
New Zealand
Norway
Canada
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Iceland
Finland
Germany
Austria
Australia
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
Chile
United States
France
Ireland
Bahrain
Estonia
Belgium
Japan
Israel
Korea, Rep.
Taiwan, China
Oman
Malaysia
Cyprus
Spain
Mauritius
Qatar
Slovenia
Portugal
Georgia
Tunisia
Jordan
Saudi Arabia
Lithuania
Czech Republic
Montenegro
Costa Rica
Croatia
Latvia
Slovak Republic
China
Hungary
Uruguay
Italy
Armenia
Botswana
Romania
Greece
Macedonia, FYR
El Salvador
Poland
Albania
Thailand
Panama
Turkey
Peru
Mexico
Kuwait
Honduras

Market
access

Border
administration

Transport and communications infrastructure

Business
environment

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66

6.06
5.70
5.41
5.41
5.37
5.33
5.32
5.29
5.28
5.26
5.26
5.25
5.20
5.17
5.13
5.12
5.06
5.06
5.03
5.02
5.00
4.95
4.90
4.89
4.80
4.76
4.72
4.72
4.71
4.71
4.70
4.70
4.69
4.68
4.68
4.65
4.59
4.57
4.55
4.54
4.48
4.47
4.47
4.45
4.45
4.39
4.36
4.32
4.30
4.29
4.28
4.24
4.21
4.18
4.17
4.16
4.16
4.16
4.13
4.13
4.12
4.07
4.04
4.04
4.01
3.98

1
16
95
96
58
37
33
25
73
85
14
90
101
94
63
81
91
2
62
97
109
29
83
99
121
43
111
106
34
31
86
102
8
72
88
77
5
35
51
54
70
105
24
7
28
80
103
79
108
36
78
9
32
82
75
38
3
93
21
113
69
47
15
22
71
4

5.97
5.12
3.76
3.75
4.23
4.65
4.66
4.85
3.91
3.79
5.14
3.78
3.74
3.77
4.17
3.85
3.77
5.65
4.17
3.75
3.67
4.77
3.83
3.74
3.20
4.51
3.63
3.70
4.65
4.71
3.79
3.72
5.36
3.93
3.78
3.89
5.43
4.65
4.40
4.32
3.97
3.71
4.86
5.38
4.77
3.87
3.72
3.87
3.68
4.65
3.87
5.33
4.69
3.85
3.91
4.62
5.55
3.77
4.96
3.48
3.97
4.42
5.13
4.90
3.94
5.45

1
6
3
2
10
5
18
17
20
4
22
8
15
9
14
12
13
23
19
21
7
26
11
30
16
25
24
33
47
44
29
28
39
35
27
36
37
50
45
31
38
32
55
46
60
40
49
48
34
54
52
84
70
43
71
75
56
42
59
41
51
61
58
65
81
86

6.56
5.96
6.22
6.34
5.76
6.02
5.60
5.61
5.45
6.03
5.36
5.83
5.67
5.77
5.69
5.71
5.69
5.29
5.60
5.42
5.86
5.23
5.74
5.06
5.65
5.24
5.24
4.83
4.54
4.57
5.08
5.09
4.69
4.79
5.16
4.78
4.78
4.49
4.56
4.91
4.73
4.87
4.19
4.55
4.11
4.64
4.50
4.53
4.83
4.22
4.30
3.52
3.96
4.59
3.92
3.77
4.18
4.61
4.11
4.61
4.38
4.10
4.12
4.00
3.63
3.51

7
5
8
9
10
26
21
20
3
6
27
18
1
12
19
22
2
42
11
4
23
33
31
13
14
30
15
16
47
24
37
17
58
46
29
25
74
56
52
45
34
36
55
78
38
39
32
43
41
73
28
60
84
59
35
50
88
51
87
40
53
57
91
64
69
79

5.74
5.79
5.71
5.70
5.63
4.88
5.11
5.24
5.81
5.75
4.87
5.33
5.85
5.49
5.24
5.08
5.82
4.13
5.49
5.80
5.01
4.65
4.70
5.47
5.45
4.71
5.37
5.36
4.04
4.95
4.54
5.34
3.83
4.08
4.76
4.91
3.49
3.86
3.93
4.10
4.63
4.61
3.87
3.41
4.53
4.44
4.69
4.13
4.14
3.54
4.76
3.78
3.30
3.81
4.63
3.97
3.24
3.97
3.25
4.19
3.90
3.85
3.16
3.68
3.62
3.40

2
5
3
10
8
11
7
18
4
17
12
1
15
13
19
9
32
26
37
27
16
25
23
22
34
53
44
31
14
51
20
46
36
6
29
30
45
24
21
39
52
43
33
59
63
50
56
41
54
40
76
65
35
57
72
67
98
68
73
71
75
87
93
106
38
107

6.00
5.94
5.96
5.84
5.87
5.79
5.90
5.45
5.96
5.48
5.68
6.08
5.53
5.66
5.43
5.86
4.96
5.14
4.86
5.11
5.48
5.15
5.31
5.31
4.91
4.58
4.65
4.99
5.63
4.59
5.40
4.64
4.87
5.92
5.00
5.00
4.64
5.27
5.32
4.85
4.58
4.68
4.96
4.46
4.39
4.60
4.53
4.74
4.56
4.75
4.18
4.31
4.89
4.49
4.23
4.29
3.69
4.28
4.22
4.24
4.21
3.90
3.78
3.56
4.85
3.55
(Cont’d.)

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

Table 2: The Enabling Trade Index 2010 (cont’d.)
SUBINDEXES
OVERALL INDEX
Country/Economy

Serbia
Indonesia
Guatemala
Namibia
Vietnam
South Africa
Dominican Republic
Jamaica
Morocco
Egypt
Azerbaijan
Bulgaria
Nicaragua
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Ukraine
Gambia, The
Malawi
India
Zambia
Madagascar
Brazil
Kazakhstan
Ecuador
Senegal
Colombia
Philippines
Mozambique
Uganda
Argentina
Ghana
Tanzania
Bolivia
Sri Lanka
Kyrgyz Republic
Lesotho
Cambodia
Paraguay
Syria
Kenya
Benin
Ethiopia
Tajikistan
Guyana
Burkina Faso
Mali
Pakistan
Bangladesh
Russian Federation
Cameroon
Mongolia
Mauritania
Nepal
Algeria
Nigeria
Venezuela
Zimbabwe
Côte d’Ivoire
Chad
Burundi

Market
access

Border
administration

Transport and communications infrastructure

Business
environment

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125

3.98
3.97
3.97
3.96
3.96
3.95
3.94
3.92
3.90
3.88
3.88
3.87
3.85
3.85
3.84
3.83
3.82
3.81
3.80
3.78
3.76
3.74
3.74
3.74
3.72
3.72
3.71
3.67
3.64
3.63
3.60
3.59
3.59
3.58
3.57
3.57
3.53
3.50
3.49
3.49
3.47
3.43
3.42
3.41
3.39
3.39
3.38
3.37
3.35
3.33
3.30
3.27
3.14
3.05
3.04
2.98
2.90
2.88
2.79

42
60
13
41
50
87
46
59
112
114
61
76
11
44
30
119
19
115
17
6
104
53
27
117
57
64
12
10
98
67
55
18
107
20
23
40
39
116
26
92
68
66
84
48
45
120
52
125
65
110
74
49
124
123
100
118
122
56
89

4.53
4.21
5.19
4.58
4.41
3.78
4.44
4.22
3.61
3.44
4.20
3.90
5.23
4.50
4.76
3.29
5.01
3.42
5.11
5.39
3.72
4.35
4.77
3.35
4.24
4.13
5.23
5.31
3.74
4.04
4.31
5.05
3.68
5.00
4.90
4.62
4.62
3.35
4.78
3.77
4.03
4.12
3.79
4.42
4.47
3.24
4.37
2.68
4.12
3.63
3.91
4.42
2.69
2.83
3.74
3.35
2.90
4.25
3.78

64
67
62
89
88
53
63
76
57
66
105
72
83
90
106
69
101
68
104
94
80
121
92
77
78
74
95
103
85
82
98
87
79
115
107
96
91
111
113
97
102
122
93
116
117
73
100
109
108
114
112
118
99
110
123
120
119
125
124

4.06
3.99
4.09
3.46
3.46
4.25
4.07
3.77
4.15
3.99
3.13
3.88
3.56
3.42
3.12
3.98
3.20
3.98
3.14
3.31
3.70
2.46
3.40
3.74
3.71
3.82
3.31
3.19
3.51
3.59
3.25
3.48
3.71
2.76
3.02
3.27
3.41
2.95
2.78
3.25
3.20
2.41
3.39
2.75
2.74
3.85
3.21
2.99
3.00
2.78
2.81
2.71
3.25
2.98
2.35
2.57
2.67
2.13
2.33

76
85
82
90
68
65
63
54
72
62
70
49
101
75
71
99
118
81
114
103
66
44
80
89
67
83
111
120
61
110
113
102
86
94
115
116
106
98
100
105
112
96
95
123
122
92
117
48
119
97
109
107
93
108
77
121
104
125
124

3.47
3.28
3.31
3.18
3.62
3.64
3.69
3.88
3.55
3.69
3.58
4.00
2.89
3.48
3.56
2.97
2.50
3.34
2.56
2.83
3.64
4.13
3.40
3.22
3.63
3.31
2.62
2.47
3.78
2.64
2.59
2.84
3.27
3.12
2.56
2.53
2.77
2.98
2.95
2.81
2.60
3.05
3.07
2.25
2.35
3.14
2.53
4.00
2.50
3.00
2.74
2.76
3.13
2.74
3.44
2.47
2.81
2.07
2.12

89
60
119
47
64
79
105
91
66
61
49
99
96
84
86
28
55
58
62
104
83
80
115
48
118
103
101
97
109
70
69
123
100
112
90
88
116
42
111
78
81
77
113
74
82
117
114
92
94
85
95
121
110
102
125
108
120
122
124

3.85
4.42
3.30
4.63
4.34
4.11
3.57
3.80
4.30
4.41
4.62
3.68
3.72
3.99
3.90
5.07
4.55
4.48
4.40
3.57
4.00
4.04
3.40
4.62
3.30
3.61
3.67
3.70
3.51
4.25
4.26
2.98
3.68
3.44
3.82
3.87
3.32
4.70
3.47
4.12
4.04
4.13
3.42
4.21
4.02
3.31
3.41
3.79
3.77
3.92
3.73
3.19
3.47
3.65
2.65
3.51
3.23
3.07
2.92

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Table 3: The Enabling Trade Index 2010: Market access
PILLARS
MARKET ACCESS
Country/Economy

Albania
Algeria
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guyana
Honduras
Hong Kong SAR
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Latvia
Lesotho
Lithuania

1a. Domestic market access

1b. Foreign market access

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

21
124
98
9
63
94
61
29
52
99
92
18
44
32
104
76
48
89
40
65
25
56
2
79
57
7
122
28
86
105
95
46
27
114
3
83
68
90
97
119
5
101
67
75
13
84
4
16
108
14
115
60
109
43
78
59
121
51
53
26
111
71
20
80
23
70

4.96
2.69
3.74
5.33
4.17
3.77
4.20
4.77
4.37
3.74
3.77
5.05
4.50
4.69
3.72
3.90
4.42
3.78
4.62
4.12
4.85
4.25
5.65
3.87
4.24
5.38
2.90
4.77
3.79
3.71
3.76
4.44
4.77
3.44
5.55
3.83
4.03
3.78
3.75
3.29
5.43
3.74
4.04
3.91
5.19
3.79
5.45
5.12
3.68
5.14
3.42
4.21
3.67
4.51
3.87
4.22
3.20
4.40
4.35
4.78
3.63
3.94
5.00
3.87
4.90
3.97

4
123
111
17
21
79
70
14
107
85
106
51
40
15
103
65
42
109
96
95
8
99
11
81
108
5
119
25
74
90
80
36
43
122
9
72
110
76
84
117
3
87
67
63
13
97
10
1
92
115
7
45
94
32
68
54
98
91
52
38
82
59
33
69
53
56

6.10
3.12
3.59
5.56
5.49
4.53
4.66
5.58
3.84
4.50
3.85
4.93
5.06
5.56
3.92
4.74
5.04
3.75
4.34
4.35
5.82
4.22
5.78
4.53
3.78
6.09
3.21
5.40
4.57
4.45
4.53
5.14
5.03
3.16
5.81
4.63
3.72
4.55
4.51
3.29
6.10
4.49
4.70
4.75
5.59
4.27
5.81
7.00
4.40
3.32
5.85
5.01
4.38
5.22
4.69
4.88
4.24
4.42
4.92
5.07
4.52
4.79
5.16
4.68
4.89
4.83

78
120
34
15
122
90
59
63
3
90
51
5
55
69
57
90
62
40
6
46
70
25
4
83
7
37
87
54
90
90
90
66
28
36
12
90
20
90
90
58
32
90
77
90
23
74
17
123
90
50
43
79
90
64
90
71
124
24
61
29
119
88
19
90
14
90

2.67
1.84
4.05
4.88
1.53
2.23
3.29
3.14
5.42
2.23
3.61
5.27
3.37
2.93
3.32
2.23
3.17
3.84
5.17
3.66
2.91
4.31
5.39
2.55
5.14
3.96
2.28
3.51
2.23
2.23
2.23
3.04
4.25
4.01
5.02
2.23
4.64
2.23
2.23
3.29
4.09
2.23
2.71
2.23
4.39
2.84
4.73
1.35
2.23
3.62
3.72
2.59
2.23
3.08
2.23
2.89
1.11
4.36
3.20
4.20
1.84
2.25
4.68
2.23
4.93
2.23
(Cont’d.)

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

Table 3: The Enabling Trade Index 2010: Market access (cont’d.)
PILLARS
MARKET ACCESS
Country/Economy

Luxembourg
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania
Russian Federation
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Taiwan, China
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Tunisia
Turkey
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Venezuela
Vietnam
Zambia
Zimbabwe

1a. Domestic market access

1b. Foreign market access

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

73
38
6
19
31
45
74
8
22
110
24
112
12
41
49
85
37
11
123
33
34
120
69
39
15
64
93
77
72
82
125
54
117
42
1
103
88
87
102
107
96
58
116
106
66
55
113
35
47
10
30
81
91
62
36
100
50
17
118

3.91
4.62
5.39
5.01
4.71
4.47
3.91
5.36
4.90
3.63
4.86
3.61
5.23
4.58
4.42
3.79
4.65
5.23
2.83
4.66
4.65
3.24
3.97
4.62
5.13
4.13
3.77
3.89
3.93
3.85
2.68
4.32
3.35
4.53
5.97
3.72
3.78
3.78
3.72
3.68
3.75
4.23
3.35
3.70
4.12
4.31
3.48
4.65
4.42
5.31
4.76
3.85
3.77
4.17
4.65
3.74
4.41
5.11
3.35

62
46
47
41
34
55
102
6
35
86
18
116
27
24
113
73
12
28
118
16
20
112
64
37
23
100
78
66
60
71
125
30
121
48
2
89
75
93
88
105
83
39
120
44
61
104
124
50
31
22
26
49
77
29
57
101
58
19
114

4.76
5.00
4.99
5.05
5.15
4.84
3.93
6.02
5.15
4.49
5.53
3.32
5.32
5.41
3.56
4.57
5.73
5.32
3.28
5.56
5.51
3.58
4.75
5.13
5.43
4.14
4.54
4.72
4.78
4.65
2.59
5.28
3.20
4.99
6.55
4.47
4.56
4.38
4.47
3.85
4.51
5.07
3.20
5.02
4.77
3.89
2.87
4.94
5.26
5.45
5.32
4.95
4.54
5.29
4.83
4.08
4.80
5.52
3.41

90
38
1
13
41
42
39
35
22
118
53
30
11
68
2
90
84
9
117
73
67
81
85
52
21
31
90
90
89
90
72
86
44
49
16
90
90
80
90
56
90
82
45
125
75
8
18
33
76
10
48
121
90
116
27
65
47
26
60

2.23
3.88
6.19
4.94
3.83
3.74
3.88
4.04
4.41
1.93
3.52
4.19
5.03
2.93
6.13
2.23
2.50
5.06
1.93
2.85
2.95
2.58
2.43
3.61
4.52
4.11
2.23
2.23
2.23
2.23
2.86
2.39
3.66
3.63
4.80
2.23
2.23
2.58
2.23
3.34
2.23
2.57
3.66
1.06
2.81
5.14
4.71
4.07
2.74
5.03
3.63
1.65
2.23
1.95
4.29
3.05
3.64
4.30
3.23

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Table 4: The Enabling Trade Index 2010: Border administration
PILLARS
BORDER
ADMINISTRATION
Country/Economy

Albania
Algeria
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guyana
Honduras
Hong Kong SAR
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Latvia
Lesotho
Lithuania

2. Efficiency of customs
administration

3. Efficiency of importexport procedures

4. Transparency of
border administration

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

59
99
85
84
14
9
105
26
100
30
97
87
90
70
80
72
116
124
96
108
17
125
23
48
78
46
119
60
29
32
3
63
92
66
56
11
102
8
21
69
37
15
82
71
62
93
86
6
34
22
68
67
7
25
52
76
16
45
121
113
24
81
115
40
107
38

4.11
3.25
3.51
3.52
5.69
5.77
3.13
5.23
3.21
5.06
3.25
3.48
3.42
3.96
3.70
3.88
2.75
2.33
3.27
3.00
5.61
2.13
5.29
4.53
3.71
4.55
2.67
4.11
5.08
4.87
6.22
4.07
3.40
3.99
4.18
5.74
3.20
5.83
5.42
3.98
4.78
5.67
3.59
3.92
4.09
3.39
3.51
5.96
4.83
5.36
3.98
3.99
5.86
5.24
4.30
3.77
5.65
4.56
2.46
2.78
5.24
3.63
2.76
4.64
3.02
4.73

49
105
87
76
18
3
38
15
104
41
112
77
106
46
94
63
96
113
89
99
19
124
21
40
91
34
116
54
43
23
4
73
83
80
61
9
59
30
24
78
31
20
102
88
37
109
93
13
16
29
62
67
6
33
68
53
17
50
103
122
26
115
81
45
111
39

4.36
2.92
3.55
3.86
5.48
6.01
4.69
5.55
2.95
4.59
2.83
3.83
2.90
4.43
3.29
4.15
3.16
2.83
3.44
3.11
5.37
2.32
5.36
4.60
3.40
4.76
2.74
4.25
4.52
5.36
5.98
3.91
3.66
3.81
4.20
5.81
4.20
4.96
5.18
3.82
4.95
5.37
2.99
3.50
4.72
2.86
3.33
5.69
5.49
4.96
4.15
4.00
5.92
4.79
3.96
4.26
5.49
4.35
2.97
2.56
5.08
2.75
3.79
4.45
2.85
4.67

62
90
86
89
25
21
123
35
79
36
94
93
58
111
78
83
121
122
96
102
30
118
47
33
84
51
109
74
22
41
4
42
92
40
50
7
114
5
10
66
38
12
73
63
95
65
85
2
53
57
72
44
19
15
39
88
18
61
125
104
6
75
116
27
103
34

4.71
4.08
4.19
4.11
5.46
5.56
1.78
5.25
4.34
5.25
4.05
4.05
4.77
2.83
4.34
4.30
1.92
1.79
3.97
3.43
5.37
2.03
5.02
5.29
4.26
4.83
2.87
4.49
5.54
5.11
6.16
5.10
4.05
5.12
4.86
6.10
2.43
6.13
5.95
4.67
5.21
5.92
4.57
4.70
4.04
4.67
4.25
6.24
4.83
4.77
4.58
5.07
5.66
5.76
5.20
4.18
5.67
4.74
1.37
3.24
6.11
4.45
2.19
5.43
3.35
5.28

73
101
96
109
10
16
87
30
122
23
91
110
108
35
67
77
79
121
120
117
11
125
20
56
66
47
118
59
27
45
4
76
116
80
65
24
83
5
28
69
42
18
74
61
63
107
85
14
44
6
75
88
13
26
55
90
15
36
81
112
37
57
123
50
92
40

3.27
2.74
2.79
2.60
6.13
5.75
2.92
4.88
2.33
5.33
2.87
2.56
2.60
4.61
3.47
3.19
3.17
2.36
2.39
2.46
6.10
2.04
5.49
3.71
3.48
4.06
2.40
3.57
5.17
4.15
6.52
3.21
2.49
3.05
3.49
5.30
2.97
6.40
5.11
3.44
4.18
5.72
3.22
3.54
3.52
2.65
2.95
5.94
4.16
6.35
3.21
2.89
5.99
5.18
3.73
2.87
5.79
4.58
3.03
2.53
4.54
3.71
2.29
4.02
2.87
4.26
(Cont’d.)

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

Table 4: The Enabling Trade Index 2010: Border administration (cont’d.)
PILLARS
BORDER
ADMINISTRATION
Country/Economy

Luxembourg
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania
Russian Federation
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Taiwan, China
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Tunisia
Turkey
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Venezuela
Vietnam
Zambia
Zimbabwe

2. Efficiency of customs
administration

3. Efficiency of importexport procedures

4. Transparency of
border administration

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

20
75
94
101
44
117
112
39
65
114
55
57
95
89
118
4
5
83
110
18
47
73
51
91
58
74
42
36
35
43
109
31
77
64
1
49
27
53
28
79
2
10
111
33
122
98
41
50
61
103
106
12
13
19
54
123
88
104
120

5.45
3.77
3.31
3.20
4.57
2.74
2.81
4.69
4.00
2.78
4.19
4.15
3.31
3.46
2.71
6.03
6.02
3.56
2.98
5.60
4.54
3.85
4.38
3.41
4.12
3.82
4.61
4.78
4.79
4.59
2.99
4.91
3.74
4.06
6.56
4.50
5.16
4.25
5.09
3.71
6.34
5.76
2.95
4.83
2.41
3.25
4.61
4.49
4.10
3.19
3.12
5.71
5.69
5.60
4.22
2.35
3.46
3.14
2.57

35
108
121
82
48
119
118
47
65
97
74
44
98
95
120
5
7
92
117
42
52
60
79
55
70
56
58
72
84
32
85
27
86
64
1
25
14
28
22
90
2
10
125
51
114
123
36
57
69
71
110
12
8
11
75
101
107
66
100

4.75
2.87
2.66
3.70
4.37
2.69
2.72
4.42
4.12
3.12
3.89
4.49
3.12
3.18
2.68
5.96
5.88
3.35
2.74
4.56
4.31
4.20
3.81
4.25
3.94
4.25
4.20
3.92
3.62
4.82
3.61
4.97
3.58
4.12
6.69
5.14
5.62
4.96
5.36
3.40
6.33
5.77
1.96
4.34
2.77
2.55
4.74
4.22
3.95
3.94
2.86
5.70
5.82
5.72
3.88
2.99
2.88
4.06
3.01

23
59
80
115
29
112
108
28
71
113
49
64
97
105
107
11
24
76
100
8
82
69
13
101
70
55
37
20
46
48
110
26
56
68
1
81
67
99
45
60
3
32
87
31
124
77
14
43
52
106
98
9
16
17
91
120
54
117
119

5.51
4.76
4.33
2.36
5.37
2.75
2.92
5.40
4.59
2.54
4.94
4.69
3.95
3.14
2.94
5.93
5.50
4.36
3.54
6.05
4.32
4.60
5.85
3.46
4.59
4.82
5.23
5.57
5.04
4.95
2.87
5.44
4.79
4.62
6.45
4.33
4.62
3.68
5.06
4.74
6.18
5.29
4.19
5.32
1.57
4.34
5.81
5.09
4.83
3.08
3.78
6.02
5.73
5.68
4.05
1.93
4.83
2.17
1.94

12
58
86
60
52
98
97
41
70
105
54
72
93
48
114
8
1
84
106
9
29
100
64
113
53
119
38
31
17
51
115
39
94
68
2
49
25
46
32
82
3
7
103
33
89
95
71
43
62
111
102
21
19
22
34
124
104
78
99

6.09
3.68
2.93
3.55
3.96
2.77
2.78
4.25
3.28
2.66
3.74
3.28
2.86
4.06
2.50
6.19
6.67
2.96
2.65
6.19
4.98
2.76
3.49
2.52
3.82
2.40
4.38
4.86
5.72
4.01
2.50
4.31
2.86
3.44
6.53
4.04
5.23
4.12
4.84
2.99
6.53
6.21
2.69
4.84
2.89
2.85
3.28
4.17
3.53
2.55
2.72
5.40
5.53
5.39
4.71
2.12
2.68
3.18
2.77

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Table 5: The Enabling Trade Index 2010: Transport and communications infrastructure
PILLARS
TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE
Country/Economy

Albania
Algeria
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guyana
Honduras
Hong Kong SAR
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Latvia
Lesotho
Lithuania

5. Availability and quality
of transport infrastructure

6. Availability and quality
of transport services

7. Availability and
use of ICTs

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

87
93
61
60
19
12
70
33
117
13
105
102
75
84
66
49
123
124
116
119
20
125
42
43
67
78
104
38
37
36
8
63
80
62
88
31
112
18
4
99
74
1
110
35
82
95
79
5
41
27
81
85
23
30
28
54
14
52
44
100
15
69
94
39
115
34

3.25
3.13
3.78
3.78
5.24
5.49
3.58
4.65
2.53
5.47
2.81
2.84
3.48
3.30
3.64
4.00
2.25
2.12
2.53
2.50
5.24
2.07
4.13
4.13
3.63
3.41
2.81
4.53
4.54
4.61
5.71
3.69
3.40
3.69
3.24
4.70
2.60
5.33
5.80
2.97
3.49
5.85
2.64
4.63
3.31
3.07
3.40
5.79
4.14
4.87
3.34
3.28
5.01
4.71
4.76
3.88
5.45
3.93
4.13
2.95
5.37
3.62
3.12
4.44
2.56
4.63

100
65
70
55
32
11
73
28
120
17
116
95
98
53
99
66
123
124
115
117
21
125
44
57
74
75
104
34
36
48
3
63
77
58
93
51
119
14
1
79
71
5
107
26
89
82
64
8
88
43
78
80
27
38
39
49
20
50
35
97
24
67
90
29
118
30

3.23
4.13
4.06
4.42
5.10
5.94
3.87
5.21
2.58
5.69
2.74
3.39
3.28
4.46
3.28
4.13
2.15
2.10
2.84
2.72
5.48
1.71
4.81
4.30
3.87
3.84
3.20
5.07
5.00
4.71
6.21
4.19
3.81
4.30
3.45
4.61
2.65
5.84
6.63
3.76
4.00
6.12
3.07
5.24
3.51
3.67
4.19
6.02
3.53
4.82
3.78
3.74
5.22
4.99
4.98
4.66
5.52
4.64
5.03
3.32
5.37
4.12
3.49
5.20
2.69
5.16

69
110
72
36
11
8
52
54
105
7
66
119
56
99
42
62
113
123
112
116
25
104
64
18
88
87
102
48
35
27
15
50
78
61
101
37
75
22
10
115
65
3
120
32
82
111
92
9
30
43
59
73
23
49
19
71
4
53
47
83
21
81
84
45
103
44

3.64
2.99
3.61
4.25
5.34
5.53
3.99
3.96
3.03
5.56
3.76
2.88
3.95
3.13
4.14
3.81
2.95
2.71
2.96
2.92
4.66
3.04
3.80
5.00
3.29
3.31
3.05
4.09
4.29
4.61
5.04
4.01
3.52
3.85
3.08
4.25
3.56
4.90
5.37
2.93
3.79
5.78
2.86
4.36
3.38
2.98
3.24
5.40
4.43
4.11
3.93
3.59
4.85
4.04
4.98
3.62
5.77
3.98
4.09
3.37
4.93
3.40
3.35
4.10
3.04
4.10

77
94
49
85
17
24
75
27
108
20
110
96
64
92
54
39
121
124
117
112
11
125
46
70
47
71
100
34
35
31
3
78
79
74
66
19
123
18
15
98
84
9
107
37
72
89
82
2
32
8
93
90
25
21
36
56
23
65
61
101
6
57
91
41
109
29

2.87
2.27
3.66
2.68
5.29
5.00
2.88
4.79
1.98
5.16
1.92
2.26
3.21
2.31
3.49
4.06
1.66
1.54
1.79
1.85
5.57
1.46
3.78
3.09
3.73
3.08
2.18
4.42
4.34
4.51
5.87
2.86
2.86
2.93
3.18
5.24
1.59
5.26
5.39
2.21
2.69
5.66
1.98
4.29
3.05
2.55
2.77
5.95
4.47
5.67
2.30
2.52
4.95
5.10
4.33
3.38
5.05
3.18
3.26
2.15
5.80
3.33
2.51
4.02
1.94
4.64
(Cont’d.)

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

Table 5: The Enabling Trade Index 2010: Transport and communications infrastructure (cont’d.)
PILLARS
TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE
Country/Economy

Luxembourg
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania
Russian Federation
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Taiwan, China
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Tunisia
Turkey
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Venezuela
Vietnam
Zambia
Zimbabwe

5. Availability and quality
of transport infrastructure

6. Availability and quality
of transport services

7. Availability and
use of ICTs

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

3
50
103
118
24
122
109
58
64
97
55
72
111
90
107
6
26
101
108
21
47
92
53
106
91
83
51
25
46
59
48
45
89
76
7
32
29
65
17
86
9
10
98
16
96
113
40
56
57
120
71
22
2
11
73
77
68
114
121

5.81
3.97
2.83
2.50
4.95
2.35
2.74
3.83
3.68
3.00
3.87
3.55
2.62
3.18
2.76
5.75
4.88
2.89
2.74
5.11
4.04
3.14
3.90
2.77
3.16
3.31
3.97
4.91
4.08
3.81
4.00
4.10
3.22
3.47
5.74
4.69
4.76
3.64
5.34
3.27
5.70
5.63
2.98
5.36
3.05
2.59
4.19
3.86
3.85
2.47
3.56
5.08
5.82
5.49
3.54
3.44
3.62
2.56
2.47

2
54
81
112
13
122
108
41
61
105
60
56
92
42
91
19
25
96
114
23
46
72
45
113
94
106
87
18
33
85
52
47
86
102
7
31
22
59
10
62
16
9
101
15
84
110
40
37
68
121
69
4
6
12
83
76
103
109
111

6.23
4.42
3.71
2.89
5.88
2.28
3.00
4.92
4.20
3.18
4.23
4.37
3.46
4.85
3.46
5.63
5.35
3.33
2.85
5.38
4.81
3.93
4.81
2.89
3.41
3.09
3.56
5.68
5.09
3.63
4.53
4.73
3.60
3.21
6.04
5.13
5.44
4.27
5.97
4.20
5.70
6.01
3.22
5.77
3.63
2.93
4.98
5.00
4.12
2.29
4.06
6.14
6.06
5.90
3.65
3.83
3.21
2.95
2.92

5
55
114
106
17
117
95
86
67
108
96
77
124
125
100
2
39
98
89
33
40
91
74
121
94
38
34
28
76
46
70
51
63
58
1
20
41
60
14
109
12
13
68
24
80
107
26
79
57
85
93
29
6
16
97
90
31
118
122

5.66
3.96
2.95
3.02
5.03
2.91
3.17
3.31
3.70
3.01
3.16
3.52
2.66
2.62
3.12
5.80
4.20
3.14
3.27
4.36
4.18
3.24
3.57
2.82
3.19
4.23
4.31
4.61
3.54
4.10
3.62
4.00
3.81
3.93
5.81
4.96
4.18
3.87
5.15
3.01
5.32
5.16
3.65
4.79
3.42
3.01
4.62
3.47
3.95
3.32
3.22
4.58
5.59
5.03
3.16
3.25
4.40
2.88
2.74

13
52
115
122
43
111
106
62
67
80
38
83
119
104
120
4
22
99
102
10
68
97
58
88
76
87
40
33
50
48
44
51
95
60
16
42
28
81
26
86
1
7
105
14
103
114
73
69
53
116
55
30
5
12
45
63
59
113
118

5.55
3.53
1.82
1.59
3.94
1.87
2.06
3.25
3.15
2.80
4.22
2.76
1.74
2.07
1.70
5.81
5.07
2.20
2.11
5.61
3.12
2.25
3.31
2.59
2.87
2.61
4.03
4.44
3.63
3.70
3.86
3.58
2.26
3.26
5.35
3.97
4.66
2.79
4.90
2.61
6.08
5.71
2.07
5.50
2.08
1.84
2.98
3.11
3.50
1.80
3.39
4.53
5.81
5.55
3.81
3.22
3.27
1.85
1.76

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

1.1: Fostering Recovery by Facilitating Trade

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1.1: Fostering Recovery by Facilitating Trade

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Table 6: The Enabling Trade Index 2010: Business environment
PILLARS
BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
Country/Economy

Albania
Algeria
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guyana
Honduras
Hong Kong SAR
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Latvia
Lesotho
Lithuania

8. Regulatory environment

9. Physical security

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

73
110
109
65
19
13
49
25
114
22
78
123
84
35
83
99
74
124
88
94
18
122
26
41
118
59
120
63
20
43
3
105
115
61
98
23
81
1
27
28
45
15
70
72
119
113
107
5
54
12
58
60
16
53
76
91
34
21
80
111
44
38
112
50
90
52

4.22
3.47
3.51
4.31
5.43
5.66
4.62
5.15
3.41
5.31
4.12
2.98
3.99
4.89
4.00
3.68
4.21
2.92
3.87
3.77
5.45
3.07
5.14
4.74
3.30
4.46
3.23
4.39
5.40
4.68
5.96
3.57
3.40
4.41
3.69
5.31
4.04
6.08
5.11
5.07
4.64
5.53
4.25
4.23
3.30
3.42
3.55
5.94
4.56
5.68
4.48
4.42
5.48
4.58
4.18
3.80
4.91
5.32
4.04
3.47
4.65
4.85
3.44
4.60
3.82
4.58

85
114
120
96
12
16
49
25
104
23
79
124
118
31
93
101
75
121
87
108
14
123
32
43
86
46
116
90
20
52
4
100
119
55
65
27
94
7
24
36
66
15
72
67
84
98
95
6
68
21
47
48
17
38
88
64
28
30
83
91
51
50
113
63
82
70

3.50
3.03
2.79
3.40
5.30
5.08
4.08
4.73
3.22
4.76
3.56
2.51
2.86
4.59
3.44
3.30
3.60
2.71
3.48
3.16
5.14
2.58
4.55
4.22
3.49
4.16
2.97
3.44
4.82
3.99
5.60
3.32
2.83
3.95
3.76
4.66
3.43
5.54
4.73
4.50
3.76
5.10
3.70
3.75
3.51
3.39
3.41
5.55
3.74
4.81
4.14
4.11
5.00
4.43
3.48
3.77
4.62
4.60
3.52
3.44
4.02
4.07
3.04
3.78
3.54
3.72

59
101
93
46
33
11
51
31
112
21
78
118
53
50
83
97
67
121
91
89
24
113
25
44
122
72
116
42
15
39
8
106
100
65
111
19
81
1
35
29
34
16
71
77
124
119
109
7
40
2
69
76
18
75
63
104
48
13
82
115
43
30
103
38
95
37

4.95
3.92
4.23
5.22
5.56
6.23
5.16
5.57
3.59
5.87
4.68
3.45
5.12
5.18
4.56
4.06
4.82
3.12
4.26
4.38
5.76
3.57
5.73
5.25
3.11
4.76
3.48
5.33
5.98
5.38
6.33
3.82
3.97
4.86
3.62
5.96
4.65
6.62
5.49
5.65
5.52
5.97
4.80
4.70
3.09
3.45
3.69
6.33
5.38
6.54
4.82
4.72
5.96
4.72
4.87
3.83
5.20
6.03
4.57
3.50
5.27
5.64
3.85
5.42
4.09
5.44
(Cont’d.)

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

Table 6: The Enabling Trade Index 2010: Business environment
PILLARS
BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
Country/Economy

Luxembourg
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania
Russian Federation
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Taiwan, China
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Tunisia
Turkey
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Venezuela
Vietnam
Zambia
Zimbabwe

8. Regulatory environment

9. Physical security

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

Rank

Score

4
67
104
55
51
82
95
36
106
85
33
66
101
47
121
17
11
96
102
7
14
117
75
116
93
103
68
30
6
57
92
39
48
89
2
56
29
79
46
100
10
8
42
31
77
69
71
24
87
97
86
9
32
37
40
125
64
62
108

5.96
4.29
3.57
4.55
4.59
4.02
3.73
4.87
3.56
3.92
4.96
4.30
3.67
4.63
3.19
5.48
5.79
3.72
3.65
5.90
5.63
3.31
4.21
3.32
3.78
3.61
4.28
5.00
5.92
4.49
3.79
4.85
4.62
3.85
6.00
4.53
5.00
4.11
4.64
3.68
5.84
5.87
4.70
4.99
4.13
4.26
4.24
5.27
3.90
3.70
3.90
5.86
4.96
4.86
4.75
2.65
4.34
4.40
3.51

5
73
103
54
35
99
105
34
77
112
45
62
107
39
109
9
3
111
78
11
18
80
56
115
69
106
61
40
10
74
110
26
89
102
1
59
41
37
44
58
2
8
81
33
92
76
53
29
71
97
117
13
19
22
42
125
60
57
122

5.56
3.62
3.25
3.95
4.52
3.37
3.21
4.52
3.58
3.10
4.21
3.78
3.19
4.37
3.14
5.38
5.62
3.13
3.56
5.35
4.97
3.55
3.95
2.97
3.73
3.20
3.82
4.30
5.38
3.62
3.14
4.67
3.46
3.25
5.93
3.87
4.30
4.44
4.21
3.89
5.68
5.48
3.55
4.54
3.44
3.59
3.96
4.62
3.72
3.39
2.93
5.26
4.94
4.76
4.28
2.20
3.84
3.89
2.62

6
57
102
52
79
80
92
45
114
73
27
70
94
62
120
32
17
90
108
5
9
125
85
110
105
99
74
28
3
41
87
55
23
86
12
49
26
107
54
117
14
10
22
36
68
60
84
20
96
98
64
4
56
58
47
123
66
61
88

6.36
4.96
3.90
5.15
4.66
4.66
4.25
5.22
3.54
4.74
5.70
4.82
4.16
4.89
3.24
5.57
5.96
4.30
3.75
6.45
6.29
3.08
4.47
3.68
3.82
4.01
4.74
5.70
6.46
5.37
4.43
5.02
5.78
4.45
6.06
5.19
5.71
3.77
5.06
3.47
6.00
6.26
5.86
5.44
4.82
4.92
4.52
5.91
4.08
4.02
4.87
6.45
4.97
4.96
5.22
3.10
4.85
4.91
4.41

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comparison with last year’s results, while Tables 2
through 6 provide the details for the four subindexes
and the nine pillars of the ETI for all economies
covered.
Top 10

The top 10 ranking of the Enabling Trade Index 2010 is
populated by relatively small, open economies in which
trade compensates for the small size of their domestic
markets. Singapore continues to lead the way by a large
margin, as measured by its score compared with secondranked Hong Kong SAR. The composition of the top
10 is similar to that of last year with two notable exceptions: New Zealand (6th, up five places) and
Luxembourg (9th, up four ranks) displace Finland (12th)
and Austria (14th), respectively. As in previous years,
Nordic countries feature prominently in the ranking:
Denmark is 3rd, followed by Sweden (4th) and Norway
(7th), while Iceland (11th)—covered for the first time—
stands at the doorstep of the top 10. Notwithstanding
some movement in the rankings and the widening gap
between the two frontrunners and the rest of the
cohort, the scores within the top 10 remain remarkably
stable.
Singapore continues to lead the ETI rankings by
maintaining its outstanding performance across the
board. The city-state comes in 1st position on no less
than five out of the nine pillars, and features in the top
10 on 43 out of the 56 indicators composing the ETI.
As a small economy, Singapore has a very open trade
policy and exporters face only a few barriers in target
markets. The trade-weighted applied tariff rate amounts
to almost zero (0.03 percent, the second lowest), as 99.9
percent of imports enter duty-free and Singapore’s
exporters face an average tariff in destination markets of
4.5 percent, the second-lowest rate after Chile.13
Singapore also is rewarded for the extreme simplicity of
its tariff structure, ranking 4th on this indicator, just a
few places behind leading Hong Kong. These two are
the only high-income economies within the top 30 on
this indicator.
Singapore’s border administration is top notch in
every respect. The country tops the customs services
index with the maximum score of 12, and the Doing
Business study reveals that importing and exporting
goods requires little paper work (four documents on
average), is swift (three to five days on average), and
inexpensive. The estimated cost of US$450 per container is less than half the average of high-income
economies and the lowest in the sample. As in previous
years, the assessment of the quality and availability of
transport infrastructure is equally excellent. Singapore
leads the way for the quality of air transport, seaport,
and road infrastructure. On measures related to connectivity, as well as timeliness, ease and affordability of shipments, and logistics competence, Singapore places at or
near the top. Against these excellent results, the 16th

rank of Singapore in terms of overall ICT penetration
points to some room for improvement. For example,
there are 22 broadband users per 100 population in
Singapore, less than half the rate of Sweden.
More generally, and as highlighted repeatedly,
including in the World Economic Forum’s Global
Competitiveness Report and Global Information Technology
Report series, Singapore offers a supportive business
environment that contributes to making it one of the
major trade hubs worldwide. The levels of corruption
are the lowest among the countries covered, financial
markets are world-class (2nd), and policymaking is perceived as the most efficient. The economy is also open
to foreign participation (2nd), although it would benefit
from more openness to multilateral trade rules (54th).
Placed 2nd, Hong Kong SAR continues to deliver consistently strong performance across the components of the ETI, ranking no lower than 16th in any of
the pillars, yet not at the top of any. Hong Kong’s commitment to free trade is shown in the absence of trade
barriers in the domestic market. The territory achieves
the highest possible score on all the indicators comprising this pillar and, therefore, obtains a perfect score of 7
in the pillar. Despite its openness to incoming trade,
exporters from Hong Kong face the highest trade barriers in their target markets within the ETI sample. The
trade-weighted tariff rate amounts to 6.2 percent.
Hong Kong’s 1st place in the quality of transport
infrastructure reflects outstanding infrastructure facilities
available across the four main transport modes: air (2nd),
sea (2nd), rail (3rd), and road (3rd). With regard to transport by sea, the territory has direct routes to many
countries and for non-direct routes the number of
transshipments required is minimal. Finally, Hong Kong
offers a very conducive environment for business (6th).
In particular, the efficiency of its financial sector is rated
as second to none, as is its openness to foreign participation.
Up one rank from last year, Denmark moves into
3rd position. The best ranked of the Nordics does very
well on three out of the four components of the ETI. It
ranks 3rd behind Singapore and Hong Kong for the
efficiency of its border administration. It gets excellent
marks for the efficiency, transparency, and rapidity of
customs clearance procedures, although importing and
exporting goods remain very costly. With its very dense
ICT penetration, Denmark leads the way when it comes
to ICT infrastructure.14 By the same token, the quality
of transport infrastructure is world-class, despite limited
connectivity by sea. Also among Denmark’s strengths is
the quality of its business environment (3rd). Yet the gap
with its two predecessors in the overall ETI rankings
remains sizeable because of Denmark’s rather mediocre
performance in the market access component, where it
ranks 95th. Denmark, as all other European Union (EU)
member countries, owes this low position to the highly
complex common external tariff schedule of the

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European Union (96th) and the frequent recourse to
non-tariff measures (68th). In addition, while tariffs
applied by the European Union are very low (4th), its
members still face average tariffs of close to 6 percent in
destination markets.
Sweden, ranked 4th, posts a performance similar
to Denmark’s. Also up one notch from last year, the
country stands out for its highly efficient and transparent
border administration, as reflected in the 2nd rank
(after Singapore) in the related subindex. Another area
of strength is its excellent ICT infrastructure, where it
ranks 1st thanks to the extensive use of Internet by
businesses, the most dense penetration of broadband
connections in the sample (41 subscribers per 100 population), and universal use of mobile telephony. Finally,
Sweden offers a regulatory framework that is remarkably
conducive to trade (2nd), characterized by extremely high
ethical standards in the public and private sectors (3rd), a
very efficient government (3rd), well-functioning financial markets (4th), and a high degree of openness to foreign participation (7th), although the hiring of foreign
labor remains rather difficult (49th). By contrast, the
highly complex tariff structure and the prevalence of
non-tariff measures make Sweden, as other EU members, a laggard in the market access component (96th).
Down two positions, Switzerland (5th) fares very
well in most of the dimensions of the ETI, with some
notable exceptions within the market access component.
Switzerland ranks last among the 125 economies for the
complexity of tariffs. The country applies a staggering
6,662 distinct tariffs, while the count for second-to-last
Russia amounts to 1,921. Moreover, over 82 percent of
all tariff lines bear a specific tariff. Yet, this complexity
seems to apply only to a limited share of trade, since
almost 90 percent (9th highest share) of all imports to
Switzerland are duty-free. Turning to border administration, there remains some room for improvement for
making procedures less costly, burdensome, and time
consuming on both the export and import ends. For
example, exporting a standardized container costs
US$1,537 (96th) on average, three times more than in
Singapore. Switzerland boasts excellent infrastructure for
roads, railroads, and air transport, although the fact that
the country is landlocked results in relatively poor connectivity to maritime routes. Switzerland partially compensates for its disadvantageous geographical position by
striving for high performance in transport services
(13th): its logistics competence as well as its tracking
and tracing ability are second to none, as measured by
the Logistics Perception Index. Continuing on this
positive note, the regulatory environment is extremely
supportive to business activity and trade with a great
degree of openness to foreign participation (6th).
New Zealand progresses by five positions to 6th
rank. New Zealand leads the transparency pillar of the
border administration component (5th) although it
underperforms on some specific indicators, including

the fees, number of documents, and time associated with
exporting and importing goods. Partly because of its
remoteness and small size, the availability and quality of
transport services (39th) are limited as reflected by New
Zealand’s low ranking on the Liner Shipping Connectivity
Index (68th) and transshipment connectivity index
(49th). On a more positive note, New Zealand offers a
favorable business environment (11th), scoring high on
all indicators entering this variable except the openness
to foreign participation (48th).
The third of the Nordics, Norway (7th) sees no
change in its overall score and rank. The country does
generally better in the market access component than
its neighboring EU members Denmark and Sweden,
although it ranks third to last on the index of tariff
complexity.
Losing two ranks, Canada (8th) is the largest
country in the top 10. Canada owes its good positioning
to a consistently good performance across the board,
ranking no lower than 30th in any of the nine pillars of
the ETI. Yet there is room for improvement, as Canada
places below the top 10 on many of the pillars. The
country does better than many advanced economies in
the market access component (25th) of the Index,
despite a complex tariff structure (83rd), which is partly
the result of the great variance in tariff rates (115th).
Within the border administration pillar, some barriers
persist, such as very high average costs to export (100th)
and import (91st) goods, and relatively burdensome
customs procedures (30th). On a more positive note,
Canada boasts good transport infrastructure and services,
including good connectivity, as well as very high ICT
penetration (11th). Moreover, Canada offers one of the
most conducive business environments (18th), thanks to
a favorable regulatory environment (14th).
Luxembourg improves four ranks to reach 9th
position. The most positive aspect is the quality of
transport and ICT infrastructure, in which Luxembourg
places 3rd, behind neighboring Germany and the
United Kingdom. More generally, the Duchy offers a
very safe environment (6th) and a very supportive
regulatory framework (5th), due to efficient policymaking (4th), a mature financial sector (8th), high ethical
standards (6th), as well as one of the highest degrees of
openness to foreign participation (3rd). In particular, the
business community recognizes the high prevalence of
foreign ownership in the country’s economy (5th), the
ease for employers to hire foreign labor (4th), and the
relative mobility of capital flows (11th). Less positive and
uneven is the performance in the border administration
component (20th). While customs clearance procedures
are generally efficient, importing goods remains expensive (US$1,420), and Luxembourg receives a rather low
score on the customs services index (6 points out of 12,
76th).
Closing the top 10, the Netherlands (10th) retains
its position with the same score as last year. Border

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administration and the quality and availability of transport and logistics services are the strongest aspects of the
country’s performance. The Netherlands customs offers
the necessary services to business (5th) and importing
and exporting goods is hassle-free and swift (11th on
the efficiency of import-export procedures), while transport services are assessed as the 2nd best in the world in
terms of availability and quality. Moreover, the country’s
connectivity with the rest of the world via maritime
routes is among the best (3rd), which is not surprising
given that the country hosts Europe’s main maritime
gateway, the Port of Rotterdam. By the same token, the
quality of port infrastructure is assessed as among the
world’s best (3rd). The assessment is somewhat less positive when it comes to specific aspects of the regulatory
environment and physical security. Trade would benefit
from easier rules and regulations for hiring foreign labor
(42nd) and from better protection from common crime
and violence (54th).
Asia and Pacific

22

The Asia and Pacific region is host to some of the
fastest-growing and largest economies worldwide. Many
of the countries in the region have greatly benefited
from trade and made it a central part of their growth
strategy. It is estimated that over the period 2010–14,
almost 50 percent of global growth will take place in
Asia. The developing countries in the region are growing faster than the global economy, and will account for
the largest share of that global growth—42 percent of
it.15 Over the same period, trade in goods from, to, and
within the region will grow by 9 percent annually and
account for 40 percent of global merchandise trade.16
In the ETI, there is a wide gap between frontrunners
Singapore, Hong Kong, and New Zealand, and the rest
of the region; many agree that Asia has yet to fully
leverage the opportunities offered, in particular by trade,
in the region. This is reflected in the results of the ETI.
Except for the top 10 and Australia (15th), countries stay
outside the top 20, with China hovering around the 50
mark and India at a low 84th.
Australia ranks 15th as a result of good performance across the board, although leaving some room for
improvement in specific areas, such as market access
where the country places 63rd. Access to the domestic
market remains hampered by tariffs close to 4 percent;
these apply to a large share of imports (45 percent).17
Australian exports face some of the highest tariffs, 6
percent, and the margin of preference—at less than 3
percent—is extremely narrow. The quality of border
administration has improved significantly (14th),
although ample room for improvement remains as to
the time, costs, and paperwork associated with exporting
and importing goods. Some facets of Australia’s transport
infrastructure (32nd) are in need of improvement; maritime transport is the most worrisome, especially given
the country’s remoteness. The country ranks 46th for

the quality of seaport infrastructure, and 27th and 33rd
on the transshipment connectivity index and Liner
Shipping Connectivity Index, respectively. Finally, the
business environment is fairly good (19th). Yet, among
the various issues affecting their international operations,
the business community cites the difficulty of hiring
foreign labor (91st) and somewhat restrictive rules on
FDI (51st), as well as the costs incurred by the threat of
terrorism (77th) and by crime and violence (45th).
Japan, at 25th, loses two positions. The country
has one of the most protected domestic markets in the
entire sample. At 25.3 percent (111th), import tariffs on
agricultural products move toward prohibitive levels; in
addition, the market is protected by frequent recourse to
non-tariff measures. The highly complex tariff schedule
(93rd) is difficult to navigate for business as a result of
the variance and the large number of distinct tariffs. The
openness to foreign participation is limited (77th), as
manifested in the difficulty of hiring of foreign labor;
restrictive rules on FDI; and, consequently, infrequent
foreign participation. At the same time, Japan’s border
administration is transparent and efficient, albeit businesses
express concerns about the burden of customs procedures.
Last but not least, the quality of transport-related services
is world-class (4th), with the most efficient postal service
worldwide and high level of logistics competence (7th).
At the same time, the assessment of the quality of transport infrastructure is less somewhat positive (20th) and
mixed across the different modes of transport. Although
the quality of railroads is world-class (2nd), air transport
infrastructure lags behind the world’s best (48th).
With its score unchanged from last year, Korea
(27th) drops one position, displaying a mixed performance across the four main components of the ETI.
Korea remains a laggard in the market access component
(111th), imposing some of the highest tariffs on agricultural imports in the sample (44 percent, followed only
by Norway, Morocco, and Turkey). Korea’s tariff structure is characterized by very high tariffs on a few selected agricultural products (e.g., dairy products), as reflected in the third-highest variance of tariffs in the sample.
On the export side, Korean products face some of the
highest tariffs in the world and are granted only very
narrow preference margins. On a more positive note,
Korea achieves high marks for the quality and availability of its transport and communications infrastructure
(15th, up six positions) and to a lesser extent border
administration (24th). In particular, the country boasts
excellent connectivity through maritime routes and
world-class shipping services. In addition, railroad infrastructure is also very well rated (8th overall) and Korea
also possesses one of the world’s best and densest ICT
infrastructures (6th). The government is among the most
active in promoting ICT, for example, through putting
online services in place. Korea obtains the best score in
the sample in the Government Online Service Index, an
assessment of the extent and quality of the government’s

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

online offer. Border administration and import-export
procedures are efficient, smooth, and swift, though
relatively costly. More problematic is the quality of the
general business environment. In this component, Korea
ranks a middling 44th, owing to the negative assessment
by the business community of such critical factors as the
efficiency of government policymaking and the financial
market, corruption, and the country’s openness to foreign
investment.
The fourth and lowest-ranked member of the Tigers
quartet, Taiwan, China (28th), loses three positions,
although its main strength and weaknesses remain in
line with the previous edition of this Report. Market
access is by far the weakest area (106th), whereas Taiwan
obtains good to excellent marks on most indicators
having to do with the quality of transport infrastructure
(15th) and related services (24th), and ICT infrastructure
(14th). The business environment is also fairly conducive
to trade (31st), with one major shortcoming in the
openness to foreign participation (66th).
Following closely, Malaysia (30th) maintains its
position within the top 30. The country ranks fairly
high in the market access (31st) and infrastructure (24th)
components. Transport infrastructure is of high quality
(19th) and widely available (9th), and the related services
are well developed (17th). Border clearance procedures
are the least costly in the world and businesses assess
them as fairly hassle-free, although many documents are
necessary. However, against this positive assessment, it
has to be noted that the quality of the business environment has deteriorated considerably since the last assessment. Malaysia loses ground in all 10 indicators of this
component, falling from 33rd to 51st position. In particular, the costs associated with crime and violence and
the threat of terrorism are on the rise. Yet the regulatory
framework remains fairly propitious (35th) thanks to
efficient financial markets (10th), solid property rights
(34th), and strong domestic competition (32nd).
China, the world’s largest exporter and one of its
fastest-growing countries, progresses one rank to 48th
position; it ranks 3rd within the lower-middle-income
country group. Although considerable room for
improvement remains in every component of the Index,
China’s performance appears in a different light when
compared with its BRIC peers. India, its closest contender, lags 36 places behind at 84th, followed by Brazil
at 87th, while Russia follows at a much lower 114th.
The availability and quality of transport services
constitute the main areas of strength for China (18th).
In particular, the country tops the Liner Shipping
Connectivity Index and obtains very good and improving scores on most of the other indicators in this category. By contrast, transport infrastructure (57th) still
presents major shortcomings, in particular with respect
to air and sea transport infrastructure. China’s customs
procedures are assessed as fairly efficient (33rd), especially
when compared with the other BRIC economies—the

closest being India, at 72nd. Average fees associated with
importing and exporting goods are among the world’s
lowest (3rd), at US$545 and US$500 per container,
respectively. However, the time required to complete
these procedures ranges from 21 to 24 days, far longer
than in Singapore, for example (3 to 5 days). While
being fairly efficient, border administration remains
subject to irregular payments and corruption, as reflected
in China’s results on the related variable (51st) and the
65th position in the Corruption Perceptions Index.
China ranks 79th on the market access component,
owing to the high import tariffs of 11.8 percent (108th)
it levies as well as the very narrow margin of preference
(122nd) granted in destination markets. Finally, the quality of the Chinese business environment, the fourth
main component of the ETI, improved somewhat (41st,
up eight notches), but important constraints persist with
respect to the efficiency of the financial sector (73rd)
and some aspects of the openness to foreign participation (50th), including the restrictions placed on international capital flows (117th).
Indonesia, at 68th, improves its score but retains
the same position in the rankings. At 68th, it does better
than most of its peers of the lower-middle-income
group. The most positive aspects of Indonesia’s performance are found in the regulatory framework pillar (48th).
In particular, the country receives good marks for the
efficiency of its financial sector (29th) and of government
policymaking (46th), as well as for some measures of
the country’s openness to foreign participation (52nd),
including the prevalence of foreign ownership (40th),
rules on FDI (38th), and restrictions on capital flows
(32nd). The assessment is more negative regarding security (76th), another key determinant of the quality of
the overall environment: Indonesia ranks 82nd for the
costs associated with the threat of terrorism and 74th for
the reliability of the police, in line with the average for
the country group. Overall, the quality of Indonesia’s
transport infrastructure, including roads and seaports, is
second rate (80th) and airport density is low (0.3,
100th). The availability and quality of transport services
(73rd), though improving, are not satisfactory. In this
context, the 48th and 38th ranks obtained in the transshipment connectivity index and the Liner Shipping
Connectivity Index, respectively, are encouraging. ICT
infrastructure remains largely underdeveloped (90th),
with very sparse Internet usage and a very limited
government online presence. Border administration also
offers a mixed picture. Customs procedures associated
with importing and exporting are relatively inexpensive
and require little paperwork, but they still take a lot of
time by international standards, and border administration remains marred by corruption (88th).
Vietnam posts one of the biggest progressions
among all countries, leaping 18 places to 71st position.
The improvements in the country’s trade environment
reflect Vietnam’s commitments following the country’s

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recent accession to the WTO (in 2007), which is leading
to a significant liberalization of trade in goods and services over the phase-in period to 2012. This is reflected
in the ETI in Vietnam’s improved ranking in the market
access component (50th). Despite progress made,Vietnam’s
tariff schedule remains complex in some respects. The
area of biggest concern, however, is in border administration. Recent efforts to streamline the efficiency of
the country’s customs led to a 10-place improvement
in the related category, albeit from a low base (107th).
Simultaneously, the low rank of 104th for the transparency of border administration indicates room for
improvement in this area. Trade could be further
enabled by upgrading the country’s transport infrastructure, which is in a dire state (103rd). Low airport density
(104th), poor road quality (95th), and insufficiently
developed port facilities (93rd) indicate that the booming economy is straining the country’s infrastructure.
The assessment of transport services is much more
positive. Vietnam improves its scores on all indicators
composing this category and ranks 31st. Finally, Vietnam
achieves mixed results in the business environment
component (64th). Openness to foreign participation is
limited because of the low prevalence of foreign ownership (102nd) and limited participation in multilateral
trade rules (102nd), and despite the openness toward
FDI (26th) and foreign labor (46th).
India ranks a low 84th, owing to a mixed performance in the ETI. Among the nine pillars of the Index,
the country’s highest ranking is 47th—in the regulatory
environment pillar—and it attains only a very low 115th
on the market access pillar. The domestic market is protected through tariffs of 13 percent on average (115th),
which are particularly high for agricultural products (40
percent, 121st). Further, only 17 percent of all imports
enter the country free of duty (112th). Adding to the
costs, the structure of tariffs is difficult to navigate (89th)
because of the large dispersion of tariffs (107th) and the
high number of distinct tariffs (94th), including many
specific tariffs (90th). Trade is also impeded by customs
procedures, which remain largely inefficient (72nd). In
addition, exporting and importing require much time
and paperwork to clear goods at the border, and the
process is plagued by corruption and bribery (82nd).
India’s good connectivity and some aspects of India’s
general regulatory environment (47th) brighten somewhat this rather bleak assessment.
Other than the Philippines, at 92nd, the other
countries in the region are found below the 100 mark
with Pakistan at 112th, followed by Bangladesh
(113th), Mongolia (116th), and Nepal (118th).
Europe and North America

Germany, which has just been surpassed by China as
the world’s largest exporter, is the highest ranked among
the large economies in terms of enabling trade, and
placed 13th after losing one rank compared with last

year. As is the case in all EU member countries, Germany
provides fairly strong protection to agricultural markets
through non-tariff barriers (73rd) and a highly complex
tariff structure that protects a small number of mainly
agricultural products. As in many other developed countries, tariffs faced by Germany abroad are fairly high in
international comparison (76th), but the country performs very well on all the other pillars of the ETI
except for the efficiency of border administration, where
it ranks 20th. Irregular payments in exports and imports
also appear to be more prevalent (24th) than could be
expected from a country with a very strong regulatory
environment (15th). Further disadvantages include difficulties in hiring foreign labor (86th) and restrictions on
FDI (67th). However, Germany’s excellent transport
infrastructure (5th) and the high quality of the related
services (3rd) compensate for these weaknesses.
Dropping three places, the United States is ranked
19th this year. The country’s performance has fallen in
international comparison in almost all areas assessed by
the Index, bar the regulatory environment and physical
security. Although some progress has been achieved in
absolute terms, this has not been sufficient to lead to an
improvement in the rankings. There has been a deterioration by 13 places of the market access component,
placing the country 62nd. Most aspects measuring the
state of trade policy in the United States have remained
unchanged, with the exception of a very small increase
in the complexity of tariffs, yet US exporters appear to
be facing higher tariffs abroad and benefiting from lower
preference margin than in previous years. Overall, the
United States continues to benefit from hassle-free
import and export procedures (17th) and efficient customs clearance (11th), and provides excellent customs
services to business (3rd).The country also benefits from
excellent infrastructure, including ICTs, providing a
strong basis for enabling trade within the country.
However, over the past year, the United States has fallen
behind in two crucial categories of openness—business
leaders perceive that the rules and regulations both for
hiring foreign labor and for encouraging foreign direct
investment have become more restrictive, falling by 18
and 17 places, respectively, to 62nd and 64th position.
And as in the previous year, the threat of terrorism to
business, at 114th, remains among the costliest in the
world.
France places 20th in this year’s ETI, down by
three positions. As for other European countries, market
access has slightly deteriorated mainly because of higher
barriers faced by exporters abroad. There has also been a
decline in the transparency of the border administration.
The country’s overall trade environment remains characterized by high barriers to the domestic market by means
of non-tariff measures and highly complex, although
low, tariffs, which apply to a significant portion of
imports. Access to foreign markets remains limited with
fairly high tariffs faced and low margins of preference in

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

place. Nevertheless, France’s transport infrastructure plays
an important role in facilitating trade: it is second to
none, widely available, and of excellent quality. The
high-quality transport services, ranked 10th, also play
a key role in supporting the country’s trade performance. Businesses operate in a largely suitable regulatory
environment (24th), with the only drawbacks being
restrictive regulations on hiring foreign labor and
encouraging FDI, ranked at 90th and 62nd, respectively.
Physical security is not a major disadvantage (35th),
although the threat of terrorism continues to pose some
costs to business (70th).
The Russian Federation slides by five places to
obtain a very low 114th position in this year’s ETI.
Despite pledges of the G-20 not to increase protectionism following the financial crisis, Russia has fallen to the
last place in the entire sample on the market access
subindex. Although the average weighted tariff rate
declined, non-tariff measures are being used more
frequently than in previous years and the complexity of
the tariff structure has increased somewhat. Yet the bulk
of the decline can be traced to higher tariffs in target
markets faced by Russia’s exporters, which are among
the highest worldwide (102nd). Russian exporters are
clearly suffering from the country’s decision not to
pursue accession to the WTO. Russia’s low ranking
obscures to a certain extent the strengths of its trade
environment. Given the country’s level of development,
transport infrastructure remains in fairly good condition,
although its availability is assessed more positively (at
31st) than its quality (at 74th). Furthermore, Russia
continues benefit from the availability of ICTs in the
context of trade, with the use of these technologies
spreading quickly by both businesses and government.
On the other hand, enabling trade in Russia would
require an overhaul of the import export procedures
(110th) and reform of what is one of the most burdensome customs clearance processes in the world (122nd).
Russia also obtains poor marks for its regulatory environment (110th), which bears witness to the country’s
rather protectionist stance with regard to foreign participation (ranked 115th). And although physical security is
moderate (ranked 68th for the business cost of common
crime and violence), business leaders do not trust the
police for enforcing law and order (105th).
Latin America and the Caribbean

With some notable exceptions—such as Chile and
Costa Rica, which display very strong performances—
Latin American and Caribbean countries place for the
most part in the middle of the ETI rankings. As highlighted in past editions of this Report, the region’s outstanding domestic and foreign market access continues to
be the main strength of many of its countries. However,
the overall business environment remains an area for
improvement, particularly in terms of corruption and
physical security.

At 18th, Chile improves by one position, once
again leading the ETI rankings in Latin America and the
Caribbean. Chile’s strong commitment to participating
in international trade is demonstrated by its extended
participation in regional trade agreements (RTAs), along
with the government’s continuous efforts to improve the
country’s facilitation of trade.18 Displaying an extraordinary performance in the area of market access (2nd),
Chile benefits from both its high share of duty-free
imports (16th) and the low tariffs (1st) faced by Chilean
exporters. Likewise, Chile applies an almost uniform
MFN tariff (a rate of 6 percent with only a few exceptions) to all its importers,19 a measure that has helped to
reduce the complexity of the country’s tariff structure
(2nd). The country’s overall assessment of border administration (23rd) is also positive because of its transparency (20th) and efficiency (21st). Furthermore, Chile is
characterized by seamless customs procedures (5th), as
well as little corruption related to exports and imports
(16th). In fact, during the past few years, Chile has made
significant efforts toward the modernization of its customs
regime through the introduction of new measures such
as the advance publication of regulations, the computerization of procedures, and the creation of a customs
tribunal.20 But, despite these advances, its clearance procedures remain time consuming and cumbersome. With
regard to Chile’s communications infrastructure, the still
modest availability and use of ICTs in the country
(46th) indicates room for improvement. On the other
hand, the country received a sound general assessment
of its transport infrastructure (28th), thanks in large part
to the excellent quality of its roads (15th), ports (24th),
and air transportation (17th). Last but not least, Chile’s
favorable business environment (26th) has also been key
to the country’s success in benefiting from trade.
Costa Rica, ranked 44th for enabling trade across
borders, is down one position in this edition of the
Report. As a big contributor to national GDP, trade plays
a significant role in Costa Rica’s social and economic
development strategies. For this reason, the government
pays special attention to trade policy and considers it a
crucial tool for economic growth and social equity. As
in the case of Chile, Costa Rica is an example of best
practices in market access (7th), thanks to moderate
non-tariff measures (21st) and relatively simple tariff
structure (35th). Consequently, the country’s market
access is assessed favourably at 37th.21 Costa Rica also
has experienced recent improvements concerning the
efficiency of its import-export procedures. For example,
the time required to import goods dropped from 25 to
15 days, and the number of documents needed to
import and export both decreased by one, with only 7
and 6 documents now required, respectively. In addition,
Costa Rica’s border administration is considered to be
reasonably efficient (34th), even though some difficulties
were identified by the business community regarding
irregular payments in imports and exports (60th). On a

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less positive note, Costa Rica would benefit from upgrading the quality of its transport and communications
infrastructure (78th). In particular, the quality of roads
and ports needs to be improved (ranked 100th and
121st, respectively), and ICTs are still not widely
available or used (ranked 71st).
Mexico comes in at 64th place, moving up in the
ETI rankings by 10 positions. Mexico considers trade
facilitation and global integration to be areas of focus in
its national competitiveness plan 2008–2012. Among the
main trade-related policies is the intention to make a
thorough analysis of existing tariff rates to avoid discrepancies and reduce tariff dispersion, as well as the elimination of those tariffs affecting goods with low volumes
of trade; as for non-tariff measures, simplification and
automatization processes are under way.22 One of the
main areas of improvement identified is Mexico’s
domestic and foreign market access (22nd), as the country
significantly increased its share of duty-free imports
(11th) while keeping tariffs relatively low (25th).
Likewise, the availability and quality of Mexico’s transport infrastructure also improved greatly, climbing 24
positions up to 61st place. Concerning transport services,
advantages such as the competence of the logistics
industry (43rd), the ability to track shipments (44th), and
the timeliness of shipments reaching destination (51st)
also helped Mexico’s overall performance. Last, Mexico’s
business environment (106th) is still assessed poorly as a
consequence of low levels of physical security (114th),
limited reliability of police services (116th), and high
business costs of crime and violence (117th). Meanwhile,
the regulatory environment pillar (77th) captures how,
despite Mexico’s openness to foreign participation
(40th), the country is strongly affected by both corruption (92nd) and low levels of domestic competition
(105th).
Brazil maintains its 87th position in the ETI. A
G-20 member and major exporter of agricultural products, the country has been much involved in global
trade negotiations, representing the interests of both
MERCOSUR and developing countries more generally.23
Despite the importance of trade for its economy, Brazil’s
main weakness remains high and rising protectionism, as
captured by the market access pillar (104th). This is
mainly due to high tariffs (105th), which are imposed
on the vast majority of imports (90th) as well as to the
prevalence of non-tariff measures (79th). The border
administration could also be made more efficient (80th),
particularly in areas such as customs administration,
which remains burdensome (115th), and the overall cost
of import and export procedures (81st and 97th, respectively). The overall assessment of Brazil’s infrastructure is
fairly positive (66th), although the quality of transport
infrastructure could be improved (105th), especially the
country’s ports (120th). Brazil also displays some strength
with regard to the quality and availability of its transport
services (42nd) as well as the availability and use of

ICTs (54th). As it is the case for other countries in the
region, the general business environment (83rd) could
be improved by being more open to foreign participation (83rd) and by reducing the business costs of crime
and violence (111th).
Argentina, at 95th, improves by two positions,
presenting a mixed picture across the different areas of
the ETI. In order to improve its trade performance,
Argentina should address different aspects affecting the
country’s business environment (109th). In particular,
regulations affecting property rights (117th), domestic
competition (121st), and openness to foreign participation (103rd) increase the difficulty of doing business in
the country. At the border, procedures are perceived as a
burden by businesses (117th), who encounter difficulties
in areas related to the efficiency of import-export procedures (86th), such as the high cost of importing goods
(100th, with US$1,810 in fees on a 20-foot container)
and numerous documents required to export (106th).
Other areas of concern include a lack of transparency
at the border (96th), related to the frequent irregular
payments in exports and imports (100th). Similar to
Brazil, the high and increasing tariff rates (98th) and the
pervasive non-trade barriers (85th) continue to affect
Argentina’s ability to trade, although tariffs faced by
exporters in Argentina (32nd) are relatively easy to overcome, allowing them to introduce their products in global
markets. Among the country’s strengths are transport
and communications infrastructure (61st) and the availability and use of ICTs (49th). In fact, the Argentinean
government provides many online services (42nd), and,
similarly, businesses use the Internet to carry out commercial transactions (55th).
Middle East and North Africa

Over the past year, all countries from the region bar
three—Algeria, Morocco, and Jordan—have improved
their position in the ETI. The region continues a high
degree of diversity in terms of enabling trade, with the
United Arab Emirates (UAE) entering the top 20 while
Algeria maintains its position at the bottom of the
rankings.
The United Arab Emirates leads the region at a
very strong 16th position, ahead of the United Kingdom,
Chile, and the United States. The country improved by
two positions over the past year by building on its
strengths. Clearance of goods at the border, already efficient in previous years, has become even easier in international comparison (12th), although the assessment of
the transparency of border administration (at 21st) lags
behind these excellent results somewhat. In terms of the
availability and quality of transport infrastructure, the
UAE moves up to be among the best countries in the
world (4th). Another distinct advantage, high levels of
physical security (4th), has been equally strengthened.
All these factors provide a basis for further strong
growth of trade in the country and a strengthening of

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

its positioning as a key international logistics hub.
Despite progress achieved in these areas, if transport
services were further developed and liberalized, the
UAE could further benefit from its favorable geographic
location on the Europe-Asia trade route. The country
presently occupies the 29th position in the related category. The government could equally place higher priority on putting more public services online (88th). This
would not only facilitate trade in a direct way—for
example, by expediting and facilitating customs clearance through online procedures—but also would lead
the way in Internet use, given that the business sector
presently lags behind a number of other countries in
this area (27th). However, the main constraint remains
high domestic tariffs (53rd) as well as the high trade
barriers faced by the country’s exporters abroad (117th).
Israel occupies the 3rd position in the region in
terms of enabling trade and 26th worldwide, moving up
by three places this year. The improvement in rankings
mirrors important advances in maintaining physical
security and in increasing the use of ICTs, which on
balance outweigh the deterioration in the efficiency of
customs procedures. Overall, Israel’s border administration is efficient and transparent compared with that of
many other countries (25th). As last year, the formal
import and export procedures appear de jure fairly
simple, and neither particularly time-consuming nor
very costly. However, in their replies to the Executive
Opinion Survey, business leaders identified customs
procedures as rather burdensome, ranked 64th out of
125 countries. This result, which is significantly lower
than that of last year (when the country ranked 31st)
could point to bottlenecks in the implementation of
official procedures. Other strengths that contribute to
an environment that is conducive to trade are the high
penetration of ICTs, which are widely used by both
businesses for transactions (6th) and the government for
online services (19th). Despite the slight improvement
over the past year, the difficult security situation remains
the most important single drawback in Israel’s trade
environment; this is ranked 75th overall. In addition, trade
could be further enabled by more efficient transport
services (49th). More openness to foreign participation
(93rd) could also contribute to raising the performance
of this sector by intensifying competition and thereby
raising efficiency and stimulating innovation.
Tunisia, moving up by three positions to 38th,
remains the leading country in North Africa for enabling
trade. The country’s association agreement with the
European Union, which has created a free trade area
between the two traders as of 2008, has contributed
significantly to liberalizing imports into Tunisia.
Nevertheless, Tunisia maintains fairly high tariffs (120th
for the tariff rate), although the complexity has been
reduced over the past year. Tariff peaks and specific
tariffs have been completely eliminated and the share
of duty-free imports rose from 24.1 to 76.3 percent. It

must be noted, however, that the simplification of the
tariff structure was accompanied by more burdensome
customs procedures, which can partially offset the effect
of tariff reforms on trade. Tunisia now ranks 52nd for
the burden of customs procedures. Overall, Tunisia benefits from a business environment that is conducive to
trade (24th) and is supported by a solid institutional
framework and high levels of physical security (20th).
Nevertheless, openness to foreign participation remains
restricted (65th), and a more efficient financial market
(65th) could further contribute to developing trade. The
country’s exporters and importers also benefit from
high-quality and widely available infrastructure across
all modes of transport (37th). Room for improvement
remains with respect to the availability and quality of
transport services (79th), a sector that would benefit
from further liberalization and opening up to foreign
participation. Last but not least, and in contrast to
domestic tariffs, Tunisia enjoys fairly easy access to
foreign markets (41st), supported by an important
preference margin (27th).
Saudi Arabia, up by two positions, occupies the
40th rank. Consistent improvements in all the pillars
except for the market access component contributed
to this result. The efficiency of Saudi Arabia’s customs
services (27th) and border administration (26th) are
important factors in facilitating trade across the country’s borders. Customs procedures are not very burdensome, and it is not costly to import and export goods,
although it may be time consuming (e.g., it takes 18
days to import goods, which corresponds to 58th rank).
Saudi Arabia also benefits from a solid institutional
framework with transparent (20th) and efficient (31st)
government institutions, well-defined property rights
(32nd), and high levels of domestic competition (16th).
The country’s recent accession to the WTO was an
important step in opening up to foreign participation,
yet Saudi Arabia remains closed to foreign ownership
(101st) and has signed only a small share of tradeenabling multilateral treaties (109th). This applies equally
to the transportation sector, where it did not commit to
opening up significantly under the GATS provisions
(69th). Such a move would support the development
of a more efficient logistics and transport industry in the
country, thereby raising the competitiveness of exports,
which the country wishes to diversify. Other than that,
Saudi Arabia’s exporters and importers face the same
challenge as in many other countries in the region: high
costs resulting from the threat of terrorism (96th).
Morocco, ranked 75th, sees the most significant
deterioration in rankings this year’s Report among the
countries from the region. The weaker assessment is
derived from all of the pillars of the ETI. Morocco’s
trade policy remained rather protectionist over the past
several years. The country currently ranks 112th on the
market access pillar. A rise in protectionism is indicated
by the steeply declining share of duty-free imports (14th

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to 85th) and in the rising complexity of the tariff structure (58th to 61st). At the same time, Morocco’s exporters
benefit from easy access to their main target markets
(31st), in large part because of a high preference margin
with the European Union. Exports are further enabled
by clearance procedures, which are more efficient for
exports than for imports. For example, it takes 17 days
to import goods, but only 14 to export them. Yet, by
and large, the customs administration is not the most
critical bottleneck, as it is fairly efficient (44th) and provides appropriate services (42nd). Similarly, the quality
and availability of infrastructure—in particular railroads
and maritime services—is an advantage on which to
build. Further fostering Morocco’s trade performance
would additionally require continuing the liberalization
process. Openness to foreign participation is limited
(92nd), and Morocco committed to opening up only a
small share of transport-related subsectors under the
GATS agreement (54th). Further liberalization of these
sectors would help improve the quality of transport
services, which currently lags behind many countries
(77th).
Sub-Saharan Africa

28

Sub-Saharan African countries enable trade to different
degrees, and the trade liberalization efforts of recent
decades have not been sufficient to significantly improve
the trade performance of the region as a whole. Many
African countries liberalized trade and enjoy significant
preferences in target markets, but significant improvements in trade facilitation have not yet been achieved.
As a result, it is still significantly more expensive to trade
with Africa than with other regions. In many cases, the
cost of trading is a more important obstacle to trade
development than trade policies.
Mauritius, one of the African countries best harnessing the benefits of international trade, maintains the
top position in sub-Saharan Africa at 33rd place, ahead
of the rest of the region by a wide margin. With very
low tariff and non-tariff barriers and low tariffs in target
markets, the country is among the top performers in the
entire sample on the market access pillar (8th). Yet,
although tariffs are being reduced, complexities in their
structure (85th) make it difficult to navigate for business.
With rather efficient and transparent border agencies,
potential bottlenecks in getting goods across borders
can arise with respect to the availability and quality
of transport services, as well as the quality of transport
infrastructure, ranked 86th and 71st, respectively.
International shipments are easy and not costly to
arrange from Mauritius, but timeliness of delivery, tracking and tracing ability, and overall logistics competence
are low in international comparison (ranked 104th,
93rd, and 91st, respectively). The country’s high level of
openness to foreign participation (16th), be it foreign
labor, FDI, or capital flows, highlights the country’s
commitment to participating in the global economy.

Additionally, Mauritius benefits from, in regional comparison, very transparent and efficient governance structures
and manageable levels of physical security (45th).
The second-highest ranked African country is
Botswana, placed at 53rd as it enters this Report for the
first time. Botswana has made great strides in opening its
market, as shown by its excellent 15th position in terms
of domestic market access. Although the country ranks
68th for its average tariff rate (of 5.6 percent), tariffs are
applied to only a fraction of imports, about 5 percent,
and very few non-tariff measures are in place. On the
other hand, the assessment of access to foreign markets is
less favorable than that of domestic access, ranked 69th
overall. Another key strength, in international comparison, is Botswana’s solid institutional framework, with an
efficient government, fair jurisdiction and political decisions, and low levels of corruption, all of which contribute to rendering border administration transparent
(35th) and customs clearance fairly efficient (44th).
Yet, although transparent, the border clearance process
remains somewhat cumbersome, costly, and timeconsuming, for both imports and exports. On the
efficiency of import export procedures pillar, Botswana
ranks a low 111th. Other than import-export procedures,
transport services as well as the availability and use of
ICTs constitute important bottlenecks to trading across
borders in Botswana, and are ranked at 99th and 92nd,
respectively. The country’s logistics services sector is not
on a par with international standards, ranking, for example, 106th for logistics competence. At the same time,
transport infrastructure appears to be available and in
good shape. By making further use of ICTs (114th),
businesses in Botswana could enter new markets abroad.
The government could also foster the use of ICTs by
providing more services online and creating conditions
to develop the necessary infrastructure, such as telephone lines, which are not commonplace in Botswana
(93rd).
South Africa, a G-20 member and the region’s
most advanced economy, places 72nd with respect to
enabling trade across borders, down by 11 positions
from last year’s Report. As the country’s score remained
roughly the same, the drop in rankings indicates that
although South Africa’s overall situation has not
changed, other countries have advanced. The drop is
mainly attributable to a poorer comparative assessment
of the country’s transport infrastructure and the related
services as well as little progress in the use of ICTs.
Similar to Botswana, South Africa boasts a very efficient
and transparent customs administration (28th and 46th,
respectively) and a fairly strong institutional framework.
It has to be noted, however, that the country is less open
to foreign participation and trade than Botswana, as witnessed by the lower share of duty-free imports (36th),
more restrictive regulations on capital flows (105th), and
FDI (75th). South Africa also has an important number
of non-tariff measures in place. Albeit declining, the

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

state of transport infrastructure (29th for quality of
infrastructure) and the availability of transport services
receive good assessments. However, the simplification of
import and export procedures appears overdue and
would make trading across the border more efficient, as
their current complexity constitutes the most important
bottleneck. Importing goods into South Africa takes 35
days, requires 9 documents, and costs (for a standardized
container) US$1,807.
Tanzania drops five places this year, to 97th place.
A number of areas are assessed more poorly in this year’s
edition; in particular, customs clearance has become
more burdensome and progress in ICT availability and
usage is slower than in other countries. Despite the
deterioration since last year Report, market access
remains the key advantage in Tanzania’s trade environment. Tanzanian exporters face very low tariffs in target
markets (6th), and the country managed to secure
additional preferential access. Other advantages include
a fairly secure environment and relatively efficient procedures for import and export (77th). However, business
leaders assess customs procedures as extremely cumbersome (113th) the customs administration provides only
very few services to business (110th). And while exporting only requires a few documents (28th), it remains very
time consuming (94th) and costly (77th) given the
country’s level of GDP. Enabling trade in Tanzania will
also necessitate serious investment in transport infrastructure and efforts to encourage the use of ICTs.
Roads, ports, and airports are in poor condition and do
not sufficiently support the country’s participation in
international trade. Last but not least, Tanzania still
imposes some of the highest tariffs in the world, in particular on agricultural products.

Conclusions
This chapter has presented the results of the ETI for
125 countries and analyzed selected economies in
more detail. This methodology, first published in 2008,
measures the ease of getting goods across borders and
to destination. It has been developed by the World
Economic Forum in collaboration with leading companies from the logistics and transportation sectors and
experts from trade-related international organizations.
The Index categorizes the obstacles into four categories:
market access, border administration, transport and communications, and business environment.
The economic crisis has highlighted the importance of trade for the global economy, an importance
that was thrown into relief when trade volumes contracted sharply in its wake. Throughout the crisis there
has been remarkable resilience against the threat of protectionism; this observation is by and large confirmed by
the Index results. Just as trade was key to spreading the
slowdown internationally, so can trade be an important
driver in diffusing the benefits of recovery across the

world, as open borders benefit not only the domestic
economy, but also that economy’s trading partners.
Against this background, by ranking countries
according to the barriers to trade they currently have in
place, The Global Enabling Trade Report provides key
information on one specific set of measures that could
facilitate recovery. The Report is intended to be a motivator for change and a foundation for dialogue, by providing a yardstick of the extent to which countries have
in place the factors that facilitate the free flow of goods
and identifying areas where improvements are most
needed.

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Notes
1 See Eichengreen and O’Rourke 2010.
2 WTO 2010.
3 For an analysis, see Baldwin 2009.
4 GTA 2009.
5 Bown 2010a. See also Bown 2010b. A more pessimistic view
is found in Vandenbussche and Zanardi 2010.
6 The deterioration of the security situation in Greece most likely
reflects the riots that began at the end of 2008, just a few
months before the Survey was conducted.
7 We have focused on the flow of trade in goods in the Index for
expository purposes, although we recognize that enabling trade in
services, is also important. By circumscribing the issue clearly, the
Index provides a useful vehicle for analyzing policy on a clearly
defined part of the issue. Trade in goods accounts for upward of
80 percent of all trade, and is therefore highly relevant.
8 The methodology used to calculate the weighted average tariff
rate has been updated slightly this year. Weights used for the
aggregation are calculated at the 6-digit level of the harmonized
system (HS6). For countries where subheadings of a HS6 code
(tariff lines) contain both ad valorem duties and specific tariffs,
weights are now allocated equally between them. In the last
edition of the Report the weights used for specific tariffs were
added to the weights of the ad valorem tariffs that pertained to
the same HS6 position. This change has impact on the results for
a few countries, such as Australia, Japan, and Sri Lanka. This
update was necessary because the previous methodology overstated the weights of the few concerned HS6 positions in the
overall average. The data on non-tariff measures are currently
being revised, but the figures were not yet available at the time
of production of this Report. We hope to be able to include an
improved measure of non-tariff barriers in the next edition.
9 For landlocked countries, the access to ports is measured.
10 The score of each subindex is derived as an unweighted average
of the pillars that constitute it.
11 Tests were carried out using regression analysis in a gravity
model of trade. See Lawrence et al. 2009.
12 This is the financial market efficiency subpillar of the World
Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Index. See Sala-i-Martin
et al. 2009 for more details about this variable.
13 However, the spread faced by Hong Kong—between the lowest
rate of 3.7 percent and the highest rate 6.2 percent—is now
down to a narrow 2.5 percentage points.
14 The rate of broadband Internet subscribers in Denmark (37 percent)
is second best worldwide, just behind Sweden.

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15 Over this period, world GDP is expected to grow by 5 percent per
year, while Developing Asia is expected to grow by 8.2 percent
annually (authors’ calculation, based PPP estimates from the
October 2009 edition of the International Monetary Fund’s World
Economic Outlook). The Developing Asia region comprises
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia,
China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Kiribati, Lao People’s Democratic
Republic, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua
New Guinea, the Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka,
Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Vanuatu, and Vietnam. Singapore;
Hong Kong SAR; Taiwan, China; Korea, Rep.; Australia; and New
Zealand are added to the group to calculate the average for the
entire region.

Secretaría de Economía de Mexico. 2008. Diez lienamientos de la
secretaria de economia y comercio para incrementar la competitividad 2008–2012. Mexico City, February. Available at
http://www.economia.gob.mx/pics/pages/2025_base/
DiezLineamientos.pdf.

16 Authors’ calculations based on trade forecasts obtained from the
Economist Intelligence Unit’s CountryData Database (retrieved on
April 14, 2010). The figures are for the Australasia region, which
comprises Australia; Bangladesh; China; Hong Kong SAR;
Indonesia; India; Japan; Korea, Rep.; Malaysia; Myanmar; New
Zealand; the Philippines; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Singapore;
Sri Lanka; Thailand; Taiwan, China; and Vietnam.

———. 2005. Managing the Challenges of WTO Participation: 45 Case
Studies, ed. P. Gallagher, P. Low, and A. D. Stoler. “Case Study 7:
Brazil and the G-20 Group of Developing Countries,” P. da Motta
Veiga. Available at http://onlinebookshop.wto.org/shop/
article_details.asp?Id_Article=701&lang=EN.

17 Australia, however, is one of few advanced economies alongside
New Zealand and Hong Kong SAR where tariffs on agricultural
products are lower than on the other products.

WTO (World Trade Organization). “Understanding the WTO: CrossCutting and New Issues. Regionalism: Friends or Rivals?”
Available at http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/
bey1_e.htm (accessed April 14, 2010).

———. 2009a. “Trade Policy Review: Chile. Open trade policy has contributed to growth and poverty reduction.” Press Release: PRESS/
TPRB/320, October 7 and 9. Available at http://www.wto.org/
english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp320_e.htm/.
———. 2009b. Trade Policy Review, Report by the Secretariat: Chile.
WT/TPR/S/220. September 2. Available at http://www.wto.org/
english/tratop_e/tpr_e/s220-00_e.doc.

18 WTO 2009a.
19 WTO 2009a.
20 WTO 2009b.
21 Bilateral and regional agreements—such as Caribbean Community
(CARICOM) membership (since 2005) and treaties with large
markets in the region such as Chile and Mexico, as well as its
prospective treaties with important trade actors such as the
European Union, China, and Singapore—are important instruments of Costa Rica’s trade policy. See http://www.comex.go.cr/
politica%20comercio/.

30

Vandenbussche, H. and M. Zanardi. 2010. “Antidumping: Much Ado
about Nothing?” VoxEu.org. March 8. Available at
http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/4729.

———. 2010. “Trade to Expand by 9.5% in 2010 after a Dismal 2009,
WTO Reports.” Press Release/PRESS/598, March 26. Available at
http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres10_e/pr598_e.htm.

22 Secretaría de Economía de México 2008.
23 WTO 2005.

References
Baldwin, R., ed. 2009. The Great Trade Collapse: Causes,
Consequences and Prospects. VoxEU.org Ebook. November
2009. Available at http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/4297
Bown, C. P. 2010a. Global Anti-Dumping Database, version 6.0, March.
Available at http://www.brandeis.edu/~cbown/global_ad/.
———. 2010b. “Antidumping, Safeguards and Protectionism During the
Crisis: Two New Insights from 4th Quarter 2009.” VoxEU.org.
February 18. Available at http://voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/4635.
Eichengreen, B. and K. O’Rourke. 2010. “What Do New Data Tell Us?”
VoxEU.org. March 8. Available at http://voxeu.org/index.php?q
=node/3421.
GTA (Global Trade Alert). 2009. The Unrelenting Pressure of
Protectionism: The 3rd GTA Report. A focus on the Asia-Pacific
Region, ed. S. Evenett. London: CEPR. Available at
http://www.globaltradealert.org/gta-analysis/
unrelenting-pressure-protectionism-3rd-gta-report.
———. 2010. Will Stabilisation Limit Protectionism? The 4th GTA
Report. A Focus on the Gulf Region, ed. S. Evenett. London:
CEPR. Available at http://www.globaltradealert.org/
gta-analysis/will-stabilisation-limit-protectionism-4th-gta-report.
IMF (International Monetary Fund). 2009. World Economic Outlook
Database. October 2009. Available at http://www.imf.org/
external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/index.aspx.
Lawrence, R., M. Drzeniek Hanouz, T. Geiger, and Q. He. 2009.
“Enabling Trade in the Global Crisis.” The Global Enabling Trade
Report 2009. Geneva: World Economic Forum. 3–35.
Sala-i-Martin, X., J. Blanke, M. Drzeniek Hanouz, T. Geiger, and I.Mia.
2009. “The Global Competitiveness Index 2009–2010:
Contributing to Long-Term Prosperity amid the Global Economic
Crisis.” The Global Competitiveness Report 2009–2010. World
Economic Forum: Geneva. 3–48.

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

1.1: Enabling Trade in the Global Crisis

Part1.WEB.FINAL:Document 7 5/5/10 11:35 AM Page 31

Appendix: Composition of the Enabling Trade Index
This appendix provides details about the construction of
the Enabling Trade Index (ETI).
The ETI is composed of four subindexes: the market access subindex; the border administration subindex;
the transport and communications infrastructure
subindex; and the business environment subindex. These
subindexes are, in turn, composed of the nine pillars of
the ETI: domestic and foreign market access, efficiency
of customs administration, efficiency of import-export
procedures, transparency of border administration, availability and quality of transport infrastructure, availability
and quality of transport services, availability and use of
ICTs, regulatory environment, and physical security.
These pillars are calculated on the basis of both hard
data and survey data.
The survey data are mainly derived from the
responses to the World Economic Forum’s Executive
Opinion Survey and range from 1 to 7. In addition, survey data from the World Bank’s Logistics Performance
Index (LPI) have also been included. The hard data were
collected from various recognized sources, such as the
World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the
International Trade Centre (ITC), and the United
Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).The data are described in detail in the Technical
Notes and Sources section at the end of this Report. All
of the data used in the calculation of the ETI can be
found in the Data Tables on the website of the Report
(www.weforum.org/getr).
The hard data indicators used in the ETI, as well
as the results from the LPI survey, are normalized to a
1-to-7 scale in order to align them with the Executive
Opinion Survey results.1 Each of the pillars has been
calculated as an unweighted average of the individual
component variables. The subindexes are then compounded as unweighted averages of the included pillars.
In the case of the domestic and foreign market
access pillar, which is itself composed of two subpillars
(domestic market access and foreign market access),
the overall pillar is the unweighted average of the two
subpillars. Likewise, in the case of the availability and
quality of transport infrastructure pillar, which is itself
composed of two subpillars (availability of transport
infrastructure and quality of transport infrastructure),
the overall pillar is the unweighted average of the two
subpillars. The overall ETI is then calculated as the
unweighted average of the four subindexes.
The variables and the composition of pillars are
described below. If a variable is one of hard data, this is
indicated in parentheses after the description.

Subindex A: Market access
Pillar 1: Domestic and foreign market access
A. Domestic market access
1.01
Tariff rate (hard data)
1.02
Non-tariff measures (hard data)
1.03
Complexity of tariffs (hard data) 2
Tariff dispersion (hard data)
Tariff peaks (hard data)
Specific tariffs (hard data)
Distinct tariffs (hard data)
1.04
Share of duty-free imports (hard data)
B. Foreign market access
1.05
Tariffs faced (hard data)
1.06
Margin of preference in destination markets
(hard data)

Subindex B: Border administration
Pillar 2: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
Burden of customs procedures
2.02
Customs services index (hard data)
Pillar 3: Efficiency
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

of import-export procedures
Efficiency of the clearance process 3
Time to import (hard data)
Documents to import (hard data)
Cost to import (hard data)
Time to export (hard data)
Documents to export (hard data)
Cost to export (hard data)

31

Pillar 4: Transparency of border administration
4.01
Irregular payments in exports and imports
4.02
Corruption Perceptions Index (hard data)

Subindex C: Transport and communications
infrastructure
Pillar 5: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
A. Availability of transport infrastructure
5.01
Airport density (hard data)
5.02
Transshipment connectivity index (hard data)
5.03
Paved roads (hard data)
B. Quality of transport infrastructure
5.04
Quality of air transport infrastructure
5.05
Quality of railroad infrastructure
5.06
Quality of roads
5.07
Quality of port infrastructure
Pillar 6: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
Liner Shipping Connectivity Index (hard data)
6.02
Ease and affordability of shipment 3
6.03
Logistics competence 3
6.04
Tracking and tracing ability 3
6.05
Timeliness of shipments in reaching
destination 3
6.06
Postal services efficiency

(Cont’d.)

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

1.1: Enabling Trade in the Global Crisis

Part1.WEB.FINAL:Document 7 5/5/10 11:35 AM Page 32

Appendix &&&::
Appendix:
Composition
(cont’d.)of the Enabling Trade Index (cont’d.)
6.07

GATS commitments in the transport sector
(hard data)

Pillar 7: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
Extent of business Internet use
7.02
Mobile telephone subscriptions (hard data)
7.03
Broadband Internet subscribers (hard data)
7.04
Internet users (hard data)
7.05
Fixed telephone lines (hard data)
7.06
Government Online Service Index (hard
data)

Subindex D: Business environment

32

Pillar 8: Regulatory environment
8.01
Property rights 4
8.02
Ethics and corruption 4
8.03
Undue influence 4
8.04
Government efficiency 4
8.05
Domestic competition 4
8.06
Efficiency of the financial market 4
8.07
Openness to foreign participation 5
Ease of hiring foreign labor
Prevalence of foreign ownership
Business impact of rules on FDI
Restriction on international capital flows
Openness to multilateral trade rules
(hard data)
Pillar 9: Physical security
9.01
Reliability of police services
9.02
Business costs of crime and violence
9.03
Business costs of terrorism

Notes
1 The standard formula for converting each hard data variable to the
1-to-7 scale is
6 x

(

country score – sample minimum
sample maximum – sample minimum

)

+ 1

The sample minimum and sample maximum are the lowest and
highest scores of the overall sample, respectively. For those hard
data variables for which a higher value indicates a worse outcome
(e.g., tariff barriers, road congestion), we rely on a normalization
formula that, in addition to converting the series to a 1-to-7 scale,
reverses it, so that 1 and 7 still correspond to the worst and best
possible outcomes, respectively:
–6 x

(

country score – sample minimum
sample maximum – sample minimum

)

+ 7

In some instances, adjustments were made to account for
extreme outliers in the data.
2 Complexity of tariffs is the average of the other four variables.
3 These variables are derived from the World Bank’s Logistics
Performance Index Survey, which is based on a 1-to-5 scale. LPI
data were normalized to a 1-to-7 scale using the above formula in
order to align it with the Executive Opinion Survey results.
4 These variables are composite indicators comprising multiple
variables used in the World Economic Forum's Global
Competitiveness Index. For details, see the Technical Notes and
Sources at the end of this Report.
5 Openness to foreign participation is the average of the other five
variables.

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:38 PM Page 33

Part 2
Country/Economy Profiles

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:38 PM Page 34

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:38 PM Page 35

How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles

The Country/Economy Profiles section presents a twopage detailed profile for the economies covered by The
Global Enabling Trade Report 2010. The printed version
of the Report features the profiles of 23 selected countries. These are the members of the Group of Twenty
(G-20) (i.e., Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China,
Colombia, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy,
Japan, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, Russian
Federation, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the
United Kingdom, and the United States), as well as the
three countries where the World Economic Forum is
holding major regional summits in 2010 (i.e., Morocco,
Tanzania, and Vietnam).
The Country/Economy Profiles for all the
economies in this Report, including the 23 selected
countries listed above, can be found online at
www.weforum.org/getr. They can be consulted and
downloaded free of charge.

Argentina
Key indicators
Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................40.3
Surface area (1,000 square kilometers).......................2,780.4
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ................................................301.3

Country
World

■ FDI inflows
10

Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 .....................................-2.5

Trade
100

GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................7,508.1

80

8

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................52

60

6

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................45

40

4

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................47
20

2

0

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

0
1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..................4.4

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....70,023.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.......................11,869.7
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......57,423.0

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ......................12,578.7

Brazil
EU27
China
United States
Chile
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................4
MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ......31.9; 11.6

Imports
18.9
18.8
9.1
7.9
6.7
38.6

Brazil
EU27
China
United States
Paraguay
Others

31.3
15.7
12.4
12.2
3.1
25.3

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............7.9

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................10.3

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................10.5
■ Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0

■ Fuels and mining

■ Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.0
53.1

Exports

5.6

Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

Rank
(out of 125)

2010 Index..............................................................................95

12.5

10.9

30.6

82.9

20

40

60

80

100

Score
(1–7 scale)

3.6

2009 Index....................................................................................................................97

3.5

Market access ...................................................................................................98

3.7

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................98

3.7

Border administration.......................................................................................85

3.5

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................87
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................86
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................96

3.6
4.2
2.8

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................61

3.8

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................70
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................72
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................49

4.1
3.6
3.7

Business environment ....................................................................................109

3.5

8th pillar: Regulatory environment .................................................................120
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................93

2.8
4.2

35

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

Page 1
Key indicators

The first section presents a selection of key indicators:
• Population figures are from the United Nations
Population Fund (UNFPA)’s State of World
Population 2009, and surface area data are from the
World Bank’s World Development Indicators Online
(retrieved March 24, 2010).
• All GDP figures are from the International
Monetary Fund (IMF)’s World Economic Outlook
Online Database (October 2009 edition).
• The chart on the upper right-hand side displays
the evolution of trade volumes and foreign direct
investment (FDI) as a percentage of GDP from
1996 through 2008 (or over the subperiod for
which data are available) for the economy under
review (blue line and bars). The black line represents the evolution of world trade as percentage
of world GDP. Total trade is the sum of total
imports and exports of merchandise and commercial services. Data are from the World Trade
Organization (WTO)’s Statistical Database, Time series
on merchandise and commercial services (retrieved
March 23rd, 2010). GDP figures come from the

IMF (ibid). The bars represent the evolution of FDI
inflows as a percentage of GDP. FDI flows with a
negative sign indicate reverse investment or disinvestment, as data on FDI flows are presented on a
net basis (capital transactions’ credits less debits
between direct investors and their foreign affiliates).
FDI data are from the United Nations Conference
on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)’s FDIstat
database (retrieved March 29th, 2010).
• Export and import rankings shown to the left of
the chart are for 2007 and based on trade data
obtained from the WTO (ibid). Data for 2007 are
not available for Indonesia, Malawi, Mauritania,
Qatar, and Zimbabwe.
Selected trade indicators

The second section presents selected indicators that aim
to provide an overview of an economy’s trade profile,
performance, and policies:
• Current account balance data are from the IMF’s
World Economic Outlook Online Database (October

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

2009 edition). Merchandise and commercial services trade data come from the WTO’s Statistical
Database (retrieved March 29th, 2010).

Argentina
All 125 profiles available at www.weforum.org/getr

The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

• Regional trade agreements notifications and most
favored nation (MFN) bound and applied tariff
rates, are provided by the International Trade
Centre (ITC). For non-WTO members, we report
the simple average tariff rate. Tariff escalation represents the percentage point difference between the
MFN applied tariffs for finished (or fully processed)
goods and the applied tariffs for raw materials (or
primary products) for all goods. The data come
from the World Bank’s World Trade Indicators 2009.

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................98 .....■ .......10.5
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................85 .....■ .......62.5
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................84 .....■ .........4.7
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................89 .....■ .......10.9
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................47 .....■ .........0.9
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................92 .....■ .........7.1
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................90 .....■ .....705.0
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................68 .....■ .......57.5
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................32 .....■ .........5.3
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......38 .....■ .......46.7

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................1.0
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:38 PM Page 36

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .......................................117 .....■ .........2.8
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................61 .....■ .........7.2

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................54 .....■ .........2.6
Time to import, days............................................................................49 .....■ ..........16
Documents to import, number ............................................................50 .....■ ............7
Cost to import, US$ per container.....................................................100 .....■ .....1,810
Time to export, days ............................................................................36 .....■ ..........13
Documents to export, number ..........................................................106 .....■ ............9
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................92 .....■ .....1,480

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)......................100 .....■ .........2.8
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................85 .....■ .........2.9

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................31 .....■ .........1.2
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................45 .....■ .......72.5
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................80 .....■ .......30.0
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best)...............................108 .....■ .........3.4
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................79 .....■ .........2.0
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................78 .....■ .........3.2
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................80 .....■ .........3.6

6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................37 .....■ .......26.0
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................42 .....■ .........3.2
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................44 .....■ .........3.0
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................49 .....■ .........3.2
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............41 .....■ .........3.8
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................95 .....■ .........3.8
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

9

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

• Data on tariff rates and peaks for agricultural and
non-agricultural products were provided by the
International Trade Centre (ITC). Tariff peaks for
agricultural products and non-agricultural products
represent the share of tariff lines with a tariff peak
in the agricultural sector and the industrial sector,
respectively. A tariff peak is defined as an MFN rate
that is more than three times the simple average
tariff rate.

36

• The first of the two tables on the right-hand side
lists the main destination markets of the economy’s
exports expressed as a share of its total merchandise
exports. The second table reports the main markets
of origin of the economy’s imports expressed as a
share of its total merchandise imports. Data are
from the WTO's World Trade Profiles (March 2010
edition). Note that data for Chad and Montenegro
(exports and imports) and Peru (imports only) are
mirror data (i.e., obtained from partner countries’
trade data). Mirror data come from the ITC’s Trade
Competitiveness Map (retrieved March 29th, 2010).
• The bar chart on the right-hand side shows the
breakdown by commodity group (Agriculture, Fuels
and mining, and Manufactures) of the country’s merchandise exports and imports, respectively. Data are
from the WTO's World Trade Profiles (March 2010
edition). Note that mirror data provided by the
ITC was used for Chad (exports and imports) and
Lesotho (imports only). According to the WTO’s
International Trade Statistics, the breakdown is as
follows:
• Agriculture covers food products (SITC Rev. 3
sections 0, 1, 4, and division 22) and raw materials (SITC Rev. 3 divisions 21, 23, 24, 25, and 26).
• Fuels and mining covers ores and other minerals, as
well as fuels and non-ferrous metals.
• Manufactures covers iron and steel, chemicals,
other semi-manufactures, machinery and trans-

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................55 .....■ .........4.6
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................32 .....■ .....116.6
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................47 .....■ .........8.0
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................61 .....■ .......28.1
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................49 .....■ .......24.4
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................42 .....■ .........0.4

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .................................................................117 .....■ .........2.8
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .......................................................121 .....■ .........1.8
Undue influence, 1–7 (best)...............................................................119 .....■ .........2.2
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).....................................................122 .....■ .........2.5
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .....................................................121 .....■ .........3.2
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ....................................114 .....■ .........2.8
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)..........................103 .....■ .........4.2
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................51 .....■ .........4.5
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................56 .....■ .........5.2
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .....................................120 .....■ .........3.4
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best).........................120 .....■ .........3.0
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................48 .....■ .......66.5

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best).............................................113 .....■ .........2.8
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) .............................101 .....■ .........3.7
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................38 .....■ .........6.2

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

port equipment, textiles, clothing, and other consumer goods.
Note that the sum of shares does not necessarily
add up to 100 because the world total merchandise
trade includes other commodities and transactions that
are not part of the three main commodity groups
described above. These commodities are gold, arms and
ammunition, and commodities and transactions not classified elsewhere (SITC Rev. 3, section 9).
Enabling Trade Index

The bottom section of the left-hand side summarizes
the economy’s performance on the main components of
the Enabling Trade Index (ETI) 2010, as well as on the
ETI 2009 overall ranking.

Page 2
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail

This page presents the performance (rank and score)
achieved by the economy on each individual indicator
entering the composition of the Enabling Trade Index
(ETI). Indicators are organized by pillar. Please refer to
the Appendix of Chapter 1.1 for the detailed structure
and information about the computation of the ETI.
Units or index ranges are indicated next to the indicator’s name. Please refer to the Technical Notes and
Sources for a detailed description and sources for all

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

indicators. The detailed rankings by indicator, the Data
Tables, are available online at www.weforum.org/getr.
Next to the rank, a colored square indicates
whether the indicator constitutes an advantage (the blue
square) or a disadvantage (gray square) for the country.
In order to identify variables as an advantage or disadvantage, the following rules apply:
• For the top 10 economies in the overall ETI, any
variables on which the economy is ranked 10th or
higher are considered to be competitive advantages.
Any variables ranked below 10 are considered to be
competitive disadvantages.

• Time to export. It takes 5 days on average to
export goods in Denmark, Estonia, and Singapore.
• Paved roads. A total of 18 economies have 100
percent of their road network paved: Austria, Czech
Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hong Kong
SAR, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Latvia,
Luxembourg, Mauritius, Singapore, Slovenia,
Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, and the United
Kingdom.

How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:38 PM Page 37

• For those economies ranked from 11th to 50th on
the overall ETI, any variables with a higher rank
than the economy’s overall rank are considered to
be competitive advantages. Any variables ranked
equal to, or lower than, the economy’s overall rank
are competitive disadvantages.
• For economies with an overall rank on the ETI
lower than 50, any variables for which the economy
ranks 50th or higher are considered to be competitive advantages. Any variables ranked below 50 are
considered competitive disadvantages.
37
For the sake of comparison, we report in the two
right-most columns the score and name of the best-performing economy for each indicator. Multiple economies
denotes a tie among several economies for the best score
on a specific indicator. For these indicators, we provide
below the list of best performing economies.
• Tariff peaks. A total of 24 economies have no tariff peaks: Albania, Algeria, Bangladesh, Benin,
Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia,
Cameroon, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia,
Ghana, Hong Kong SAR, Madagascar, Malawi,
Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Paraguay, Senegal,
Tunisia, and Zambia.
• Specific tariffs. A total of 44 economies have no
specific tariffs: Albania, Algeria, Benin, Bolivia,
Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia,
Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Côte d’Ivoire, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El
Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guatemala, Guyana,
Honduras, Hong Kong SAR, Jamaica, Madagascar,
Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panama, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Senegal, Syria, Tunisia, Uruguay,
Venezuela, Vietnam, and Zambia.
• Customs services index. Two economies obtain
the maximum score of 12 on this index: Singapore
and the United Kingdom.

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:38 PM Page 38

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

List of Countries/Economies

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:38 PM Page 39

List of Countries/Economies

Country/Economy

Page

Country/Economy

Page

Country/Economy

Page

Albania

40

Ghana

124

Nigeria

208

Algeria

42

Greece

126

Norway

210

Argentina*

44

Guatemala

128

Oman

212

Armenia

46

Guyana

130

Pakistan

214

Australia*

48

Honduras

132

Panama

216

Austria

50

Hong Kong SAR

134

Paraguay

218

Azerbaijan

52

Hungary

136

Peru

220

Bahrain

54

Iceland

138

Philippines

222

Bangladesh

56

India*

140

Poland

224

Belgium

58

Indonesia*

142

Portugal

226

Benin

60

Ireland

144

Qatar

228

Bolivia

62

Israel

146

Romania

230

Bosnia and Herzegovina

64

Italy*

148

Russian Federation*

232

Botswana

66

Jamaica

150

Saudi Arabia*

234

Brazil*

68

Japan*

152

Senegal

236

Bulgaria

70

Jordan

154

Serbia

238

Burkina Faso

72

Kazakhstan

156

Singapore

240

Burundi

74

Kenya

158

Slovak Republic

242

Cambodia

76

Korea, Rep.*

160

Slovenia

244

Cameroon

78

Kuwait

162

South Africa*

246

Canada*

80

Kyrgyz Republic

164

Spain

248

Chad

82

Latvia

166

Sri Lanka

250

Chile

84

Lesotho

168

Sweden

252

China*

86

Lithuania

170

Switzerland

254

Colombia*

88

Luxembourg

172

Syria

256

Costa Rica

90

Macedonia, FYR

174

Taiwan, China

258

Côte d’Ivoire

92

Madagascar

176

Tajikistan

260

Croatia

94

Malawi

178

Tanzania*

262

Cyprus

96

Malaysia

180

Thailand

264

98

Czech Republic

Mali

182

Tunisia

266

Denmark

100

Mauritania

184

Turkey*

268

Dominican Republic

102

Mauritius

186

Uganda

270

Ecuador

104

Mexico*

188

Ukraine

272

Egypt

106

Mongolia

190

United Arab Emirates

274

El Salvador

108

Montenegro

192

United Kingdom*

276

Estonia

110

Morocco*

194

United States*

278

Ethiopia

112

Mozambique

196

Uruguay

280

Finland

114

Namibia

198

Venezuela

282

France*

116

Nepal

200

Vietnam*

284

Gambia, The

118

Netherlands

202

Zambia

286

Georgia

120

New Zealand

204

Zimbabwe

288

Germany*

122

Nicaragua

206

* Economies with an asterisk are included in the print version of this Report.

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

39

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:38 PM Page 40

Albania
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................3.2

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................28.8
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................11.7
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................0.7
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................3,680.5
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................77
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ................................100
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................94
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
100
80

■ FDI inflows
410

80
60

8
3

60
40
40

6
2
4

2020

12

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..............–11.5

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......1,354.8

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................2,419.2
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ........5,250.6

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................2,361.0

EU27
Serbia
Macedonia, FYR
China
Montenegro
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................2000
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................3

40

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........7.0; 5.2

Imports
79.7
8.3
2.9
2.8
2.1
4.3

EU27
China
Turkey
Serbia
Russian Federation
Others

60.7
7.4
6.0
4.7
4.4
16.8

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............1.9

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................6.8

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................3.2

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.7
7.3

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
17.3
17.9

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
22.1
19.5

71.7
71.770.1

16.9
18.6
16.9

65.1
65.163.6

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................59

4.1

2009 Index....................................................................................................................63

3.8

Market access ...................................................................................................21

5.0

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................21

5.0

Border administration.......................................................................................59

4.1

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................49
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................62
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................73

4.4
4.7
3.3

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................87

3.2

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure....................100
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................69
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................77

3.2
3.6
2.9

Business environment ......................................................................................73

4.2

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................85
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................59

3.5
4.9
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Albania
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................42 .....■ .........3.4
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................14 .....■ .........5.0
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best)...................................................6 .....■ .........6.8
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................10 .....■ .........5.6
Tariff peaks, %.......................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................21 .....■ .........6.0
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................31 .....■ .......69.1
Tariffs faced, %..................................................................................113 .....■ .........5.9
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......53 .....■ .......34.1

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:38 PM Page 41

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................88 .....■ .........3.6
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................36 .....■ .........8.7

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best).................................112 .....■ .........2.1
Time to import, days............................................................................58 .....■ ..........18
Documents to import, number ............................................................91 .....■ ............9
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................13 .....■ ........710
Time to export, days ............................................................................66 .....■ ..........19
Documents to export, number ............................................................73 .....■ ............7
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................18 .....■ ........725

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................70 .....■ .........3.6
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................77 .....■ .........3.2

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................91 .....■ .........0.3
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................96 .....■ .......53.0
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................71 .....■ .......39.0
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................58 .....■ .........4.8
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ......................................110 .....■ .........1.4
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................92 .....■ .........2.8
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................98 .....■ .........3.2

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................95 .....■ .........2.3
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................95 .....■ .........2.6
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................95 .....■ .........2.4
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) ...............................................106 .....■ .........2.4
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ............100 .....■ .........3.0
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................76 .....■ .........4.4
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ..............6 .....■ .........0.5

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ......................................113 .....■ .........3.6
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................52 .....■ .......99.9
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................72 .....■ .........2.0
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................71 .....■ .......23.9
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................80 .....■ .......10.9
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................70 .....■ .........0.3

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .................................................................110 .....■ .........3.0
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................63 .....■ .........3.1
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................90 .....■ .........2.9
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................62 .....■ .........3.6
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................90 .....■ .........4.0
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................93 .....■ .........3.3
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................61 .....■ .........4.7
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ..................................................3 .....■ .........5.7
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................92 .....■ .........4.4
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................89 .....■ .........4.5
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................77 .....■ .........4.2
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................56 .....■ .......63.4

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................70 .....■ .........4.0
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................60 .....■ .........4.9
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................53 .....■ .........5.9

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

41

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:38 PM Page 42

Algeria
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................34.9

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers).......................2,381.7
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ................................................134.8
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................2.1
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................3,816.2
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................73
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................48
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................58
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
100
80

■ FDI inflows
42.5

80
60

2.0
3

60
40
40

1.5
2
1.0

2020

10.5

00

00.0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..................2.7

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....79,298.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................3,101.4
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......39,479.0

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................7,193.5

EU27
United States
Canada
Turkey
Brazil
Others

WTO accession year.................................................Observer
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................2

42

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ........ —; 18.6

Imports
43.6
30.1
7.8
3.4
3.0
12.2

EU27
China
United States
Japan
Argentina
Others

51.9
8.6
7.7
3.9
3.3
24.5

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............3.1

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................13.9

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................13.4
Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0

0.2


■ Agriculture
Agriculture


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

1.0

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.7

98.8

3.0%

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
17.9
23.0

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

16.9
16.9

65.1
65.1
74.0

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index............................................................................119

3.1

2009 Index..................................................................................................................112

3.2

Market access .................................................................................................124

2.7

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ..........................................124

2.7

Border administration.......................................................................................99

3.2

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration..........................................105
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................90
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .......................................101

2.9
4.1
2.7

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................93

3.1

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................65
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services .............................110
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................94

4.1
3.0
2.3

Business environment ....................................................................................110

3.5

8th pillar: Regulatory environment .................................................................114
9th pillar: Physical security..............................................................................101

3.0
3.9
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Algeria
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ......................................................................................116 .....■ .......13.5
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................87 .....■ .......75.5
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................29 .....■ .........6.6
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................81 .....■ .......10.1
Tariff peaks, %.......................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ..........................................................................4 .....■ ............4
Share of duty-free imports, % ...........................................................106 .....■ .......20.7
Tariffs faced, %..................................................................................120 .....■ .........6.1
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......75 .....■ .......20.6

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:38 PM Page 43

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .......................................121 .....■ .........2.7
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................86 .....■ .........5.0

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best).................................119 .....■ .........2.0
Time to import, days............................................................................77 .....■ ..........23
Documents to import, number ............................................................91 .....■ ............9
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................79 .....■ .....1,428
Time to export, days ............................................................................55 .....■ ..........17
Documents to export, number ............................................................91 .....■ ............8
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................74 .....■ .....1,248

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)......................102 .....■ .........2.8
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................88 .....■ .........2.8

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................50 .....■ .........0.8
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................63 .....■ .......67.3
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................46 .....■ .......70.2
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best)...............................113 .....■ .........3.3
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................65 .....■ .........2.4
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................77 .....■ .........3.2
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ...........................................111 .....■ .........2.9

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................77 .....■ .........8.4
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................91 .....■ .........2.7
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)......................................................112 .....■ .........2.2
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) ...............................................115 .....■ .........2.3
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ............113 .....■ .........2.8
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ................................................109 .....■ .........3.3
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ...........n/a ..................n/a

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ......................................125 .....■ .........2.5
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................61 .....■ .......92.7
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................76 .....■ .........1.4
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................86 .....■ .......11.9
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................86 .....■ .........9.6
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best)...................................114 .....■ .........0.1

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .................................................................113 .....■ .........3.0
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................76 .....■ .........2.8
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................99 .....■ .........2.8
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).....................................................101 .....■ .........3.0
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .....................................................115 .....■ .........3.6
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ....................................121 .....■ .........2.6
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)..........................120 .....■ .........3.4
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ..............................................113 .....■ .........3.5
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).....................................125 .....■ .........3.1
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .....................................118 .....■ .........3.5
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best).........................123 .....■ .........2.4
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................68 .....■ .......59.4

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................84 .....■ .........3.6
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................88 .....■ .........4.3
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best).............................................120 .....■ .........3.8

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

43

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Argentina
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................40.3

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers).......................2,780.4
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ................................................301.3
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 .....................................-2.5
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................7,508.1
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................52
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................45
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................47
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
100
80

■ FDI inflows
410

80
60

8
3

60
40
40

6
2
4

2020

12

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..................4.4

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....70,023.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.......................11,869.7
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......57,423.0

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ......................12,578.7

Brazil
EU27
China
United States
Chile
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................4

44

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ......31.9; 11.6

Imports
18.9
18.8
9.1
7.9
6.7
38.6

Brazil
EU27
China
United States
Paraguay
Others

31.3
15.7
12.4
12.2
3.1
25.3

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............7.9

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................10.3

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................10.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

5.6 17.9
10.9
17.9

0 00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5 53.1

12.571.7
71.7

16.9
16.9

65.1
65.1

82.9

2020
20

4040
40

30.6

6060
60

8080
80

100
100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................95

3.6

2009 Index....................................................................................................................97

3.5

Market access ...................................................................................................98

3.7

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................98

3.7

Border administration.......................................................................................85

3.5

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................87
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................86
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................96

3.6
4.2
2.8

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................61

3.8

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................70
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................72
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................49

4.1
3.6
3.7

Business environment ....................................................................................109

3.5

8th pillar: Regulatory environment .................................................................120
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................93

2.8
4.2
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Argentina
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................98 .....■ .......10.5
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................85 .....■ .......62.5
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................84 .....■ .........4.7
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................89 .....■ .......10.9
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................47 .....■ .........0.9
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................92 .....■ .........7.1
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................90 .....■ ........705
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................68 .....■ .......57.5
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................32 .....■ .........5.3
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......38 .....■ .......46.7

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .......................................117 .....■ .........2.8
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................61 .....■ .........7.2

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................54 .....■ .........2.6
Time to import, days............................................................................49 .....■ ..........16
Documents to import, number ............................................................50 .....■ ............7
Cost to import, US$ per container.....................................................100 .....■ .....1,810
Time to export, days ............................................................................36 .....■ ..........13
Documents to export, number ..........................................................106 .....■ ............9
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................92 .....■ .....1,480

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)......................100 .....■ .........2.8
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................85 .....■ .........2.9

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................31 .....■ .........1.2
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................45 .....■ .......72.5
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................80 .....■ .......30.0
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best)...............................108 .....■ .........3.4
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................79 .....■ .........2.0
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................78 .....■ .........3.2
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................80 .....■ .........3.6

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................37 .....■ .......26.0
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................42 .....■ .........3.2
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................44 .....■ .........3.0
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................49 .....■ .........3.2
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............41 .....■ .........3.8
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................95 .....■ .........3.8
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................55 .....■ .........4.6
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................32 .....■ .....116.6
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................47 .....■ .........8.0
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................61 .....■ .......28.1
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................49 .....■ .......24.4
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................42 .....■ .........0.4

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .................................................................117 .....■ .........2.8
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .......................................................121 .....■ .........1.8
Undue influence, 1–7 (best)...............................................................119 .....■ .........2.2
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).....................................................122 .....■ .........2.5
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .....................................................121 .....■ .........3.2
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ....................................114 .....■ .........2.8
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)..........................103 .....■ .........4.2
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................51 .....■ .........4.5
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................56 .....■ .........5.2
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .....................................120 .....■ .........3.4
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best).........................120 .....■ .........3.0
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................48 .....■ .......66.5

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best).............................................113 .....■ .........2.8
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) .............................101 .....■ .........3.7
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................38 .....■ .........6.2

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

45

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Armenia
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................3.1

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................29.8
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ....................................................8.7
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ...................................-15.6
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................2,658.1
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................81
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ................................111
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ................................104
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
100
80

■ FDI inflows
412

80
60

3
8

60
40
40

2
4
1

2020
00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ...............-13.7

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......1,069.1

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008............................635.5
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ........4,411.7

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ...........................951.5

EU27
Russian Federation
Georgia
United States
Iran
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................2003
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................8

46

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........8.5; 2.9

Imports
54.6
20.3
7.3
4.9
2.3
10.6

EU27
Russian Federation
China
Ukraine
Turkey
Others

29.7
20.4
9.2
7.6
6.5
26.7

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............0.2

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................8.4

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................1.8

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................66.5


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ....................21.6
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3 20.4

Imports
Imports

17.9
18.2
17.9

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0 00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.7 52.5

25.3

16.9
16.8
16.9

54.565.1
65.1

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................52

4.2

2009 Index....................................................................................................................64

3.8

Market access .....................................................................................................9

5.3

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ..............................................9

5.3

Border administration.......................................................................................84

3.5

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................76
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................89
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .......................................109

3.9
4.1
2.6

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................60

3.8

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................55
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................36
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................85

4.4
4.3
2.7

Business environment ......................................................................................65

4.3

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................96
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................46

3.4
5.2
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Armenia
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................33 .....■ .........2.2
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) ............................................n/a ..................n/a
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................72 .....■ .........5.1
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................73 .....■ .........9.2
Tariff peaks, %...................................................................................125 .....■ .......27.0
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................64 .....■ .........0.5
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................58 .....■ ..........32
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................28 .....■ .......72.5
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................45 .....■ .........5.4
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ........5 .....■ .......81.6

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:38 PM Page 47

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .......................................123 .....■ .........2.7
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................39 .....■ .........8.5

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best).................................109 .....■ .........2.1
Time to import, days............................................................................64 .....■ ..........20
Documents to import, number ............................................................50 .....■ ............7
Cost to import, US$ per container.....................................................107 .....■ .....2,096
Time to export, days ............................................................................55 .....■ ..........17
Documents to export, number ............................................................28 .....■ ............5
Cost to export, US$ per container.....................................................104 .....■ .....1,731

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)......................116 .....■ .........2.6
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................92 .....■ .........2.7

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................59 .....■ .........0.7
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best).................................n/a ..................n/a
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................30 .....■ .......89.0
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................69 .....■ .........4.5
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................86 .....■ .........1.9
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................68 .....■ .........3.6
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ...........................................110 .....■ .........2.9

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) .............................n/a ..................n/a
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ..................................111 .....■ .........2.4
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................69 .....■ .........2.6
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) ...............................................115 .....■ .........2.3
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............71 .....■ .........3.4
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................72 .....■ .........4.5
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ..............1 .....■ .........0.6

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ......................................102 .....■ .........3.8
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................51 .....■ .....100.0
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................96 .....■ .........0.2
Internet users per 100 population .....................................................102 .....■ .........6.2
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................60 .....■ .......20.3
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best)...................................101 .....■ .........0.2

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................80 .....■ .........3.7
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................94 .....■ .........2.5
Undue influence, 1–7 (best)...............................................................110 .....■ .........2.6
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................79 .....■ .........3.3
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .....................................................106 .....■ .........3.8
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ....................................101 .....■ .........3.1
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................55 .....■ .........4.8
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ..................................................6 .....■ .........5.5
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................91 .....■ .........4.4
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................84 .....■ .........4.6
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................54 .....■ .........4.7
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................58 .....■ .......62.9

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................97 .....■ .........3.4
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................20 .....■ .........5.8
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................23 .....■ .........6.4

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

47

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL.cleanup100517:Country Profiles 5/17/10 10:08 AM Page 48

Australia
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................21.3

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers).......................7,741.2
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ................................................920.0

Country
World

■ FDI inflows
8

Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................0.7

Trade
70

GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ..............41,981.7

60

6

50

4

40

2

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................28

30

0

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................19

20

–2

10

–4

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................15

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

0

–6
1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 .................-3.2

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 ...187,259.3

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.......................45,601.3
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ....200,338.3

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ......................45,491.0

Japan
China
EU27
Korea, Rep.
India
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................7

48

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........9.9; 3.5

Imports
22.9
14.6
10.5
8.3
6.1
37.7

EU27
China
United States
Japan
Singapore
Others

21.0
15.6
12.0
9.0
7.2
35.3

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............3.9

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................1.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................4.1
■ Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.7

■ Fuels and mining

■ Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................4.4
13.9

Exports

Imports

5.4

59.7

15.5

17.2

71.5

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO
0

Enabling Trade Index

Rank
(out of 125)

20

40

60

80

100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................15

5.1

2009 Index....................................................................................................................14

5.1

Market access ...................................................................................................63

4.2

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................63

4.2

Border administration.......................................................................................14

5.7

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................18
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................25
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................10

5.5
5.5
6.1

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................19

5.2

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................32
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................11
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................17

5.1
5.3
5.3

Business environment ......................................................................................19

5.4

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................12
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................33

5.3
5.6
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

7

Australia
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................48 .....■ .........3.9
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................28 .....■ .......18.0
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................49 .....■ .........6.4
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ......................................................7 .....■ .........4.4
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................66 .....■ .........3.9
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................61 .....■ .........0.3
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................52 .....■ ..........23
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................71 .....■ .......56.7
Tariffs faced, %..................................................................................115 .....■ .........6.0
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ....123 .....■ .........2.7

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................24 .....■ .........4.9
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................15 .....■ .......10.3

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................14 .....■ .........3.7
Time to import, days............................................................................12 .....■ ............8
Documents to import, number ............................................................18 .....■ ............5
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................49 .....■ .....1,119
Time to export, days ............................................................................20 .....■ ............9
Documents to export, number ............................................................47 .....■ ............6
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................54 .....■ .....1,060

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................12 .....■ .........6.0
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ............................................8 .....■ .........8.7

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population......................................5 .....■ .........7.2
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................27 .....■ .......77.2
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................72 .....■ .......38.7
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................26 .....■ .........5.8
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................29 .....■ .........4.1
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................34 .....■ .........5.0
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................46 .....■ .........4.6

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................33 .....■ .......28.8
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ......................................3 .....■ .........3.8
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................17 .....■ .........3.8
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................20 .....■ .........3.9
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............18 .....■ .........4.2
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................20 .....■ .........6.3
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ..............3 .....■ .........0.6

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................23 .....■ .........5.5
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................45 .....■ .....105.0
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................16 .....■ .......24.4
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................17 .....■ .......72.0
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................20 .....■ .......44.5
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).......................................5 .....■ .........0.8

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................11 .....■ .........6.0
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................13 .....■ .........5.4
Undue influence, 1–7 (best)...................................................................8 .....■ .........5.7
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................20 .....■ .........4.6
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .........................................................4 .....■ .........5.4
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................11 .....■ .........4.8
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................28 .....■ .........5.2
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................91 .....■ .........4.0
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................24 .....■ .........5.6
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................51 .....■ .........5.1
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................40 .....■ .........5.0
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)......................7 .....■ .......83.8

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................18 .....■ .........6.0
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................45 .....■ .........5.3
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................77 .....■ .........5.4

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

49

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Austria
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................8.4

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................83.9
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ................................................374.4
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–3.8
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ..............45,090.5

Country
World

Trade
120
80

■ FDI inflows
412

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................11

100
60
80

10
3
8

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................22

4060

26

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................20

40
20
20

4
1
2

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..................2.1

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 ...180,965.7

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.......................61,672.6
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ....183,441.5

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ......................42,577.7

EU27
United States
Switzerland
Russian Federation
China
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ......................29

50

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........5.5; 5.6

Imports
72.1
4.4
4.2
2.5
1.6
15.1

EU27
Switzerland
China
United States
Russian Federation
Others

73.5
4.4
4.2
2.9
2.1
13.0

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............1.0

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................6.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................0.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................43.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.7
Exports
Exports

7.3
8.9
7.3 6.2 19.5
19.5

Imports
Imports

8.9 17.9
17.9 16.1

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

83.371.7
71.7

16.9
16.9

73.3 65.1
65.1

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................14

5.2

2009 Index......................................................................................................................9

5.3

Market access ...................................................................................................94

3.8

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................94

3.8

Border administration.........................................................................................9

5.8

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration..............................................3
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................21
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................16

6.0
5.6
5.7

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................12

5.5

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................11
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services .................................8
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................24

5.9
5.5
5.0

Business environment ......................................................................................13

5.7

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................16
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................11

5.1
6.2
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Austria
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ..........................................................................................4 .....■ .........0.8
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................65 .....■ .......41.6
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................96 .....■ .........3.2
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................45 .....■ .........9.0
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................89 .....■ .......10.3
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................95 .....■ .........9.2
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................97 .....■ .....1,382
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................39 .....■ .......63.9
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................76 .....■ .........5.7
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......84 .....■ .......12.2

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:39 PM Page 51

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................13 .....■ .........5.3
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ....................................................5 .....■ .......11.5

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................20 .....■ .........3.5
Time to import, days............................................................................12 .....■ ............8
Documents to import, number ............................................................18 .....■ ............5
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................59 .....■ .....1,195
Time to export, days ..............................................................................8 .....■ ............7
Documents to export, number ..............................................................6 .....■ ............4
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................66 .....■ .....1,180

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................19 .....■ .........5.8
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................16 .....■ .........7.9

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................54 .....■ .........0.7
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best).................................n/a ..................n/a
Paved roads, % of total .........................................................................1 .....■ .....100.0
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................13 .....■ .........6.2
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................12 .....■ .........5.5
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................6 .....■ .........6.4
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................35 .....■ .........5.0

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) .............................n/a ..................n/a
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ......................................3 .....■ .........3.8
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................19 .....■ .........3.7
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................21 .....■ .........3.8
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............23 .....■ .........4.1
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................19 .....■ .........6.3
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............11 .....■ .........0.5

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................21 .....■ .........5.6
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................16 .....■ .....129.7
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................25 .....■ .......20.7
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................18 .....■ .......71.2
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................28 .....■ .......39.4
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................33 .....■ .........0.5

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .....................................................................6 .....■ .........6.3
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................17 .....■ .........4.9
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................14 .....■ .........5.2
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................16 .....■ .........4.7
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................19 .....■ .........5.1
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................35 .....■ .........4.3
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................32 .....■ .........5.1
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ..............................................117 .....■ .........3.4
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................26 .....■ .........5.6
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................45 .....■ .........5.2
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................12 .....■ .........5.7
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................23 .....■ .......77.2

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................23 .....■ .........5.8
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................16 .....■ .........6.1
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best).................................................1 .....■ .........6.8

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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51

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Azerbaijan
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................8.8

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................86.6
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................42.5
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................7.5
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................4,863.8
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................64
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................62
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................84
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
140
80
120
60
100

■ FDI inflows
450
40
330

80
40
60

20
2
10

2040
20

01
–10

00

0–20
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................19.6

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....30,586.3

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................1,454.0
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ........7,574.7

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................3,826.0

EU27
United States
Israel
India
Indonesia
Others

WTO accession year.................................................Observer
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................4

52

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........— ; 9.1

Imports
56.5
12.6
7.6
5.1
3.0
15.3

EU27
Russian Federation
Turkey
Ukraine
China
Others

28.4
18.8
11.3
7.9
6.7
26.9

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............1.3

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................12.9

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................6.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................6.9


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

1.7

2.0

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.1
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.7

96.1

3.8

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
17.9
16.5

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

16.9
16.9

65.1
78.6 65.1

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................77

3.9

2009 Index....................................................................................................................70

3.8

Market access ...................................................................................................61

4.2

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................61

4.2

Border administration.....................................................................................105

3.1

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................38
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ......................................123
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................87

4.7
1.8
2.9

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................70

3.6

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................73
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................52
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................75

3.9
4.0
2.9

Business environment ......................................................................................49

4.6

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................49
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................51

4.1
5.2
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Azerbaijan
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................76 .....■ .........6.9
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) ............................................n/a ..................n/a
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................62 .....■ .........5.9
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................43 .....■ .........8.7
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................54 .....■ .........1.5
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................76 .....■ .........2.6
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................81 .....■ ........266
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................88 .....■ .......39.8
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................57 .....■ .........5.5
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......50 .....■ .......35.2

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................69 .....■ .........3.9
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................28 .....■ .........9.3

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best).................................105 .....■ .........2.1
Time to import, days..........................................................................116 .....■ ..........50
Documents to import, number ..........................................................125 .....■ ..........14
Cost to import, US$ per container.....................................................120 .....■ .....3,480
Time to export, days ..........................................................................115 .....■ ..........46
Documents to export, number ..........................................................106 .....■ ............9
Cost to export, US$ per container.....................................................119 .....■ .....2,980

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................76 .....■ .........3.5
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ........................................110 .....■ .........2.3

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................86 .....■ .........0.4
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best).................................n/a ..................n/a
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................65 .....■ .......49.4
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................45 .....■ .........5.2
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................31 .....■ .........4.0
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................54 .....■ .........3.9
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................59 .....■ .........4.2

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) .............................n/a ..................n/a
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................53 .....■ .........3.1
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................87 .....■ .........2.5
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................84 .....■ .........2.7
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............86 .....■ .........3.2
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................54 .....■ .........5.0
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ...........n/a ..................n/a

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................85 .....■ .........4.1
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................79 .....■ .......75.0
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................84 .....■ .........0.7
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................62 .....■ .......28.0
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................72 .....■ .......15.0
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................64 .....■ .........0.3

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................63 .....■ .........4.1
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................43 .....■ .........3.7
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................50 .....■ .........3.7
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................40 .....■ .........4.0
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................79 .....■ .........4.2
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................57 .....■ .........3.8
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................39 .....■ .........5.0
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................26 .....■ .........4.9
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................35 .....■ .........5.4
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................60 .....■ .........5.0
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................71 .....■ .........4.4
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................34 .....■ .......73.0

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................56 .....■ .........4.3
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................39 .....■ .........5.4
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................56 .....■ .........5.8

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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53

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Bahrain
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................0.8

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..............................0.7
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................19.4
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................3.0
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ..............24,354.8

Country
World

Trade
200
80

■ FDI inflows
440

150
60

330

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................66

100
40

220

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................76

2050

110

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................31

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..................3.7

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....18,150.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................3,740.2
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......12,500.0

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................2,030.1

Saudi Arabia
United States
EU27
UAE
India
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................3

54

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ........34.4; 5.2

Imports
5.3
2.7
2.4
1.5
1.0
87.1

EU27
Australia
Japan
Saudi Arabia
China
Others

11.4
6.3
5.2
4.8
4.2
68.1

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............1.1

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................5.8

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................4.0
Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................3.3

0.5


■ Agriculture
Agriculture


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
5.6 17.9

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.7

90.5

16.9
16.9 59.1

20

65.1
65.1

40

2020

8.9

60

4040

35.2

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................22

4.9

2009 Index....................................................................................................................24

4.8

Market access ...................................................................................................29

4.8

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................29

4.8

Border administration.......................................................................................26

5.2

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................15
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................35
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................30

5.6
5.3
4.9

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................33

4.7

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................28
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................54
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................27

5.2
4.0
4.8

Business environment ......................................................................................25

5.2

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................25
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................31

4.7
5.6
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Bahrain
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................54 .....■ .........4.2
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) ...............................................5 .....■ .........2.8
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................39 .....■ .........6.5
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................87 .....■ .......10.6
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................36 .....■ .........0.5
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................55 .....■ .........0.3
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................52 .....■ ..........23
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................87 .....■ .......40.3
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................72 .....■ .........5.7
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......47 .....■ .......38.7

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:39 PM Page 55

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................12 .....■ .........5.3
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................19 .....■ .........9.8

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................36 .....■ .........3.1
Time to import, days............................................................................44 .....■ ..........15
Documents to import, number ............................................................37 .....■ ............6
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................41 .....■ ........995
Time to export, days ............................................................................40 .....■ ..........14
Documents to export, number ............................................................28 .....■ ............5
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................47 .....■ ........955

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................20 .....■ .........5.7
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................38 .....■ .........5.1

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................28 .....■ .........1.3
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................95 .....■ .......53.1
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................40 .....■ .......79.1
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................20 .....■ .........6.0
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................82 .....■ .........2.0
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................23 .....■ .........5.6
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................17 .....■ .........5.5

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................79 .....■ .........8.0
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................53 .....■ .........3.1
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................29 .....■ .........3.4
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................26 .....■ .........3.6
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............36 .....■ .........3.9
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................17 .....■ .........6.3
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................31 .....■ .........5.2
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population .............................3 .....■ .....185.8
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................34 .....■ .......14.2
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................35 .....■ .......51.9
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................45 .....■ .......28.4
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).......................................8 .....■ .........0.7

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................28 .....■ .........5.4
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................25 .....■ .........4.5
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................42 .....■ .........4.1
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................34 .....■ .........4.1
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................15 .....■ .........5.1
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................16 .....■ .........4.7
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................22 .....■ .........5.3
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................55 .....■ .........4.5
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................19 .....■ .........5.8
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .........................................8 .....■ .........5.9
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................14 .....■ .........5.6
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................71 .....■ .......58.3

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................29 .....■ .........5.4
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................30 .....■ .........5.7
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................65 .....■ .........5.6

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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55

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Bangladesh
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .............................................162.2

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..........................144.0
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................92.1
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................5.4
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ...................559.3

Country
World

Trade
80

■ FDI inflows
2.0
4

60

1.5
3

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................70

40

1.0
2

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................65

20

0.5
1

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009.............................113

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

0

0.0
0

1996

1998

2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..................2.1

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....15,357.3

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008............................890.7
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......23,837.8

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................3,684.2

EU27
United States
India
Canada
China
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................5

56

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ....169.2; 14.8

Imports
51.2
25.7
4.0
3.5
1.7
14.0

China
India
EU27
Kuwait
Indonesia
Others

15.6
13.2
9.7
7.2
5.1
49.2

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............1.7

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................12.6

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................12.7

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

2.2

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3
10.2

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
17.9
28.6

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5

71.7
87.6 71.7

16.9
16.9 13.1

20

65.1
65.1
51.4

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index............................................................................113

3.4

2009 Index..................................................................................................................111

3.2

Market access ...................................................................................................52

4.4

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................52

4.4

Border administration.....................................................................................100

3.2

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration..........................................104
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................79
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .......................................122

3.0
4.3
2.3

Transport and communications infrastructure ..........................................117

2.5

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure....................120
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services .............................105
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs............................................................108

2.6
3.0
2.0

Business environment ....................................................................................114

3.4

8th pillar: Regulatory environment .................................................................104
9th pillar: Physical security..............................................................................112

3.2
3.6
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Bangladesh
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ......................................................................................113 .....■ .......12.7
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................57 .....■ .......37.1
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................34 .....■ .........6.6
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................44 .....■ .........8.8
Tariff peaks, %.......................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................65 .....■ .........0.5
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................61 .....■ ..........38
Share of duty-free imports, % ...........................................................111 .....■ .......18.6
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................12 .....■ .........4.9
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......14 .....■ .......68.2

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .......................................120 .....■ .........2.8
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................84 .....■ .........5.1

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................84 .....■ .........2.3
Time to import, days............................................................................93 .....■ ..........29
Documents to import, number ............................................................73 .....■ ............8
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................73 .....■ .....1,375
Time to export, days ............................................................................96 .....■ ..........25
Documents to export, number ............................................................47 .....■ ............6
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................48 .....■ ........970

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)......................123 .....■ .........2.2
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ........................................107 .....■ .........2.4

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population..................................125 .....■ .........0.0
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................92 .....■ .......53.9
Paved roads, % of total .....................................................................113 .....■ .........9.5
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best)...............................110 .....■ .........3.4
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................66 .....■ .........2.3
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................89 .....■ .........2.9
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ...........................................106 .....■ .........3.0

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................81 .....■ .........7.9
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................60 .....■ .........3.0
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................90 .....■ .........2.4
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................85 .....■ .........2.6
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............64 .....■ .........3.5
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ................................................107 .....■ .........3.4
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ......................................110 .....■ .........3.6
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population .........................113 .....■ .......27.9
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population .........................110 .....■ .........0.0
Internet users per 100 population .....................................................125 .....■ .........0.3
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population..........................................115 .....■ .........0.8
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................57 .....■ .........0.4

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .................................................................105 .....■ .........3.1
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .......................................................108 .....■ .........2.2
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................89 .....■ .........2.9
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).....................................................102 .....■ .........3.0
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................94 .....■ .........3.9
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................87 .....■ .........3.4
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)..........................109 .....■ .........4.0
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ..............................................116 .....■ .........3.4
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................95 .....■ .........4.3
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................43 .....■ .........5.2
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best).........................111 .....■ .........3.4
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)..................107 .....■ .......47.0

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best).............................................111 .....■ .........2.8
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) .............................105 .....■ .........3.6
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best).............................................116 .....■ .........4.4

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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57

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Belgium
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................10.6

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................30.5
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ................................................461.5
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–3.2
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ..............42,964.7
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................13
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ....................................9
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................10
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
250
80

■ FDI inflows
425

200
60

20
3

150
40
100

15
2
10

2050

15

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–1.0

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 ...475,549.5

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.......................86,138.7
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ....469,486.4

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ......................81,942.4

EU27
United States
India
Switzerland
Russian Federation
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ......................29

58

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........5.5; 5.6

Imports
77.1
4.8
1.5
1.4
1.2
14.0

EU27
United States
China
Japan
Russian Federation
Others

70.3
5.5
4.1
2.6
1.7
15.7

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............1.0

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................6.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................0.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................43.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.7
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3
10.0

Imports
Imports

17.9
9.3 17.9

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5
12.7

19.8

71.7
76.5 71.7

16.9
16.9

65.1
65.1
70.1

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................24

4.9

2009 Index....................................................................................................................21

4.9

Market access ...................................................................................................99

3.7

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................99

3.7

Border administration.......................................................................................30

5.1

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................41
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................36
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................23

4.6
5.3
5.3

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................13

5.5

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................17
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services .................................7
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................20

5.7
5.6
5.2

Business environment ......................................................................................22

5.3

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................23
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................21

4.8
5.9
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Belgium
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ..........................................................................................4 .....■ .........0.8
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................72 .....■ .......43.4
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................96 .....■ .........3.2
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................45 .....■ .........9.0
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................89 .....■ .......10.3
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................95 .....■ .........9.2
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................97 .....■ .....1,382
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................39 .....■ .......63.9
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................76 .....■ .........5.7
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......84 .....■ .......12.2

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................35 .....■ .........4.6
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................52 .....■ .........7.7

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best).....................................8 .....■ .........3.8
Time to import, days............................................................................17 .....■ ............9
Documents to import, number ............................................................18 .....■ ............5
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................89 .....■ .....1,600
Time to export, days ............................................................................14 .....■ ............8
Documents to export, number ..............................................................6 .....■ ............4
Cost to export, US$ per container.....................................................101 .....■ .....1,619

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................27 .....■ .........5.4
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................20 .....■ .........7.1

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................79 .....■ .........0.5
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) ...................................2 .....■ .......97.3
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................42 .....■ .......78.2
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................14 .....■ .........6.2
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................11 .....■ .........5.6
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................16 .....■ .........5.8
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ...............................................6 .....■ .........6.3

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ................................8 .....■ .......82.8
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................26 .....■ .........3.3
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)..........................................................5 .....■ .........4.1
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) ...................................................2 .....■ .........4.2
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............12 .....■ .........4.3
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................31 .....■ .........5.7
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............20 .....■ .........0.4

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................29 .....■ .........5.2
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................39 .....■ .....111.6
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................14 .....■ .......28.0
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................19 .....■ .......68.9
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................24 .....■ .......42.1
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................17 .....■ .........0.6

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................20 .....■ .........5.6
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................31 .....■ .........4.3
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................25 .....■ .........4.7
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................55 .....■ .........3.7
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................20 .....■ .........5.0
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................17 .....■ .........4.7
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................18 .....■ .........5.3
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................69 .....■ .........4.3
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................12 .....■ .........5.9
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................25 .....■ .........5.5
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................31 .....■ .........5.2
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................12 .....■ .......80.9

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................25 .....■ .........5.7
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................21 .....■ .........5.8
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................44 .....■ .........6.1

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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59

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Benin
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................8.9

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..........................112.6
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ....................................................6.4
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................3.8
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ...................765.0

Country
World

Trade
80

■ FDI inflows
84

60

63

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ................................115

40

42

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ................................115

20

21

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009.............................107

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

0

00

1996

1998

2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–9.7

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......1,050.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2007............................281.0
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ........1,990.0

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2007 ...........................491.0

China
EU27
Nigeria
India
Niger
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1996
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................3

60

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ......28.3; 11.9

Imports
24.0
10.8
8.7
8.6
7.2
40.7

EU27
China
Côte d’Ivoire
Ghana
Togo
Others

36.6
8.5
6.9
6.8
5.3
35.9

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............3.4

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................11.6

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................10.1

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

0.6

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
17.9 34.2

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5
41.7

71.7
71.7

6.2

16.9
16.9

65.1
65.1

21.4

20

40

2020

60

4040

44.1

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index............................................................................106

3.5

2009 Index....................................................................................................................96

3.5

Market access ...................................................................................................92

3.8

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................92

3.8

Border administration.......................................................................................97

3.3

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration..........................................112
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................94
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................91

2.8
4.0
2.9

Transport and communications infrastructure ..........................................105

2.8

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure....................116
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................66
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs............................................................110

2.7
3.8
1.9

Business environment ......................................................................................78

4.1

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................79
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................78

3.6
4.7
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Benin
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................92 .....■ .......10.3
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) ............................................n/a ..................n/a
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best)...................................................9 .....■ .........6.8
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................22 .....■ .........6.8
Tariff peaks, %.......................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ..........................................................................4 .....■ ............4
Share of duty-free imports, % ...........................................................123 .....■ .........3.4
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................22 .....■ .........5.1
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......73 .....■ .......23.5

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................92 .....■ .........3.4
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ................................................105 .....■ .........3.5

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................74 .....■ .........2.4
Time to import, days..........................................................................100 .....■ ..........32
Documents to import, number ............................................................50 .....■ ............7
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................74 .....■ .....1,400
Time to export, days ..........................................................................102 .....■ ..........30
Documents to export, number ............................................................73 .....■ ............7
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................76 .....■ .....1,251

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................96 .....■ .........3.0
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................85 .....■ .........2.9

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population..................................119 .....■ .........0.1
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................57 .....■ .......69.3
Paved roads, % of total .....................................................................113 .....■ .........9.5
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best)...............................114 .....■ .........3.3
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................98 .....■ .........1.8
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................91 .....■ .........2.8
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................92 .....■ .........3.3

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................62 .....■ .......13.5
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................94 .....■ .........2.7
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................65 .....■ .........2.6
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................57 .....■ .........3.1
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............62 .....■ .........3.5
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................73 .....■ .........4.4
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............43 .....■ .........0.3

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................87 .....■ .........4.0
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population .........................105 .....■ .......39.7
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population .........................111 .....■ .........0.0
Internet users per 100 population .....................................................114 .....■ .........1.8
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population..........................................107 .....■ .........1.8
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best)...................................111 .....■ .........0.1

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................89 .....■ .........3.5
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................87 .....■ .........2.6
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................58 .....■ .........3.4
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................42 .....■ .........4.0
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................85 .....■ .........4.1
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ....................................104 .....■ .........3.0
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)..........................100 .....■ .........4.3
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................33 .....■ .........4.9
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................86 .....■ .........4.6
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .....................................103 .....■ .........4.2
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best).........................101 .....■ .........3.7
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................96 .....■ .......52.0

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................61 .....■ .........4.2
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................76 .....■ .........4.5
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................81 .....■ .........5.3

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

61

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Bolivia
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................9.9

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers).......................1,098.6
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................17.5
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................2.8
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................1,715.9

Country
World

Trade
100
80

■ FDI inflows
415

6075

310

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................90

4050

25

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ................................102

2025

10

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................91

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

00

0–5
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..................1.1

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......6,447.8

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008............................482.1
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ........4,986.8

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................1,018.0

Brazil
Korea, Rep.
Argentina
United States
EU27
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................3

62

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ........40.0; 8.3

Imports
43.8
11.8
7.1
6.9
6.1
24.3

Brazil
Argentina
United States
Japan
EU27
Others

18.4
14.5
10.5
9.9
8.3
38.4

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............0.0

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................11.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................8.0

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.316.1

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
10.217.9 10.8

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5

71.7
76.4 71.7

16.9
16.9

6.7

65.1
78.9 65.1

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................98

3.6

2009 Index....................................................................................................................88

3.6

Market access ...................................................................................................18

5.0

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................18

5.0

Border administration.......................................................................................87

3.5

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................77
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................93
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .......................................110

3.8
4.1
2.6

Transport and communications infrastructure ..........................................102

2.8

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................95
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services .............................119
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................96

3.4
2.9
2.3

Business environment ....................................................................................123

3.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment .................................................................124
9th pillar: Physical security..............................................................................118

2.5
3.5
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Bolivia
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................84 .....■ .........8.2
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................41 .....■ .......28.6
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best)...................................................7 .....■ .........6.8
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................13 .....■ .........5.9
Tariff peaks, %.......................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................16 .....■ ............5
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................76 .....■ .......51.1
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................16 .....■ .........4.9
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......16 .....■ .......67.0

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .......................................118 .....■ .........2.8
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................42 .....■ .........8.2

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................91 .....■ .........2.3
Time to import, days............................................................................77 .....■ ..........23
Documents to import, number ............................................................50 .....■ ............7
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................96 .....■ .....1,747
Time to export, days ............................................................................66 .....■ ..........19
Documents to export, number ............................................................91 .....■ ............8
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................87 .....■ .....1,425

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)......................119 .....■ .........2.5
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................92 .....■ .........2.7

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................23 .....■ .........1.5
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best).................................n/a ..................n/a
Paved roads, % of total .....................................................................119 .....■ .........7.0
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best)...............................107 .....■ .........3.5
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ......................................100 .....■ .........1.7
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) ...............................................................116 .....■ .........2.2
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ...........................................108 .....■ .........3.0

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) .............................n/a ..................n/a
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ..................................105 .....■ .........2.5
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................96 .....■ .........2.4
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) ...............................................107 .....■ .........2.4
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............81 .....■ .........3.2
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ................................................122 .....■ .........2.5
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ......................................116 .....■ .........3.4
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................96 .....■ .......49.8
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................85 .....■ .........0.7
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................89 .....■ .......10.8
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................94 .....■ .........7.1
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................74 .....■ .........0.3

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .................................................................125 .....■ .........2.0
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .......................................................123 .....■ .........1.8
Undue influence, 1–7 (best)...............................................................123 .....■ .........2.0
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).....................................................123 .....■ .........2.4
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .....................................................122 .....■ .........3.1
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ....................................110 .....■ .........2.9
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)..........................123 .....■ .........3.3
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................94 .....■ .........3.9
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).....................................122 .....■ .........3.2
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .....................................125 .....■ .........2.0
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................88 .....■ .........3.9
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)..................116 .....■ .......41.8

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best).............................................124 .....■ .........2.0
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) .............................103 .....■ .........3.6
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best).............................................109 .....■ .........4.7

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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63

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Bosnia and Herzegovina
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................3.8

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................51.2
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................17.0
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–3.0
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................4,235.6

Country
World

Trade
120
80

■ FDI inflows
416

6090

312

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................87

4060

28

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................80

2030

14

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................70

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–8.8

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......5,063.7

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................1,658.0
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......12,281.7

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ...........................632.1

EU27
Croatia
Serbia
Montenegro
Switzerland
Others

WTO accession year.................................................Observer
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................3

64

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........— ; 6.8

Imports
55.0
17.2
15.1
3.4
2.6
6.6

EU27
Croatia
Serbia
Turkey
China
Others

48.0
17.1
10.6
5.3
4.6
14.4

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............6.2

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................17.8

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................4.3

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................30.9


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3
12.7

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
17.9
17.0

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5 24.6

71.7
71.761.2

16.9
16.9
20.2

65.1
65.1
62.0

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................80

3.8

2009 Index..................................................................................................................102

3.4

Market access ...................................................................................................44

4.5

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................44

4.5

Border administration.......................................................................................90

3.4

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration..........................................106
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................58
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .......................................108

2.9
4.8
2.6

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................75

3.5

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................98
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................56
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................64

3.3
4.0
3.2

Business environment ......................................................................................84

4.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment .................................................................118
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................53

2.9
5.1
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................64 .....■ .........5.2
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) ............................................n/a ..................n/a
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................87 .....■ .........4.2
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................41 .....■ .........8.3
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................72 .....■ .........6.2
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................93 .....■ .........7.1
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................92 .....■ ........747
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................18 .....■ .......77.7
Tariffs faced, %..................................................................................118 .....■ .........6.0
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......17 .....■ .......67.0

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:39 PM Page 65

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................89 .....■ .........3.5
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ................................................105 .....■ .........3.5

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................84 .....■ .........2.3
Time to import, days............................................................................49 .....■ ..........16
Documents to import, number ............................................................50 .....■ ............7
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................48 .....■ .....1,090
Time to export, days ............................................................................52 .....■ ..........16
Documents to export, number ............................................................47 .....■ ............6
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................63 .....■ .....1,125

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)......................121 .....■ .........2.4
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................79 .....■ .........3.0

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................51 .....■ .........0.8
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best).................................n/a ..................n/a
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................61 .....■ .......52.3
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best)...............................125 .....■ .........2.2
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ......................................108 .....■ .........1.5
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) ...............................................................124 .....■ .........1.7
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ...........................................125 .....■ .........1.5

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) .............................n/a ..................n/a
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................49 .....■ .........3.1
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)......................................................105 .....■ .........2.3
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................80 .....■ .........2.7
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............82 .....■ .........3.2
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................56 .....■ .........4.9
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ...........n/a ..................n/a

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ......................................106 .....■ .........3.7
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................73 .....■ .......84.3
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................56 .....■ .........5.0
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................49 .....■ .......34.7
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................46 .....■ .......27.3
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................83 .....■ .........0.3

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .................................................................121 .....■ .........2.5
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................85 .....■ .........2.6
Undue influence, 1–7 (best)...............................................................120 .....■ .........2.1
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).....................................................124 .....■ .........2.2
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .....................................................119 .....■ .........3.3
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ....................................105 .....■ .........3.0
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................97 .....■ .........4.3
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................56 .....■ .........4.5
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................90 .....■ .........4.4
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .....................................108 .....■ .........4.0
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best).........................100 .....■ .........3.7
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................51 .....■ .......65.6

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................92 .....■ .........3.5
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................44 .....■ .........5.3
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................13 .....■ .........6.6

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

65

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:39 PM Page 66

Botswana
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................2.0

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..........................581.7
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................10.8
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ..................................–10.3
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................5,995.4

Country
World

Trade
120
80

■ FDI inflows
48

6090

36

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................84

4060

24

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................99

2030

12

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................59

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–7.6

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......4,875.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008............................991.9
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ........5,165.0

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................1,075.6

EU27
South Africa
China
Zimbabwe
Israel
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................3

66

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ........18.9; 7.8

Imports
60.4
20.3
4.9
4.5
3.1
6.8

South Africa
EU27
China
Israel
United States
Others

78.6
10.4
2.8
1.7
1.2
5.4

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............6.4

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................10.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................5.2

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................12.4


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

3.1

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................7.7
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

Imports
Imports

17.9
12.717.9

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

2010 Index..............................................................................53

19.5
19.5 19.5

71.7
74.971.7

16.9
19.0 16.9

65.1
65.1
65.8

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

4.2

2009 Index ..................................................................................................................n/a

n/a

Market access ...................................................................................................32

4.7

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................32

4.7

Border administration.......................................................................................70

4.0

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................46
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ......................................111
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................35

4.4
2.8
4.6

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................84

3.3

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................53
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................99
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................92

4.5
3.1
2.3

Business environment ......................................................................................35

4.9

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................31
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................50

4.6
5.2
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Botswana
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................68 .....■ .........5.6
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................30 .....■ .......19.7
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................73 .....■ .........5.1
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................90 .....■ .......11.2
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................81 .....■ .........8.4
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................79 .....■ .........3.2
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................77 .....■ ........255
Share of duty-free imports, % ...............................................................5 .....■ .......94.7
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................68 .....■ .........5.6
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......60 .....■ .......30.1

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:39 PM Page 67

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................44 .....■ .........4.4
Customs services index, 0–12 (best)..................................................n/a ..................n/a

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best).................................110 .....■ .........2.1
Time to import, days..........................................................................109 .....■ ..........41
Documents to import, number ............................................................91 .....■ ............9
Cost to import, US$ per container.....................................................117 .....■ .....3,264
Time to export, days ..........................................................................102 .....■ ..........30
Documents to export, number ............................................................47 .....■ ............6
Cost to export, US$ per container.....................................................118 .....■ .....2,810

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................37 .....■ .........4.9
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................32 .....■ .........5.6

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................19 .....■ .........2.1
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best).................................n/a ..................n/a
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................78 .....■ .......32.6
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................90 .....■ .........3.8
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................34 .....■ .........3.9
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................42 .....■ .........4.5
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................74 .....■ .........3.7

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) .............................n/a ..................n/a
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ..................................124 .....■ .........1.9
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)......................................................106 .....■ .........2.3
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................92 .....■ .........2.6
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ............102 .....■ .........3.0
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................51 .....■ .........5.1
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ......................................114 .....■ .........3.5
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................77 .....■ .......77.3
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................89 .....■ .........0.5
Internet users per 100 population .....................................................100 .....■ .........6.2
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................93 .....■ .........7.4
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................96 .....■ .........0.2

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................39 .....■ .........4.8
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................21 .....■ .........4.9
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................22 .....■ .........4.9
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................22 .....■ .........4.4
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................71 .....■ .........4.2
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................47 .....■ .........4.0
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................46 .....■ .........4.9
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................99 .....■ .........3.9
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................43 .....■ .........5.3
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................27 .....■ .........5.5
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................27 .....■ .........5.3
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................80 .....■ .......57.5

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................36 .....■ .........4.9
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................75 .....■ .........4.6
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................45 .....■ .........6.1

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

67

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:39 PM Page 68

Brazil
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .............................................193.7

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers).......................8,514.9
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 .............................................1,481.5
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–0.7
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................7,737.3

Country
World

Trade
80

■ FDI inflows
84

60

63

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................26

40

42

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................29

20

21

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................51

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

0

00

1996

1998

2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–1.3

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 ...197,942.4

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.......................28,822.0
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ....182,408.0

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ......................44,396.2

EU27
United States
Argentina
China
Japan
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................5

68

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ......31.4; 13.6

Imports
23.5
14.0
8.9
8.3
3.1
42.2

EU27
United States
China
Argentina
Japan
Others

20.9
14.9
11.6
7.7
3.9
41.0

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............9.6

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................10.7

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................11.2

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.2


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
5.6 17.9 23.9

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
31.019.5

71.7
71.7

22.2

16.9
16.9

43.7

65.1
65.1
70.5

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................87

3.8

2009 Index....................................................................................................................87

3.6

Market access .................................................................................................104

3.7

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ..........................................104

3.7

Border administration.......................................................................................80

3.7

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................94
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................78
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................67

3.3
4.3
3.5

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................66

3.6

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................99
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................42
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................54

3.3
4.1
3.5

Business environment ......................................................................................83

4.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................93
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................83

3.4
4.6
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Brazil
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ......................................................................................105 .....■ .......11.1
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................79 .....■ .......52.4
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................20 .....■ .........6.7
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................42 .....■ .........8.4
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................25 .....■ .........0.0
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................39 .....■ ..........16
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................90 .....■ .......35.7
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................44 .....■ .........5.4
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......61 .....■ .......29.7

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .......................................115 .....■ .........2.9
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................77 .....■ .........6.1

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................77 .....■ .........2.4
Time to import, days............................................................................49 .....■ ..........16
Documents to import, number ............................................................50 .....■ ............7
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................81 .....■ .....1,440
Time to export, days ............................................................................31 .....■ ..........12
Documents to export, number ............................................................91 .....■ ............8
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................97 .....■ .....1,540

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................67 .....■ .........3.7
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................62 .....■ .........3.7

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................71 .....■ .........0.6
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................20 .....■ .......79.2
Paved roads, % of total .....................................................................121 .....■ .........5.5
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................84 .....■ .........4.1
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................92 .....■ .........1.8
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................99 .....■ .........2.8
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ...........................................120 .....■ .........2.6

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................32 .....■ .......31.1
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................63 .....■ .........2.9
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................33 .....■ .........3.3
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................35 .....■ .........3.4
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............20 .....■ .........4.1
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................29 .....■ .........5.9
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............67 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................25 .....■ .........5.4
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................76 .....■ .......78.5
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................55 .....■ .........5.3
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................47 .....■ .......37.5
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................57 .....■ .......21.4
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................52 .....■ .........0.4

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................71 .....■ .........3.9
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .......................................................117 .....■ .........1.9
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................65 .....■ .........3.3
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).....................................................112 .....■ .........2.8
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .....................................................114 .....■ .........3.7
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................46 .....■ .........4.0
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................89 .....■ .........4.4
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................83 .....■ .........4.1
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................67 .....■ .........4.9
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................66 .....■ .........4.9
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................87 .....■ .........3.9
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................99 .....■ .......50.8

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................83 .....■ .........3.7
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) .............................111 .....■ .........3.3
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best).................................................5 .....■ .........6.7

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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Bulgaria
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................7.5

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..........................111.0
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................44.8
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–6.5
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................5,916.2

Country
World

Trade
180
80

■ FDI inflows
430

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................60

150
60
120

25
3
20

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................60

4090

215

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................57

60
20
30

10
1
5

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..............–11.4

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....22,470.5

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................8,000.0
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......37,261.4

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................6,696.0

EU27
Turkey
Serbia
Russian Federation
Macedonia, FYR
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1996
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ......................29

70

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........5.5; 5.6

Imports
59.9
8.8
4.7
2.7
2.3
21.7

EU27
Ukraine
Russian Federation
Turkey
China
Others

62.1
8.0
6.2
6.1
3.3
14.4

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............1.0

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................6.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................0.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................43.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.7
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3
13.8

Imports
Imports

17.9
8.0 17.9

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.7

32.6

16.9
29.6 16.9

52.3

65.1
65.1
61.6

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................78

3.9

2009 Index....................................................................................................................72

3.8

Market access ...................................................................................................76

3.9

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................76

3.9

Border administration.......................................................................................72

3.9

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................63
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................83
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................77

4.2
4.3
3.2

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................49

4.0

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................66
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................62
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................39

4.1
3.8
4.1

Business environment ......................................................................................99

3.7

8th pillar: Regulatory environment .................................................................101
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................97

3.3
4.1
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Bulgaria
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ..........................................................................................4 .....■ .........0.8
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................47 .....■ .......32.2
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................96 .....■ .........3.2
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................45 .....■ .........9.0
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................89 .....■ .......10.3
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................95 .....■ .........9.2
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................97 .....■ .....1,382
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................39 .....■ .......63.9
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................76 .....■ .........5.7
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......84 .....■ .......12.2

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................84 .....■ .........3.6
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................48 .....■ .........7.8

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................61 .....■ .........2.5
Time to import, days............................................................................69 .....■ ..........21
Documents to import, number ............................................................50 .....■ ............7
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................93 .....■ .....1,666
Time to export, days ............................................................................90 .....■ ..........23
Documents to export, number ............................................................28 .....■ ............5
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................99 .....■ .....1,551

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................91 .....■ .........3.1
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................58 .....■ .........3.8

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................72 .....■ .........0.5
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................89 .....■ .......58.2
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................22 .....■ .......98.4
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................91 .....■ .........3.7
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................55 .....■ .........2.9
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) ...............................................................117 .....■ .........2.2
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................81 .....■ .........3.6

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................87 .....■ .........5.8
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................51 .....■ .........3.1
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................52 .....■ .........2.9
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................59 .....■ .........3.0
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............82 .....■ .........3.2
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................67 .....■ .........4.6
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............20 .....■ .........0.4

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................43 .....■ .........4.9
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................11 .....■ .....138.3
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................41 .....■ .......11.1
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................48 .....■ .......34.9
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................40 .....■ .......28.8
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................43 .....■ .........0.4

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .................................................................103 .....■ .........3.2
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .......................................................106 .....■ .........2.2
Undue influence, 1–7 (best)...............................................................104 .....■ .........2.7
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................98 .....■ .........3.0
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................87 .....■ .........4.0
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................74 .....■ .........3.5
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................78 .....■ .........4.5
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................81 .....■ .........4.1
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................88 .....■ .........4.5
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .....................................107 .....■ .........4.0
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................90 .....■ .........3.9
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)......................7 .....■ .......83.8

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best).............................................108 .....■ .........3.0
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................92 .....■ .........4.0
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................85 .....■ .........5.2

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Burkina Faso
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................15.8

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..........................274.0
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ....................................................7.8
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................3.5
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ...................541.6
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009.............................115
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ................................118
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ................................116
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
70
80
60
60
50

■ FDI inflows
74
6
53

40
40
30

4
2
3

20
20
10

21
1

0

00

1996

1998

2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..............–10.8

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 ..........550.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2007..............................69.7
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ........1,800.0

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2007 ...........................432.5

Togo
Ghana
EU27
Côte d’Ivoire
Switzerland
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................2

72

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ......41.9; 11.9

Imports
41.0
16.6
13.7
10.5
9.4
8.9

EU27
Côte d’Ivoire
Togo
Benin
Ghana
Others

33.3
17.9
11.2
6.8
5.8
24.8

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............3.4

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................11.6

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................10.1

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures
2.7

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

Imports
Imports

17.9
12.517.9

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.7

72.4

16.9
16.9
25.0

6.5

65.1
65.1
62.0

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index............................................................................110

3.4

2009 Index..................................................................................................................104

3.4

Market access ...................................................................................................48

4.4

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................48

4.4

Border administration.....................................................................................116

2.8

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................96
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ......................................121
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................79

3.2
1.9
3.2

Transport and communications infrastructure ..........................................123

2.3

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure....................123
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services .............................113
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs............................................................121

2.2
3.0
1.7

Business environment ......................................................................................74

4.2

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................75
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................67

3.6
4.8
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Burkina Faso
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................94 .....■ .......10.3
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) ...............................................6 .....■ .........3.0
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best)...................................................9 .....■ .........6.8
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................22 .....■ .........6.8
Tariff peaks, %.......................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ..........................................................................4 .....■ ............4
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................92 .....■ .......34.2
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................34 .....■ .........5.3
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......77 .....■ .......19.0

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:39 PM Page 73

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................76 .....■ .........3.8
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ................................................100 .....■ .........4.0

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................96 .....■ .........2.2
Time to import, days..........................................................................114 .....■ ..........49
Documents to import, number ..........................................................119 .....■ ..........11
Cost to import, US$ per container.....................................................121 .....■ .....3,830
Time to export, days ..........................................................................111 .....■ ..........41
Documents to export, number ..........................................................120 .....■ ..........11
Cost to export, US$ per container.....................................................114 .....■ .....2,262

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................86 .....■ .........3.2
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................65 .....■ .........3.6

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population..................................113 .....■ .........0.1
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best).................................n/a ..................n/a
Paved roads, % of total .....................................................................122 .....■ .........4.2
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best)...............................116 .....■ .........3.0
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................80 .....■ .........2.0
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................98 .....■ .........2.8
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................67 .....■ .........4.0

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) .............................n/a ..................n/a
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ..................................125 .....■ .........1.7
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)......................................................124 .....■ .........2.0
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................74 .....■ .........2.8
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ............115 .....■ .........2.8
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................59 .....■ .........4.8
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ......................................120 .....■ .........3.3
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population .........................118 .....■ .......16.8
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population .........................112 .....■ .........0.0
Internet users per 100 population .....................................................121 .....■ .........0.9
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population..........................................112 .....■ .........0.9
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best)...................................106 .....■ .........0.2

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................67 .....■ .........4.0
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................69 .....■ .........2.8
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................69 .....■ .........3.2
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................49 .....■ .........3.9
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................68 .....■ .........4.2
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ....................................118 .....■ .........2.7
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................96 .....■ .........4.3
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................17 .....■ .........5.2
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).....................................103 .....■ .........4.2
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................87 .....■ .........4.6
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................96 .....■ .........3.7
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)..................104 .....■ .......48.5

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................60 .....■ .........4.2
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................78 .....■ .........4.5
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................55 .....■ .........5.8

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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73

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Burundi
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................8.3

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................27.8
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ....................................................1.4
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................3.2
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ...................173.8
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009.............................124
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ................................120
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ................................119
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
100
80

■ FDI inflows
42.0

75
60

1.5
3

50
40
25

1.0
2
0.5

20 0

10.0

–25
0

0–0.5
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..............–10.9

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 ............57.4

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008................................3.3
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ...........402.7

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ...........................172.9

UAE
Switzerland
EU27
Kenya
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................1

74

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ......68.3; 12.7

Imports
43.6
15.3
11.7
5.3
4.2
19.9

EU27
Uganda
Kenya
China
India
Others

40.5
9.6
8.8
7.3
5.0
28.8

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 .............10.2

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................11.6

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................12.9

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.7 15.3

62.3

22.4

3.0

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
10.017.9

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

16.9
16.9

65.1
65.1

64.9

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index............................................................................125

2.8

2009 Index..................................................................................................................116

3.0

Market access ...................................................................................................89

3.8

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................89

3.8

Border administration.....................................................................................124

2.3

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration..........................................113
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ......................................122
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .......................................121

2.8
1.8
2.4

Transport and communications infrastructure ..........................................124

2.1

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure....................124
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services .............................123
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs............................................................124

2.1
2.7
1.5

Business environment ....................................................................................124

2.9

8th pillar: Regulatory environment .................................................................121
9th pillar: Physical security..............................................................................121

2.7
3.1
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Burundi
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ......................................................................................114 .....■ .......12.8
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) ............................................n/a ..................n/a
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................23 .....■ .........6.7
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................74 .....■ .........9.3
Tariff peaks, %.......................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................21 .....■ ............6
Share of duty-free imports, % ...........................................................114 .....■ .......12.8
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................21 .....■ .........5.1
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......65 .....■ .......28.5

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .......................................109 .....■ .........3.0
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................98 .....■ .........4.2

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................97 .....■ .........2.2
Time to import, days..........................................................................119 .....■ ..........71
Documents to import, number ..........................................................104 .....■ ..........10
Cost to import, US$ per container.....................................................122 .....■ .....4,285
Time to export, days ..........................................................................117 .....■ ..........47
Documents to export, number ..........................................................106 .....■ ............9
Cost to export, US$ per container.....................................................117 .....■ .....2,747

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)......................112 .....■ .........2.6
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ........................................124 .....■ .........1.8

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population..................................118 .....■ .........0.1
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best).................................n/a ..................n/a
Paved roads, % of total .....................................................................110 .....■ .......10.4
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best)...............................105 .....■ .........3.5
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................84 .....■ .........1.9
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) ...............................................................114 .....■ .........2.3
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ...........................................102 .....■ .........3.1

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) .............................n/a ..................n/a
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ..................................106 .....■ .........2.5
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................85 .....■ .........2.5
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) ...............................................122 .....■ .........2.0
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ............125 .....■ .........2.0
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................92 .....■ .........3.8
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ......................................100 .....■ .........3.8
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population .........................123 .....■ .........6.0
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population .........................122 .....■ .........0.0
Internet users per 100 population .....................................................122 .....■ .........0.8
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population..........................................121 .....■ .........0.4
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best)...................................120 .....■ .........0.0

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .................................................................120 .....■ .........2.7
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .......................................................113 .....■ .........2.0
Undue influence, 1–7 (best)...............................................................115 .....■ .........2.3
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).....................................................117 .....■ .........2.7
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .....................................................120 .....■ .........3.2
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ....................................124 .....■ .........2.5
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)..........................118 .....■ .........3.7
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................58 .....■ .........4.5
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).....................................116 .....■ .........3.6
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .....................................105 .....■ .........4.1
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best).........................119 .....■ .........3.1
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)..................121 .....■ .......34.0

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best).............................................121 .....■ .........2.3
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) .............................109 .....■ .........3.3
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best).............................................121 .....■ .........3.7

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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75

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Cambodia
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................14.8

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..........................181.0
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................10.9
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–2.7
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ...................781.9

Country
World

Trade
160
80

■ FDI inflows
412

120
60

39

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 .................................88

4080

26

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 .................................92

2040

13

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009.............................106

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–5.5

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......4,300.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................1,606.2
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ........6,600.0

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ...........................958.3

United States
Hong Kong SAR
EU27
Canada
Vietnam
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................2004
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................3

76

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ......19.0; 14.2

Imports
46.9
22.0
21.2
3.4
1.5
5.0

Hong Kong SAR
China
Taiwan, China
Thailand
Vietnam
Others

19.9
16.5
11.8
11.2
8.2
32.5

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2007 ...............7.5

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................14.3

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................12.1

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

2.1

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
5.7 17.9
14.1

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.7

95.8

16.9
16.9

65.1
65.1

46.9

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index............................................................................102

3.6

2009 Index....................................................................................................................91

3.5

Market access ...................................................................................................40

4.6

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................40

4.6

Border administration.......................................................................................96

3.3

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................89
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................96
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .......................................120

3.4
4.0
2.4

Transport and communications infrastructure ..........................................116

2.5

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure....................115
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services .............................112
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs............................................................117

2.8
3.0
1.8

Business environment ......................................................................................88

3.9

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................87
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................91

3.5
4.3
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Cambodia
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ......................................................................................112 .....■ .......12.3
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................16 .....■ .........6.9
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................30 .....■ .........6.6
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................88 .....■ .......10.8
Tariff peaks, %.......................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ..........................................................................4 .....■ ............4
Share of duty-free imports, % ...........................................................122 .....■ .........5.8
Tariffs faced, %......................................................................................4 .....■ .........4.7
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......35 .....■ .......48.7

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................97 .....■ .........3.3
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................81 .....■ .........5.8

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................89 .....■ .........2.3
Time to import, days............................................................................97 .....■ ..........30
Documents to import, number ..........................................................119 .....■ ..........11
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................30 .....■ ........872
Time to export, days ............................................................................86 .....■ ..........22
Documents to export, number ..........................................................120 .....■ ..........11
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................23 .....■ ........732

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)......................117 .....■ .........2.6
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ........................................120 .....■ .........2.0

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population..................................107 .....■ .........0.2
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................91 .....■ .......55.2
Paved roads, % of total .....................................................................120 .....■ .........6.3
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................83 .....■ .........4.1
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ......................................101 .....■ .........1.6
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................73 .....■ .........3.3
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................84 .....■ .........3.5

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................91 .....■ .........4.7
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ..................................120 .....■ .........2.2
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)......................................................106 .....■ .........2.3
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) ...............................................100 .....■ .........2.5
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ............110 .....■ .........2.8
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ................................................111 .....■ .........3.2
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............49 .....■ .........0.2

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................99 .....■ .........3.8
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population .........................110 .....■ .......29.1
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................98 .....■ .........0.1
Internet users per 100 population .....................................................123 .....■ .........0.5
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population..........................................123 .....■ .........0.3
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best)...................................109 .....■ .........0.1

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................99 .....■ .........3.2
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................66 .....■ .........3.0
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................88 .....■ .........2.9
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................69 .....■ .........3.5
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................98 .....■ .........3.9
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................98 .....■ .........3.2
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................63 .....■ .........4.7
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................59 .....■ .........4.4
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................73 .....■ .........4.9
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................44 .....■ .........5.2
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................55 .....■ .........4.7
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................92 .....■ .......53.2

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best).............................................106 .....■ .........3.1
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................74 .....■ .........4.6
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................87 .....■ .........5.1

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Cameroon
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................19.5

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..........................475.4
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................21.8
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................1.6
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................1,095.1
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................94
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................95
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................98
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1996

1998

2000

2002
2002

■ FDI inflows
74
6
53
4
32
2
11
0
-10
2006
2008
2006
2008

2004
2004

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–7.2

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......4,350.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008............................551.8
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ........4,360.0

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................1,708.4

EU27
United States
China
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Chad
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................3

78

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ......79.9; 17.8

Imports
74.3
6.4
3.4
2.8
0.8
12.4

EU27
Nigeria
China
Equatorial Guinea
United States
Others

35.0
23.3
6.3
3.5
2.9
29.0

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............3.0

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................17.4

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................14.2

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures
3.0

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
17.9
21.5

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
26.2 19.5

71.7
65.2 71.7

16.9
16.9 29.5

20

65.1
65.1

40

2020

60

4040

49.0

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index............................................................................115

3.3

2009 Index..................................................................................................................106

3.4

Market access ...................................................................................................65

4.1

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................65

4.1

Border administration.....................................................................................108

3.0

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................99
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ......................................102
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .......................................117

3.1
3.4
2.5

Transport and communications infrastructure ..........................................119

2.5

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure....................117
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services .............................116
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs............................................................112

2.7
2.9
1.9

Business environment ......................................................................................94

3.8

8th pillar: Regulatory environment .................................................................108
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................89

3.2
4.4
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Cameroon
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ......................................................................................119 .....■ .......14.7
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) ...............................................7 .....■ .........3.3
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................27 .....■ .........6.7
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................78 .....■ .........9.6
Tariff peaks, %.......................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................16 .....■ ............5
Share of duty-free imports, % ...........................................................113 .....■ .......13.8
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................60 .....■ .........5.6
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......32 .....■ .......49.8

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .......................................102 .....■ .........3.2
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................88 .....■ .........4.8

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best).................................107 .....■ .........2.1
Time to import, days............................................................................89 .....■ ..........26
Documents to import, number ..........................................................119 .....■ ..........11
Cost to import, US$ per container.....................................................105 .....■ .....2,002
Time to export, days ............................................................................90 .....■ ..........23
Documents to export, number ..........................................................113 .....■ ..........10
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................75 .....■ .....1,250

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)......................114 .....■ .........2.6
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ........................................112 .....■ .........2.2

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population..................................109 .....■ .........0.2
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................44 .....■ .......72.7
Paved roads, % of total .....................................................................116 .....■ .........8.4
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best)...............................119 .....■ .........2.9
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................71 .....■ .........2.2
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) ...............................................................104 .....■ .........2.6
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ...........................................116 .....■ .........2.7

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................65 .....■ .......11.6
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................92 .....■ .........2.7
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................81 .....■ .........2.5
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................90 .....■ .........2.6
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............84 .....■ .........3.2
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ................................................113 .....■ .........3.2
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ......................................107 .....■ .........3.7
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population .........................107 .....■ .......32.3
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population .........................121 .....■ .........0.0
Internet users per 100 population .....................................................108 .....■ .........3.8
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population..........................................111 .....■ .........1.0
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best)...................................107 .....■ .........0.2

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .................................................................102 .....■ .........3.2
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .......................................................111 .....■ .........2.1
Undue influence, 1–7 (best)...............................................................107 .....■ .........2.6
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................89 .....■ .........3.2
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .....................................................102 .....■ .........3.8
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ....................................117 .....■ .........2.8
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................90 .....■ .........4.4
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................40 .....■ .........4.8
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................54 .....■ .........5.2
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .....................................102 .....■ .........4.2
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................97 .....■ .........3.7
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................98 .....■ .......51.1

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................81 .....■ .........3.8
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................96 .....■ .........3.9
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................76 .....■ .........5.4

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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79

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Canada
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................33.6

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers).......................9,984.7
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 .............................................1,319.1
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–2.5
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ..............39,217.3

Country
World

Trade
90
80

■ FDI inflows
104

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................18

75
60
60

8
3
6

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................10

45
40

42

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................11

30
20
15

2
1
0

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

0

–2
0

1996

1998

2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–2.6

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 ...456,464.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.......................64,794.9
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ....418,311.4

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ......................86,644.3

United States
EU27
Japan
China
Mexico
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................6

80

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........6.5; 4.7

Imports
77.6
7.5
2.3
2.2
1.2
9.2

United States
EU27
China
Mexico
Japan
Others

52.4
12.5
9.8
4.1
3.5
17.6

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............4.2

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................24.9

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................1.4

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................11.6


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................4.6
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3
11.8

Imports
Imports

17.9
7.7 17.9 16.0

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.746.8

35.3

16.9
16.9

65.1
75.5 65.1

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index................................................................................8

5.3

2009 Index......................................................................................................................6

5.3

Market access ...................................................................................................25

4.9

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................25

4.9

Border administration.......................................................................................17

5.6

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................19
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................30
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................11

5.4
5.4
6.1

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................20

5.2

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................21
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................25
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................11

5.5
4.7
5.6

Business environment ......................................................................................18

5.5

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................14
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................24

5.1
5.8
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Canada
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................38 .....■ .........2.9
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................19 .....■ .........7.8
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................83 .....■ .........4.7
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ..................................................115 .....■ .......20.6
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................69 .....■ .........5.6
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................84 .....■ .........3.9
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................86 .....■ ........369
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................12 .....■ .......86.0
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................69 .....■ .........5.6
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......62 .....■ .......29.7

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................30 .....■ .........4.7
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................15 .....■ .......10.3

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................13 .....■ .........3.7
Time to import, days............................................................................25 .....■ ..........11
Documents to import, number ..............................................................6 .....■ ............4
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................91 .....■ .....1,660
Time to export, days ..............................................................................8 .....■ ............7
Documents to export, number ..............................................................2 .....■ ............3
Cost to export, US$ per container.....................................................100 .....■ .....1,610

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................14 .....■ .........6.0
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ............................................8 .....■ .........8.7

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population......................................4 .....■ .........7.8
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................24 .....■ .......78.3
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................70 .....■ .......39.9
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................23 .....■ .........5.9
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................15 .....■ .........5.2
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................21 .....■ .........5.7
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................14 .....■ .........5.6

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................21 .....■ .......41.3
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................32 .....■ .........3.2
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)..........................................................8 .....■ .........4.0
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................14 .....■ .........4.0
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ................5 .....■ .........4.4
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................14 .....■ .........6.4
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ..........................................5 .....■ .........6.1
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................86 .....■ .......66.4
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................10 .....■ .......29.6
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................11 .....■ .......75.4
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population..............................................9 .....■ .......54.9
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).......................................3 .....■ .........0.9

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................13 .....■ .........6.0
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................18 .....■ .........4.9
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................13 .....■ .........5.4
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................19 .....■ .........4.6
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .........................................................9 .....■ .........5.2
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ........................................5 .....■ .........5.0
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................41 .....■ .........5.0
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................71 .....■ .........4.2
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................22 .....■ .........5.7
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................47 .....■ .........5.1
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................36 .....■ .........5.1
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................58 .....■ .......62.9

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................11 .....■ .........6.2
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................35 .....■ .........5.5
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................68 .....■ .........5.6

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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Chad
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................11.2

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers).......................1,284.0
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ....................................................7.0
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................1.6
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ...................699.3

Country
World

Trade
180
80

■ FDI inflows
450

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009.............................109

150
60
120

40
3
30

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................97

4090

220

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ................................108

60
20
30

10
1
0

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

00

0–10
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..............–20.8

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......4,650.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008..............................93.2
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ........1,830.0

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................2,455.1

United States
Japan
Taiwan, China
France
China
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1996
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................1

82

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ......79.9; 17.9

Imports
88.3
5.0
2.7
1.4
1.1
1.5

France
China
Ukraine
United States
Germany
Others

20.9
11.6
11.3
9.1
6.4
40.8

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............1.3

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................16.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................14.4

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

1.7

0.4

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.7

97.5

1.6

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
17.9
17.1

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

16.9
16.9

65.1
65.1

71.2

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index............................................................................124

2.9

2009 Index..................................................................................................................121

2.8

Market access ...................................................................................................56

4.3

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................56

4.3

Border administration.....................................................................................125

2.1

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration..........................................124
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ......................................118
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .......................................125

2.3
2.0
2.0

Transport and communications infrastructure ..........................................125

2.1

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure....................125
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services .............................104
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs............................................................125

1.7
3.0
1.5

Business environment ....................................................................................122

3.1

8th pillar: Regulatory environment .................................................................123
9th pillar: Physical security..............................................................................113

2.6
3.6
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Chad
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ......................................................................................118 .....■ .......14.7
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) ...............................................3 .....■ .........1.6
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................24 .....■ .........6.7
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................76 .....■ .........9.5
Tariff peaks, %.......................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................16 .....■ ............5
Share of duty-free imports, % ...........................................................124 .....■ .........2.7
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................17 .....■ .........5.0
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......48 .....■ .......38.4

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .......................................124 .....■ .........2.3
Customs services index, 0–12 (best)..................................................n/a ..................n/a

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................90 .....■ .........2.3
Time to import, days..........................................................................125 .....■ ........100
Documents to import, number ..........................................................104 .....■ ..........10
Cost to import, US$ per container.....................................................125 .....■ .....6,150
Time to export, days ..........................................................................123 .....■ ..........75
Documents to export, number ............................................................47 .....■ ............6
Cost to export, US$ per container.....................................................125 .....■ .....5,497

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)......................124 .....■ .........2.1
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ........................................125 .....■ .........1.6

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population..................................120 .....■ .........0.1
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best).................................n/a ..................n/a
Paved roads, % of total .....................................................................124 .....■ .........0.8
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best)...............................122 .....■ .........2.5
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................87 .....■ .........1.9
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) ...............................................................121 .....■ .........2.0
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ...........................................118 .....■ .........2.7

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) .............................n/a ..................n/a
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................84 .....■ .........2.8
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)......................................................122 .....■ .........2.0
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................89 .....■ .........2.6
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............88 .....■ .........3.1
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ................................................106 .....■ .........3.4
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ......................................124 .....■ .........3.0
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population .........................119 .....■ .......16.6
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population .........................124 .....■ .........0.0
Internet users per 100 population .....................................................120 .....■ .........1.2
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population..........................................125 .....■ .........0.1
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best)...................................122 .....■ .........0.0

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .................................................................122 .....■ .........2.4
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .......................................................120 .....■ .........1.9
Undue influence, 1–7 (best)...............................................................117 .....■ .........2.3
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).....................................................114 .....■ .........2.8
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .....................................................124 .....■ .........2.9
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ....................................125 .....■ .........2.5
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)..........................122 .....■ .........3.4
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................76 .....■ .........4.2
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).....................................120 .....■ .........3.3
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .....................................121 .....■ .........3.3
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best).........................122 .....■ .........2.9
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)..................120 .....■ .......34.9

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best).............................................120 .....■ .........2.4
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) .............................106 .....■ .........3.5
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best).............................................108 .....■ .........4.8

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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Chile
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................17.0

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..........................756.6
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ................................................150.4
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–1.7
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................8,853.0
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................48
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................38
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................46
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
100
80

■ FDI inflows
415

80
60

12
3

60
40
40

9
2
6

2020

13

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..................0.7

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....66,455.5

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.......................10,645.4
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......61,903.0

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ......................11,143.3

EU27
China
United States
Japan
Brazil
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ......................18

84

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ........25.1; 6.0

Imports
24.6
14.3
11.3
10.5
6.0
33.3

United States
EU27
China
Brazil
Argentina
Others

19.9
12.4
12.0
9.1
8.6
38.0

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............0.0

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................5.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................4.6

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................1.1


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3 23.5 19.5
19.5

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
7.4 17.9

16.9
28.8 16.9

0

2020

00

Rank
(out of 125)

71.7
63.9 71.7

12.2

65.1
65.1
55.0

20

40

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................18

5.1

2009 Index....................................................................................................................19

5.0

Market access .....................................................................................................2

5.7

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ..............................................2

5.7

Border administration.......................................................................................23

5.3

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................21
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................47
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................20

5.4
5.0
5.5

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................42

4.1

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................44
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................64
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................46

4.8
3.8
3.8

Business environment ......................................................................................26

5.1

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................32
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................25

4.6
5.7
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Chile
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................61 .....■ .........4.7
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................38 .....■ .......24.8
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best)...................................................2 .....■ .........7.0
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ......................................................2 .....■ .........0.5
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................27 .....■ .........0.2
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ..........................................................................2 .....■ ............3
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................16 .....■ .......80.1
Tariffs faced, %......................................................................................1 .....■ .........3.7
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......43 .....■ .......45.3

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) ...........................................5 .....■ .........5.8
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................40 .....■ .........8.3

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................40 .....■ .........2.9
Time to import, days............................................................................69 .....■ ..........21
Documents to import, number ............................................................50 .....■ ............7
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................22 .....■ ........795
Time to export, days ............................................................................79 .....■ ..........21
Documents to export, number ............................................................47 .....■ ............6
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................29 .....■ ........745

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................16 .....■ .........6.0
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................23 .....■ .........6.7

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................33 .....■ .........1.1
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................51 .....■ .......70.9
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................91 .....■ .......20.2
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................17 .....■ .........6.0
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................76 .....■ .........2.1
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................15 .....■ .........5.8
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................24 .....■ .........5.4

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................52 .....■ .......18.8
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................88 .....■ .........2.7
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................47 .....■ .........2.9
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................39 .....■ .........3.3
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............42 .....■ .........3.8
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................48 .....■ .........5.2
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............64 .....■ .........0.1

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................28 .....■ .........5.3
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................66 .....■ .......88.1
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................45 .....■ .........8.5
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................55 .....■ .......32.5
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................58 .....■ .......21.0
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................18 .....■ .........0.6

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................38 .....■ .........4.9
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................45 .....■ .........3.6
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................38 .....■ .........4.1
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................26 .....■ .........4.4
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................30 .....■ .........4.9
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................18 .....■ .........4.6
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................17 .....■ .........5.3
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................36 .....■ .........4.8
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).........................................7 .....■ .........6.1
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................14 .....■ .........5.7
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................22 .....■ .........5.3
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................61 .....■ .......62.5

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................10 .....■ .........6.2
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................77 .....■ .........4.5
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................22 .....■ .........6.5

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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China
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ..........................................1,345.8

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers).......................9,598.1
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 .............................................4,757.7
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................8.5
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................3,565.7

Country
World

Trade
80

■ FDI inflows
84

60

63

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ....................................3

40

42

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ....................................3

20

21

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................78

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

0

00

1996

1998

2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..................7.8

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ billions), 2008 ........1,428.3

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.....................146,445.8
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ billions), 2008..........1,132.4

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ....................158,003.9

EU27
United States
Hong Kong SAR
Japan
Korea, Rep.
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................2001
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................9

86

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ........10.0; 9.6

Imports
20.5
17.7
13.3
8.1
5.2
35.2

Japan
EU27
Korea, Rep.
Taiwan, China
China
Others

13.3
11.7
9.9
9.1
8.2
47.8

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............2.2

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................20.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................11.2

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................7.8


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

3.0 3.8

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.3
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
7.7 17.9

16.9
27.1 16.9

0

2020

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.7

93.1

65.1
65.1
64.8

20

40

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................48

4.3

2009 Index....................................................................................................................49

4.2

Market access ...................................................................................................79

3.9

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................79

3.9

Border administration.......................................................................................48

4.5

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................40
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................33
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................56

4.6
5.3
3.7

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................43

4.1

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................57
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................18
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................70

4.3
5.0
3.1

Business environment ......................................................................................41

4.7

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................43
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................44

4.2
5.3
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

China
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ......................................................................................108 .....■ .......11.7
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................34 .....■ .......23.8
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................55 .....■ .........6.2
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................80 .....■ .......10.1
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................57 .....■ .........2.2
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................67 .....■ .........0.7
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................67 .....■ ........110
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................81 .....■ .......46.0
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................42 .....■ .........5.4
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ....122 .....■ .........4.1

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................38 .....■ .........4.6
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................51 .....■ .........7.8

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................31 .....■ .........3.2
Time to import, days............................................................................81 .....■ ..........24
Documents to import, number ............................................................18 .....■ ............5
Cost to import, US$ per container.........................................................3 .....■ ........545
Time to export, days ............................................................................79 .....■ ..........21
Documents to export, number ............................................................73 .....■ ............7
Cost to export, US$ per container.........................................................3 .....■ ........500

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................51 .....■ .........4.3
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................65 .....■ .........3.6

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population..................................117 .....■ .........0.1
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................10 .....■ .......91.9
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................45 .....■ .......70.7
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................75 .....■ .........4.3
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................27 .....■ .........4.1
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................47 .....■ .........4.2
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................57 .....■ .........4.3

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ................................1 .....■ .....132.5
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................26 .....■ .........3.3
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................28 .....■ .........3.5
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................29 .....■ .........3.6
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............34 .....■ .........3.9
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................36 .....■ .........5.6
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............55 .....■ .........0.2

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................48 .....■ .........4.7
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population .........................100 .....■ .......47.9
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................53 .....■ .........6.2
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................73 .....■ .......22.3
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................48 .....■ .......25.5
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................52 .....■ .........0.4

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................40 .....■ .........4.8
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................40 .....■ .........3.9
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................46 .....■ .........3.9
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................35 .....■ .........4.1
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................44 .....■ .........4.5
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................73 .....■ .........3.5
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................50 .....■ .........4.9
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................21 .....■ .........5.0
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................94 .....■ .........4.4
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................22 .....■ .........5.6
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best).........................117 .....■ .........3.1
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)......................4 .....■ .......88.0

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................45 .....■ .........4.7
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................40 .....■ .........5.4
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................60 .....■ .........5.7

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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87

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Colombia
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................45.7

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers).......................1,141.8
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ................................................228.6
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–0.3
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................4,661.5

Country
World

Trade
80

■ FDI inflows
84

60

63

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................56

40

42

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................54

20

21

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................65

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

0

00

1996

1998

2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–2.9

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....37,625.9

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................3,967.4
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......39,668.8

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................7,108.2

United States
Venezuela
EU27
Ecuador
Switzerland
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................4

88

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ......42.9; 12.5

Imports
38.0
16.2
12.8
4.0
2.5
26.5

United States
EU27
China
Mexico
Brazil
Others

29.2
13.5
11.5
7.9
5.9
32.1

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............2.4

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................18.3

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................10.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................3.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3
17.8

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
11.517.9 7.1

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.7

48.0

16.9
16.9

65.1
65.1

80.2

20

40

2020

31.5

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................91

3.7

2009 Index....................................................................................................................84

3.6

Market access ...................................................................................................57

4.2

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................57

4.2

Border administration.......................................................................................78

3.7

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................91
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................84
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................66

3.4
4.3
3.5

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................67

3.6

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................74
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................88
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................47

3.9
3.3
3.7

Business environment ....................................................................................118

3.3

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................86
9th pillar: Physical security..............................................................................122

3.5
3.1
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Colombia
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ......................................................................................103 .....■ .......11.0
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................81 .....■ .......53.9
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................19 .....■ .........6.7
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................31 .....■ .........7.2
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................32 .....■ .........0.4
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................30 .....■ ..........11
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................98 .....■ .......27.7
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................19 .....■ .........5.0
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......15 .....■ .......67.1

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:40 PM Page 89

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................73 .....■ .........3.8
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................88 .....■ .........4.8

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................61 .....■ .........2.5
Time to import, days............................................................................37 .....■ ..........14
Documents to import, number ............................................................73 .....■ ............8
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................97 .....■ .....1,750
Time to export, days ............................................................................40 .....■ ..........14
Documents to export, number ............................................................47 .....■ ............6
Cost to export, US$ per container.....................................................107 .....■ .....1,770

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................66 .....■ .........3.7
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................62 .....■ .........3.7

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................34 .....■ .........1.1
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................37 .....■ .......74.6
Paved roads, % of total .....................................................................103 .....■ .......14.4
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................76 .....■ .........4.3
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ......................................107 .....■ .........1.5
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................94 .....■ .........2.8
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ...........................................100 .....■ .........3.2

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................41 .....■ .......23.2
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ..................................102 .....■ .........2.5
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................58 .....■ .........2.8
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................76 .....■ .........2.8
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............57 .....■ .........3.5
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................81 .....■ .........4.1
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................49 .....■ .........4.7
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................63 .....■ .......91.9
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................61 .....■ .........4.2
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................46 .....■ .......38.5
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................64 .....■ .......17.9
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).......................................9 .....■ .........0.7

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................83 .....■ .........3.6
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................88 .....■ .........2.6
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................80 .....■ .........3.0
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................74 .....■ .........3.4
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .....................................................104 .....■ .........3.8
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................67 .....■ .........3.7
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................94 .....■ .........4.3
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................67 .....■ .........4.3
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................85 .....■ .........4.6
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................88 .....■ .........4.5
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best).........................108 .....■ .........3.5
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................49 .....■ .......65.8

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................64 .....■ .........4.1
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) .............................119 .....■ .........2.6
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best).............................................125 .....■ .........2.6

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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89

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Costa Rica
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................4.6

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................51.1
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................29.3
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–1.5
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................6,361.3

Country
World

Trade
120
80

■ FDI inflows
48

6090

36

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................71

4060

24

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................74

2030

12

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................58

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–3.6

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......9,503.8

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................4,164.0
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......15,371.6

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................1,965.7

United States
EU27
China
Nicaragua
Hong Kong SAR
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................6

90

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ........42.8; 6.4

Imports
38.2
17.4
6.3
4.1
4.0
30.0

United States
EU27
Mexico
China
Japan
Others

38.2
11.2
6.2
5.7
5.4
33.4

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............1.2

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................12.3

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................2.8

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................9.1


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

2.3

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

Imports
Imports

17.9
9.6 17.9 16.4

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5
34.7

71.7
71.7
63.0

16.9
16.9

65.1
73.3 65.1

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................44

4.5

2009 Index....................................................................................................................43

4.4

Market access .....................................................................................................7

5.4

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ..............................................7

5.4

Border administration.......................................................................................46

4.6

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................34
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................51
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................47

4.8
4.8
4.1

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................78

3.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................75
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................87
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................71

3.8
3.3
3.1

Business environment ......................................................................................59

4.5

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................46
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................72

4.2
4.8
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Costa Rica
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................43 .....■ .........3.4
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................21 .....■ .......10.1
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................35 .....■ .........6.6
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................34 .....■ .........7.6
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................53 .....■ .........1.4
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................39 .....■ ..........16
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................17 .....■ .......79.5
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................37 .....■ .........5.4
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......36 .....■ .......47.7

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................67 .....■ .........3.9
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................21 .....■ .........9.5

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................56 .....■ .........2.6
Time to import, days............................................................................44 .....■ ..........15
Documents to import, number ............................................................50 .....■ ............7
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................57 .....■ .....1,190
Time to export, days ............................................................................36 .....■ ..........13
Documents to export, number ............................................................47 .....■ ............6
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................68 .....■ .....1,190

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................60 .....■ .........3.9
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................37 .....■ .........5.3

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................11 .....■ .........3.8
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................56 .....■ .......69.6
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................84 .....■ .......25.2
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................66 .....■ .........4.6
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ......................................116 .....■ .........1.3
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) ...............................................................100 .....■ .........2.7
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ...........................................121 .....■ .........2.6

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................60 .....■ .......14.6
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................95 .....■ .........2.6
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................56 .....■ .........2.8
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................52 .....■ .........3.1
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............48 .....■ .........3.7
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................94 .....■ .........3.8
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................56 .....■ .........4.6
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population .........................103 .....■ .......41.7
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................66 .....■ .........2.4
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................56 .....■ .......32.3
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................35 .....■ .......31.8
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................74 .....■ .........0.3

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................61 .....■ .........4.2
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................36 .....■ .........4.0
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................31 .....■ .........4.6
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................45 .....■ .........3.9
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................60 .....■ .........4.3
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................85 .....■ .........3.4
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................58 .....■ .........4.8
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................80 .....■ .........4.1
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................16 .....■ .........5.8
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................19 .....■ .........5.6
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................73 .....■ .........4.3
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)..................101 .....■ .......49.9

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................53 .....■ .........4.3
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................98 .....■ .........3.9
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................47 .....■ .........6.1

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

91

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Côte d’Ivoire
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................21.1

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..........................322.5
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................22.9
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................3.7
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................1,071.3

Country
World

Trade
120
80

■ FDI inflows
4

6090

3

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................77

4060

2

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................87

2030

1

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................96

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................24.6

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....10,100.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008............................845.0
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ........7,150.0

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................2,444.3

EU27
United States
Nigeria
Ghana
Burkina Faso
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................3

92

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ......11.1; 11.9

Imports
48.0
9.7
6.4
4.6
4.2
27.1

Nigeria
EU27
China
Thailand
Venezuela
Others

29.3
27.5
6.9
4.5
3.6
28.1

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............3.4

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................11.6

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................10.1

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
17.9
22.3

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.547.4

71.7
71.7
36.5

16.9
16.9

65.1
65.1

31.2

20

40

2020

60

4040

11.5

46.5

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index............................................................................123

2.9

2009 Index..................................................................................................................120

2.8

Market access .................................................................................................122

2.9

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ..........................................122

2.9

Border administration.....................................................................................119

2.7

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration..........................................116
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ......................................109
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .......................................118

2.7
2.9
2.4

Transport and communications infrastructure ..........................................104

2.8

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure....................104
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services .............................102
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs............................................................100

3.2
3.1
2.2

Business environment ....................................................................................120

3.2

8th pillar: Regulatory environment .................................................................116
9th pillar: Physical security..............................................................................116

3.0
3.5
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Côte d’Ivoire
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................96 .....■ .......10.3
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................91 .....■ .......88.7
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best)...................................................9 .....■ .........6.8
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................22 .....■ .........6.8
Tariff peaks, %.......................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ..........................................................................4 .....■ ............4
Share of duty-free imports, % ...........................................................118 .....■ .........8.3
Tariffs faced, %..................................................................................122 .....■ .........6.2
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......46 .....■ .......39.3

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................98 .....■ .........3.3
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ................................................108 .....■ .........3.3

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best).................................103 .....■ .........2.2
Time to import, days..........................................................................105 .....■ ..........36
Documents to import, number ............................................................91 .....■ ............9
Cost to import, US$ per container.....................................................111 .....■ .....2,577
Time to export, days ............................................................................96 .....■ ..........25
Documents to export, number ..........................................................113 .....■ ..........10
Cost to export, US$ per container.....................................................110 .....■ .....1,969

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)......................118 .....■ .........2.5
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ........................................118 .....■ .........2.1

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population..................................124 .....■ .........0.1
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................30 .....■ .......75.8
Paved roads, % of total .....................................................................117 .....■ .........8.1
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................70 .....■ .........4.5
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................81 .....■ .........2.0
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................67 .....■ .........3.6
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................36 .....■ .........5.0

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................50 .....■ .......19.4
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ..................................110 .....■ .........2.4
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................75 .....■ .........2.6
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................60 .....■ .........3.0
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ............117 .....■ .........2.7
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ................................................114 .....■ .........3.2
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............65 .....■ .........0.1

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................95 .....■ .........3.9
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................94 .....■ .......50.7
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population .........................104 .....■ .........0.0
Internet users per 100 population .....................................................111 .....■ .........3.2
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population..........................................108 .....■ .........1.7
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................64 .....■ .........0.3

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .................................................................114 .....■ .........3.0
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .......................................................122 .....■ .........1.8
Undue influence, 1–7 (best)...............................................................122 .....■ .........2.1
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).....................................................107 .....■ .........2.9
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .....................................................103 .....■ .........3.8
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ....................................115 .....■ .........2.8
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................86 .....■ .........4.4
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................73 .....■ .........4.2
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................30 .....■ .........5.5
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................56 .....■ .........5.0
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best).........................104 .....■ .........3.6
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)..................112 .....■ .......44.5

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best).............................................119 .....■ .........2.5
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) .............................118 .....■ .........2.7
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................83 .....■ .........5.3

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

93

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Croatia
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................4.4

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................56.5
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................61.7
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–5.2
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ..............13,913.1
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................39
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................61
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................60
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
100
80

■ FDI inflows
410

80
60

8
3

60
40
40

6
2
4

2020

12

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–6.1

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....14,111.7

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.......................15,163.8
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......30,728.4

Exports

Imports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................4,512.6

EU27
60.9
Bosnia & Herzegovina 15.4
Serbia
5.5
United States
2.5
Marshall Islands
1.4
Others
14.3

EU27
64.1
Russian Federation 10.4
China
6.1
Bosnia & Herzegovina 2.7
United States
2.1
Others
14.6

WTO accession year .......................................................2000
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................4

94

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........6.2; 4.8
Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............1.4

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................11.5

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................2.4

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................45.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.4
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3
13.1

Imports
Imports

17.9
9.2 17.9

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5
17.2

20.3

71.7
71.7
69.7

16.9
16.9

65.1
70.465.1

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................45

4.4

2009 Index....................................................................................................................39

4.4

Market access ...................................................................................................28

4.8

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................28

4.8

Border administration.......................................................................................60

4.1

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................54
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................74
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................59

4.3
4.5
3.6

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................38

4.5

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................34
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................48
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................34

5.1
4.1
4.4

Business environment ......................................................................................63

4.4

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................90
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................42

3.4
5.3
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Croatia
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................39 .....■ .........3.0
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) ............................................n/a ..................n/a
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................91 .....■ .........4.0
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................15 .....■ .........6.1
Tariff peaks, %...................................................................................119 .....■ .......11.7
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................87 .....■ .........6.1
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................89 .....■ ........676
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................10 .....■ .......86.8
Tariffs faced, %..................................................................................111 .....■ .........5.8
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......20 .....■ .......59.1

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................71 .....■ .........3.8
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................50 .....■ .........7.8

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................55 .....■ .........2.6
Time to import, days............................................................................49 .....■ ..........16
Documents to import, number ............................................................73 .....■ ............8
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................52 .....■ .....1,141
Time to export, days ............................................................................71 .....■ ..........20
Documents to export, number ............................................................73 .....■ ............7
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................82 .....■ .....1,281

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................68 .....■ .........3.7
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................53 .....■ .........4.1

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................21 .....■ .........1.7
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................82 .....■ .......60.7
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................29 .....■ .......89.1
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................74 .....■ .........4.3
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................43 .....■ .........3.4
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................31 .....■ .........5.1
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................72 .....■ .........3.8

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................76 .....■ .........8.5
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................61 .....■ .........3.0
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................81 .....■ .........2.5
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................70 .....■ .........2.8
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............79 .....■ .........3.2
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................41 .....■ .........5.4
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ..............7 .....■ .........0.5

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................50 .....■ .........4.7
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................14 .....■ .....133.0
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................38 .....■ .......11.9
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................36 .....■ .......50.6
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................23 .....■ .......42.5
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................39 .....■ .........0.4

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................76 .....■ .........3.8
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................79 .....■ .........2.7
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................85 .....■ .........2.9
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).....................................................106 .....■ .........2.9
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................95 .....■ .........3.9
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................82 .....■ .........3.4
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................81 .....■ .........4.4
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ..............................................115 .....■ .........3.5
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................93 .....■ .........4.4
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .....................................113 .....■ .........3.9
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................78 .....■ .........4.1
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)......................2 .....■ .......89.7

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................52 .....■ .........4.4
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................41 .....■ .........5.3
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................36 .....■ .........6.3

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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95

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Cyprus
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................0.9

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..............................9.3
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................23.2
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–0.5
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ..............30,238.6

Country
World

Trade
120
80

■ FDI inflows
412

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................26

100
60
80

10
3
8

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................75

4060

26

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................77

40
20
20

4
1
2

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..............–10.0

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......1,599.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.......................10,218.3
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......10,616.4

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................4,572.2

EU27
Lebanon
Russian Federation
UAE
Japan
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ......................29

96

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........5.5; 5.6

Imports
49.6
2.7
2.1
1.7
1.7
42.1

EU27
Israel
China
Japan
United States
Others

66.9
8.0
5.3
2.6
1.7
15.5

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............1.0

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................6.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................0.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................43.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.7
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3 20.8

Imports
Imports

17.9
17.9
13.9

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.7

29.3

16.9
16.9
21.4

48.7

65.1
65.1
64.1

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................31

4.7

2009 Index....................................................................................................................32

4.6

Market access ...................................................................................................86

3.8

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................86

3.8

Border administration.......................................................................................29

5.1

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................43
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................22
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................27

4.5
5.5
5.2

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................37

4.5

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................36
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................35
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................35

5.0
4.3
4.3

Business environment ......................................................................................20

5.4

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................20
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................15

4.8
6.0
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Cyprus
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ..........................................................................................4 .....■ .........0.8
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................60 .....■ .......40.1
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................96 .....■ .........3.2
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................45 .....■ .........9.0
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................89 .....■ .......10.3
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................95 .....■ .........9.2
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................97 .....■ .....1,382
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................39 .....■ .......63.9
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................76 .....■ .........5.7
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......84 .....■ .......12.2

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................18 .....■ .........5.1
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................71 .....■ .........6.5

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................41 .....■ .........2.9
Time to import, days..............................................................................2 .....■ ............5
Documents to import, number ............................................................37 .....■ ............6
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................44 .....■ .....1,030
Time to export, days ..............................................................................8 .....■ ............7
Documents to export, number ............................................................28 .....■ ............5
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................34 .....■ ........820

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................28 .....■ .........5.4
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................25 .....■ .........6.6

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population......................................8 .....■ .........4.6
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................68 .....■ .......64.4
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................53 .....■ .......65.1
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................40 .....■ .........5.4
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ......................................119 .....■ .........1.2
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................13 .....■ .........5.8
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................26 .....■ .........5.3

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................63 .....■ .......13.3
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................44 .....■ .........3.1
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................55 .....■ .........2.8
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................32 .....■ .........3.5
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............69 .....■ .........3.4
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................25 .....■ .........6.2
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............20 .....■ .........0.4

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................36 .....■ .........5.0
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................31 .....■ .....117.9
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................32 .....■ .......16.4
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................45 .....■ .......38.8
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................19 .....■ .......45.1
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................51 .....■ .........0.4

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................30 .....■ .........5.3
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................22 .....■ .........4.7
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................26 .....■ .........4.7
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................18 .....■ .........4.6
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................31 .....■ .........4.8
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................27 .....■ .........4.5
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................30 .....■ .........5.1
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................68 .....■ .........4.3
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................68 .....■ .........4.9
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................33 .....■ .........5.4
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................26 .....■ .........5.3
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................18 .....■ .......78.2

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................30 .....■ .........5.4
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................12 .....■ .........6.2
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................27 .....■ .........6.4

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

97

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Czech Republic
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................10.4

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................78.9
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ................................................189.7
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–4.3
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ..............18,193.7

Country
World

Trade
180
80

■ FDI inflows
412

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................34

150
60
120

10
3
8

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................32

4090

26

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................31

60
20
30

4
1
2

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–2.1

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 ...146,320.7

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.......................22,179.3
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ....141,493.2

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ......................17,255.9

EU27
Russian Federation
United States
Switzerland
Ukraine
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ......................29

98

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........5.5; 5.6

Imports
85.2
2.7
1.7
1.4
1.0
7.9

EU27
China
Russian Federation
Japan
United States
Others

67.0
8.8
6.4
3.3
2.1
12.4

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............1.0

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................6.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................0.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................43.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.7
Exports
Exports

7.3
5.57.35.4

Imports
Imports

17.9
6.5 17.914.2

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.7

89.0

16.9
16.9

79.2

20

40

2020

65.1
65.1

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................42

4.5

2009 Index....................................................................................................................36

4.4

Market access .................................................................................................105

3.7

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ..........................................105

3.7

Border administration.......................................................................................32

4.9

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................23
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................41
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................45

5.4
5.1
4.2

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................36

4.6

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................48
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................27
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................31

4.7
4.6
4.5

Business environment ......................................................................................43

4.7

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................52
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................39

4.0
5.4
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Czech Republic
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ..........................................................................................4 .....■ .........0.8
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................76 .....■ .......45.3
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................96 .....■ .........3.2
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................45 .....■ .........9.0
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................89 .....■ .......10.3
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................95 .....■ .........9.2
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................97 .....■ .....1,382
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................39 .....■ .......63.9
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................76 .....■ .........5.7
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......84 .....■ .......12.2

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................40 .....■ .........4.6
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................12 .....■ .......10.5

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................27 .....■ .........3.3
Time to import, days............................................................................64 .....■ ..........20
Documents to import, number ............................................................50 .....■ ............7
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................55 .....■ .....1,165
Time to export, days ............................................................................55 .....■ ..........17
Documents to export, number ..............................................................6 .....■ ............4
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................54 .....■ .....1,060

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................48 .....■ .........4.4
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................42 .....■ .........4.9

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................78 .....■ .........0.5
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................94 .....■ .......53.2
Paved roads, % of total .........................................................................1 .....■ .....100.0
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................22 .....■ .........5.9
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................24 .....■ .........4.3
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................75 .....■ .........3.3
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................61 .....■ .........4.2

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................97 .....■ .........0.4
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................17 .....■ .........3.4
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................34 .....■ .........3.3
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................27 .....■ .........3.6
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............18 .....■ .........4.2
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................32 .....■ .........5.7
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............11 .....■ .........0.5

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................19 .....■ .........5.7
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................13 .....■ .....133.5
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................31 .....■ .......17.1
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................29 .....■ .......58.4
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................56 .....■ .......21.9
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................35 .....■ .........0.5

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................49 .....■ .........4.5
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................97 .....■ .........2.4
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................64 .....■ .........3.3
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................83 .....■ .........3.2
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................28 .....■ .........4.9
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................43 .....■ .........4.2
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................13 .....■ .........5.4
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................34 .....■ .........4.9
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................32 .....■ .........5.5
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................11 .....■ .........5.8
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................23 .....■ .........5.3
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................26 .....■ .......75.4

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................76 .....■ .........3.9
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................25 .....■ .........5.7
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................15 .....■ .........6.5

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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Denmark
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................5.5

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................43.1
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ................................................308.3
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–2.4
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ..............55,942.2
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009.................................5
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................31
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................30
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
140
80
120
60
100

■ FDI inflows
412
10
38

80
40
60

6
2
4

2040
20

21
0

00

0–2
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..................1.1

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 ...116,759.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.......................71,960.3
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ....110,827.1

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ......................62,268.6

EU27
Norway
United States
Japan
China
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ......................29

100

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........5.5; 5.6

Imports
68.1
6.1
5.6
2.0
1.9
16.3

EU27
China
Norway
United States
Russian Federation
Others

72.0
5.9
4.8
3.2
2.0
12.1

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............1.0

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................6.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................0.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................43.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.7
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.320.2

Imports
Imports

17.9
17.9
14.6

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5 13.3

9.3

71.7
71.7
63.9

16.9
16.9

65.1
74.7 65.1

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index................................................................................3

5.4

2009 Index......................................................................................................................4

5.4

Market access ...................................................................................................95

3.8

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................95

3.8

Border administration.........................................................................................3

6.2

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration..............................................4
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ..........................................4
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration ...........................................4

6.0
6.2
6.5

Transport and communications infrastructure ..............................................8

5.7

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure........................3
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................15
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs................................................................3

6.2
5.0
5.9

Business environment ........................................................................................3

6.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment .....................................................................4
9th pillar: Physical security..................................................................................8

5.6
6.3
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Denmark
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ..........................................................................................4 .....■ .........0.8
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................68 .....■ .......41.9
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................96 .....■ .........3.2
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................45 .....■ .........9.0
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................89 .....■ .......10.3
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................95 .....■ .........9.2
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................97 .....■ .....1,382
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................39 .....■ .......63.9
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................76 .....■ .........5.7
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......84 .....■ .......12.2

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) ...........................................7 .....■ .........5.8
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................12 .....■ .......10.5

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................19 .....■ .........3.6
Time to import, days..............................................................................2 .....■ ............5
Documents to import, number ..............................................................2 .....■ ............3
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................20 .....■ ........744
Time to export, days ..............................................................................1 .....■ ............5
Documents to export, number ..............................................................6 .....■ ............4
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................28 .....■ ........744

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)..........................5 .....■ .........6.5
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ............................................2 .....■ .........9.3

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................22 .....■ .........1.6
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................54 .....■ .......70.3
Paved roads, % of total .........................................................................1 .....■ .....100.0
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best)...................................6 .....■ .........6.4
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................14 .....■ .........5.4
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................8 .....■ .........6.1
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ...............................................9 .....■ .........6.2

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................34 .....■ .......27.7
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................16 .....■ .........3.5
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................14 .....■ .........3.8
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................17 .....■ .........3.9
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ................7 .....■ .........4.4
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................16 .....■ .........6.4
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............20 .....■ .........0.4

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ..........................................7 .....■ .........6.0
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................21 .....■ .....125.7
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population .............................2 .....■ .......37.1
Internet users per 100 population .........................................................4 .....■ .......83.9
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................17 .....■ .......45.6
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................13 .....■ .........0.7

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .....................................................................4 .....■ .........6.3
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) ...........................................................2 .....■ .........6.3
Undue influence, 1–7 (best)...................................................................3 .....■ .........6.1
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).........................................................6 .....■ .........5.1
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .........................................................8 .....■ .........5.2
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................13 .....■ .........4.7
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................15 .....■ .........5.4
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................39 .....■ .........4.8
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................21 .....■ .........5.7
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................54 .....■ .........5.0
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................18 .....■ .........5.4
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................13 .....■ .......80.8

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best).................................................2 .....■ .........6.5
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................11 .....■ .........6.3
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................37 .....■ .........6.2

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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Dominican Republic
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................10.1

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................48.7
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................44.7
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................0.5
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................4,951.6
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................63
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................74
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................73
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
140
80
120
60
100

■ FDI inflows
47
6
35

80
40
60

4
2
3

2040
20

21
1

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–6.1

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......6,948.9

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................4,883.4
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......16,095.4

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................1,774.9

United States
EU27
Haiti
China
Jamaica
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................2

102

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ........34.9; 7.1

Imports
61.0
13.7
10.2
2.1
1.1
11.9

United States
EU27
Venezuela
China
Mexico
Others

40.3
9.3
8.6
8.0
5.3
28.5

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............1.9

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................13.8

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................6.6

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................2.9


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3
10.1

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
17.9
12.7

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
7.5 19.5

71.7
71.7

81.4

16.9
16.9
27.7

65.1
65.159.5

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................73

3.9

2009 Index....................................................................................................................81

3.6

Market access ...................................................................................................46

4.4

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................46

4.4

Border administration.......................................................................................63

4.1

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................73
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................42
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................76

3.9
5.1
3.2

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................63

3.7

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................63
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................50
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................78

4.2
4.0
2.9

Business environment ....................................................................................105

3.6

8th pillar: Regulatory environment .................................................................100
9th pillar: Physical security..............................................................................106

3.3
3.8
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Dominican Republic
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................78 .....■ .........7.1
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) ............................................n/a ..................n/a
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................21 .....■ .........6.7
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................37 .....■ .........7.9
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................33 .....■ .........0.4
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................25 .....■ ............7
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................77 .....■ .......50.9
Tariffs faced, %..................................................................................119 .....■ .........6.1
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......22 .....■ .......56.6

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................42 .....■ .........4.5
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................82 .....■ .........5.5

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................60 .....■ .........2.5
Time to import, days............................................................................22 .....■ ..........10
Documents to import, number ............................................................50 .....■ ............7
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................53 .....■ .....1,150
Time to export, days ............................................................................20 .....■ ............9
Documents to export, number ............................................................47 .....■ ............6
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................45 .....■ ........916

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................69 .....■ .........3.6
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................79 .....■ .........3.0

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................64 .....■ .........0.6
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................35 .....■ .......74.8
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................64 .....■ .......49.4
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................33 .....■ .........5.5
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ......................................106 .....■ .........1.5
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................66 .....■ .........3.6
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................54 .....■ .........4.3

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................44 .....■ .......21.6
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................99 .....■ .........2.6
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................92 .....■ .........2.4
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................47 .....■ .........3.2
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............36 .....■ .........3.9
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ................................................121 .....■ .........2.7
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ..............2 .....■ .........0.6

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................65 .....■ .........4.5
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................81 .....■ .......72.4
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................68 .....■ .........2.3
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................76 .....■ .......21.6
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................84 .....■ .........9.9
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................56 .....■ .........0.4

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................79 .....■ .........3.7
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .......................................................119 .....■ .........1.9
Undue influence, 1–7 (best)...............................................................111 .....■ .........2.6
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................99 .....■ .........3.0
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................91 .....■ .........4.0
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................96 .....■ .........3.2
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................47 .....■ .........4.9
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................18 .....■ .........5.1
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................29 .....■ .........5.6
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................58 .....■ .........5.0
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................61 .....■ .........4.5
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................88 .....■ .......54.4

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best).............................................122 .....■ .........2.3
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) .............................113 .....■ .........3.2
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................50 .....■ .........6.0

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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Ecuador
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................13.6

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..........................283.6
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................55.6
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–1.0
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................3,939.5

Country
World

Trade
80

■ FDI inflows
84

60

63

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................67

40

42

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................71

20

21

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................72

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

0

00

1996

1998

2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–3.1

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....18,510.6

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................1,288.2
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......18,685.5

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................2,887.9

United States
EU27
Peru
Chile
Panama
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1996
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................3

104

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ......21.7; 11.3

Imports
45.3
11.3
9.2
8.1
4.8
21.3

United States
China
Colombia
EU27
Japan
Others

14.9
12.4
9.2
8.5
5.0
49.9

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............3.5

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................17.7

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................6.6

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................3.2


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.3
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

Imports
Imports

17.9
9.0 17.9

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
28.3 19.5

18.5

71.7
71.7
63.7

16.9
16.9

7.6

65.1
65.7 65.1

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................89

3.7

2009 Index..................................................................................................................103

3.4

Market access ...................................................................................................27

4.8

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................27

4.8

Border administration.......................................................................................92

3.4

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................83
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................92
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .......................................116

3.7
4.1
2.5

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................80

3.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................77
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................78
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................79

3.8
3.5
2.9

Business environment ....................................................................................115

3.4

8th pillar: Regulatory environment .................................................................119
9th pillar: Physical security..............................................................................100

2.8
4.0
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Ecuador
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................81 .....■ .........7.4
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................53 .....■ .......35.4
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................41 .....■ .........6.5
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ..................................................101 .....■ .......12.0
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................39 .....■ .........0.7
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................39 .....■ ..........16
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................33 .....■ .......67.8
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................26 .....■ .........5.2
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......37 .....■ .......46.8

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .......................................107 .....■ .........3.1
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................66 .....■ .........7.0

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................87 .....■ .........2.3
Time to import, days............................................................................93 .....■ ..........29
Documents to import, number ............................................................50 .....■ ............7
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................72 .....■ .....1,332
Time to export, days ............................................................................71 .....■ ..........20
Documents to export, number ..........................................................106 .....■ ............9
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................84 .....■ .....1,345

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)......................111 .....■ .........2.7
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ........................................112 .....■ .........2.2

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................35 .....■ .........1.1
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................51 .....■ .......70.9
Paved roads, % of total .....................................................................102 .....■ .......14.8
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................68 .....■ .........4.6
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ......................................124 .....■ .........1.0
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................96 .....■ .........2.8
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................91 .....■ .........3.3

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................54 .....■ .......17.1
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................68 .....■ .........2.9
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................67 .....■ .........2.6
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................67 .....■ .........2.8
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............56 .....■ .........3.6
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ................................................108 .....■ .........3.4
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............51 .....■ .........0.2

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ......................................109 .....■ .........3.6
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................70 .....■ .......85.6
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................93 .....■ .........0.3
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................60 .....■ .......28.8
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................75 .....■ .......14.1
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................67 .....■ .........0.3

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .................................................................111 .....■ .........3.0
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .......................................................116 .....■ .........1.9
Undue influence, 1–7 (best)...............................................................118 .....■ .........2.2
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).....................................................118 .....■ .........2.7
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .....................................................118 .....■ .........3.4
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ....................................111 .....■ .........2.9
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)..........................117 .....■ .........3.7
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ..............................................112 .....■ .........3.6
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).....................................111 .....■ .........3.8
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .....................................122 .....■ .........2.6
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best).........................115 .....■ .........3.2
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................40 .....■ .......71.1

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best).............................................112 .....■ .........2.8
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) .............................104 .....■ .........3.6
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................69 .....■ .........5.5

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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105

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Egypt
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................83.0

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers).......................1,001.5
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ................................................188.0
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................4.7
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................2,450.4
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................85
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................53
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................49
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
100
80

■ FDI inflows
410

80
60

8
3

60
40
40

6
2
4

2020

12

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–2.4

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....23,994.7

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.......................24,674.1
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......47,539.8

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ......................16,321.8

EU27
India
United States
Saudi Arabia
Japan
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................6

106

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ......36.8; 16.7

Imports
35.4
6.3
4.9
4.8
3.3
45.3

EU27
United States
China
Saudi Arabia
Russian Federation
Others

27.1
10.8
8.4
5.9
4.3
43.6

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 .............22.8

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................34.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................10.6

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................3.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.1
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3
11.5

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
17.9
19.7

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.7

47.7

16.9
16.9
19.6

34.3

65.1
65.1
57.2

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................76

3.9

2009 Index....................................................................................................................75

3.7

Market access .................................................................................................114

3.4

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ..........................................114

3.4

Border administration.......................................................................................66

4.0

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................80
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................40
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................80

3.8
5.1
3.0

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................62

3.7

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................58
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................61
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................74

4.3
3.8
2.9

Business environment ......................................................................................61

4.4

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................55
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................65

4.0
4.9
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Egypt
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ......................................................................................117 .....■ .......13.5
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................88 .....■ .......86.1
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................70 .....■ .........5.4
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ..................................................125 .....■ .....143.0
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................38 .....■ .........0.5
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................50 .....■ .........0.2
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................52 .....■ ..........23
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................83 .....■ .......44.0
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................36 .....■ .........5.3
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......34 .....■ .......48.9

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................65 .....■ .........4.0
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................78 .....■ .........6.0

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best).................................107 .....■ .........2.1
Time to import, days............................................................................44 .....■ ..........15
Documents to import, number ............................................................37 .....■ ............6
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................27 .....■ ........823
Time to export, days ............................................................................40 .....■ ..........14
Documents to export, number ............................................................47 .....■ ............6
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................25 .....■ ........737

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................80 .....■ .........3.4
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................88 .....■ .........2.8

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population..................................110 .....■ .........0.2
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................17 .....■ .......82.4
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................36 .....■ .......81.0
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................41 .....■ .........5.3
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................48 .....■ .........3.3
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................69 .....■ .........3.5
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................53 .....■ .........4.3

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................17 .....■ .......52.0
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ..................................100 .....■ .........2.6
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................50 .....■ .........2.9
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................94 .....■ .........2.6
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............75 .....■ .........3.3
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................47 .....■ .........5.2
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............61 .....■ .........0.1

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................42 .....■ .........4.9
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................95 .....■ .......50.6
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................82 .....■ .........0.9
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................79 .....■ .......16.6
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................73 .....■ .......14.6
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................23 .....■ .........0.5

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................60 .....■ .........4.2
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................54 .....■ .........3.3
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................60 .....■ .........3.4
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................52 .....■ .........3.8
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................77 .....■ .........4.2
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................51 .....■ .........4.0
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................49 .....■ .........4.9
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................53 .....■ .........4.5
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................62 .....■ .........5.0
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................59 .....■ .........5.0
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................62 .....■ .........4.5
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................37 .....■ .......72.3

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................49 .....■ .........4.5
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................50 .....■ .........5.2
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................99 .....■ .........4.9

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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107

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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El Salvador
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................6.2

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................21.0
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................22.2
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–2.5
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................3,806.2

Country
World

Trade
90
80

■ FDI inflows
104

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................74

75
60
60

8
3
6

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................89

45
40

42

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................79

30
20
15

2
1
0

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

0

-20

1996

1998

2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–1.8

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......4,549.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................1,481.6
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ........9,754.5

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................1,958.0

United States
Guatemala
Honduras
EU27
Nicaragua
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................5

108

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ........36.5; 5.9

Imports
48.1
13.6
13.0
7.0
5.5
12.8

United States
Mexico
Guatemala
EU27
China
Others

34.4
9.0
8.5
6.9
4.9
36.3

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............1.4

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................12.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................3.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................14.6


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.1
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3 20.3

Imports
Imports

17.9
17.9
16.4

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.55.2

71.7
71.7

73.9

16.9
16.9
20.1

65.1
65.163.2

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................57

4.2

2009 Index....................................................................................................................56

4.0

Market access .....................................................................................................3

5.5

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ..............................................3

5.5

Border administration.......................................................................................56

4.2

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................61
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................50
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................65

4.2
4.9
3.5

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................88

3.2

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................93
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services .............................101
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................66

3.5
3.1
3.2

Business environment ......................................................................................98

3.7

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................65
9th pillar: Physical security..............................................................................111

3.8
3.6
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

El Salvador
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/12

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................49 .....■ .........4.1
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) ............................................n/a ..................n/a
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................47 .....■ .........6.4
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................35 .....■ .........7.7
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................61 .....■ .........3.1
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................30 .....■ ..........11
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................27 .....■ .......72.5
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................50 .....■ .........5.5
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ........2 .....■ .......88.6

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................55 .....■ .........4.1
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................62 .....■ .........7.2

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................64 .....■ .........2.5
Time to import, days............................................................................22 .....■ ..........10
Documents to import, number ............................................................73 .....■ ............8
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................26 .....■ ........820
Time to export, days ............................................................................40 .....■ ..........14
Documents to export, number ............................................................91 .....■ ............8
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................42 .....■ ........880

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................62 .....■ .........3.9
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................68 .....■ .........3.4

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population..................................112 .....■ .........0.1
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................81 .....■ .......61.0
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................92 .....■ .......19.8
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................27 .....■ .........5.8
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ......................................118 .....■ .........1.2
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................27 .....■ .........5.3
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................60 .....■ .........4.2

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................70 .....■ .......10.3
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ..................................121 .....■ .........2.2
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................64 .....■ .........2.7
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................80 .....■ .........2.7
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............52 .....■ .........3.6
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................83 .....■ .........4.1
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................69 .....■ .........4.4
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................37 .....■ .....113.3
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................73 .....■ .........2.0
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................91 .....■ .......10.6
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................65 .....■ .......17.6
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................38 .....■ .........0.4

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................77 .....■ .........3.8
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................74 .....■ .........2.8
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................96 .....■ .........2.8
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................58 .....■ .........3.6
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................53 .....■ .........4.4
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................62 .....■ .........3.7
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................25 .....■ .........5.2
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................23 .....■ .........5.0
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................34 .....■ .........5.4
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................37 .....■ .........5.4
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................39 .....■ .........5.1
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................46 .....■ .......67.5

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................72 .....■ .........4.0
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) .............................123 .....■ .........1.9
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................93 .....■ .........4.9

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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109

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Estonia
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................1.3

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................45.2
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................18.0
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ..................................–14.0
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ..............13,509.1
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................40
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................68
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................67
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
250
80

■ FDI inflows
425

200
60

20
3

150
40
100

15
2
10

2050

15

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..................1.9

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....12,451.0

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................5,048.5
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......16,028.2

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................3,351.8

EU27
Russian Federation
United States
Norway
Ukraine
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1999
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ......................29

110

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........5.5; 5.6

Imports
63.4
15.1
5.7
3.0
1.9
10.9

EU27
Russian Federation
China
Belarus
Japan
Others

59.7
10.1
5.7
3.8
3.1
17.6

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............1.0

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................6.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................0.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................43.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.7
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3
14.7

Imports
Imports

17.9
17.9
12.7

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.516.3

71.7
71.7
68.7

16.9
17.4 16.9

65.1
65.1
69.4

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................23

4.9

2009 Index....................................................................................................................22

4.8

Market access ...................................................................................................83

3.8

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................83

3.8

Border administration.......................................................................................11

5.7

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration..............................................9
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ..........................................7
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................24

5.8
6.1
5.3

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................31

4.7

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................51
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................37
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................19

4.6
4.3
5.2

Business environment ......................................................................................23

5.3

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................27
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................19

4.7
6.0
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Estonia
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ..........................................................................................4 .....■ .........0.8
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................56 .....■ .......37.1
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................96 .....■ .........3.2
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................45 .....■ .........9.0
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................89 .....■ .......10.3
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................95 .....■ .........9.2
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................97 .....■ .....1,382
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................39 .....■ .......63.9
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................76 .....■ .........5.7
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......84 .....■ .......12.2

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................10 .....■ .........5.5
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................12 .....■ .......10.5

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................32 .....■ .........3.1
Time to import, days..............................................................................2 .....■ ............5
Documents to import, number ..............................................................6 .....■ ............4
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................18 .....■ ........740
Time to export, days ..............................................................................1 .....■ ............5
Documents to export, number ..............................................................2 .....■ ............3
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................20 .....■ ........730

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................23 .....■ .........5.6
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................25 .....■ .........6.6

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................15 .....■ .........3.1
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................80 .....■ .......61.2
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................86 .....■ .......22.7
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................54 .....■ .........4.9
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................39 .....■ .........3.6
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................46 .....■ .........4.2
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................15 .....■ .........5.6

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................88 .....■ .........5.7
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................40 .....■ .........3.2
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................37 .....■ .........3.2
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................60 .....■ .........3.0
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............50 .....■ .........3.7
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................22 .....■ .........6.3
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............20 .....■ .........0.4

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ..........................................4 .....■ .........6.2
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population .............................2 .....■ .....188.2
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................18 .....■ .......23.7
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................22 .....■ .......66.2
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................31 .....■ .......37.1
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................27 .....■ .........0.5

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................31 .....■ .........5.3
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................41 .....■ .........3.8
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................32 .....■ .........4.6
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................29 .....■ .........4.3
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................24 .....■ .........4.9
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................25 .....■ .........4.5
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................23 .....■ .........5.2
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ..............................................109 .....■ .........3.6
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................49 .....■ .........5.3
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................15 .....■ .........5.7
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best).............................7 .....■ .........6.0
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................19 .....■ .......78.1

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................28 .....■ .........5.5
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................23 .....■ .........5.8
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................10 .....■ .........6.6

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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Ethiopia
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................82.8

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers).......................1,104.3
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................33.9
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................7.5
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ...................417.5

Country
World

Trade
80

■ FDI inflows
84

60

63

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ................................103

40

42

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................89

20

21

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009.............................121

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

0

00

1996

1998

2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–5.6

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......1,601.8

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................1,770.4
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ........7,700.0

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................2,370.7

EU27
Saudi Arabia
United States
Switzerland
China
Others

WTO accession year.................................................Observer
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................1

112

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ........— ; 17.3

Imports
35.0
7.7
7.2
6.2
5.3
38.6

China
EU27
Saudi Arabia
UAE
India
Others

20.2
18.7
14.2
8.4
7.3
31.2

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............5.3

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................18.1

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................11.4

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures
0.5

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

Imports
Imports

17.9
17.9
13.9

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.516.3

12.8

71.7
71.7

85.5

16.9
16.9

9.0

65.1
73.2 65.1

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index............................................................................107

3.5

2009 Index....................................................................................................................95

3.5

Market access ...................................................................................................68

4.0

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................68

4.0

Border administration.....................................................................................102

3.2

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................59
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ......................................114
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................83

4.2
2.4
3.0

Transport and communications infrastructure ..........................................112

2.6

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure....................119
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................75
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs............................................................123

2.6
3.6
1.6

Business environment ......................................................................................81

4.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................94
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................81

3.4
4.7
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Ethiopia
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ......................................................................................111 .....■ .......12.0
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) ............................................n/a ..................n/a
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................33 .....■ .........6.6
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................93 .....■ .......11.6
Tariff peaks, %.......................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................21 .....■ ............6
Share of duty-free imports, % ...........................................................116 .....■ .........8.6
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................11 .....■ .........4.8
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......45 .....■ .......41.6

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .......................................100 .....■ .........3.3
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................36 .....■ .........8.7

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best).................................106 .....■ .........2.1
Time to import, days..........................................................................112 .....■ ..........45
Documents to import, number ............................................................73 .....■ ............8
Cost to import, US$ per container.....................................................114 .....■ .....2,993
Time to export, days ..........................................................................118 .....■ ..........49
Documents to export, number ............................................................91 .....■ ............8
Cost to export, US$ per container.....................................................109 .....■ .....1,940

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................83 .....■ .........3.3
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................92 .....■ .........2.7

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population..................................105 .....■ .........0.2
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best).................................n/a ..................n/a
Paved roads, % of total .....................................................................107 .....■ .......12.8
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................62 .....■ .........4.7
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ......................................102 .....■ .........1.6
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................76 .....■ .........3.3
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................70 .....■ .........3.8

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) .............................n/a ..................n/a
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................83 .....■ .........2.8
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)......................................................117 .....■ .........2.1
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................63 .....■ .........2.9
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ............120 .....■ .........2.7
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................82 .....■ .........4.1
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ...........n/a ..................n/a

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ......................................122 .....■ .........3.2
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population .........................124 .....■ .........2.4
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population .........................123 .....■ .........0.0
Internet users per 100 population .....................................................124 .....■ .........0.4
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population..........................................110 .....■ .........1.1
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................96 .....■ .........0.2

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................69 .....■ .........3.9
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................59 .....■ .........3.2
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................79 .....■ .........3.1
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................59 .....■ .........3.6
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................86 .....■ .........4.1
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ....................................122 .....■ .........2.6
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)..........................119 .....■ .........3.6
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ..............................................100 .....■ .........3.9
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).....................................114 .....■ .........3.7
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................90 .....■ .........4.5
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best).........................118 .....■ .........3.1
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)..................123 .....■ .......28.3

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................77 .....■ .........3.9
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................55 .....■ .........5.0
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................88 .....■ .........5.1

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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Finland
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................5.3

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..........................338.2
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ................................................242.3
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–6.4
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ..............45,876.4

Country
World

Trade
90
80

■ FDI inflows
104

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................10

75
60
60

8
3
6

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................34

45
40

42

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................36

30
20
15

2
1
0

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

0

–2
0

1996

1998

2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..................0.5

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....96,455.4

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.......................24,228.6
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......91,781.4

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ......................23,119.2

EU27
Russian Federation
United States
China
Norway
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ......................29

114

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........5.5; 5.6

Imports
55.9
11.6
6.3
3.1
3.0
20.0

EU27
Russian Federation
China
United States
Norway
Others

54.3
16.3
7.0
3.0
2.6
16.8

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............1.0

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................6.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................0.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................43.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.7
Exports
Exports

7.3
19.5
6.27.3 10.6 19.5

Imports
Imports

17.9
8.4 17.9

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

71.7
71.7

78.0

16.9
24.8 16.9

65.1
65.1
65.5

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................12

5.3

2009 Index......................................................................................................................8

5.3

Market access ...................................................................................................90

3.8

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................90

3.8

Border administration.........................................................................................8

5.8

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................30
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ..........................................5
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration ...........................................5

5.0
6.1
6.4

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................18

5.3

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................14
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................22
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................18

5.8
4.9
5.3

Business environment ........................................................................................1

6.1

8th pillar: Regulatory environment .....................................................................7
9th pillar: Physical security..................................................................................1

5.5
6.6
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Finland
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ..........................................................................................4 .....■ .........0.8
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................62 .....■ .......40.8
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................96 .....■ .........3.2
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................45 .....■ .........9.0
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................89 .....■ .......10.3
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................95 .....■ .........9.2
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................97 .....■ .....1,382
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................39 .....■ .......63.9
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................76 .....■ .........5.7
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......84 .....■ .......12.2

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) ...........................................9 .....■ .........5.7
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................64 .....■ .........7.1

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best).....................................6 .....■ .........3.9
Time to import, days............................................................................12 .....■ ............8
Documents to import, number ............................................................18 .....■ ............5
Cost to import, US$ per container.........................................................7 .....■ ........620
Time to export, days ............................................................................14 .....■ ............8
Documents to export, number ..............................................................6 .....■ ............4
Cost to export, US$ per container.........................................................4 .....■ ........540

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)..........................6 .....■ .........6.5
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ............................................6 .....■ .........8.9

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................10 .....■ .........4.3
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................71 .....■ .......62.4
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................52 .....■ .......65.3
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best)...................................8 .....■ .........6.3
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ..........................................6 .....■ .........5.9
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................12 .....■ .........5.9
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ...............................................4 .....■ .........6.5

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................71 .....■ .......10.2
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................18 .....■ .........3.4
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)..........................................................9 .....■ .........3.9
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................11 .....■ .........4.1
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............23 .....■ .........4.1
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ....................................................3 .....■ .........6.7
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............20 .....■ .........0.4

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................15 .....■ .........5.8
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................17 .....■ .....128.8
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population .............................8 .....■ .......30.5
Internet users per 100 population .........................................................5 .....■ .......82.6
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................38 .....■ .......31.1
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................31 .....■ .........0.5

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .....................................................................3 .....■ .........6.3
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) ...........................................................7 .....■ .........6.0
Undue influence, 1–7 (best)...................................................................4 .....■ .........5.9
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).........................................................9 .....■ .........5.0
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................23 .....■ .........5.0
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ........................................6 .....■ .........5.0
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)..............................8 .....■ .........5.6
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................27 .....■ .........4.9
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).........................................9 .....■ .........6.0
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................30 .....■ .........5.5
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best).............................4 .....■ .........6.0
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................28 .....■ .......74.8

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best).................................................1 .....■ .........6.6
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) .................................3 .....■ .........6.5
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best).................................................4 .....■ .........6.7

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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France
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................62.3

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..........................551.5
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 .............................................2,634.8
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–2.4
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ..............42,091.3
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................14
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ....................................6
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ....................................6
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
70
80
60
60
50

■ FDI inflows
74
6
53

40
40
30

4
2
3

20
20
10

21
1

0

00

1996

1998

2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ................–1.2

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 ...605,402.9

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.....................160,464.2
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ....705,577.2

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ....................139,359.3

EU27
United States
Switzerland
China
Russian Federation
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ......................29

116

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........5.5; 5.6

Imports
63.6
5.9
3.0
2.2
1.7
23.6

EU27
China
United States
Russian Federation
Switzerland
Others

60.3
6.5
5.5
2.9
2.3
22.5

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............1.0

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................6.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................0.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................43.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.7
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3
12.6

Imports
Imports

17.9
9.3 17.9

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5
7.5

19.5

71.7
77.771.7

16.9
16.9

65.1
70.465.1

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................20

5.0

2009 Index....................................................................................................................17

5.0

Market access ...................................................................................................97

3.7

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................97

3.7

Border administration.......................................................................................21

5.4

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................24
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................10
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................28

5.2
6.0
5.1

Transport and communications infrastructure ..............................................4

5.8

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure........................1
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................10
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................15

6.6
5.4
5.4

Business environment ......................................................................................27

5.1

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................24
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................35

4.7
5.5
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

France
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ..........................................................................................4 .....■ .........0.8
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................70 .....■ .......42.8
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................96 .....■ .........3.2
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................45 .....■ .........9.0
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................89 .....■ .......10.3
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................95 .....■ .........9.2
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................97 .....■ .....1,382
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................39 .....■ .......63.9
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................76 .....■ .........5.7
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......84 .....■ .......12.2

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................28 .....■ .........4.8
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................21 .....■ .........9.5

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................17 .....■ .........3.6
Time to import, days............................................................................25 .....■ ..........11
Documents to import, number ..............................................................1 .....■ ............2
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................65 .....■ .....1,248
Time to export, days ............................................................................20 .....■ ............9
Documents to export, number ..............................................................1 .....■ ............2
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................58 .....■ .....1,078

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................33 .....■ .........5.1
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................22 .....■ .........6.9

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................41 .....■ .........1.0
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) ...................................4 .....■ .......96.2
Paved roads, % of total .........................................................................1 .....■ .....100.0
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best)...................................9 .....■ .........6.3
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ..........................................4 .....■ .........6.5
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................2 .....■ .........6.6
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................10 .....■ .........5.9

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................13 .....■ .......67.0
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................28 .....■ .........3.3
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................12 .....■ .........3.9
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................14 .....■ .........4.0
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ................8 .....■ .........4.4
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................26 .....■ .........6.1
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............20 .....■ .........0.4

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................20 .....■ .........5.6
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................60 .....■ .......93.4
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................11 .....■ .......28.5
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................20 .....■ .......68.2
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population..............................................8 .....■ .......56.4
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................11 .....■ .........0.7

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................17 .....■ .........5.8
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................27 .....■ .........4.4
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................35 .....■ .........4.4
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................37 .....■ .........4.1
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................27 .....■ .........4.9
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................28 .....■ .........4.5
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................36 .....■ .........5.0
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................90 .....■ .........4.0
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................27 .....■ .........5.6
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................62 .....■ .........4.9
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................49 .....■ .........4.8
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................14 .....■ .......80.3

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................24 .....■ .........5.7
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................46 .....■ .........5.3
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................70 .....■ .........5.5

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

117

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Gambia, The
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................1.7

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................11.3
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ....................................................0.7
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................3.6
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ...................434.3

Country
World

Trade
120
80

■ FDI inflows
416

6090

312

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ................................119

4060

28

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ................................120

2030

14

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009.............................119

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..............–17.1

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 ............13.9

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2007............................114.4
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ...........329.4

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2007 .............................76.8

EU27
India
Senegal
Singapore
UAE
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1996
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................1

118

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ....102.0; 19.0

Imports
42.8
17.4
17.4
4.8
4.1
13.4

EU27
United States
China
Côte d’Ivoire
Brazil
Others

42.1
10.9
10.8
8.9
4.3
23.0

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 ...............2.5

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................12.6

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ..................18.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
17.9 31.9

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.7 15.4

63.7

16.9
16.9

65.1
65.1

20.7

20

40

2020

60

4040

20.9

47.4

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................82

3.8

2009 Index....................................................................................................................67

3.8

Market access .................................................................................................119

3.3

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ..........................................119

3.3

Border administration.......................................................................................69

4.0

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................78
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................66
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................69

3.8
4.7
3.4

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................99

3.0

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................79
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services .............................115
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................98

3.8
2.9
2.2

Business environment ......................................................................................28

5.1

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................36
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................29

4.5
5.6
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Gambia, The
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ......................................................................................124 .....■ .......17.5
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) ............................................n/a ..................n/a
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best)...................................................5 .....■ .........6.9
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ......................................................6 .....■ .........4.0
Tariff peaks, %.......................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Specific tariffs, % ..................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Distinct tariffs, number ..........................................................................4 .....■ ............4
Share of duty-free imports, % ...........................................................115 .....■ .......11.7
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................30 .....■ .........5.2
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......76 .....■ .......19.9

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................20 .....■ .........5.1
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ................................................100 .....■ .........4.0

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................74 .....■ .........2.4
Time to import, days............................................................................77 .....■ ..........23
Documents to import, number ............................................................73 .....■ ............8
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................35 .....■ ........922
Time to export, days ............................................................................94 .....■ ..........24
Documents to export, number ............................................................47 .....■ ............6
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................37 .....■ ........831

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................54 .....■ .........4.1
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................85 .....■ .........2.9

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................70 .....■ .........0.6
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................78 .....■ .......61.5
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................93 .....■ .......19.3
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................56 .....■ .........4.8
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................83 .....■ .........1.9
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................51 .....■ .........4.0
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................44 .....■ .........4.7

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................83 .....■ .........7.5
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ..................................102 .....■ .........2.5
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................98 .....■ .........2.4
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) ...............................................114 .....■ .........2.3
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............86 .....■ .........3.2
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................69 .....■ .........4.5
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................76 .....■ .........4.3
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................83 .....■ .......70.2
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population .........................115 .....■ .........0.0
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................99 .....■ .........6.9
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population..........................................101 .....■ .........2.9
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best)...................................118 .....■ .........0.1

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................35 .....■ .........4.9
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................29 .....■ .........4.4
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................27 .....■ .........4.6
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................14 .....■ .........4.8
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................54 .....■ .........4.4
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................92 .....■ .........3.3
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................42 .....■ .........5.0
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................38 .....■ .........4.8
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................11 .....■ .........5.9
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .........................................9 .....■ .........5.8
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................51 .....■ .........4.8
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)..................115 .....■ .......42.8

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................33 .....■ .........5.2
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................34 .....■ .........5.5
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................41 .....■ .........6.2

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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119

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Georgia
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 .................................................4.3

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)............................69.7
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................11.0
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–4.0
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ................2,495.6
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................84
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ................................105
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................93
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
100
80

■ FDI inflows
420

80
60

16
3

60
40
40

12
2
8

2020

14

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..............–16.3

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......1,497.7

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................1,159.4
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ........6,058.1

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................1,152.3

EU27
Turkey
Azerbaijan
Ukraine
Canada
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................2000
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................8

120

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........7.4; 1.4

Imports
22.3
17.6
13.7
9.0
8.8
28.7

EU27
Turkey
Ukraine
Azerbaijan
Russian Federation
Others

27.4
15.1
10.8
10.0
7.0
29.6

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 .............–1.7

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................9.3

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................0.1

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................62.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.9
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.318.3

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
17.9
15.9

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

2010 Index..............................................................................37

19.5
19.5

71.7
71.751.7

23.2

16.9
16.9
20.0

65.1
65.1
63.5

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

4.6

2009 Index ..................................................................................................................n/a

n/a

Market access .....................................................................................................5

5.4

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ..............................................5

5.4

Border administration.......................................................................................37

4.8

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................31
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................38
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................42

4.9
5.2
4.2

Transport and communications infrastructure ............................................74

3.5

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure......................71
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services ...............................65
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs..............................................................84

4.0
3.8
2.7

Business environment ......................................................................................45

4.6

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................66
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................34

3.8
5.5
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Georgia
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ..........................................................................................3 .....■ .........0.7
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) ............................................n/a ..................n/a
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................79 .....■ .........4.8
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................98 .....■ .......11.7
Tariff peaks, %...................................................................................122 .....■ .......14.0
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................73 .....■ .........1.7
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................71 .....■ ........185
Share of duty-free imports, % ...............................................................4 .....■ .......95.7
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................40 .....■ .........5.4
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......26 .....■ .......52.8

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................37 .....■ .........4.6
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................32 .....■ .........9.0

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................77 .....■ .........2.4
Time to import, days............................................................................34 .....■ ..........13
Documents to import, number ..............................................................6 .....■ ............4
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................66 .....■ .....1,250
Time to export, days ............................................................................26 .....■ ..........10
Documents to export, number ..............................................................6 .....■ ............4
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................79 .....■ .....1,270

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................36 .....■ .........4.9
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................53 .....■ .........4.1

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................58 .....■ .........0.7
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................97 .....■ .......51.0
Paved roads, % of total .......................................................................73 .....■ .......38.6
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................72 .....■ .........4.4
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ........................................41 .....■ .........3.5
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................62 .....■ .........3.6
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................66 .....■ .........4.0

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................93 .....■ .........3.8
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ....................................89 .....■ .........2.7
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................75 .....■ .........2.6
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................82 .....■ .........2.7
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ..............94 .....■ .........3.1
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................84 .....■ .........4.1
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ..............4 .....■ .........0.6

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................92 .....■ .........3.9
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................88 .....■ .......64.0
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................71 .....■ .........2.2
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................72 .....■ .......23.8
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population............................................74 .....■ .......14.3
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................89 .....■ .........0.2

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................98 .....■ .........3.2
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................50 .....■ .........3.4
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................87 .....■ .........2.9
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................50 .....■ .........3.8
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................70 .....■ .........4.2
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................76 .....■ .........3.5
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................21 .....■ .........5.3
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ..................................................2 .....■ .........6.0
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................58 .....■ .........5.1
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................35 .....■ .........5.4
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................16 .....■ .........5.5
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................76 .....■ .......57.9

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................38 .....■ .........4.9
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................31 .....■ .........5.7
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................48 .....■ .........6.0

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

121

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Germany
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................82.2

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..........................357.1
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 .............................................3,235.5
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–5.3
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ..............39,442.4
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................17
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ....................................2
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ....................................2
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
100
80

■ FDI inflows
412

80
60

9
3

60
40
40

6
2
3

2020

10

00

0–3
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..................2.9

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ billions), 2008.........1,461.9

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.....................241,589.6
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ billions), 2008 ..........1,203.8

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ....................283,027.9

EU27
United States
Switzerland
China
Russian Federation
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ......................29

122

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........5.5; 5.6

Imports
63.7
7.2
4.0
3.4
3.2
18.5

EU27
China
United States
Russian Federation
Switzerland
Others

58.5
7.2
5.6
4.4
3.8
20.5

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............1.0

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................6.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................0.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................43.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.7
Exports
Exports

7.3
6.07.35.8

Imports
Imports
Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

17.9
9.0 17.9

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5

18.9

71.7
71.7

86.2

16.9
16.9

65.1
70.6 65.1

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................13

5.2

2009 Index....................................................................................................................12

5.2

Market access .................................................................................................101

3.7

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ..........................................101

3.7

Border administration.......................................................................................15

5.7

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration............................................20
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................12
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................18

5.4
5.9
5.7

Transport and communications infrastructure ..............................................1

5.9

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure........................5
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services .................................3
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs................................................................9

6.1
5.8
5.7

Business environment ......................................................................................15

5.5

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................15
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................16

5.1
6.0
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Germany
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ..........................................................................................4 .....■ .........0.8
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................73 .....■ .......43.8
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................96 .....■ .........3.2
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................45 .....■ .........9.0
Tariff peaks, %.....................................................................................89 .....■ .......10.3
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................95 .....■ .........9.2
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................97 .....■ .....1,382
Share of duty-free imports, % .............................................................39 .....■ .......63.9
Tariffs faced, %....................................................................................76 .....■ .........5.7
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......84 .....■ .......12.2

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................21 .....■ .........5.1
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ..................................................20 .....■ .........9.6

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best).....................................3 .....■ .........4.0
Time to import, days............................................................................10 .....■ ............7
Documents to import, number ............................................................18 .....■ ............5
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................36 .....■ ........937
Time to export, days ..............................................................................8 .....■ ............7
Documents to export, number ..............................................................6 .....■ ............4
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................40 .....■ ........872

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................24 .....■ .........5.6
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................14 .....■ .........8.0

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population....................................80 .....■ .........0.5
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) ...................................5 .....■ .......95.8
Paved roads, % of total .........................................................................1 .....■ .....100.0
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best)...................................4 .....■ .........6.6
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ..........................................5 .....■ .........6.3
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................5 .....■ .........6.5
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ...............................................5 .....■ .........6.4

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ................................7 .....■ .......84.3
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ......................................8 .....■ .........3.7
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)..........................................................4 .....■ .........4.1
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) ...................................................4 .....■ .........4.2
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ................3 .....■ .........4.5
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................12 .....■ .........6.4
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............20 .....■ .........0.4

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ........................................17 .....■ .........5.8
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................18 .....■ .....128.3
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................15 .....■ .......27.5
Internet users per 100 population .......................................................13 .....■ .......75.3
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population..............................................2 .....■ .......62.5
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best).....................................21 .....■ .........0.5

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) .....................................................................9 .....■ .........6.1
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................19 .....■ .........4.9
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................10 .....■ .........5.7
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................21 .....■ .........4.5
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................14 .....■ .........5.1
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................37 .....■ .........4.3
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................26 .....■ .........5.2
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................86 .....■ .........4.1
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................38 .....■ .........5.4
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................67 .....■ .........4.9
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................10 .....■ .........5.7
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)....................15 .....■ .......79.7

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best).................................................9 .....■ .........6.2
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................26 .....■ .........5.7
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................52 .....■ .........5.9

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

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123

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

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Ghana
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................23.8

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..........................238.5
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ..................................................14.8
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ......................................4.5
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ...................638.8
GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009.............................112
Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................86
Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................81
Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

Country
World

Trade
150
80

■ FDI inflows
415

120
60

12
3

90
40
60

9
2
6

2030

13

00

0
1996
1996

1998
1998

2000
2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..............–12.7

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .......5,275.3

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.........................1,578.8
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......10,261.0

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ........................1,976.9

South Africa
EU27
India
Malaysia
United States
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ........................2

124

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ......92.5; 13.0

Imports
44.0
26.4
5.3
3.2
2.8
18.3

EU27
China
Nigeria
United States
India
Others

27.8
11.7
8.7
7.7
4.3
39.8

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2009 .............–1.1

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 .........................16.5

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................8.9

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 .............................0.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................0.0
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3

Imports
Imports

17.9
17.9
14.0

Source: IMF; ITC; World Bank; WTO

Enabling Trade Index

0

00

Rank
(out of 125)

19.5
19.5 49.3

71.7
15.8 71.7 7.8

16.9
13.4 16.9

65.1
60.8 65.1

20

40

2020

60

4040

80

6060

100

8080

100
100

Score
(1–7 scale)

2010 Index..............................................................................96

3.6

2009 Index....................................................................................................................86

3.6

Market access ...................................................................................................67

4.0

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access ............................................67

4.0

Border administration.......................................................................................82

3.6

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration..........................................102
3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures ........................................73
4th pillar: Transparency of border administration .........................................74

3.0
4.6
3.2

Transport and communications infrastructure ..........................................110

2.6

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure....................107
6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services .............................120
7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs............................................................107

3.1
2.9
2.0

Business environment ......................................................................................70

4.2

8th pillar: Regulatory environment ...................................................................72
9th pillar: Physical security................................................................................71

3.7
4.8
1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources, and for a list of multiple best-performing economies for each indicator in the ETI in detail on the
right-hand page, please refer to “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles.”

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

7

Ghana
The Enabling Trade Index 2010 in detail
INDICATOR, UNITS

■ Competitive Advantage ■ Competitive Disadvantage
RANK/125

SCORE

BEST PERFORMER

SCORE

1st pillar: Domestic and foreign market access
1.01
1.02
1.03

1.04
1.05
1.06

Tariff rate, % ........................................................................................91 .....■ .......10.1
Non-tariff measures, index 0–100 (best) .............................................20 .....■ .........9.6
Complexity of tariffs, index 1–7 (best).................................................17 .....■ .........6.7
Tariff dispersion, standard deviation ....................................................21 .....■ .........6.8
Tariff peaks, %.......................................................................................1 .....■ .........0.0
Specific tariffs, % ................................................................................54 .....■ .........0.2
Distinct tariffs, number ........................................................................43 .....■ ..........17
Share of duty-free imports, % ...........................................................105 .....■ .......20.7
Tariffs faced, %..................................................................................106 .....■ .........5.8
Margin of preference in destination markets, index 0–100 (best) ......63 .....■ .......29.6

Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Uganda ...............................................0.1
Hong Kong SAR .................................7.0
Hong Kong SAR .................................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Multiple economies............................0.0
Hong Kong SAR ....................................1
Hong Kong SAR .............................100.0
Chile ...................................................3.7
Nepal ................................................97.5

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:41 PM Page 125

2nd pillar: Efficiency of customs administration
2.01
2.02

Burden of customs procedures, 1–7 (best) .........................................91 .....■ .........3.4
Customs services index, 0–12 (best) ................................................100 .....■ .........4.0

Singapore ...........................................6.4
Multiple economies.............................12

3rd pillar: Efficiency of import-export procedures
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07

Efficiency of the clearance process, 1–5 (best)...................................82 .....■ .........2.4
Time to import, days............................................................................93 .....■ ..........29
Documents to import, number ............................................................50 .....■ ............7
Cost to import, US$ per container.......................................................60 .....■ .....1,203
Time to export, days ............................................................................66 .....■ ..........19
Documents to export, number ............................................................47 .....■ ............6
Cost to export, US$ per container.......................................................51 .....■ .....1,013

Luxembourg .......................................4.0
Singapore ..............................................3
France ...................................................2
Singapore ..........................................439
Multiple economies...............................5
France ...................................................2
Malaysia ............................................450

4th pillar: Transparency of border administration
4.01
4.02

Irregular payments in exports and imports, 1–7 (best)........................92 .....■ .........3.1
Corruption Perceptions Index, 0–10 (best) ..........................................56 .....■ .........3.9

New Zealand ......................................6.7
New Zealand ......................................9.4

5th pillar: Availability and quality of transport infrastructure
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
5.05
5.06
5.07

Airport density, number per million population..................................114 .....■ .........0.1
Transshipment connectivity index, 0–100 (best) .................................40 .....■ .......74.5
Paved roads, % of total .....................................................................101 .....■ .......14.9
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1–7 (best).................................86 .....■ .........4.0
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1–7 (best) ......................................115 .....■ .........1.3
Quality of roads, 1–7 (best) .................................................................72 .....■ .........3.4
Quality of port infrastructure, 1–7 (best) .............................................65 .....■ .........4.0

Iceland ..............................................29.7
United Kingdom .............................100.0
Multiple economies........................100.0
Singapore ...........................................6.9
Switzerland.........................................6.8
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Singapore ...........................................6.8

6th pillar: Availability and quality of transport services
6.01
6.02
6.03
6.04
6.05
6.06
6.07

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index, 0–132.5 (best) ..............................51 .....■ .......19.3
Ease and affordability of shipment, 1–5 (best) ..................................114 .....■ .........2.4
Logistics competence, 1–5 (best)........................................................92 .....■ .........2.4
Tracking and tracing ability, 1–5 (best) .................................................97 .....■ .........2.5
Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination, 1–5 (best) ............119 .....■ .........2.7
Postal services efficiency, 1–7 (best) ..................................................98 .....■ .........3.7
GATS commitments in the transport sector, index 0–1 (best) ............69 .....■ .........0.0

China ..............................................132.5
Singapore ...........................................3.9
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Switzerland.........................................4.3
Luxembourg .......................................4.6
Japan ..................................................6.8
Armenia ..............................................0.6

7th pillar: Availability and use of ICTs
7.01
7.02
7.03
7.04
7.05
7.06

Extent of business Internet use, 1–7 (best) ......................................101 .....■ .........3.8
Mobile telephone subscriptions per 100 population ...........................98 .....■ .......49.6
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 population ...........................99 .....■ .........0.1
Internet users per 100 population .....................................................107 .....■ .........4.3
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population..........................................119 .....■ .........0.6
Government Online Service Index, 0–1 (best)...................................108 .....■ .........0.1

Sweden ..............................................6.4
United Arab Emirates .....................208.6
Sweden ............................................41.2
Iceland ..............................................90.6
Switzerland.......................................64.1
Korea, Rep..........................................1.0

8th pillar: Regulatory environment
8.01
8.02
8.03
8.04
8.05
8.06
8.07

Property rights, 1–7 (best) ...................................................................74 .....■ .........3.9
Ethics and corruption, 1–7 (best) .........................................................65 .....■ .........3.0
Undue influence, 1–7 (best).................................................................74 .....■ .........3.2
Government efficiency, 1–7 (best).......................................................71 .....■ .........3.4
Domestic competition, 1–7 (best) .......................................................69 .....■ .........4.2
Efficiency of the financial market, 1–7 (best) ......................................69 .....■ .........3.6
Openness to foreign participation, index 1–7 (best)............................72 .....■ .........4.6
Ease of hiring foreign labor, 1–7 (best) ................................................78 .....■ .........4.1
Prevalence of foreign ownership, 1–7 (best).......................................41 .....■ .........5.3
Business impact of rules on FDI, 1–7 (best) .......................................46 .....■ .........5.1
Restriction on international capital flows, 1–7 (best)...........................72 .....■ .........4.3
Openness to multilateral trade rules, index 0–100 (best)..................103 .....■ .......49.1

Switzerland.........................................6.4
Singapore ...........................................6.4
Sweden ..............................................6.2
Singapore ...........................................6.0
Singapore ...........................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................5.6
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.2
United Arab Emirates .........................6.2
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.6
Singapore ...........................................6.7
Hong Kong SAR .................................6.5
Slovenia ............................................93.1

9th pillar: Physical security
9.01
9.02
9.03

Reliability of police services, 1–7 (best)...............................................79 .....■ .........3.8
Business costs of crime and violence, 1–7 (best) ...............................87 .....■ .........4.3
Business costs of terrorism, 1–7 (best)...............................................34 .....■ .........6.3

Finland ................................................6.6
Qatar ..................................................6.7
Austria ................................................6.8

The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 © 2010 World Economic Forum

125

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Part2.WEB.FINAL:Country Profiles 5/5/10 12:41 PM Page 126

Greece
Key indicators
Population (millions), 2009 ...............................................11.2

Trade and FDI inflows, percent of GDP

Surface area (1,000 square kilometers)..........................132.0
GDP (US$ billions), 2009 ................................................338.3
Real GDP growth (percent), 2009 ....................................–0.8
GDP per capita (current prices, US$), 2009 ..............30,304.7

Country
World

Trade
80

■ FDI inflows
2.0
4

60

1.5
3

Total exports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................44

40

1.0
2

Total imports (rank out of 120), 2007 ..................................37

20

0.5
1

GDP per capita (rank out of 124), 2009...............................25

Source: IMF; UNFPA; World Bank; UNCTAD; WTO

0

0.0
0

1996

1998

2000

2002
2002

2004
2004

2006
2006

2008
2008

Selected trade indicators
Current account balance (share of GDP), 2009 ..............–10.0

Main trading partners, 2008

Merchandise exports, f.o.b. (US$ millions), 2008 .....25,242.1

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Services exports (US$ millions), 2008.......................50,377.3
Merchandise imports, c.i.f. (US$ millions), 2008 ......79,049.4

Exports

Services imports (US$ millions), 2008 ......................24,391.8

EU27
United States
Turkey
Macedonia, FYR
Russian Federation
Others

WTO accession year .......................................................1995
Regional trade agreements notified to WTO ......................29

126

MFN tariffs, simple avg., 2008: bound; applied ..........5.5; 5.6

Imports
64.0
5.1
3.6
2.6
2.4
22.3

EU27
Russian Federation
China
Iran
Turkey
Others

54.9
7.3
5.5
3.3
2.8
26.1

Tariff escalation (rate diff. raw to finished), 2008 ...............1.0

Exports and imports by sector, 2008
Tariff rate for agricultural products, 2008 ...........................6.2

Share of total volume of merchandise trade (percent)

Tariff rate for non-agricultural products, 2008 ....................0.5

■ Agriculture
Agriculture

Agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ...........................43.0


■ Fuels
Fuels and
and mining
mining


■ Manufactures
Manufactures

Non-agricultural tariff peaks (percent), 2008 ......................1.7
Exports
Exports

7.3
7.3 23.2 19.5
19.5

Imports
Imports

17.9
17.9
13.2

Source: IM