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eco landscaping for water quality

_fall 2011 A Penn State associated, student project, in conjunction with the Conewago Creek Initiative, designed to identify green infrastructure solutions to manage storm water and to work with interested land owners in the Conewago Creek watershed to develop such solutions for their properties.

University Park

Department of Landscape Architecture

Harrisburg

Department of Environmental Engineering

table of contents
problem identification susquehanna river basin lower susquehanna sub-basin conewago creek watershed technique introduction rain garden bioswale check dam recontouring slopes vegetated berm rain barrels + roof gutters dense vegetation reduce impervious green roof vegetation considerations rain garden plant list bioswale plant list vegetated berm plant list dense vegetation plant list green roof plant list
1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 25 26 27 28 29

4225 Roush Road Elizabethtown, PA soil considerations 1 soil considerations 2 soil considerations 3 existing conditions proposed strategies 337 Witmer Road Hershey, PA soil considerations 1 soil considerations 2 soil considerations 3 existing conditions proposed strategies 2405 Mill Road Elizabethtown, PA soil considerations 1 soil considerations 2 soil considerations 3 existing conditions proposed strategies

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

problem identification
Community Pride
No matter where you are from, there is always this sense of attachment to your rootsthis sense of pride in all that made you who you are. It is often difficult to pick out the reasons for this feeling, but you know so strongly that they exist, you are adamant to make sure others have the same opportunity to experience what you did. When moving to a new neighborhood, your mind is searching for the perfect match. Whether you know it or not, your heart is doing just the same. You are looking to become part of a community that has that vibe, that has that sense of pride in where they are from. There is no question this feeling exists in the Conewago Creek region. It is an area connected to, and by, its surroundings. The natural environment the communities are nestled in is the catalyst in providing that sense of pride. Preserving this asset is an essential goal that everyone in the watershed shares.

overall problems for the Conewago Creek Watershed

Overall Goals of the Conewago Creek Initiative:


Strengthening Community Preserving Rural Landscapes and Agriculture Establishing Sustainable Land Use Practices and Principles Enhancing Recreational Opportunities Restoring and Protecting the Natural Resources of the Watershed

Vision Statement of the Conewago Creek Initiative: The Conewago Watershed Community has envisioned a future that establishes the restored Conewago and its tributaries as a centerpiece of pride and a treasured asset in a rural landscape. This vision includes a strong agricultural community and productive farmland, community recreation areas and vibrant, well planned communities. Pristine landscapes will be protected while providing sustainable uses of natural resources, clean water and streams, and educational opportunities for generations to come.

Watershed Initiative

The idea that what you do as an individual can and will affect a much larger system is important to keep in mind. Everything and everyone within the watershed boundary are connected. The Conewago Creek watershed alone contains over 52 sq miles of interdependant land. This means 52 sq miles has a direct influence on the Conewago Creek. Further, whatever happens upstream will have impacts along the entire journey to the Atlantic Ocean, not just the neighboring town or the adjacent county. Effects are seen everywhere between small and large scales--from minor flooding to the loss of aquatic population in the Chesapeake Bay. Watershed scale initiatives are often complex and even daunting, but when a group of people with a common intersest work together, the benefits to the community can be great. The first step is to understand. Realize the impact you have and make an effort to change.

Resultant Problems

Flooding

Erosion

Water Quality Degradation

http://www.flickr.com/photos

http://streamfix.com/exampleprojects.php

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/characteristics.html

Resulting from our ever-growing society are overwhelming amounts of impervious surfaces and threatened natural systems essential for balance. Rain water has less room to infiltrate into the ground. Runoff begins, picking up speed and pollutants along the way. More impervious means more runoff, more speed, and more pollutants. Water starts flooding and/or continues downhill, either towards a storm drain or at someone else. More debris is gathered during the increasingly fast journey. Streams and many crucial natural systems get blown out.

Legend from Cooperstown, NY to Havre de Grace, MD


S42NHPNdissolveuse PaStateRoads2011_01_dissolveUSE subbasin wshedmjr PaState2011_01

Legend
!
CitiesUse S42NHPNdissolveuse_clip PaStateRoads2011_01_clip_dissolve sub_lowr STORMWATER167_1 STORMWATER167_1_clipped2 STORMWATER167_1_clipped PaState2011_01
State College !

Susquehanna River Basin


ERRISmallWatersheds2009_conewagodissolve

Lower Susquehanna Sub-basin


30 60

! south-east central PA + small watersheds adjacent to Conewago Creek Watershed !

120 Miles

6 6 322 322 6 15

11

81
6

Bethlehem Allentown !

! Altoona

Scranton Williamsport
322

80 80
322

Wilkes-Barre
80 476
322

Interstate highways PA state roads Susquehanna River Watershed sub-basins small watersheds Conewago Creek watershed
70 76

80

Interstate highways PA state roads Lower Susquehanna Sub-basin small watersheds immediately adjacent to Conewago Creek Watershed Conewago Creek watershed PA state outline
76 81

39

422

! Reading
76
322

Harrisburg !
230

! Hershey 743 ! ! Elizabethtown

State College
322 22 22

81

Allentown

Bethlehem

15

283

22

Pittsburgh

Altoona
22

! Lancaster
York !
83

99 76 70

Harrisburg

Hershey

Reading Mount Gretna


76
322

PA state outline scale 1:1,500,000 25 50 75 100 miles

15

Elizabethtown Lancaster York


83

Philadelphia

NORTH 0

70

81

NORTH 0 15

scale 1:750,000 30 45 miles

Conewago Creek Watershed


! Hershey
Hershey
117

headwater draining directly into the Susquehanna River Watershed

south-east central PA + small watersheds adjacent to Conewago Creek Watershed

technique introduction
rain garden
6-7

! Mt. Gretna

241

76

The following series of pages identify and develop nine eco-friendly, green infrastructure storm water solutions that are all viable options for properties within the Conewago Creek watershed. These techniques are options for both residential homes and larger infrastructure corporations. Although not every technique can be used on every location, the idea was to create a wide range of options that community members could chose based off of certain criteria such as soils, costs or problem. These solutions can be used individually or together creating an entire storm water strategy, thus creating almost endless possibilities for stormwater solutions. Each technique described has a center fold with a short description, annotated sketches of the design idea as well as several precedents of completed technique strategies. It is the hope that with this series of techniques that residents may find the right solution for their specific issue, budget and property.

green roof
22-23

bioswale
8-9

reduction of impervious surfaces


20-21

check dam
10-11

743

80
322

Interstate highways PA state roads Conewago Creek watershed with 50 ft. contours PA state outline scale 1:75,000 4 miles 2 Miles

230

dense vegetation as runoff control


18-19

recontouring slopes
12-13

! Elizabethtown

rain barrels + roof gutter system


16-17

vegetated berm
14-15

NORTH 0 0
0.5 2 1

see vegetation list on page

10% slope maximum

25

rain garden

infiltration + biorention + education + habitat creation + aesthetic benefits

technique precedents /

rain garden

Rain gardens can play a major role in tackling our societies stormwater issues. They are designed to collect runoff from a variety of sources: roads, driveways, roofs, rain gutters, and more. Along the way, the water picks up sediments, debris, and pollutants, all of which can be harming to wildlife on the other end of the storm pipe. Studies show as much as 70 percent of the pollution in streams, rivers, and lakes has been carried there by stormwater (asla.org). To help mitigate this issue, as well as collecting large amounts storm water, rain gardens also perform as excellent water purifiers. Soils and plant roots soak up water like sponges, releasing it slowly into the ground as all of the sediments and pollutants are filtered along the way. Microorganisms take care of the leftover materials, converting most of them to harmless wastes which can often be used by the plants. The idea is to allow nature to take care of its own resource, rather than sending it to a storm drain, causing even more problems elsewhere.
Sources: Create a Rain Garden or Swale: ASLA Rain Garden: WI Dept. of Natural Resources How to Manage Stormwater City of Portland What is a Rain Garden: Rain Garden Network Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007) benefits -manage stormwater -filter pollutants -provide food and shelter for wildlife -little maintenance -looks beautiful -educational tool

-Locating a rain garden at the corner of a road and a driveway collects water from both sources. -This also allows the space to double as a entrance planting, and not just another traditional design. -Placing gardens around trees lends to a cleaner edge. -Incorporating seemlessly into a yard also means less lawn to take care.

Vegetation (preferably native plants better suited for the conditions) Ponding Area Mulch Layer (optional) rain garden replaces storm drain
Minneapolis

usda.gov

-Plant a variety of species that will excel at different times throughout the year. Rain gardens must be placed where water drains. Locations that are often wet or even flooded are good considerations. If done with care and creative thought, a rain garden can double as an attractive space with an overlooking chair or bench.

Growing Medium (local soils and sand)

Geotextile Filter (optional) Gravel Filter (optional) `) rain garden cleans water before reaching stream
commonweeder.com

negatives -plants need time to establish (up to 2-3 years). -takes adequate maintenance in first couple of years.

cost estimate Costs $3-$5/sq. foot (excluding labor) This is not especially costly. With native plants found locally, it can be even cheaper. You may even qualify for a discount on utility bills.

maintenance -low maintenance once plants are established. -some weeding and watering will be needed in the first two years. -perhaps some thinning in later years when plants mature.

aesthetic appeal Can range from medium to high level of aesthetic appeal. It will not look bad, especially with less flooding happening on site. Native plants and other natural features will add to creating a pleasing space.

rain garden manages water from road and driveway


Maplewood, Minnesota

apwa.net

constructing a rain garden


Onondaga County, NY

syracuse.com

rain garden adjacent to road


Onondaga County, NY

syracuse.com

see vegetation list on page

existing grass swales, impervious surfaces, downspouts

26

bioswale

infiltration + bioretention + conveyance + education + walking trail + habitat creation design potential design considerations
-An overflow system ensures that the bioswale effectively controls extreme stormwater events without significant damage and flooding -Vegetation should be native, dense, and water tolerant with a strong ability for nutrient uptake. -In poorly-draining soils, subgrade drains may be necessary.

technique precedents /

bioswale

Bioswales utilize vegetation within gentlysloping channels to mimic ecological riparian channels and convey stormwater. Through the use of native and deep rooted grasses, forbs, and occasionally small trees, bioswales mitigate runoff volumes and rates. Consequently, bioswales reduce the necessity for conventional detention basins, conveyance systems, and stormwater infrastructure. Bioswales are an especially effective stormwater management technique for absorbing pollutants, removing silt, and directing rainwater. Essentially, bioswales filter stormwater and slow its rate before being released into the larger watershed. Before implementing a bioswale, several site variables must be considered: -The soil type (ideally uncompacted) must enable infiltration (preferably greater than 1/2 per half hour); -Slopes should range between 2-6%. -The surface area of the swale should equal approximately 1% of the total area from which it is receiving water.
Sources: Bioswales: USDA Bioswales/Vegetated Swales: Univ. of Florida Design Manual: Biological Filtration Canal (Bioswale): Univ. of California Santa Barbara Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007)

bioswale implementation
Chagrin Falls, Ohio

neighborhoodnotes.com

-Placed downhill from vehicles, bioswales collect stormwater to cool the immediate microclimate, provide shade, filter pollutants, and create naturalistic environments. In this way, bioswales also create a visual barrier, hiding parked vehicles.

-Utilize existing natural swale patterns -The effectiveness of a bioswale can be enhanced by a check dam (perpendicular to the flow of water), which serves as a physical blockade that slows stormwater rate while also trapping pollutants and suspended solids. (See page 9-10 for more information on check dams). benefits Bioswales increase on-site groundwater recharge and mimic natural processes. In doing so, they also improve water quality, control erosion/ sediment, provide habitat, and enhance biodiversity. negatives Unfortunately, bioswales are not effective on slopes that exceed 6%. Additionally, bioswales are physically strenuous and demanding to implement. cost estimate A 2004 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers study estimates bioswales at $0.50 per square foot. This cost estimate is highly relative; however, compared to conventional underground piping, bioswales are considerably less expensive. maintenance To avoid a damaged, ineffective, and/or failing bioswale, owners must regularly monitor and maintain erosion, debris accumulation, excessive sedimentation, seasonal plant trimming, and soil infiltration capacity. aesthetic appeal Dense vegetation that mimics a riparian corridor ensures that bioswales are far more aesthetically pleasing than conventional stormwater conveyance systems.

bioswales mimic natural riparian buffers

newgarden. org

bioswale receiving runoff from roadways and grass lawn


Lake County, Illinois

lakecountyil.gov

road-side bioswale
St. Paul, Minnesota

capitolregionwd.org

10

most effective within a slope range of 5% - 25%

check dam

promotes erosion reduction/bioretention/infiltration/conveyance/education/planting/reuse Check dams are an effective solution to many stormwater issues. One of those issues is erosion caused by high rates of runoff. Check dams work by catching stormwater on its path downhill and holding it temporarily, slowing down the rate. During this holding time, sediments that have been churned up along the fast-paced journey now have a chance to settle, helping to mitigate the issue of sedimentation in our streams. Other large debris will be sifted out of the water by any combination of structures and/or plants during this time as well. Further, depending on the intended purpose, check dams may also be constructed to promote infiltration, reducing the quantity of water continuing past the site. Check dams allow the opportunity to personalize a design that fits the intentions perfectly. They can be built to look very attractive as well as perform any number of duties. No matter what they look like, they will always reduce the rate of runoff and filter sediment. This would make for a wellrounded stormwater technique that is easy to build and is extremely beneficial.
Sources: Check Dams: MI Dept. of Transportation Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007)

technique precedents /

check dam

11

-Design with natural features to make this technique spatially pleasing as well as functional. -Utilize existing natural swale patterns. -The effectiveness of a bioswale can be enhanced by check dams (perpendicular to the flow of water), which serves as a physical blockade that slows stormwater rate while also trapping pollutants and suspended solids.

stone wall with weir allowing steady flow


Albemarle County, Virginia

nbwla.com

-Most check dams work by collecting water as it runs through a swale or on a path of least resistance. This allows the feature to regulate the flow of water by promoting much of it to infiltrate and releasing the rest slowly. Other check dams act more as simple filters. -Features like this perform similar tasks without allowing water to pool.

Grass Filter Strip

Stone Filter Strip

Stream

benefits -reduce rate of runoff -filter pollutants/sediment -reduce flooding -small footprint -cost effective -little maintenance -educational tool

negatives -may collect leaves, flower petals, etc. -can only be used in a draining area of 10 acres or less -cannot be used in streams

cost estimate The only cost is labor. This is not especially costly. You can use recycled/found materials (and plants, if desired).

maintenance -low maintenance once plants are established (if any). -clean out clogs by leaves and other debris if it occurs.

aesthetic appeal Can range from medium to high level of aesthetic appeal. It will NOT look bad, especially with less erosion happening on site. Natural-looking walls and plants will create a pleasing space.

planted swale with check dams to allow water to infiltrate


Seattle, Washington

artfulstormwaterdesign.net

John Burroughs School Bioretention System


Ladue, Missouri

sustainablesite.com

12

steep slopes + eroded slopes + roadways + non-vegetated slopes

recontouring slopes

stabilization + erosion control + stormwater dispersion Recontouring slopes or grading of specific areas can help control and manage stormwater. Recontouring slopes can be defined as adding or removing land/ pavement to lessen the slope/grade of hillsides, stream banks or roadways with the intention of dispersing, slowing, or redirecting water flow. Recontouring also entails fixing or crowning roadways which pool and collect water. Recontouring slopes are a viable option to consider when focusing on these listed problems: _erosion of stream banks/hillsides _poor crowning on roadways _non-vegetated hillsides _ponding or pooling of water _sheet flow and channeling of water Ignoring these issues can create sediment buildup for streams and rivers, create unwanted ponding of water in low points on properties and allow stormwater to sheet flow eroding soils and damaging land. Recontouring slopes can be a costly investment initially, but can have positive returns for home owners and companies that have erosion or pooling problems. Additionally, townships and boroughs are responsible for maintaining roadways which are not sloped to help prevent stormwater sheet flow.
-Erosion problems will create sediment or creating ponding issues along streams and creeks. -Recontouring slopes help prevent erosion along hillsides and stream banks, the diagrams below represent how a erodible slope will continuously see problems if not addressed. The to right, a recontoured slope depicts how stormwater will reduce the waters impact and help alleviate such issues. -In addition to hillsides and stream banks, one must also consider built works such as streets and sidewalks. Recontouring slopes of roadways can also help alleviate stormwater issues such as pooling or intense sheet flow. Redirecting water with a crowning effect can direct water towards drains and thus diminish ponding.

technique precedents /

recontouring slopes
before

13

after

Weedman Park, stream bank recontouring.


Little Rock, Arkansas

audubon.org

-Recontouring the slopes will allow for normalized sheet flow, adding vegetation to these newly contoured slopes should also be considered.

crowning the road directs water towards drains or off site.

residential stream bank recontouring.


Wind Gap, Pennsylvania

delawareandlehigh.org

benefits -redirects water towards desired locations -disperses stormwater to prevent ponding -slows water flow -helps prevent erosion in areas of high water flow

negatives -cost -need for cut/fill

cost estimate -depending on the size of the recontouring area, the cut or fill costs as well as equipment could be pricey -the cost to have a contractor $$$-$$$$

maintenance -after reseeding or replanting maintenance costs will be very low -it will save costs of maintenance in the long run if erosion issues are addressed

aesthetic appeal -vegetation could be added to recontoured area adding textures and colors -recontouring of roadways will increase curb appeal as
Hood River, Oregon

dam removal stream bank recontouring.

hoodriverswcd.org

school property recontouring.


Louisville, Kentucky

brokensidewalk.com

see vegetation list on page

14

fast moving runoff flow + channelized stormwater flow

27

vegetated berm

protects high impact sheet flow areas + diverts + redirects + channels + slows down stormwater

technique precedents /

vegetated berm

15

A berm is a slightly raised land formation, which can be used to slow down or disperse stormwater. The berm can be planted with grasses or other plants and directs water towards a designated area or rain garden. Vegetated berms can reduce the impact and speed of runoff flow and can diminish erosion of properties and stream banks. Additionally, a berm can redirect water to avoid pooling and collection of stormwater. Vegetation planted on the berm will strengthen the land mound and can also contribute to other stormwater techniques such as infiltration. Vegetation will also add textures and can be utilized as a visual screen and noise reducer. Berms are a cost effective way to redirect and slow down stormwater runoff, but should be used in addition to other techniques. This system will not remove water, just displace and redirect. The vegetated berm is easily constructed and requires little maintenance.
Sources: Water and Sediment Control Basins: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. How to Reduce Stormwater Runoff at Your Home: WikiHow. Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007) benefits -runoff flows are now buffered ,reducing erosiveness downstream -sediment settles out of runoff flow, decreasing pollution -slows down sheet flow, lessens waters impact -redirects water flow negatives -does not infiltrate/retain water just displaces it -costs of cut/fill/vegetation -erosion (if high impact) -berms are vulnerable to rodent damage cost estimate -the cost of a vegetated berm depends on the size and number of plants -viable and cost effective solution if the impact area is small $-$$$

commercial/educational vegetated berm systems.


Beaver Creek, Oregon

wildgingerfarm.com

-Vegetated berms can help distribute water, dispersing and reducing pooling and ponding. Larger vegetated berms can additionally reduce the impact of runoff flow and directing it to a designated area. -Vegetated berms can provide screening with larger plants or can set up new views, highlighting various portions of ones property. Berms introduce very little new soil and are easily maintained after installation. maintenance -after installation, little maintenance is needed for continual upkeep of the vegetated berm -if a planting bed is installed seasonal maintenance will be required aesthetic appeal -adding vegetation as well as a diverting barrier will bring new textures, colors, and elements to a property -the subtle mounding of a berm can also highlight and create new views and screen areas of a residence residential vegetated berm.
Little Canada, Minnesota rwmwd.org

Louisville, Kentucky

residential vegetated berm.

garden-share.com

agro-field separation vegetated berm.


Gilroy, California

agwaterquality.org

16

rain barrels + roof gutter system


harvesting + reuse + education + conveyance design considerations
-Rain barrels should be installed under a downspout nearest to where the harvested water will use the water within the property (i.e., garden) -The overflow should drain towards existing discharge swales--make certain that the overflow does not drain to existing structures and buildings. -Rain barrels are typically implemented on the ground level and immediately adjacent to buildings

abundant roof area + irrigation needs + grey water use

technique precedents /

rain barrels + roof gutter system

17

Stormwater harvesting is comprised of the collection (usually via rooftops) and storage (usually within catchment tanks) of rain water. One harvesting method is rain barrels, which are typically 55-gallon drums that are connected directly to a gutter/downspout system and used for small-scale non-drinking uses. The collection and storage of rainwater has two primary benefits: conserves potable water and thus reduces cost. This means that users need not waste water on activities (i.e., car washing) that do not require treated water. Harvested rainwater is especially advantageous regarding irrigation, as captured rainwater consists of no chlorides, zero hardness, and very few salts. Rain barrels even slow down the conveyance of water when it leaves the downspout--this ensures that stormwater does not pick up as many pollutants before entering waterways and the downstream watershed.
Sources: How to Manage Stormwater: Rain Barrels, Portland, Oregon Environmental Services Rain Barrel Guide Rainwater Harvesting, City of Portland Oregon Bureau of Planning and Sustainability

multi-rain barrel overflow system


Portland, Oregon

neighborhoodnotes.com

estimating annual water supply via rain barrels...

sq. feet collection area rainfall (in./yr.) 12 (in./ft.)

cubic feet of water per year

...

cubic feet of water per year 7.43 (gallons per cubic foot)

gallons per year!

...

1000

for example

...
12

41

3417 7.43

gallons per year!


aesthetic appeal

25,386

harvested rooftop rainwater directed into planter box


Portland, Oregon

communitecture.net

benefits Harvested stormwater conserves non-potable water, resulting in significant savings regarding well/municipal water usage.

negatives Rain barrels do not handle severe storms well. If not constructed properly, stored water may attract mosquitoes (although this can be mitigated by a screen/filter that also prevents organic matter and shingle residue)

cost estimate Constructing a rain barrel is a DIY project with an especially low startup cost. Postconstruction, users experience financial savings from their reduced use of treated municipal/well water

maintenance The screen/filter must be cleaned regularly. The barrel must be emptied before winter months. During severe storms, the homeowner must monitor water level to avoid overflow. Lastly, gutters must be cleaned at least twice annually

Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007)

While rain barrels are not especially visually appealing, they may be screened relatively easily behind walls. wooden rail barrel
Portland, Oregon

portlandguttercleaning.net

residential rain barrel hidden behind vegetation


Crow Wing, Minnesota

dropstopabsorb.org

see vegetation list on page

18

turf lawns + impervious surfaces + stream banks + erosion prone areas

28

dense vegetation as runoff control


protects areas of erosion + turf areas + open lawns and fields + non-vegetated slopes
-Adding new vegetation will take time, but once naturalized, the successional growth will assist stormwater problem zones. -Leaf coverage, deep root systems and denser vegetation will help prevent stormwater issues by slowing the water down and dispersing it. -The diagram below visualizes how dense vegetation reduces stormwater in several ways. The percentages show how much stormwater is removed via evapotranspiration, surface runoff and shallow infiltration. The diagram also compares the numbers of largely vegetated to a more urban setting.

technique precedents /

dense vegetation as runoff control

19

Reintroducing vegetation and native plants to a landscape can help remediate and control stormwater runoff. Adding dense vegetation can help remove sheet flow, reduce erosion and help infiltration. Planting not only adds beauty and value to your property, but also helps by reducing the amount and speed of runoff. Ground covers are one of the best erosion controls and include any plant material that covers the ground surface so the soil cannot be seen from above and rain does not strike directly upon it. Naturalizing areas of turf fields and lawns with native vegetation can add new animal habitat, provide new colors and textures and has the potential to cut down on maintenance costs for home owners. The process of adding vegetation includes reintroducing native grasses, shrubs and trees which allow the area to revert back to a more naturalized state. This regrowth process will then slow down stormwater (with new root systems and denser vegetation clusters), and remove and cleanse sheet flow (infiltrating and evapotranspiration).
Sources: Reducing Erosion and Runoff: Virginia Tech. Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007)

early successional forest regrowth.


Quabbin Reservoir, Massachusetts

farmfieldforest.org

dense vegetation in residential backyard.


Duffy Hill, Vermont

homestead.org

benefits -allows for infiltration and evapotranspiration -requires little maintenance -vegetation adds more surface area (leafs, bark, roots) thus slows down and makes areas less erodible

negatives -cost of new vegetation -time for regrowth to occur

cost estimate -cost estimate depends on the amount and type of regrowth vegetation a resident is seeking. -costs will be high, but maintenance of turf will no longer be necessary, saving long term

maintenance -low maintenance costs in the long term, initial planting and upkeep will be required

aesthetic appeal -adding new vegetation will add new habitat, colors, and textures to a property -this technique will enhance any turf grass field or lawn
Baton Rouge, Louisiana

dense vegetation added to urban detention basin.

abbey-associates.com

dense vegetation in residential front yard.


Glen Ellyn, Illinois

artandlindaswildflowers.com

20

all impervious slopes increase the rate of runoff

reduction of impervious surfaces

promotes infiltration/retention/detention/conveyance/biorention/education/walking trail/planting/harvesting+reuse The amount of impervious surfaces in our communities is the biggest problem creator related to stormwater. This includes roads, parking lots, building infrastructure, driveways, sidewalks, patios, and more. Water cannot permeate through these surfaces. So, when it rains, all the stormwater that hits one of those impervious surfaces runs off somewhere else. When large quantities of water are not permitted to soak into the ground, they begin to collect and flow at higher rates of speed. This causes unnaturally large amounts of water to enter our streams, resulting in erosion that destroys ecosystems and displaces wildlife. Also, the water reaching the streams is contaminated with debris, sediments, and pollutants like car oil and engine fluids. This contributes to even further damage of our streams- damage that cannot be fixed immediately. By reducing the amount of impervious surfaces, we can promote the infiltration of water back into the ground, rather than relying so heavily on storm drains. This will effectively recharge groundwater supplies as well as minimize the impacts on our streams.
Sources: Reduce Impervious Surfaces: San Mateo County Playful and Permeable Paving Patterns: LA Times Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007)

technique precedents /

reduction of impervious surfaces

21

-Much of our communities are now impervious, leaving stormwater little room to infiltrate back into the ground. -Building roofs, roads, and driveways make up a large portion of the overall percentage of impervious surfaces. -By implementing pervious paving projects where feasible, such as a driveway, stormwater runoff quantities could drop by nearly 30% from the impervious paved conditions. -Water hitting the new pervious surface will no longer contribute to runoff, soaking into the ground on site. This will help to mitigate the problems of erosion, flooding, and pollution to name a few.

Overspill through kerb into planted area Pavers (gaps filled with gravel or sand) Sand Base Open Graded Base Material (course aggregate) Existing Sub Base permeable flagstone and grass driveway
debraprinzing.com

benefits -reduce quantity and rate of runoff -reduce flooding -reduce pollution and sedimentation of waterways -reduce erosion -recharge groundwater

negatives -against what many are used to seeing

cost estimate The only cost is labor, unless completed yourself.

maintenance -low maintenance-the vegetation between pavers may need to be trimmed/ pruned -non-vegetative cracks between pavement may need to be cleaned to ensure drainage

aesthetic appeal Most people would agree it adds high aesthetic appeal. If done properly, it will not look any worse than the existing condition. permeable rock, brick, and stone pathway
latimes.com

permeable concrete

freshdirt.sunset.net

on-street bioretention
Portland, Oregon

artfulrainwaterdesign.net

see vegetation list on page

22

extensive roof coverage

29

green roof
education + planting design notes
-Green roofs replace impervious roofs with plants that absorb rainwater and reduce runoff rates. In this way, vegetation and soil serves as a sponge that minimizes water entering stormwater infrastructure. Additionally, green roofs can retain 75% of a one-inch rainfall. -Green roofs provide outstanding ecological benefits because they replace traditional building footprints with landscape systems that mimic natural habitats. Additionally, they create oxygen, remove air pollutants, and encourage evapotranspiration. -Because of thick organic matter atop structural support, green roofs can reduce heating and cooling energy costs by at least 10-15%. -Especially in dense urban environments, green roofs reduce temperatures by as much as 32.

technique precedents /

green roof

23

Green roofs consist of soil, compost, and vegetation that at least partially cover a buildings roof. Two green roof types are available. Intensive green roofs create a rooftop oasis for human use. Trees, shrubs, and vegetation with deeper root depth requirements are present; soil is at least 6 deep. They require a relatively high degree of engineering and structural support; weighing between 80-150 pounds per square foot, slopes are not to exceed 3%. Contrastingly, extensive green roofs consist of mosses, sedums, grasses, and meadow flowers atop 2-3 of soil. Extensive roofs are designed to be self-sustaining, free of humans, and relatively easy to implement (minimal additional structural support, if any, is required). Extensive green roofs can be constructed on slopes no greater than 33% and weigh approximately 15/50 pounds per square foot. Because of their lower initial cost and relative ease of installation, extensive green roofs are more common in residential/private settings. Green roofs last at least 2-3x longer than conventional roofs, increase property values, and provide abundant ecological benefits.
Sources: ASLA Green Roof, American Society of Landscape Architects Roof meadow What is a Green Roof? How Stuff Works Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007)

residential green roof


Tacoma, Washington

greenroofs.com

growing medium filter mat drainage layer root barrier waterproof layer roof
benefits Green roofs provide sustainable stormwater management, amenity spaces for human use, increased energy efficiency, and ecologically-sensitive design. negatives Depending on roof type, building structure, and plants, green roofs are initially expensive. Initial costs are mitigated by significant returns on investment (~10% heating/ cooling savings) and increased property values. cost estimate Green roofs cost approximately $10-20 per square foot; comparatively, conventional roofs cost approximately $510 per square foot. maintenance Extensive roofs require maintenance perhaps once a year; intensive roofs require fairly regular maintenance for pruning, irrigation, weeding, and applying fertilizer. aesthetic appeal Replacing shingles, aluminum, and/or asphalt, green roofs are an especially significant upgrade regarding visual quality. Additionally, intensive green roofs provide spaces for human use and peaceful retreats. residential green roof
Norway
architecturehomedesigns.com

American Society of Landscape Architects Headquarters


Washington, D.C.

ASLA.org

residential green roof


Mount Baker, Washington

ecofriends.com

24

vegetation considerations
Why Native + Conservation Planting? Using native vegetation (plants which naturally occur in the region in which they evolved) are beneficial for stormwater control as well as several other factors such as wildlife and maintenance issues. The plant lists provided only include native plants. Native plants have stronger root systems, are less susceptible to diseases and provide natural habitat for local animals. Vegetation List Break Down Each plant list will be categorized into several plant variations: -Ferns -Grasses and Grasslike Plants -Herbaceous Plants -Shrubs -Trees -Vines Each plant will have useful information: -Characteristics -Conditions -Habitat
benefits -erosion control -remediation -channel/bioswale stabilizer -evapotranspiration -stormwater collection -habitat renewal -lawn maintenance

introduction to vegetation uses/why native and conservation planting?


techniquetype:raingarden planttype:
ferns Athyriumfilixfemina(northernladyfern) Onocleasensibilis(sensitivefern) Osmundacinnamomea(cinnamonfern) Thelypterisnoveboracensis(NewYorkfern) Woodwardiaareolata(nettedchainfern) grassesandgrasslikeplants Calamagrostiscanadensis(bluejointreedgrass) Carexstricta(tussocksedge) Leersiaoryzoides(ricecutgrass) herbaceousplants Arisaematriphyllum(Jackinthepulpit) Cheloneglabra(turtlehead) Gentianaclausa(closedgentian) Saxifragapensylvanica(easternswampsaxifrage) Spiranthescernua(noddingladiestresses) shrubs Clethraalnifolia(sweetpepperbush) Hypericumdensiflorum(St.Johnswort) Kalmiaangustifolia(sheeplaurel) Rhododendronviscosum(swampazalea) Spiraeatomentosa(steeplebush) trees Acerrubrum(redmaple) Chamaecyparisthyoides(atlanticwhitecedar) Nyssasylvatica(blackgum) vines Bignoniacapreolata(crossvine)

vegetation list /

rain garden

25

Integrated as a part of numerous techniques, the addition and usage of native vegetation is a key component towards solving and remediating stormwater conflict zones. Vegetation can be used to address areas with problems such as erosion, poor soils, steep slopes, or poor drainage and has the potential to disperse, cleanse, and slow down stormwater. In addition to aiding, vegetation can also teach, reduce various home owners costs, and create native wildlife habitat. Several plant lists have been created for each specific technique which activate vegetation. These lists highlight specific Chesapeake Bay Watershed native plants. The techniques which utilize vegetation are as follows:

characteristics:
Height/Fruit 1'3'/nofruit 1'3.5'/junetooct. 2'5'/apr.tomay 1'2.5'/junetosept. .5'2'/julytooct.

conditions:
Sun+Shade/Moisture/SoilTypes/SoilpH partialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S/4.57 fullsuntofullshade/moisttowet/C,L,S fullsuntofullshade/moisttowet/C,L/4.57 partialsun+shadetofullshade/moisttowet/C,L,S/47 partialsun+shadetofullshade/moisttowet

habitat
banks,openwoods,thickets,slopes,rocky,ledges,swamps freshtidalandnontidalmarshes,meadows,swamps,woods woods,marshes,bogs,streamsides forestedwetlands,drytodampwoods,thickets bogs,swamps,woods

1.5'5'/junetoaug. 1'3.5'/maytoaug. 5'/junetooct.

fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L/4.58 fullsun/moisttowet/C,L,S/3.57 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S/5.18.8

meadows,bogs,thickets freshtidalandnontidalmarshes,shrubswamps,forestedwetlands,swales,fields freshtidalandnontidalmarshes,meadows,ditches

techniquetype: planttype:
ferns grassesandgrasslikeplants herbaceousplants shrubs trees vines

characteristics:

conditions:

habitat

1'3'/mar.tojune(p,g) 1.5'6.5'/julytooct.(w) 1'3.5'/aug.tooct.(b) 1'3'/apr.tojune(w,g) .5'2'/julytonov.(w)

partialsun+shadetofullshade/moisttowet/L,S/4.87 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S partialsun+shade/moisttowet/L/5.87.2 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/wet/C,L,S fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S/4.56.5

woods,bogs,swamps woods,streambanks,swamps,thickets moistopenwoods,streambanks,meadows wetwoods,swamps meadows,openwoods,roadsides,bogs

6 8 14 18 22

rain garden bioswale vegetated berm dense vegetation as runoff control green roof

6'12'/julytoaug.(w,p) 1.5'6'/julytosept.(y) 2'3'/maytojuly(w,p,r) 6.5'10'/maytoaug.(w,p) 3'6'/julytosept.(p)

partialsun+shadetofullshade/moisttowet/C,L,S/4.56.5 fullsun/drytowet/C,L,S/5.57 fullsuntofullshade/moisttowet/C,L,S/4.56 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S/46 fullsun/moisttowet/C,L,S/5.16

forestedwetlands,shrubswamps,bogs,woods,floodplains,lakeshores seepageslopes,pondedges,wetmeadows,streambanks,ditches pastures,barrens,woodedstreams,borders,bogs,thickets wetfloodplainwoods,streambanks,hillside,ditchbanks,clearings meadows,fields,bogs,swamps,pondedges,marshes,swales

Citation

negatives -costs -maintenance -labor (seasonally)

cost estimate -depending on the size of the planting area and the amount of vegetation to be installed costs could range from: $ to $$$$

maintenance -depending on the size of the planting area and the amount of vegetation to be installed maintenance could be a factor. Planting vegetation will reduce other maintenance costs such as mowing the lawn.

aesthetic appeal -adding natural areas of vegetation will provide new textures and colors to a property. Additionally, plants will welcome new animals and provide aesthetic seasonal aspects.

40'100'/mar.toapr. 75'/mar.toapr.(g) 30'75'/apr.tojune(g,w)

fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S/5.47.1 partialsun+shadetofullshade/moisttowet/C,L,S/4.55.5 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytowet/L/4.56

swamps,uplands,rockyhillsides,dunes freshwaterswamps,woods forestedseasonalwetlands,swampborders,uplandwoods,seasonallyflooded

20'35'/maytojune(o,r)

fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytowet/C,L,S/6.18.5

swampyforests,calcareousriverbanks,cliffs,dryopenwoods,bogs

NativePlantsforWildlifeHabitatandConservationLandscaping:ChesapeakeBayWatershed.U.S.Fish&WildlifeService. PlantsforWetMeadows,BogsorBogGardens

26

bioswale / vegetation list


characteristics:
Height/Fruit 1'3'/nofruit 1'3.5'/junetooct. .5'2'/junetooct. 1'2.5'/junetosept. .5'2'/julytooct.

vegetation list /
techniquetype:vegetatedberm planttype:
grassesandgrasslikeplants Ammophilabreviligulata(dunegrass) Dichantheliumclandestinum(deertongue) Elymuscanadensis(Canadawildrye) Panicumvirgatum(switchgrass) Schizachyriumscoparium(littlebluestem) herbaceousplants Baptisiatinctoria(yellowwildindigo) Lespedezacapitata(roundheadbushclover) Chamaecrista(Cassia)fasciculata(partridgepea) shrubs Comptoniaperegrina(sweetfern) Cornusracemosa(graydogwood) Hypericumdensiflorum(St.Johnswort) Rhusaromatica(fragrantsumac) Viburnumacerifolium(mapleleavedarrowwood) trees Amelanchierarborea(shadbush) Celtisoccidentalis(commonhackberry) Nyssasylvatica(blackgum) Juglansnigra(blackwalnut) Quercuscoccinea(redoak) vines Campsisradicans(trumpetvine) Celastrusscandens(Americanbittersweet) Passifloraincarnata(passionflower) Parthenocissusquinquefolia(Virginiacreeper)

vegetated berm
habitat

27

techniquetype:bioswale planttype:
ferns Athyriumfilixfemina(northernladyfern) Onocleasensibilis(sensitivefern) Polystichumacrostichoides(Christmasfern) Thelypterisnoveboracensis(NewYorkfern) Woodwardiaareolata(nettedchainfern) grassesandgrasslikeplants Andropogongeradii(bigbluestem) Calamagrostiscanadensis(bluejointreedgrass) Dichantheliumclandestinum(deertounge) Leersiaoryzoides(ricecutgrass) Tripsacumdactyloides(gamagrass) herbaceousplants Asclepiasincarnata(swampmilkweed) Gentianaclausa(closedgentian,bottlegentian) Mertensiavirginica(Virginiabluebells) Mimulusringens(monkeyflower) Sisyrinchiumatlanticum(easternblueeyedgrass) shrubs Cornusamomum(silkydogwood) Ilexverticillata(winterberry) Lyonialigustrina(maleberry) Rosapalustris(swamprose) Viburnumdentatum(southernarrowwood) trees Acernegundo(boxelder) Carpinuscaroliniana(Americanhornbeam) Fraxinuspennsylvanica(swampash) Magnoliavirginiana(sweetbaymagnolia) Salixnigra(blackwillow) vines Mikaniascandens(climbinghempvine) Parthenocissusquinquefolia(Virginiacreeper) Wisteriafrutescens(Atlanticwisteria)

conditions:
Sun+Shade/Moisture/SoilTypes/SoilpH partialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S/4.57 fullsuntofullshade/moisttowet/C,L,S partialsun+shadetofullshade/moist/L,S/4.57 partialsun+shadetofullshade/moisttowet/C,L,S/47 partialsun+shadetofullshade/moisttowet/

habitat
banks,openwoods,thickets,slopes,rocky,ledges,swamps freshtidalandnontidalmarshes,meadows,swamps,woods woods,thickets,rockyslopes forestedwetlands,drytodampwoods,thickets bogs,swamps,woods

characteristics:
Height/Fruit 1.5'3.5'/julytosept. 2'5'/maytooct. 2'6.5'/junetooct. 3'6'/julytooct. 1.5'4'/aug.tooct.

conditions:
Sun+Shade/Moisture/SoilTypes/SoilpH fullsun/dry/L,S/5.87.8 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytowet/C,L,S/47.5 fullsun/drytomoist/C,L,S/57.9 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytowet/C,L,S/4.58 fullsun/dry/L,S

grasslands,shrublands moistwoods,roadsides roadsides freshbrackishtidalandnontidalmarshes,wetmeadows,openwoods,prairies openwoods,pinelands,clearings

2'6.5'/junetosept. 1.5'5'/junetoaug. 2'5'/maytooct. 5'/junetooct. 6'10'/junetooct.

fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytowet/C,L,S/67.5 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L/4.58 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytowet/C,L,S/47.5 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S/5.18.8 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L/5.77.5

dryorwetopenwoods,prairies,swales,shores,dryopenareas meadows,bogs,thickets moistwoods,roadsides freshtidalandnontidalmarshes,meadows,ditches swales,fields,forest,edges,shores

1'3'/maytosept.(y) 2'6'/julytosept.(y,w) .5'3'/julytosept.(y)

fullsuntopartialsun+shade/dry/L,S/5.87 fullsun/dry/L,S fullsun/dry/S

openwoods,clearings fields,thinwoods uplandmeadows,fields,streambanks

4'6'/maytojune(p,r) 1'3.5'/aug.oct.(b) 1'2.5'/mar.tojune(p,b) 1'3'/junetooct.(b) .5'2.5'/maytojuly(b,v)

fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L/58 partialsun+shade/moisttowet/L/5.87.2 partialsun+shadetofullshade/moisttowet/C,L/4.58 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/wet/L fullsun/moisttowet

freshtidalandnontidalmarshes,meadows,shrubswamps,woods,ditches moistopenwoods,streambanks,meadows richwoodedslopes,floodplains openswamps,meadows marshes,meadows,lowwoods

3'/apr.tomay(y,g) 6'12'maytojune(w) 1.5'6'/julytosept.(y) 6'/mar.tomay(g,y) 3'6'/jun(w,p)

fullsuntopartialsun+shade/dry/L,S/47 fullsuntofullshade/drytomoist/C,L/6.18.5 fullsun/drytowet/C,L,S/5.57 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/dry/L,S/6.18.5 fullsuntofullshade/drytomoist/C,L/5.16

hillsides,cliffs,fields openwoodedfloodplains,forestedwetlands,shrubswamps,rockywoods bogs,seepageslopes,pondedges,wetmeadows,streambanks uplandwoods,oakbarrens,fields floodplains,forests,drywoodedslopes,outcrops,woodedravines

6'12'/maytojune(w) 6'12'/junetojuly(w) 6'12'/maytojuly(w) 8'/junetoaug.(p) 10'15'/maytojune(b)

fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S/6.17.5 fullsuntofullshade/moisttowet/C,L,S/4.56.5 partialsun+shadetofullshade/moisttowet/L,S/4.56.5 fullsuntofullshade/moisttowet/C,L/47 fullsuntofullshade/drytowet/L,S/5.16.5

forestedwetlands,floodplains,shrubwetlands,streamandpondbanks freshtidalswamps,shrubswamps,forestedwetlands woods,woodedslopes,floodplain,forests freshtidalandnontidalmarshes,forestedwetlands,shrubswamps,streambanks swamps,wetwoods,bogs,floodplain,forests,streambanks

15'25'/mar.tomay(w) 40'100'/apr.tomay(y) 30'75'/apr.tojune(g,w) 70'90'/maytojune(y,g) 40'75'/maytojune(y,g)

partialsun+shadetofullshade/drytomoist/L,S/5.57.5 fullsuntofullshade/drytowet/C,L,S/67.8 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytowet/L,S/4.56 fullsun/moist/L/5.58 fullsun/drytomoist/L,S/4.56.9

woodedriverbanks,swamps,slopes drainagebasins,floodplains,woodedslopes,borderingstreams,windbreaks forestedseasonalwetlands,swampborders,uplandwoods,seasonallyflooded wood,slopes,streamsides dryuplands,slopes

30'60'/apr.tomay(y) 13'40'/apr.tomay(r,y) 50'75'/apr.tomay(p) 12'30'/maytojuly(w) 25'50'/mar.toapr.(y,g)

fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S/5.27 partialsun+shadetofullshade/moist/L,S/47.4 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytowet/C,L,S/58 fullsuntofullshade/moisttowet/C,L,S/56.5 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S/68

alongrivers,streams,ponds,seasonallyfloodedareas rivermargins,bottomlands,swamps tidalandnontidalfreshwaterforestedwetlands,seasonallytoregularlyflooded forestedwetlands,seeps,streamandpondedges marshes,andswamps,forestedwetlands,floodplains,seasonallyflooded

20'35'/julytosept.(o) 6'20'/maytojune(g) junetosept.(p,w) 25'35'/junetoaug.(g,w)

fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytomoist/C,L,S/6.17.5 fullsuntofullshade/drytomoist/C,L,S/6.17.5 fullsun/drytomoist/C,L,S fullsuntofullshade/drytowet/C,L,S

moistwoods,fencerows,roadside,thickets,floodplain,streambanks,fields roadsides,forestedges,fencerows,pastures,hedges fields,rockyslopes,thinwoods,roadsides,fencerows,thickets fencerows,forestedges,openwoods,ravines,bluffs,cliffs

junetooct.(p,w) 25'35'/junetoaug.(g,w) apr.toaug.(p)

partialtosun+shade/moisttowet/C,L/5.77.5 fullsuntofullshade/drytowet/C,L,S fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S/47

swamps,thickets fencerows,forestedges,openwoods,ravines,bluffs,cliffs forestandforestedswampedges,streambanks,thickets

NativePlantsforWildlifeHabitatandConservationLandscaping:ChesapeakeBayWatershed.U.S.Fish&WildlifeService. PlantsThatProvideStabilizationonDry,SunnySlopesorHillsides

NativePlantsforWildlifeHabitatandConservationLandscaping:ChesapeakeBayWatershed.U.S.Fish&WildlifeService. PlantsforFreshwaterWetlandsandOtherWetSites

28

dense vegetation as runoff control / vegetation list


characteristics:
Height/Fruit 1'3.5'/junetooct. 2'5'/apr.tomay 2'3'/junetooct.

vegetation list /
techniquetype:greenroof planttype:
drytomoistgreenroofs graminoids Andropogonvirginicus(broomsedge) Dichantheliumclandestinum(deertongue) Juncustenuis(slenderyardrush) Panicumvirgatum(switchgrass) Tridensflavus(tallredtop) herbs Eupatoriumserotinum(latefloweringthoroughwort) Euthamiagraminifolia(flattopgoldenrod) Geumcanadense(whiteavens) Penstemondigitalis(tallwhitebeardtongue) Rudbeckiahirta(blackeyedsusan) Uvulariasessilifolia(bellwort) Verbenaurticifolia(whitevervain) shrubs Rubusflagellaris(northerndewberry)

green roof

29

techniquetype:densevegetationasrunoffcontrol planttype:
ferns Onocleasensibilis(sensitivefern) Osmundacinnamomea(cinnamonfern) Thelypterispalustris(marshfern) grassesandgrasslikeplants Andropogongeradii(bigbluestem) Carexglaucodea(bluewoodsedge) Leersiaoryzoides(ricecutgrass) Panicumvirgatum(switchgrass) Tripsacumdactyloides(gamagrass) herbaceousplants Asclepiasincarnata(swampmilkweed) Doellingeriaumbellatavar.umbellata(flattopwhiteaster) Packeraaurea(Senecioaureus)(goldenragwort) Scutellariaintegrifolia(helmetflower) Verbenahastata(bluevervain) shrubs Cephalanthusoccidentalis(buttonbush) Ilexverticillata(winterberry) Rhododendronviscosum(swampazalea) Rosapalustris(swamprose) Spiraeatomentosa(steeplebush) trees Acerrubrum(redmaple) Cerciscanadensis(easternredbud) Ilexopaca(Americanholly) Liriodendrontulipifera(tuliptree) Magnoliavirginiana(sweetbaymagnolia) vines Campsisradicans(trumpetvine) Celastrusscandens(Americanbittersweet) Passifloraincarnata(passionflower) Parthenocissusquinquefolia(Virginiacreeper)

conditions:
Sun+Shade/Moisture/SoilTypes/SoilpH fullsuntofullshade/moisttowet/C,L,S fullsuntofullshade/moisttowet/C,L/4.57 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S

habitat
freshtidalandnontidalmarshes,meadows,swamps,woods woods,marshes,bogs,streamsides swamps,bogs,fields,thickets,freshmarshes,woodedstreambank

characteristics:
Height/Fruit 2'6.5'/junetosept. 2'5'/maytooct. .5'2'/junetoaug. 3'6'/julytooct. 3'6'/aug.tonov. 1'3'/sept.tonov. 1'4'/julytosept.(y) 1'3'/apr.tojune(w) 3'6'/maytojuly(w) 1'3'/junetooct.(y) .5'1'/apr.tomay(w,y) 1'5'/junetooct.(w) 3'6'/apr.tojuly(w)

conditions:
Sun+Shade/Moisture/SoilTypes/SoilpH fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytowet/C,L,S/4.97 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytowet/C,L,S/47.5 fullsuntofullshade/drytowet/4.57 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytowet/C,L,S/4.58 partialsun+shade/dry/C,L,S partialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S fullsun/moisttowet/L,S partialsun+shadetofullshade/drytomoist/C,L,S fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytowet/C,L,S/4.56.8 fullsuntofullshade/drytomoist/C,L,S/46.8 fullsuntofullshade/moist/C,L/5.56.8 partialsun+shade/drytomoist/L,S/67.5 fullsuntofullshade/drytomoist/C,L

habitat
dryorwetopenwoods,prairies,swales,shores,dryopenareas moistwoods,roadsides dryorwetopenwoods,fields freshtidalandnontidalmarshes,wetmeadows,openwoods,prairies roadsides,openwoodlands prairie,plains,meadows,pastures,woodlandedges,pondedges dampthickets,openpastures,woodlandedges woodlandedges,openings,thickets,openwoodlands lowswales,moistditches,prairies,openwoodlands prairie,plains,meadows,pastures,woodlandedges,openings woods,thickets,clearings clearings,woodlandedges,thickets woodland,openings

2'6.5'/junetosept. .5'2'/maytojuly(b,r) 5'/junetooct. 3'6'/julytooct. 6'10'/junetooct.

fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytowet/C,L,S/67.5 partialsun+shadetofullshade/drytomoist fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S/5.18.8 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytowet/C,L,S/4.58 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L/5.67.5

dryorwetopenwoods,prairies,swales,shores,dryopenareas moisttodrywoodsandfields freshtidalandnontidalmarshes,meadows,ditches,muddyshores freshtidalandnontidalmarshes,wetmeadows,openwoods,prairies swales,fields,forestedges,shores

4'6'/maytojune(p,r) 1'7.5'/aug.tooct.(w) .5'2.5'/apr.toaug.(y) 1'2.5'/maytojuly(b,p,w) 1.5'5'/junetooct.(b,p)

fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L/58 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/L,S fullsuntofullshade/moisttowet/L fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytowet fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L

freshtidalandnontidalmarshes,meadows,shrubswamps,woods,ditches openareas,woods moistfields,woods,floodplains,roadsides swamps,bogs,moistwoods,fields meadows,swamps,floodplains,ditches,roadsides

6'12'/julytoaug.(w) 6'12'/junetojuly(w) 6.5'10'/maytoaug.(w,p) 8'/junetoaug.(p) 3'6'/julysept.(p,v)

fullsuntofullshade/moisttowet/C,L,S/6.18.5 fullsuntofullshade/moisttowet/C,L,S/4.56.5 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S/46 fullsuntofullshade/moisttowet/C,L/47 fullsun/moisttowet/C,L,S/5.16

freshtidalandnontidalmarshes,shrubswamps,forestedwetlands,wateredges freshtidalswamps,shrubswamps,forestedwetlands wetfloodplain,woods,streambanks,swampedges,hillsidebogs,ditches freshtidalandnontidalmarshes,forestedwetlands,shrubswamp,streams meadows,fields,bogs,swamps,lakeedges,marshes,swales

"GreenRoofSpecies."NewYorkCityDepartmentofParksandRecreation. PlantsforDrytoMoistGreenRoofs

40'100'/mar.toapr. 20'35'/apr.tomay(p,v) 15'50'/maytojune(w) 70'100'/june(g,y) 12'30'/maytojuly(w)

fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moisttowet/C,L,S/5.47.1 partialsun+shadetofullshade/drytomoist/L,S/4.57.5 fullsuntofullshade/moist/C,L/47.5 fullsuntopartialsun+shade/moist/L,S/4.56.5 fullsuntofullshade/moisttowet/C,L,S/56.5

swamps,uplands,rockyhillsides,dunes streambanks woods woods,mountaincoves,lowerslopes forestedwetlands,streamandpondedges,sandywoods

20'35'/julytosept.(o) 6'20'/maytojune(g) junetosept.(p,w) 25'35'/junetoaug.(g,w)

fullsuntopartialsun+shade/drytomoist/C,L,S/6.17.5 fullsuntofullshade/drytomoist/C,L,S/6.17.5 fullsun/drytomoist/C,L,S fullsuntofullshade/drytowet/C,L,S

moistwoods,fencerows,roadside,thickets,floodplain,streambanks,fields roadsides,forestedges,fencerows,pastures,hedges fields,rockyslopes,thinwoods,roadsides,fencerows,thickets fencerows,forestedges,openwoods,ravines,bluffs,cliffs

NativePlantsforWildlifeHabitatandConservationLandscaping:ChesapeakeBayWatershed.U.S.Fish&WildlifeService. PlantsforWetMeadowsandMoistForests

30

technique considerations

4225 Roush Road Elizabethtown, PA

vegetated berm

soil consideration 1
76 39' 7''

4225 Roush Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

31

359420 40 12' 18''


4451820

359440

359460

359480

359500

359520

359540

359560 40 12' 18''


4451820

76 39' 0''

Custom Soil Resource Report MapEmbankments, Dikes, and Levees

embankments, dikes, levees

4451800

4451800

Legend: -not limited- green -somewhat limited- yellow -very limited- red

Custom Soil Resource Report

TablesEmbankments, Dikes, and Levees


Embankments, Dikes, and Levees Summary by Map Unit Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043) Map unit symbol Cr Map unit name Croton silt loam Rating Very limited Component name (percent) Croton (90%) Rating reasons (numeric values) Depth to saturated zone (1.00) Ponding (1.00) Piping (0.89) PeB2 Penn shaly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded Somewhat limited Penn (90%) Thin layer (0.74) 0.9 29.9% Acres in AOI 2.1 Percent of AOI 70.1%

4451780

4451760

4451740

PeB2

4451720

4451720

4451740

4451760

4451780

R ou d sh R

Totals for Area of Interest Embankments, Dikes, and Levees Summary by Rating Value Rating Very limited Acres in AOI 2.1 0.9 3.0

3.0

100.0%

4451700

4451700

Cr

Pe B2

Percent of AOI 70.1% 29.9% 100.0%

4451680

4451680

Somewhat limited Totals for Area of Interest

Embankments, Dikes, and Levees:

4451660

4451660

Rating OptionsEmbankments, Dikes, and Levees

40 12' 11'' 359420


76 39' 7''

40 12' 11'' 359440 359460 359480 359500 359520 359540 359560


76 39' 0''

Aggregation Method: Dominant Condition Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, constructed to impound water or to protect land against overflow. Embankments that have zoned Component Percent Cutoff: None Specified construction (core and shell) are not considered. The soils are rated as a source of material for emTie-break Rule: Higher bankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed and compacted during construction.

4451640

4451620

4451620

4451640

Map Scale: 1:1,050 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

0 0

10 40

20 80

40 160

Meters 60

Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.

Feet 240

32
76 39' 7''

technique considerations

technique considerations dense vegetation vegetated berm bioswale rain garden

soil consideration 2
pond reservoir areas
76 39' 0''

4225 Roush Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

reduce impervious

rain garden

bioswale

check dam

soil consideration 3
359480 359500 359520 359540 359560 40 12' 18''
4451820 76 39' 0''

4225 Roush Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

33

359420 40 12' 18''


4451820

359440

359460

359480

359500

359520

359540

359560 40 12' 18''


4451820

76 39' 7''

Custom Soil Resource Report MapPond Reservoir Areas

Custom Soil Resource Report MapSuitability for Hand Planting

suitability for hand planting

4451800

4451800

4451800

TablesPond Reservoir Areas


Pond Reservoir Areas Summary by Map Unit Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043) Map unit symbol Cr PeB2 Map unit name Croton silt loam Rating Not limited Component name (percent) Croton (90%) Penn (90%) Seepage (1.00) Depth to bedrock (0.74) Slope (0.68) Rating reasons (numeric values) Acres in AOI 2.1 0.9 Percent of AOI

4451780

4451780

4451780

4451780

4451800

Legend: -not limited- green -somewhat limited- yellow -very limited- red

359420 40 12' 18''


4451820

359440

359460

Custom Soil Resource Report

Legend: Custom Soil Resource Report -Well suited- green -Moderately suited- yellow -poorly suited- red -unsuited- not possible for Hand Planting TablesSuitability
Suitability for Hand Planting Summary by Map Unit Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043) Map unit symbol Cr PeB2 Map unit name Croton silt loam Rating Well suited Component name (percent) Croton (90%) Penn (90%) Croton (5%) 3.0 Suitability for Hand Planting Summary by Rating Value Rating Well suited Acres in AOI 3.0 3.0 Percent of AOI 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Rating reasons (numeric values) Acres in AOI 2.1 0.9 Percent of AOI 70.1% 29.9%

4451760

4451760

4451760

70.1% 29.9%

4451740

4451740

4451740

PeB2

PeB2

4451740

Penn shaly silt loam, 3 to Very limited 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded

4451760

Penn shaly silt loam, 3 to Well suited 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded

R ou d sh R

R ou d sh R

Totals for Area of Interest

4451720

4451720

4451720

Pond Reservoir Areas Summary by Rating Value


4451700 4451700 4451700 4451700

Cr

Rating Not limited Very limited

Acres in AOI 2.1 0.9 3.0

Percent of AOI 70.1% 29.9%

Cr

4451720

Totals for Area of Interest

3.0

100.0%

Pe B2

Pe B2

Totals for Area of Interest

4451680

4451680

4451680

4451680

Totals for Area of Interest

100.0%

Suitability for Hand Planting:

Rating OptionsSuitability for Hand Planting

Pond Reservoir Areas:


4451660 4451660

4451660

Pond reservoir areas hold waterCondition a dam or embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low Aggregation Method: Dominant behind seepage Component Percent Cutoff: None Specified The seepage potential is determined by the saturated hypotential in the upper 60 inches. draulic conductivity (Ksat) of the soil and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable material. Tie-break Rule: Higher Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity of the reservoir area.
Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.
40 12' 11'' 40 12' 11''

4451640

4451640

4451640

4451640

4451660

Rating OptionsPond Reservoir Areas

Ratings Aggregation Method: Dominantindicate the expected difficulty of hand planting of forestland plants. for this interpretation Condition The ratings are based on slope, depth to a restrictive layer, content of sand, plasticity index, rock fragComponent Percent Cutoff: None Specified ments onTie-break Rule: Higher or below the surface, depth to a water table, and ponding. It is assumed that necessary site preparation is completed before seedlings are planted.
Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.

4451620

4451620

4451620

40 12' 11'' 359420


76 39' 7''

4451620

40 12' 11'' 359420 359440 359460 359480 359500 359520 359540 359560
76 39' 0''

359440

359460

359480

359500

359520

359540

359560
76 39' 0'' 76 39' 7''

Map Scale: 1:1,050 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

Map Scale: 1:1,050 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

0 0

10 40

20 80

40 160

Meters 60

Feet 240

0 0

10 40

20 80

40 160

Meters 60

Feet 240

34

existing conditions
Harrisburg Hershey Roush Road

4225 Roush Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

proposed strategies

4225 Roush Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

35

Water runs off the adjacent hill side of the neighbors farm. After crop clearings, sediment infused water also sheet flows off the property, over the road and into the front yard of the site. Ponding in several locations along the northeastern part of the site occurs when large amounts of water enter the site from the adjacent roadway. During larger storms, the on site creek overflows allowing water to run down hill towards the residents home, pool and pond. Several water made channels are created during larger storms creating maintenance problems throughout the active portions of the yard. Ponding occurs relatively close to the built structures of the residence. These areas are high activity zones, which should be addressed. After intense storms, the active ponds spill way releases excess water creating addition maintenance damages and allowing for additional sheet flow to reach the creek. The proposed stormwater plan must also address the over flow of the creek itself.
scale: 1 : 750 37.5 75 150

Adding vegetated berms along the eastern portion of the site could block the impact of storm water and direct it towards other systems such as rain gardens. Adding native vegetation along the creek bed will help stabilize erosion and protect other portions of the property when it over flows. Using the vegetated berms to direct water flow into rain gardens will then allow for infiltration and diminish the waters impact throughout the rest of the property. Using the existing gutter system of the residence, rain barrels can be added to help store water and can be used in several on site planting beds. Redirecting water into bioswales will allow for concentrated water flow along the eastern portion of the site.

14

20

16

16

2 contours

36

technique considerations

337 Witmer Road Hershey, PA

rain garden

bioswale

reduce impervious

soil consideration 1
363560 363600 363640 363680 363720 40 13' 42''
4454320 76 36' 5''

337 Witmer Road Hershey, PA 17033

37

76 36' 18''

Custom Soil Resource Report MapDrainage Class

drainage class

363480 40 13' 41''


4454320

363520

BrB2

Legend: Custom Soil Resource Report -well drained- yellow -somewhat poorly drainedgreen -poorly drained- blue Class TableDrainage
Drainage Class Summary by Map Unit Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043) Map unit symbol At Map unit name Atkins silt loam Rating Poorly drained Acres in AOI 0.4 0.3 Percent of AOI 5.5% 4.4%

4454280

4454240

4454200

4454200

4454240

4454280

BrB2

Brecknock channery silt loam, 3 to Well drained 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded Croton silt loam Poorly drained

4454160

4454160

Cr PeB2 RdB2

0.5 3.5 2.0

6.9% 53.1% 30.1%

PeB2

Penn shaly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent Well drained slopes, moderately eroded Readington silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded Moderately well drained

4454120

4454120

Totals for Area of Interest


4454080 4454080

6.7

100.0%

Drainage Class: Rating OptionsDrainage Class


Aggregation Method: Dominant to the Drainage class (natural) refers Condition frequency and duration of wet periods under conditions simiComponent which the None Specified lar to those underPercent Cutoff: soil formed. Alterations of the water regime by human activities, either Tie-break Rule: Higher through drainage or irrigation, are not a consideration unless they have significantly changed the morphology of the soil. Seven classes of natural soil drainage are recognized-excessively drained, somewhat excessively drained, well drained, moderately well drained, somewhat poorly drained, poorly drained, and very poorly drained. These classes are defined in the Soil Survey Manual.

RdB2
4454040 4454040 4453960 4454000

Cr

4454000

PeB2 At

4453960

Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.


40 13' 29''

40 13' 28'' 363480


76 36' 17''

363520

363560

363600

363640

363680

363720
76 36' 5''

Map Scale: 1:1,920 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

0 0

15 50

30 100

60 200

Meters 90 Feet 300

38
76 36' 18''

technique considerations

technique considerations dense vegetation vegetated berm bioswale rain garden

soil consideration 2
ponding frequency class
76 36' 5''

337 Witmer Road Hershey, PA 17033

reduce impervious

rain garden

bioswale

check dam

soil consideration 3
363600 363640 363680 363720 40 13' 42''
4454320 76 36' 5''

337 Witmer Road Hershey, PA 17033

39

363480 40 13' 41''


4454320

363520

363560

363600

363640

363680

363720 40 13' 42''


4454320

76 36' 18''

Custom Soil Resource Report MapPonding Frequency Class

Custom Soil Resource Report MapSuitability for Hand Planting

suitability for hand planting

Legend: -none- red -occasional- blue

363480 40 13' 41''


4454320

363520

363560

Custom Soil Resource Report

BrB2

TablePonding Frequency Class


Ponding Frequency Class Summary by Map Unit Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043) Map unit symbol At Map unit name Atkins silt loam None Rating Acres in AOI 0.4 0.3 Percent of AOI 5.5%

BrB2

Legend: Custom Soil Resource Report -Well suited- green -Moderately suited- yellow -poorly suited- red -unsuited- not possible for Hand Planting TablesSuitability
Suitability for Hand Planting Summary by Map Unit Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043) Map unit symbol At BrB2 Map unit name Atkins silt loam Rating Well suited Component name (percent) Atkins (85%) Brecknock (90%) Rating reasons (numeric values) Acres in AOI 0.4 0.3 Percent of AOI 5.5% 4.4%

4454280

4454280

4454280

4454240

4454240

4454240

4454200

4454200

4454200

BrB2

Brecknock channery silt loam, 3 to None 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded Croton silt loam Occasional

4.4%

4454200

4454240

4454280

4454160

4454160

4454160

PeB2

PeB2 RdB2

Penn shaly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent None slopes, moderately eroded Readington silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded None

3.5 2.0

53.1% 30.1%

4454160

Cr

0.5

6.9%

Brecknock channery silt Well suited loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded Croton silt loam Well suited

PeB2

Cr PeB2

Croton (90%) Penn (90%) Croton (5%) Readington (90%) Croton (4%)

0.5 3.5

6.9% 53.1%

4454120

4454120

4454120

4454120

Penn shaly silt loam, 3 to Well suited 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded Readington silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded Well suited

Totals for Area of Interest


4454080 4454080

6.7

100.0%
4454080 4454080

RdB2

2.0

30.1%

Ponding Frequency Class:

Rating OptionsPonding Frequency Class

Totals for Area of Interest Suitability for Hand Planting Summary by Rating Value

6.7

100.0%

RdB2
4454040 4454040

4454040

4454040

Cr

4454000

4454000

4454000

4454000

PeB2 At

PondingAggregation Method: Dominant closed depression. The water is removed only by deep percolation, is standing water in a Condition transpiration, or evaporation or by Specified a combination of these processes. Ponding frequency classes are Component Percent Cutoff: None based on the number of times that ponding occurs over a given period. Frequency is expressed as Tie-break Rule: More Frequent none, rare, occasional, and frequent.
Beginning Month: January Ending Month: December

RdB2 Cr

Rating Well suited Totals for Area of Interest

Acres in AOI 6.7 6.7

Percent of AOI 100.0% 100.0%

PeB2 At

Suitability for Hand Planting:

Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.


4453960 4453960

40 13' 28'' 363480


76 36' 17''

40 13' 29'' 363520 363560 363600 363640 363680 363720

40 13' 28'' 363480


76 36' 17''

40 13' 29'' 363520 363560 363600 363640 363680 363720


76 36' 5''

Ratings for this interpretation indicate the expected difficulty of hand planting of forestland plants. Aggregation Method: Dominant Condition The ratings are based on slope, depth to a restrictive layer, content of sand, plasticity index, rock fragComponent Percent Cutoff: None Specified ments on or below the surface, depth to a water table, and ponding. It is assumed that necessary site Tie-break Rule: Higher preparation is completed before seedlings are planted.
Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.

Rating OptionsSuitability for Hand Planting

4453960

Map Scale: 1:1,920 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

76 36' 5''

Map Scale: 1:1,920 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

0 0

15 50

30 100

60 200

Meters 90 Feet 300

0 0

15 50

30 100

60 200

Meters 90 Feet 300

4453960

40

337 Witmer Road, Hershey, PA 17033

existing conditions
Harrisburg Hershey Witmer Road

proposed solutions

337 Witmer Road, Hershey, PA 17033

41

Water drains downhill from the northern end of the chicken house to the southern end. Stormwater settles before slowing draining towards the small nearby tributary. Vast quantities of stormwater drain off the roof of the chicken house and quickly drain into the low lying natural swale, which is currently free of vegetation. Consequently, stormwater freely runs downhill; no vegetation is present to reduce erosion, encourage infiltration, and slow runoff rates. This low lying depression holds water, enabling it to infiltrate before draining into the nearby tributary. Collecting water from the pond, a small tributary drains southwest/south in between the chicken house and the residential buildings. This small tributary is easily overwhelmed when collecting rainwater from adjacent buildings and from rainfalls. This low-lying area ponds during moderate rainfalls and is especially vulnerable to flooding during severe rainfalls. Runoff from residential building roofs causes this forested depression to collect standing rainwater. The small tributary drains southward, off the property. Any sediments and pollutants currently on-site are transported throughout the watershed, the Susquehanna River, and ultimately into the Chesapeake Bay.
2 contours scale: 1 : 1500 75 150

A swale currently exists here, but does not possess the potential to slow runoff, induce infiltration, and control erosion because it is free of vegetation. Implementing a bioswale east of the chicken barn collects and conveys stormwater off the roof and from uphill in the forest. The bioswale encourages groundwater recharge and enables stormwater to slowly drain into the small tributary downhill. Check dams further control runoff within the bioswale. This naturally low-lying depression is an ideal spot for a rain garden. The bioswale reduces runoff rates before enabling rainwater to drain into the rain garden. The combination of the bioswale and rain garden ensures that stormwater is filtered and slowed before entering the tributary. No longer is the tributary overwhelmed by moderate storm events. To reduce a sheet flow of stormwater across the gravel road, building a vegetated berm channels stormwater into the creek without flowing across the road. Rain barrels are placed at downspouts at corners of buildings. This reduces runoff into the nearby low lying areas.

8 10

14 16

42

technique considerations

2405 Mill Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

rain garden

bioswale

reduce impervious

soil consideration 1
361640 361660 361680 361700 361720 361740
4448980 76 37' 26''

2405 Mill Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

43

76 37' 32''

Custom Soil Resource Report MapPonding Frequency Class

drainage class

361600
4448980

361620

40 10' 47''

40 10' 47''

4448940

Mill Rd

Legend: Custom Soil Resource Report -well drained- yellow -somewhat poorly drainedgreen -poorly drained- blue Class TableDrainage
Drainage Class Summary by Map Unit Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043) Map unit symbol Map unit name Rating Acres in AOI 2.5 2.5 Percent of AOI 100.0% 100.0%

4448960

4448940

4448960

4448920

4448920

NsD

Neshaminy very stony silt loam, 8 Well drained to 25 percent slopes

Totals for Area of Interest


4448900 4448900

Rating OptionsDrainage Class Drainage Class:

4448880

4448880

NsD
He e rt zl rR d

4448840

4448840

Drainage class (natural) refers to the frequency and duration of wet periods under conditions simiComponent Percent Cutoff: None Specified lar to those under which the soil formed. Alterations of the water regime by human activities, either Tie-break Rule: Higher through drainage or irrigation, are not a consideration unless they have significantly changed the morphology of the soil. Seven classes of natural soil drainage are recognized-excessively drained, somewhat excessively drained, well drained, moderately well drained, somewhat poorly drained, poorly drained, and very poorly drained. These classes are defined in the Soil Survey Manual.
Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.

Aggregation Method: Dominant Condition

4448860

4448820

Conewago Creek
4448800 4448800 4448780

40 10' 40''

4448780

4448820

4448860

40 10' 40''

361600
76 37' 32''

361620

361640

361660

361680

361700

361720

361740
76 37' 25''

Map Scale: 1:996 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

0 0

10 35

20 70

Meters 30 140

Feet 210

44
76 37' 32''

technique considerations

technique considerations dense vegetation vegetated berm bioswale rain garden

soil consideration 2
ponding frequency class
76 37' 26''

2405 Mill Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

reduce impervious

rain garden

bioswale

check dam

soil consideration 3
361660 361680 361700 361720 361740
4448980 76 37' 26''

2405 Mill Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

45

361600
4448980

361620

361640

361660

361680

361700

361720

361740
4448980

76 37' 32''

Custom Soil Resource Report MapPonding Frequency Class

Custom Soil Resource Report MapSuitability for Hand Planting

suitability for hand planting

Custom Soil Resource Report

4448960

4448960

4448960

4448980

40 10' 47''

40 10' 47''

Mill Rd

4448940

4448940

4448940

Mill Rd

TablePonding Frequency Class


Ponding Frequency Class Summary by Map Unit Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043) Map unit symbol Map unit name Neshaminy very stony silt loam, 8 to None 25 percent slopes Rating Acres in AOI 2.5 2.5 Percent of AOI
4448920

4448940

4448960

Legend: -none- red -occasional- blue

361600 40 10' 47''

361620

361640

40 10' 47''

Legend: Custom Soil Resource Report -Well suited- green -Moderately suited- yellow -poorly suited- red -unsuited- not possible for Hand Planting TablesSuitability
Suitability for Hand Planting Summary by Map Unit Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043) Map unit symbol NsD Map unit name Rating Component name (percent) Neshaminy (100%) Rating reasons (numeric values) Acres in AOI 2.5 Percent of AOI 100.0%

4448920

4448920

4448920

NsD

100.0% 100.0%

Totals for Area of Interest


4448900 4448900

Neshaminy very stony Well suited silt loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes

4448900

Ponding Rating OptionsPonding Frequency Class Frequency Class: Ponding is standing water in a closed depression. The water is removed only by deep percolation, Component Percent Cutoff: None Specified transpiration, or evaporation or by a combination of these processes. Ponding frequency classes are based onTie-break Rule: More times that ponding occurs over a given period. Frequency is expressed as the number of Frequent Beginning Month: none, rare, occasional,Januaryfrequent. and
Ending Month: December Aggregation Method: Dominant Condition

4448900

Totals for Area of Interest Suitability for Hand Planting Summary by Rating Value

2.5

100.0%

4448880

4448880

4448880

NsD
le ert z rR d

NsD
le ert z rR d

4448880

Rating Well suited Totals for Area of Interest

Acres in AOI 2.5 2.5

Percent of AOI 100.0% 100.0%

4448860

4448860

4448860

4448860

Suitability for Hand Planting:

Rating OptionsSuitability for Hand Planting

4448840

4448840

4448840

4448820

4448820

4448820

Conewago Creek
4448800 4448800 4448800

Conewago Creek
4448800

4448820

4448840

Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.

Ratings Aggregation Method: Dominant Condition the expected difficulty of hand planting of forestland plants. for this interpretation indicate The ratings are based on slope, depth to a restrictive layer, content of sand, plasticity index, rock fragComponent Percent Cutoff: None Specified ments onTie-break Rule: Higher or below the surface, depth to a water table, and ponding. It is assumed that necessary site preparation is completed before seedlings are planted.
Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.

4448780

4448780

4448780

40 10' 40''

40 10' 40''

40 10' 40''

4448780

40 10' 40''

361600
76 37' 32''

361620

361640

361660

361680

361700

361720

361740
76 37' 25'' 76 37' 32''

361600

361620

361640

361660

361680

361700

361720

361740
76 37' 25''

Map Scale: 1:996 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

Map Scale: 1:996 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

0 0

10 35

20 70

Meters 30 140

Feet 210

0 0

10 35

20 70

Meters 30 140

Feet 210

46

existing conditions
Harrisburg Hershey Mill Road

2405 Mill Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

proposed strategies
Clearly, many of the suggested solutions are located near the road. Taking action here will not only tackle the major issues head on, it will allow the techniques to be demonstrated to the public.
Dense vegetation could play a big role in preventing stormwater from entering the driveway. It can also double as a sustainable entrance planting.

2405 Mill Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

47

Water runs off the hill toward the adjacent road, driveway, and buildings. The historic Mill Race channels water downhill. Runoff may concentrate in the driveway from various sources, continuing downhill with collected pollutants and sediments from vehicle traffic.

18

A permeable driveway designed to allow water to infiltrate will reduce runoff and problems downhill. This too will present well near the public eye.

20

Water uses the road as the path of least resistance, again, collecting pollutants along the way.

Dense vegetation here may prevent a large portion of water from entering the lawn area in front of the Aberdeen Mills building. A permeable driveway opportunity.

18 20 6 6 8

Ponding most definitely will occur from various sources. Located between a road and a structure, it has become the relative low point aside from the creek. Ponding may also occur here, with the historic Mill Race leading water from uphill toward this location. Conewago Creek is the draining vein of the watershed. The sites stormwater eventually travels to this point. What it has picked up along the route and the issues it can create are the problems at hand. 2 contours 37.5 scale: 1 : 600 75 150

A rain garden will almost eliminate the water problem here. It will mean less lawn and even a nice space to relax around birds and butterflies. A rain garden will solve the water issues here. It will also provide a little demonstration area on how stormwater can be cleaned before reentering our streams, especially one of such value. Dense vegetation could play a big role in preventing stormwater from entering the driveway. It can also double as a sustainable entrance planting.