INTRODUCTION

The term career planning is frequently used in relation young boys and girls studying at the college level. College students are expected to consider their qualities (physical and mental), psychological make-up, likes and dislikes, inclinations, etc. and decide what they want to be in their life. In other words, they should decide what they want to achieve in their life and adjust their education and other activities accordingly. This means they have to plan their career. In such career planning, parents, family members and college teachers offer helping hand and guide young boys and girls in selecting the most suitable career. Lot of literature, psychological tests etc. are also available on career planning. Even lectures, workshops and TV programmes are arranged for guiding students on career selection (particularly after the declaration of HSC results). Career planning enables them to use their abilities/qualities fully and make their life happy, prosperous and rich in quality. The term career planning and development is used extensively in relation to business organizations. It is argued that if the organizations want to get the best out of their employees, they must plan the career development programmes in their organization effectively. Such programmes offer benefits to employees and also to the organizations. This type of career planning can be described as organizational career planning. "Focus on career, not merely the job" is the mantra for successful employers and employees. There was time when employment with a reputed firm actually meant life long employment. People ascended the hierarchy with age. The terms like career planning and career development in fact meant timely promotions. Career progression, largely was a function of experience in a job. The idea of employees changing companies to carve out a career was almost unheard of. Employees reciprocated the life long employment offer of companies with total commitment for the company. An opening with a good company was considered a life time achievement; thereafter it was simply a matter of time, performance and politically positioning oneself to be at the right place at right time to go up the ladder. There was hardly anything for individuals to think beyond the job they were doing as career very nearly meant the job.

MEANING OF CAREER (WHAT IS CAREER?)

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A career is a sequence of positions/jobs held by a person during the course of his working life. According to Edwin B. Flippo “a career is a sequence of separate but related work activities that provide continuity, order and meaning to a person’s life”. Career of an employee represents various jobs performed by him during the course of his working life. This is described as career path. In the case of an ordinary worker, the career path includes the following job positions: Unskilled worker – Semi-skilled worker – Skilled worker – Highly skilled worker – Assistant foreman – Foreman. Employees (of all categories) want to grow in their careers as this provides more salary, higher status and opportunity to use knowledge, education and skills effectively. An individual with potentials joins a firm not for job but for career development. An organization has to provide better opportunities to its employees in their career development and also use their efficient services for the benefit of the organization.

MEANING OF CAREER PLANNING (WHAT IS CAREER PLANNING?)

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skills and so on. He joins the organization with a desire to have a bright career in terms of status. An organization has to provide facilities/opportunities for the career development of individual employees. 6) To improve employee morale and motivation by providing training and opportunities for promotion. 4) To achieve higher productivity and organizational development.Career planning is one important aspect of human resource planning and development. In brief. ADVANTAGES OF CAREER PLANNING A properly designed system of career planning can provide the following benefits: 3 . Every individual who joins an organization desires to make a good career for himself within the organization. compensation payment and future promotions. they must plan regularly the career development programmes in their organizations. every person joining an organization has a desire to make career as per his potentiality. Career planning and development is the responsibility of the HR department of the organization. If the organizations want to get the best out of their employees. career planning refers to the formal programmes that organizations implement to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the human resources available. ability. 5) To provide guidance and assistance to employees to develop their potentials to the highest level. As already noted. From the point of view of an organization. career planning and development have become crucial in management process. NEED/PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF CAREER PLANNING 1) To map out careers of employees as per their ability and willingness and to train and develop them for higher positions. 2) To attract and retain the right type of persons in the organization. 3) To utilize available managerial talent within the organization fully.

Therefore. growth of backward areas. Career planning is not an effective technique for a large number of employees who work on the shop floor. Career planning anticipates the future vacancies that may arise due to retirement. In a developing country like India. members of the family expect to progress faster in their career than their professional colleagues. death.1. Therefore. 4. Career planning involves a survey of employee abilities and attitudes. environmental factors such as government policy. public sector development. etc. influence business and industry. etc. 4. therefore to group together people talking on a similar wavelength and place them under supervisors who are responsive to that wavelength. at managerial level. 3. it provides a fairly reliable guide for manpower forecasting. Career planning encourages him to avail of the training and development facilities in the organization so as to improve his ability to handle new and higher assignments. HOW TO INTRODUCE CAREER PLANNING PROGRAMME? (PROCESS OF CAREER PLANNING) 4 . career plans for a period exceeding a decade may not be effective. Career planning facilitates expansion and growth of the enterprise. This upset the career planning process. Therefore. The employees required to fill job vacancies in future can be identified and developed in time. it is not suitable for a very small organization. resignation. DISADVANTAGES/LIMITATIONS OF CAREER PLANNING The main problems in career planning are as follows: 1. Career planning can become a reality when opportunities for vertical ability are available. 2. Career planning helps an employee to know the career opportunities available in an organization. 2. 5. particularly for illiterate and unskilled workers. 3. In family business houses in India. It becomes possible.

    Personnel need of the organization. the following information will be required:  Total number of employees – their age distribution. If the organization wants to get the best out of their employees. (Category wise) Span of control available within the organization. DETAILS OF THE STEP IN CAREER PLANNING 1) ANALYSIS OF PERSONEL SITUATION This is the first step which needs to be completed before the introduction of career planning programme. the base line will be prepared to help the planners to make projections for the planning period and to help in the evaluation of plans. Here. What is happening in most of the organizations is that this concept is given only lip service and theoretical importance. Moreover. it must plan the career developments programmes continuously and effectively in its organization.  Structure – broad as well as detailed and the qualifications required for each grade.It is not easy to introduce career development programme at the level of an organization. The information collected on these aspects serves as the base for the preparation of career development plan for the future period. positions. etc. such career development planning is a continuous activity. qualifications. specializations. Field staff at head office with necessary details. 2) PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION 5 . In order to analyze the present career situation. and Facilitates available for training and development within and outside the organization. This relates to a time from which career planning is to be introduced.

The extent to which it is to be attained. other factors such as technical. Naturally. d.e. 4) SELECTION OF PRIORITIES It is rather difficult to meet all the needs of the employees and the organization for career development immediately i. The length of time required the achieving the goals. What is to be attained/achieved? b. c. efforts are made to find out precisely the career development needs of the future period. financial and administrative must be taken into consideration while finalizing the priorities. employee potentials. and appraisal of employees). The department in which the proposed plan will operate. e. there is a need to select the pressing and urgent problems of employees and organization. It is possible to identify the scope and limitations of career development needs on the basis of the data collected (through personnel inventory of the organization. This can be done on the basis of assumption which can predict what is likely to happen at the close of the career development plan. Such plan must describe the following in concrete form/forms: a. through one career developments plan. 5) DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLAN This is the most important step in the whole process of career developing plan.In this second step. 3) IDENTIFYING OF CAREER NEEDS In this third step of career development plan. the organization should: 6 . The employees involved. In addition. an attempt is being made to find out the situation likely to develop after the completion of career development plan. In order to execute the career development plan.

on merit-cum-seniority basis.a) Introduce systematic policies and programmes of staff training and career development for all categories of employees so as to enable them to:  Improve their level of skill and knowledge. Removing artificial barriers to promotion. b) Establish and effectively implement a system of study leave. Outside recruitment. 7) MONITORING PLANNING i. 3. c) d) as:   Providing within the organization.e. This writ-up should contain all necessary details such as schedule (time sequence of plan). such their rotation from one region to another. procedures and other details so that the evaluation of the plan will be easy and meaningful.   Gain wider experiences. MONITORING OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN 7 . the next major step is to prepare a write up (brief report) of the career plan. 6) WRITE-UP OF FORMULATED PLAN After deciding the priorities of career development plan. 2. Transfer within the organization. and Assume higher responsibilities. Establishing a register of employees for promotion Develop the experience of the employees by encouraging Take positive steps to encourage career development.   promotion within the organization. Giving priorities in the filling of vacancies in the following order for: 1.

9) REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF CAREER PLANS A plan needs periodical review. Planning is a continuous process/activity. This rule is applicable to career development plans of an organization. Such evaluation avoids mistakes. CAREER STAGES/CAREER LIFE CYCLE 8 . Planned (expected) targets and targets actually achieved can be compared through suitable monitoring of the plan. 10) FUTURE NEEDS This is the last step/stage of the current career development plan and the first step/stage of the next plan. suitable remedial measures can be taken to rectify the shortfalls. The new priorities are decided and the details of the new career development plan are prepared. The gap between the two (i. In addition. 8) IMPLEMENTATION (OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN) Implementation/execution of the plan is an integral aspect of planning process itself. Expected results/benefits will be available only when the plan is implemented properly. the career needs of the future period (of employees and also of the organization) are estimated. The implementation needs proper monitoring so as to avoid possible shortfalls. deficiencies. Actual benefits available will be known only through such review and evaluation. It should be conducted systematically and also impartially. For effective implementation.Monitoring of the plan is essential for its effective execution. short falls) can be located quickly. etc during the implementation stage. on the basis of the achievements of the current plan. Such evaluation should be done by experts. Here. It is built-in device to measure the effectiveness of the plan. co-operation and co-ordination at all levels is necessary.e.

this stage is of no relevance because it happens prior to the employment.Education is thought of in terms of employment. In other to show their utility to the organization. employees must remain productive at this stage. Candidates are likely to commit mistakes and learn from their mistakes. Chances are they change jobs. Most of them switch job either within the organization or in some other organization. This may either result in migration to another job or he will remain with the same job because of lack of opportunity. There is continuous improvement in performance. Ambitious candidates will keep looking for more lucrative and challenging jobs elsewhere. responsibility. several times before retirement. Employees tend to settle down inn their jobs and “job hopping” is not common. 9 . depending on available opportunity. “Climbers” must go on improving their own performance. Some candidates who come from better economic background can wait and select a career of their choice under expert guidance from parents and well-wishers. Very few people stick to the same job throughout their life. On the other hand. 2) ESTABLISHMENT This career stage begins with the candidate getting the first job getting hold of the right job is not an easy task. They go through the following stages: 1) EXPLORATION Almost all candidates who start working after college education start around mid-twenties. 3) MID-CAREER STAGE This career stage represents fastest and gainful leap for competent employees who are commonly called “climbers”. Many a time they are not sure about future prospects but take up a job in anticipation of rising higher up in the career graph later. Slowly and gradually they become responsible towards the job. employees who are unhappy and frustrated with the job. Where opportunity is restricted they continue with the same job. there is marked deterioration in their performance. rewards and incentives are highest at this stage. People go for school and college education and prepare for their occupation. Authority. From the point of view of organization.

5) DECLINE STAGE This career stage represents the completion of one’s career usually culminating into retirement. Employees who were climbers and achievers will find it hard to compromise with the reality. They are expected to train younger employees and earn respect from them. There is no desire to improve performance and improve past records. After decades of hard work.4) LATE CAREER This career stage is pleasant for the senior employees who like to survive on the past glory. CAREER STAGES V/S LIFE STAGE The concept of career stages is fundamental to understand and manage career development. It is necessary to comprehend life stages as well. Others may think of “life after retirement”. Employees go through 10 . such employees have to retire. Such employees enjoy playing the role of elder statesperson.

Careful planning at this stage will ensure fruitful and tension-free life at later part of life. This is also the stage where employees may be motivated towards migration of job or take transferable job with higher gains and better prospects. HOW TO HANDLE PERSONNEL AT EACH STAGE It is already noted that career planning is beneficial to employees as well as to the organization in raising productivity and in meeting future manpower needs of an 11 . Everything said and done it is not simple to strike a balance between career stage and life stage. What you sow now. As the joint family is fast breaking up elder statespersons must do careful financial planning so that they do not remain financially dependent on others. career stages and life stage need more careful and thoughtful analysis when employees are at exploration stage. Being young some employees feel they will remain like this throughout their life. Many studies are available that suggest that employees who completely withdraw to their residence and do not keep themselves busy are afflicted by diseases and suffer a lot towards the end of their life. This is short sightedness. On the other hand. In order to maintain healthy such employees must continue to pursue any hobby.g. It is an irony that at these stage employees does not plan for the future and live for today. an employee nearing retirement must prepare plans how to spend retirement days. will reap the dividends at the later part of life.career stages as they go through life stages but the interaction between career stages and life stages needs careful outlining e..

Some employees may not be clear about their career goals and aspirations. Employees will be able to select suitable are for their career development because of the details available on career opportunities. The following points below suggest the manner in which organization can help an employee in his career development: 1) IDENTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES NEED AND ASPIRATION The organization has to analyze the aspirations of different categories of employees. Information of this type is useful in guiding employees as regards their career. Career counseling of employees is possible. 2) ANALYSIS OF CAREER OPPORTUNITIES AND SUPPLYING INFORMATION TO EMPLOYEES The organization / management can analyze the career opportunities in the future period can also be estimated. the organization/ management has to take keen interest and leading role in career planning and development of its employees. 3) CAREER COUNSELLING Career counselling is one major method by which organization can help an employee in his career paths and the direction in which they ought to be heading. 12 . Even interest and desire can be created among employees who are not interested in career planning. aspiration and career anchors of employees. In this way. Training can be provided to employees who have the potential and willingness to share more responsibility. It is necessary to identify the career goals. At the same time. This is described as career counselling. Basically. career planning is an individual’s responsibility.organization. organization can identify needs and aspirations of employees and help them in their career planning. This information can be used while guiding employees as regard their career planning.

providing the services of experts in one method by which an organization can help in their career development. Experts can remove unrealistic expectations and set realistic career goals for the employees. Such workshops help for resolving misperceptions. They should be motivated to take special interest in their career planning. 5) INTERNAL PUBLICITY TO CAREER INFORMATION Many employees lack information about career choices. An organization can help an employee in his career by giving wide publicity to career opportunities available within the organization. The likely benefits should bring to their notice. 6) MAKING CAREER PLANNING A CONTINUOUS ACTIVITY Career planning and development should be carried out as a continuous activity of an organization. Workshops provide information and guidance to participate and motivate them for their career 13 . Such experts can guide employees in their career planning more effectively. 7) PROVIDING SERVICES OF EXPERTS Organizations can provide Services of Experts for career counseling of its employees. Even career opportunities can be published in a booklet form by organization.4) MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES An organization can create environment favorable to career planning. It has to take active interest in the development and well being of its employees. Such booklet can provide necessary information to employee who can plan their own career movement and progression. This is necessary to take care of changing needs of both employees and the organization. Thus. 8) CAREER DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOPS Organizations can conduct career development workshops for interested employees.

Career development looks at the long-term career 14 . 11) LEAVE OF ABSENCE Organization can give long period leave to its promising employee. The employee gives good returns to the organization after his return from long leave. 10) PERIODIC JOB CHANGES The organization can introduce the job rotation techniques in the departments. giving long leave to an employee is one way by which an organization can help employee in his career development. The employees also get confidence of working effectively under any environment.development. The organization should provide training facilities to interested and deserving employees and help them in their career development. The organization can introduce the periodic job rotation technique and prepare the employee for their future careers. This helps employees to acquire the organizational knowledge and knowledge of different jobs and departments. Thus. Such leave allows the employee to learn and develop new qualities and skills under different environments. A Job change offer diverse experiences to employees and prepares them for the future career. 9) CONTINUING EDUCATION AND TRAINING Continuous education and development are essential for career planning and development. CONCEPT/INTRODUCTION TO CAREER DEVELOPMENT Career development consists of the personal actions one undertakes to achieve a career plan. Organizations can help its employees in their career development by arranging such workshops regularly. Training creates desire to learn and develop for higher positions in the organization. The terms ‘career development’ and ‘employee development’ need to be differentiated at this stage.

and old . 2. business deals. When the opportunity is irresistible. For years men have used private clubs. Some of the important steps that could help an individual cross the hurdles on the way ‘up’ may include: 1. etc. the only option left is to resign from the current 15 .). NETWORKING Networking implies professional and personal contacts that would help inn striking good deals outside (e. You must undertake actions that would attract the attention of those who matter most in an organization. 4. If the performance is sub-standard. professional associations.. INDIVIDUAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT Career progress and development is largely the outcome of actions on the part of an individual. transfers and other career opportunities.g. EXPOSURE Career development comes through exposure. The actions for career development may be initiated by the individual himself or by the organization.boy networks to gain exposure and achieve their career ambitions. lucrative job offers. LEVERAGING Resigning to further one’s career with another employer is known as leveraging. which implies becoming known by those who decide promotions. even modest career goals can’t be achieved. PERFORMANCE Career progress rests largely on performance.effectiveness of employees where as employee development focuses of effectiveness of an employee in the immediate future. 3.

innovative compensation packages in addition to employee stock option plans for those who remain with the company for a specified period. They act as role models.position and take up the new job (opportunity in terms of better pay. new title. 5. However. etc. WIPRO (all information technology companies where the turnover ratios are generally high) have come out with lucrative. generally speaking. Mentors take junior employees under their protégé and offer advice and guidance on how to survive and get ahead in the organization. jumping the jobs frequently (job-hopping) may not be a good career strategy in the long-run. on the other hand. is someone in the organization who can create career development opportunities. LOYALTY TO CAREER Professionals and recent college graduates generally jump jobs frequently when they start their career. an older person in a managerial role offering informal career advice to a junior employee. A sponsor. ORGANISATIONAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT 16 . NIIT. 6. They do not think that career-long dedication to the same organization may not help them further their career ambitions.). MENTORS AND SPONSORS A mentor is. a new learning experience. To overcome this problem. companies such as Infosys.

Here discussions of employees’ interests’ goals. current job activities and performance and career objectives take place. It is usually done through face-to-face meetings between the employee and the counselor or coach. career paths. Sometimes outside experts are also be called in. they share their findings with others in career workshops. consists of a form of career guide in the question-answer format outlining steps for realizing career goals. Two self-assessment tools are quite commonly used in the organizations. This is. After individuals complete their self-assessment. c) EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES 17 . This guide. generally throws light on organization’s structure. called as a career workbook. develop suitable action plans and point out obstacle that come in the way. tailor-made guide to learn about their career chances. a) SELF-ASSESSMENT TOOLS Here the employees go through a process in which they think through their life roles. skills and work attitudes and preferences. A variety of tools and activities are employees for this purpose. b) INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING Employee counselling is a process whereby employees are guided in overcoming performance problems. interests. They identify career goals. a costly and time-consuming process. The first one is called the career-planning workshop. Individuals use this company specific. if supervisors act as coaches they should be given clearly defined roles and training.The assistance from managers and HR department is equally important in achieving individual career goals and meeting organizational needs. These workshops throw light on how to prepare and follow through individual career strategies. qualifications for jobs and career ladders. however. Counselling is generally offered by the HR department. The second tool.

When we talk of dual career couples (a situation where both husband and wife have distinct careers outside the home) certain puzzling questions arise naturally: whose career is important. etc. job rotations and mentoring programmes are used to develop a broad base of skills as a part of such developmental activities. what if the wife gets a tempting promotion in another location. d) CAREER PROGRAMMES FOR SPECIAL GROUPS In recent years. realizing these problems.These consist of skill assessment and training efforts that organizations use to groom their employees for future vacancies. long parental leave. They are coming out with schemes such as part-time work. who buys groceries and cleans the house if both are busy. ESSENTIAL TO MAKE CAREER PLANNING SUCCESSFUL 18 . flexible working hours and promotions and transfers in tune with the demands of dual career conflicts. workshops. who takes care of children. organizations are providing a place and a procedure for discussing such role conflicts and coping strategies. child care centers. Seminars. there is growing evidence regarding dual career families developing tensions and frictions owing to their inability to reconcile the differences between the family roles and work demands.

Moreover. career planning is feasible in large organizations. he needs to have enough potential and genuine desire to develop himself and grow in his career. In addition they will get information about career development facilities and procedural formalities 19 . Such publicity will create awareness about career development among the employees as well as career paths available to them for selection. Top management has to create enthusiasm among executives and encourage them to take interest and initiative in this useful activity.Career planning and development is one useful activity under human resource planning and development and is useful to employees and management. 2) LARGE SIZE OF THE ORGANISTION Large size of the organization is one essential requirement of successful career planning. In addition. 3) PROPER SELECTION OF EMPLOYEE Selection of right type of employees is essential for the success of career planning programmes. 4) FAIR PROMOTION POLICY Fair promotion policy is essential for successful career planning. Employees will take interest in career planning only when they are sure that promotions will be given on merits and without any partiality and favouritism. 5) PUBLICITY TO CAREER DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES Adequate internal publicity to career plan is essential for the success of career planning. The employee selected should be fit for the job. The following are the essentials to make career planning successful by the management are: 1) SUPPORT FROM TOP MANAGEMENT Support and cooperation of the top management is essential for the formulation and execution of career planning of employees.

the response from employees will be poor. HR department can play a positive role. This will provide manpower as per the need of an organization from time to time.to be completed. Here. 6) CONTINUITY IN THE PROCESS Career planning and development should be carried out on regular and continuing basis. In the absence of wide publicity. Career planning and development can be adjusted as per the need of the organization and also of employees. CAREER COUNSELLING 20 . Continuity is one essential requirement of successful career planning.

Quilting by high performers is a matter of serious 21 . Such career counselling has wider social significance. Career counselling is possible by senior executives through periodic discussions with their subordinates. colleges. It helps to understand their strengths and weaknesses. EMPLOYEE RETENTION TECHNIQUES Employee retention strategy involves taking actions for retaining employee over a long period. To enable individuals to study the immediate and personal world in which they live. THE MAIN OBJECTIVES ARE AS FOLLOWS: 1. 3. one important socio-economic need of the younger generation of every country including India. At the business level.Career counselling. Research studies indicate that both high and low achievers have higher quite rates than average performers. Career planning needs advising and guiding employees in their possible career paths and the direction in which they ought to be heading is known as career counselling. Even newspaper and magazines under take career planning and counselling activity. social organizations have to provide such counselling facilities for suitable career development of the younger generation. To provide guidelines in order to enable an employee to understand himself more clearly and develop his own thinking and outlook in specific direction. It is a type of internal guidance and motivation of employees. 2. business organizations have to provide career guidance and career counselling to their employees. To enable employees to achieve and enjoy greater personal satisfaction and pleasure. 4. School. To enable employees to understand the forces and dynamics operating in the system.

Important Techniques under employee retention are as follows: 1. As a result. Such retention bonus is offered to mid level along with top executives. Retention of such unsatisfied and disturbed employees is possible by introducing suitable strategy under which proper matching of an employee and his job will be achieved. This means retaining those who are needed and letting to go those who are not needed. turnover due to mismatch is minimized. promotion to a position not liked by an employee. In many companies employees are given choice to switch from one line function to staff function and vice-versa. Such measures can also be described as employee retention techniques. transfer to the department or work disliked by employee. a package of measures should be introduced. 22 . faulty career path decided for an employee. MATCHING JOBS AND EMPLOYEES One important reason of labour turnover is mismatch between employees and their jobs. Here. This problem develops because of wrong placement. 3. This is known as selective retention strategy. This technique is used when any charge like merger and acquisition or organizational restructuring takes place and employees tends to leave the organization because of the possible effect of such change. PROVISION OF RETENTION BONOUS Retention bonus is a kind of ad hoc payment to best performers to retain them in the organization.concern for the organization. the organization has to introduce strategy to retain high performers. Here. The employee leaves the organization mainly because he feels that his market value is more than what his organization is giving at present. retention bonus payment acts as an incentive attraction to employees. 2. An organization can take a number of measures to retain its employees under retention strategy. For avoiding this situation. PACKAGE OF INCENTIVES FOR LONG-TERM STAY The organization designs a suitable long term package for employees which will discourage employees from leaving the organization for some short benefit.

dinner meetings in five star hotels. meetings in posh hotels with employees and their families. Research studies show that changing job is painful to an employee as it affects his life as well as family's stability. the persuasive skills of the chief executive or HR personnel play an important role. 8. Stay interviews are conducted periodically by the immediate supervisor. He can offer certain incentives and convince the person that it is in his interest to continue in the same organization rather than joining some other organization. Some measure/techniques can be used for the retention of key personnel including top executives. Some measures are noted 23 . they can also be retained through effective persuasion .Here. STAY INTERVIEWS Companies conduct stay interviews in order to retain their workforce by making them feel appreciated and motivated. This facilitates purposeful communication between employer and employees and avoids labour turnover. PROVISION OF INTANGIBLE BENEFITS TO EMPLOYEES Organizations offer intangible benefits for the retention of employees. social network and employment. 7. middle level managers and at lower levels. Such interviews defect early warning signals as regards expectations of employees. It is all about their work. ENCOURAGING EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT Employee relationship management (ERM) acts as one employee retention strategy. the environment. the practices and the people that appeal to them and motivate them to stay on. If key employees can be brought in the organization from outside through persuasion. etc. PERSUASION OF EMPLOYEE Organizations can use persuasion as one method for the retention of key employees. children’s education. 5. Such benefits include overseas training opportunity. 6. Stay interviews are also held to understand the issues employees may be facing.4. holiday trips for employees and their families. This enables management to take suitable remedial measures in time and retain the employee for long.

 Provide job security and job satisfaction.  Provide machinery for redressal of grievance. employee consultation and workers participation.  Cordial relations with employees.below:  Introduction of scientific recruitment and selection so as to avoid the tragedy of misfits.  Provide attractive pay scales and incentives. SUCCESSION PLANNING Succession planning is a process of assessing and auditing the available talent in the organization in order to answer the following questions: 24 .  Provide scientific training facilities and career development opportunities to employee.

Do they have right skills and attributes for the future? Succession planning is based on the information supplied by talent audits. resignations and normal retirement. Career planning. appropriate succession planning processes exist and are useful to the organizations in different ways. Succession planning motivates employees and facilitates continuity of the organization.1. Are there enough potential successors available. ADVANTAGES OF SUCCESSION PLANNING 1. The purpose of succession planning is to ensure a smooth transition and operating efficiency. Succession planning is an ongoing process of ensuring that qualified and capable person are available to assume key managerial post / positions as and when these fall vacant due to sudden deaths. Succession planning is desirable because many studies reveal that executives hired from outside are more expensive and unreliable than those chosen through succession planning. succession planning provides opportunities to existing employees for progress in their career and self development 25 . Are they good enough? 3. In large organizations.a supply of people who can take key roles in longer terms? 2. manpower planning and succession planning are complementary and interdependent. premature firing. A succession plan involves identification of vacancies that are likely to occur in the higher level and locating the probable successors. supply and demand forecast and performance and potential reviews. All the three are essential foe effective utilization of organization’s human resource development (HRD). Career planning and succession planning are similar but not synonymous.

3. to learn more and make themselves eligible for higher level posts / positions. 3. It was in practice in the olden princely states in India under which an heir used to be 26 . Executives hired form outside are more expensive than those selected through succession planning. DISADVANTAGES OF SUCCESSION PLANNING 1. Succession planning acts as a motivating factor as it encourages existing manager to work efficiently. Succession planning ensures success. 5. 4. 2. PRESENT POSITION OF SUCCESSION PLANNING Succession planning as an organizational practice is comparatively new technique. stability and growth of an organization. Complete dependence on internal talent may cause stagnation in the organization. It facilitates continuity of the organization.2. Executives from outside are not reliable and dependable as compared to executives from within. It avoids frustration and high turnover among the existing employees which is possible if outsiders are taken to higher positions.

Identifying most suitable successors.nominated and efforts were made to groom him to take the place of the king in due course. the focus of succession planning has shifted from identifying successor for post towards providing for the development of successor by creating “talent pools”. every key executive is usually asked to identify three or four best juniors who could replace him in his job. 2. CONCLUSION Employee loyalty to the company is higher when the job fulfills intrinsic needs and personal goals of the employees. In recent years. This is because many organizations find it difficult to predict succession requirement due to changing environment in which the organization have to operate. The same concept of succession is now applied in business organization with suitable adjustments. 27 . This suggests that succession planning is normally required for higher level executives. Deciding the position for which successors are needed. 3. These are: 1. it is difficult to make reliable assessments of potential or “promotability”. if need arises. There are three basic elements in succession planning. In many professionally managed organizations. Grooming of successor so as to make him competent to occupy new position with confidence in due course. Secondly. an organization can ensure higher loyalty and productivity from employees. By assisting an individual in planning his career and providing opportunities for career development.

KALE & M.G. BIBLIOGRAPHY HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT -N. causing much harm to their plans and programmes. career development and succession planning. AHMED http://hr. An organization without career planning and career development initiatives is likely to encounter the highest rate of attrition.Effective HRM encompasses career planning.ca 28 .concordia.

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