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# A fluid of velocity 30m/s flows over a long, slender cylindrical tube with diameter of 0.5m in a free stream.

a) b) c) d) The fluid is water The fluid is air The fluid is air but the velocity is reduced to 1m/s. The fluid is air with 30m/s but the tube cross section is changed from a circle to a square with sides’ length 0.5m.

The above cases will be compared using velocity and pressure plots. Residual plots are also included.

GRID MESH For case A, B, C we used a long, cylindrical tube with a diameter of 0.5m in a free stream.

For case D we used a long, square tube with a diameter of 0.5m also in a free stream.

SCALED RESIDUALS

Case A

Case B

CASE C

CASE D

CONTOURS OF PRESSURE Case A

Case B

Case C

Case D

CONTOURS OF VELOCITY Case A

Case B

Case C

Case D

PRESSURE PLOTS Case A

Case B

Case C

Case D

PRESSURE VECTORS Case A

Case B

Case C

Case D

VELOCITY PLOT Case A

Case B

Case C

Case D

VELOCITY VECTORS CASE A

CASE B

CASE C

CASE D

ANALYSIS OF PLOTS

SCALED RESIDUALS In cases A,B,D we have observed about similar scaled residuals, and they have shown a slight decrement in velocity as they reach the 100 iterations. It is mainly because the air and water at the exit has slightly reduced in velocity. However in case C the graph is different because of the laminar model used, which is characterized by also a slight decrease at the already low velocity of 1m/s. VELOCITY PLOTS The velocity plots of the three first cases A, B, C, have shown a drop from the inlet noted from the graph at -4 to -1, and then it plummets to 0m/s at -0.5 to 0.5m. This is because it has reached the surface of the cylinder thus velocity is 0 at the surface. The velocity slightly rises as it continues to the exit or outflow. In case D the velocity is the same as the other cases, but it then remains very low because the square has acted like a barrier which heavily decreased the flow. VELOCITY CONTOURS AND VECTORS Contours and vectors display paths taken by various molecules of fluids and their saturation within a point. In cases A, B, C we have noted that the saturation shown by the contours is higher around the cylinder edges near the upper and lower wall. In front and back there is a lesser velocity saturation shown. In case D as it the square slightly blocks the flow, the velocity path is dispersed away from the square and causes a rise in velocity near the lower and upper walls. Yet on the walls surface the velocity remains at 0m/s. PRESSURE PLOTS The pressure plots for case A, B, and C shows almost the same pattern where the pressure seems to decrease from high near -5m to – 0.5m and becomes lower at near the cylinder wall which is noted by position -5m to – 0.5m. After reaching the lowest static pressure at position -0.5m, the flow regains its static pressure starting from position -0.5m up to position 0.5m. For case A, and B we can observe that the starting static pressure is higher compared to case C, this is maybe cause by the low velocity used in case C compared to case A and B. Pressure plot for case D which has square wall, shows totally different plot pattern than the other plots. The pressure plot pattern seems to be discontinuous, and the static pressure drops drastically from position -0.5m to -0.4m. The static pressure regains starting from position -4m but its increment is very low. This difference in pattern between the case using square and cylindrical wall shows that, pressure is less reduced by cylindrical wall. The square wall seems to drastically drop the static pressure of the wall.

PRESSURE CONTOURS AND VECTORS The pressure contours and vector shows almost the same results for the case A, B, and C. The pressure intensity seems to be slightly higher near the cylinder surface which perpendicular to the flow but the cylindrical surface allows the flow slip around the surface so the pressure is not highly developed. For the case D which uses a square tube, the flow hits a larger perpendicular surface area, which results in higher pressure intensity compared to other cases.