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Design Engineering Project

SCHOOL OF COMPUTING, ENGINEERING AND INFORMATION SCIENCES


BENG (HONS) MOBILE COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EN0607 DESIGN ENGINEERING PROJECT FINAL YEAR ENGINEERING PROJECT COMPUTER CONTROL OF A DIRECT DIGITAL SYNTHESIZER

PROJECT STUDENT NAME MANISH ABRAHAM STUDENT NUMBER - 11033698 PROJECT SUPERVISOR - Dr. DAVID SMITH SECOND MARKER - Dr. Michael Elsdon DATE OF SUBMISSION - 16 May 2012

Computer control of a Direct Digital Synthesizer

Abstract

Direct digital synthesis (DDS) is a process of creating an Analog waveform normally a sine wave by producing a time-varying signal in the digital form and after that it performs a digital-to-analog conversion. The planning for this project required extensive research in to the theory of working as well as research in to papers as this is an upcoming field with a lot of scope on innovation. Here, we have tried to develop a set of waveforms using a direct digital synthesizer. Here, an Evaluation board is being used in order to set a certain frequency range and understand the usability of those frequencies. The project looks into the filters and the possible spurs which take is there in a direct digital synthesizer.

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Computer control of a Direct Digital Synthesizer

Acknowledgements

This project would not have been possible without the support of the Dr. David Smith, As my teacher and mentor, he taught me more than I can give him credit for here. He proved me, by his example, what a good engineer (and a person) should be.

Dr. David Smith guided me as well as corrected the planning report many a times. The help in getting the basic Idea clear in mind has helped me to think more practically.

I would like to thank the Dr. Liam, Dr. Kevin G from Analog devices who has helped me online by frequent mails in order to explain more about the practical application of the direct digital synthesizer.

I would like to thank Northumbria University in providing such facilities of research and the library which has a vast set of research papers for reference.

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Table of Contents
Abstract .......................................................................................................................... 2 Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................ 3 Table of Contents ........................................................................................................... 4 Diagrams ........................................................................................................................ 5 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 6 Design Engineering Project ........................................................................................... 7 Aim ................................................................................................................................ 7 Objectives ...................................................................................................................... 7 Outcomes ....................................................................................................................... 7 Function Generator ........................................................................................................ 8 Background Information about the working of a direct digital synthesizer .................. 9 Applications of a Direct Digital Synthesizer ............................................................... 10 Working of A DDS ...................................................................................................... 12 Design work, Procedure and Results ........................................................................... 15 Evaluation Board AD9834 Direct Digital Synthesizer ................................................ 18 Procedure ..................................................................................................................... 30 Calculations/ Results.................................................................................................... 49 Discussion .................................................................................................................... 55 Aliasing in DDS systems ............................................................................................. 60 Band-pass filters .......................................................................................................... 61 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 63 Project Management and Costing ................................................................................ 66 References .................................................................................................................... 73 Bibliography ................................................................................................................ 75 Appendices................................................................................................................... 79

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Diagrams

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Computer control of a Direct Digital Synthesizer

Introduction
With the modernization of integrated circuits (IC), digital systems are widely used now a days in modern electronic devices, which includes communications & measurement equipment. The main thrust of design consideration is the ability to create a variable waveform conveniently and cost effectively. As per Eva Murphy (2011) different approaches have been used, but the most effective one is direct digital synthesis. A direct digital synthesizer, produces time-varying signals in digital form & then performs Digital to Analog conversion thus produces an analog waveform which is usually a sine wave, and inherent triangular and square waves. DDS devices are essentially digital, so they can provide fast switching between output frequencies, excellent frequency resolution, & functions over a broad range of frequencies. Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers (DDS) is used as transmitter exciters & local oscillators in receivers, in communications, like the driving clock oscillator and quick switching time; the DDS has the same advantages like higher frequency stability. The problems which are faced are lower output frequencies & relatively large spurious signals. (KROUPA, V. 1999).

At present, the two basic forms of applications of a direct digital synthesizer are in waveform generation in communications and for signal study in business and biomedicine. "Some other" uses include electronic article surveillance (EAS), Electro chemical analysis, Impedance spectroscopy, Non-destructive testing and maritime applications in son buoy systems.

Applications that exist in communications systems require agile frequency sources with low phase interferences & spurs, proving that DDS does better frequency-tuning resolution & spectral analysis. Some distinctive uses of DDS in communications include producing pilot signals for WDM increased tunability reference frequencies for phase-locked loops (PLLs), optical-channel identification, as local oscillators, and also for direct transmission.

"In this project" a computer is being used in order to control the direct digital synthesizer to find out the desired frequency in the desired range.

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Design Engineering Project Aim


This project is a design engineering project which has been undertaken in order to use a direct digital synthesizer understanding working of DDS, look at types of DDS, choosing from the specifications and to set accurate frequency in the range of 7.2 MHz to 9.2 MHzs with a step size of 10 KHz.

Objectives
The main objectives of the project would be to: "Understand the Output", Frequencies. Collect the Background Information about a DDS. To understand the applications of a DDS. Determine the required data for select output Frequency. "Workout the output frequency", changes of a direct digital synthesizer. Produce a circuit, "which will evaluate, and be able to determine the Desired Frequency by using the Evaluation Board AD_9834" (EVAL 9834EB). Prototype development on the sources of spur and errors in a direct digital synthesizer. Design considerations for a filter was taken into account and a designing of a band pass filter. Produce a report. For Higher Knowledge and appreciation study and outline how to input serial data into a DDS chip Using Lab view. Outcomes I will be able to use an evaluation board in order to do experimental work and specifically will be able to determine frequency in the range of 7.2 to 9.2 MHz with a step size of 10 KHz. I will be able to explain the operation of a DDS for different purposes. I will be able to explain the sources of spurs and errors in direct digital synthesizer.

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Function Generator
To produce different types of wave forms (sine, square, triangle, etc.) with a particular frequency bandwidth and for different analysis work, we use a function generator. Normally we used to use a Manuel Function generator.

Potentiometers are used to adjust the waveforms frequency and amplitude. An example of a circuit of the function generator built using MAX038 IC. The frequency ranges & waveform is selected by using switches whereas the voltage level course tuning & fine tuning is adjusted using a potentiometer. The feedback regarding the provision of the output & the equipment is not delivered to the user. Hence, we never know whether the desired waveform is available at the output or not unless it is calculated by using appropriate equipments.

A schematic diagram of MAX038 IC (Manuel Function generator)

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As per Dayton R.L (1988) the manual function generators are reasonable and user friendly there are some defects which limits its performance. It is often difficult to adjust the frequency and magnitude of the waveforms to the precise value needed because with potentiometers we face tuning problems. The function generator does not recognize distant control of the waveform. Hence we have to physically regulate the function generator every time we need to change the waveform. A standard function generator does not allow interfacing and collaboration with other devices. However by using a computer as a main station, multiple different devices can be joined together to form a complete testing and experimentation setup. The above weaknesses of a manual function generator can be overcome using a computer controlled function generator like the AD9834.

AD9834
The outputs of AD9834 generate sinusoidal, triangular, and square-wave in nature which is produced by using the DDS (direct digital synthesis) architecture. The Frequency resolution generated is better than 0.1 Hz, and thus, we can programme the frequencies. As per Schewel, J (1999) this feature is useful in digital modulation and frequency tuning applications. It is controlled by using a computer.

Background Information about the working of a direct digital synthesizer


Direct Digital Synthesizer
DDS generates a periodic, discrete-time waveform of known frequency Fo. The waveform may be a sine wave, as per Turner, C. S. (2003). As per Jeff Patterson (2010) a direct digital synthesizer, creates an analog waveform generally a sine wave, but some times triangular and square waves are fundamental, by producing a time varying signal in a digital form and which then performs a digital-to-analog conversion. DDS devices are mainly digital; therefore they provide fast switching between output frequencies, both excellent frequency resolution, and operation over a broad range of frequencies.

Some facts about the current available, Direct Digital Synthesizers as per Smith. J. (1998): DDS devices are extremely small and draw little power.

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Currently available DDS devices can generate frequencies between 1 Hz and 400 MHz (based on a 1-GHz clock), with a time resolution to 48 bits. The new devices which is used, are of low cost as they use the new process technologies they are combined with DDSs inherently excellent performance and the ability to digitally reprogram the output waveform which make the DDS system particularly appealing compared to more discrete and less flexible standard solutions.

A basic Direct Digital Synthesizer comprises of a frequency reference which may be crystal or SAW oscillator, a digital to analog converter and a numerically controlled oscillator (NCO) as shown in block diagram.
Block diagram of a direct digital synthesizer

Jeff Patterson (2010)

The reference provides a reasonable time base for the system and specifies the frequency accuracy of the DDS. It renders the clock to the NCO which produces a quantized version of the desired output waveform (normally a sinusoid) at its output at a discrete time, the time is controlled by the digital information which is stored in Frequency Control Register. The sampled, digital waveform is then converted in to an analog waveform by DAC. The output reconstruction filter disapproves the spectral reproductions produced by the zero-order leverage inherent in the analog conversion process.

Applications of a Direct Digital Synthesizer

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Waveform generation in communication. Enhanced tunability reference frequencies for phase-locked loops (PLLs). Generating pilot signals for WDM optical-channel identification. Local oscillators. Direct transmission.

Signal research in industry and biomedicine. i) Digitally creates programmable waveforms with easily adjustable frequency and phase. ii) Locate resonances or compensate for temperature drifts. iii) Generate pulse width modulated signals for micro actuators. iv) Examine attenuation in LANs or telephone cables. v) Flexible frequency boost in measuring sensor impedance.

Electronic surveillance Generating pilot signals for WDM optical-channel identification. Maritime applications in sonobuoy systems. An example of a live Function of a DDS is sonobuoy as per Eva Murphy (2004). A sonobuoy is a tool that lies in the water and seizes ambient sounds from the ocean; Common practical, applications for sonobuoys are in the localization, detection, tracking, and identification of seismic events & underwater objects like whales and submarines. Group of sonobuoys can be used to determine target location, velocity, and direction.

The AD9834 (which will also be used in this project) is accurate as a definite frequency reference in the transmitter section of the sonobuoy. Typical frequencies transmitted are from 136 MHz to 174 MHz. A DDS is often used to generate the frequency hopping in the transmit & the receive sections.
DDS in transmit section of sonobuoy

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DDS in receive section of sonobuoy. The receive section portion of the sonobuoy is made up of a GPS antenna, down-conversion front-end stage & a low-noise amplifier. The down-conversion is impelled by the Direct Digital Synthesizer.

Working of A DDS
Adrio Communications (2010)

As the name suggests this is a form of synthesis, which generates the waveform directly using digital techniques. It is remarkably different from the application of phase locked loop which was an indirect method of operation. A direct digital synthesizer functions by storing the points of a waveform in digital format, and then recalling them to produce the waveform. The rate at which the synthesizer accomplishes one waveform governs the frequency.

Block Diagram of a Basic DDS.

The operation can be known more easily by looking at the way the phases progresses over the course of one cycle of the waveform. This can be known as the phase increase around the circle. When the phase changes around the circle, this changes the advances in the waveform.

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Working of the phase accumulator in a DDS. The synthesizer operates by storing different points in the waveform in digital form and hence recalling them to make the waveform. Its performance can be explained in thorough function by looking at the phase changes around a circle as show. As the phase changes around the circle, this corresponds to changes in the waveform, i.e. the more the number correspond to phase, the higher the value is along the waveform. By one by one moving the number change in phase, it is possible to proceed further along the waveform cycle.

Phase Accumulator.
The digital unit, which represents the state, is viewed due to the phase accumulator. The number is held which corresponds to the phase and can be increased at regular intervals. So we can prove that the phase accumulator is essentially a form of counter. When clocked it adds a pre-set number to the one already held. While it fills up, it resets & starts counting again from zero. In other words, this corresponds to reaching one full circle on the phase diagram and restarting again.

Waveform map.
Once the waveform has been decided it alters this into the digital representation of the waveform. This is practised using a waveform map. This is a store which stocks a number corresponding to the voltage needed for each value of phase on the waveform. In the position of a synthesizer of this type, it is a sine look up table as a sine wave is needed. Mostly, the memory is either a read only memory (ROM) and programmable read only memory (PROM). Which has an infinite number of points on the waveform, vastly many more than are accessed each cycle. Large number of points is required so that the phase accumulator could increase by a certain number of points to convey the desired frequency.

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Digital to analogue converter (DAC).


The next stage in the action is to convert the digital numbers travelling from the sine look up table into an analogue voltage. This is done by using a digital to analogue converter (DAC). We filter the signal to throw away any intruding signals and amplified to achieve the desired level as needed. Tuning is accomplished by gaining or deterioting the size of the stage or phase gain between different example points. A higher increment at each update to the phase accumulator will show that the phase reaches the highest set value faster, and, the frequency is very high. Small increments to the phase accumulator value show that it takes longer to increase the maximum cycle value and a correspondingly low value of frequency. In this process, it is possible to limit the frequency. It is also seen that frequency changes can be made directly by simply changing the increment value. From this, it can be seen that there is a perfect difference between one frequency & the next & that the lowest frequency deviation or frequency resolution is determined by the total number of points accessible in the phase accumulator. A 24 bit phase accumulator provides just over 16 million points & will give a frequency resolution of around 0.25 Hz when used with a 5 MHz clock. This is sufficient for most purposes.

Low Pass Filters.


The Direct digital synthesizers have a few disadvantages. There are a number of spurious signals, which are produced by a direct digital synthesizer,. The most important one of these is called an alias signal. Multiple images of the signal are produced on either side of the clock frequency. For example if the desired signal had a frequency of 10 MHz and the clock was at 75 MHz then alias signals would be 65 MHz and 85MHz etc.. These signals normally can be removed by using a low pass filter. In case of Ad9834, we use a Band pass filter. Also, some low level spurious signals are produced near in to the needed signal. These are generally acceptable in standard, but for some of the applications they can cause problems. Jim Surber and Leo McHugh Say that new integrated Complete-DDS products offer an attractive alternative to analog PLLs for acute frequency synthesis applications. Direct digital synthesis (DDS) has long been seen as a superior technology for producing accurate and changing frequency over a wide range, low-distortion output waveforms.

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Design work, Procedure and Results

Simple Design of a DDS

A main defect with this classic DDS system is that the output frequency can be altered only by reprogramming the PROM or altering the reference clock frequency, making it quite difficult.

The heart of the DDS is the phase accumulator, the contents of phase accumulator is updated every clock cycle. The digital number, M, which is stored in the delta phase register, get added to the number in the phase accumulator register whenever the phase accumulator is updated. If we assume that the No.in the delta phase register is 00....01 and that the first contents of the phase accumulator are 00....00, the phase accumulator is updated by 00...01, each clock cycle. Since the accumulator is 32-bits wide (in our case it is 28 bits), 232 clock cycles (over 4 billion) is required before the phase accumulator gets back to 00...00, and the cycle repeats.

Digital phase wheel.

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If fc is the clock frequency, then the frequency of the output sine wave is equal to: (1) Where = output frequency. = Amount of phase Accumulator increased in each clock cycle. = Number of bits Frequency resolution of the system is equal to fc/2n. This equation (1) is known as the DDS Tuning equation.

Theory of operation (AD9834 chip)

The chip operates as a numerically controlled oscillator using Phase accumulator, which is 28-bit phase accumulator, and a 10-bit digital to analog converter & sine coefficient ROM. The magnitude of the sine wave is considered as A (t) = sin (t). Since the chip generates nonlinear amplitude; hence, it is difficult to be generated.

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1 0

MAGNITUDE

-1

2p

PHASE

The angular information is quite linear, i.e. the phase angle keeps on rotating through a desired angle for each unit in time. If we Know that the phase of the sine wave is linear and, if we know reference interval (75 MHz in our case), the phase rotation for that period is:

Using this formula, we can produce the output frequencies, knowing the phase and masterclock frequency. We can Programme a DDS by writing the values to the frequency registers. The analogue output from the part is then: fo= (M*fc)/2^n.

The output of the DDS has 28-bit resolution ( n = 28) , so effective frequency steps in the order of 0.1 Hz are likely to a maximum of approximately 20 MHz The phase registers allow 12-bit phase resolution. The Phase shift can be calculated by using the underlying formula.

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The chip AD9834 has 2 frequency registers and 2 phase registers. Each frequency register has a size of 28 bits while each phase register has 12 bits.

Phase is defined as the value that is contained in the selected frequency register.

What are we using?

Evaluation Board AD9834 Direct Digital Synthesizer


Analog devices (2010)

The AD9834 is a 75MHz, low power DDS device capable of producing high performance sine and triangular outputs. Since it consumes only 20mW of power at 3V, it makes the AD9834 an ideal candidate for power sensitive applications.

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For the project plan, we are using an Evaluation board AD_9834 EB. The AD9834 is a numerically controlled oscillator using a sine look-up table, a phase accumulator and a 10-bit DAC. The AD9834 can be operated with clock frequencies up to 75 MHzs. Both phase modulation and frequency modulation can be performed with the AD9834. The frequency registers are 28 bits; with a 75 MHz clock speed, resolution of 0.28 Hz can be achieved. The AD9834 evaluation board includes a 75 MHz oscillator that provides the MCLK (75MHz) for the AD9834. We can remove this oscillator, if needed, and operate the AD9834 with an external clock source with the help of a BNC connector. A digital guard is also on the board in order to buffer the signals on the edge of the connector. Initially research included the research in to the Hardware descriptions which include looking in to the power supplies.

Hardware description
POWER SUPPLIES

This evaluation board is made up of 2 inputs which are analog in nature: AVDD (Analog VDD) and AGND (Analog GND). Digital supplies also form part like, DVDD (Digital VDD) and DGND (Digital GND). Digital and Analog are free of each other & is powered between 2.3 V to 5.5 V. All the power supplies are generally decoupled to the ground plane using 10 F tantalum capacitors and 0.1 F ceramic capacitors at the input to the evaluation board. The power supplies are also decoupled using 0.1 F capacitors at the AD9834, the crystal, and the logic.

LINK AND SWITCH OPTIONS

The five link options needs to be set before using the eval board (LK1, LK2, LK3, LK4, and LK5) . LK1 If we select hardware as the programming method, then the LK1 operates as follows: With LK1 in Position A, we can control PSEL with the help of an external logic source through the SMB connector, PSEL1. With LK1 in Position B, we can connect PSEL to SW1, which allows the user to control the PSEL signal since we use the double throw switch, SW1-2. If we use the programming method as software we ignore the LK1.

LK2

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If we choose programming method as hardware, LK2 operates as follows: With LK2 in Position A, we can control FSEL with the help of an external logic source with the SMB connector, FSEL1. If we position LK2 as position B, FSEL is connected to SW1, which allows us to control the FSEL signal by utilizing the double throw switch, SW1-3. We ignore LK2 if software is selected as the programming method.

LK3 We keep the LK3 open in order to provide MCLK of 75MHz oscillator. In order to drive from an external clock we close LK3 which we did not do since we used the internal clock. If the user requires the AD9834 to be driven from an external clock source with the help of an SMB connector, CLK1, the on-board 75 MHz oscillator should be removed from the board, and LK3 is closed.

LK4 The digital section is driven by an on chip regulator that helps to step down the applied DVDD voltage to 2.5 V suppose that DVDD exceeds 2.5 V. LK 4 should be open in case the user applies the voltage higher than 2.5 V. If the user applies a voltage of 2.5 V to DVDD, when we can bypass the regulator by closing LK4. Note that the components on the evaluation board and the Centronics connector do not operate at 2.5 V. For evaluation of the AD9834 at 2.5 V, the evaluation board should be used as a standalone board, with the user supplying the SCLK, SDATA, FSYNC, and RESET externally. The digital buffer and the oscillator should also be replaced with 2.5 V compatible devices.

LK5 The AD9834 has a SLEEP pin that allows sections of the device that are not being used to be powered down to minimize the current consumption. With LK5 in Position B, the AD9834 is fully powered up, and the sleep function is not being used. With LK5 in Position A, the on-chip DAC on the AD9834 is powered down, which is useful in applications where a clock output is being generated using the MSB from the NCO.
EVALUATION BOARD INTERFACING

The evaluation board interfaces via a 36-way Centronics female connector, J1. The pin designations are given below:
Pin No. Mnemonic Description

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SCLK

Serial Clock. The signal buffering takes place on this pin before being applied to the SCLK pin of the AD9834. There is a need of external serial clock where data/control information is written to the device. The serial clock is normally continuous, or can idle high or low between write operations.

SDATA

Serial Data. Data applied to this pin is buffered before being applied to the AD9834. The serial data applied to the SDATA pin is written to the serial register of the device. The data is then transferred to the destination register or the control register. The two MSBs of the 16-bit word being written are used to identify the destination for the data information. The AD9834 accepts CMOS logic levels.

FSYNC

The signal on this pin is buffered before being applied to the FSYNC pin of the AD9834. The FSYNC signal frames the 16-bit word being loaded into the AD9834, the signal going low for 16 SCLK cycles.

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RESET

Active High Digital Input. RESET resets the phase accumulator to 0, which corresponds to an analog output of midscale.

19 to 30

DGND

Digital Ground. These lines are connected to the digital ground plane on the evaluation board.

1, 5 to 13, 15 to 18, 31 to 36

No Connect.

SOCKETS The seven sockets relevant to the operation of the AD9834 on this evaluation board Socket CLK1 FSEL1 PSEL1 Function Sub miniature BNC socket for the MCLK input Sub miniature BNC socket for FSELECT Sub miniature BNC socket for PSEL

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IOUT IOUTB SBOUT CONNECTORS

Sub miniature BNC socket for IOUT Sub miniature BNC socket for IOUTB Sub miniature BNC socket for SBOUT

The three connectors on the AD9834 evaluation board are Connecto r J1 J2 36-way Centronics connector. PCB mounting terminal block. The digital power supply to the evaluation board is provided via this connector. J3 PCB mounting terminal block. The analog power supply to the evaluation board is provided via this connector.
SWITCHES

Function

The AD9834 evaluation board has an end-stackable switch that can be used to control the FSEL and PSEL inputs.

AD 9834 Chip

Pin No.

Mnemonic

Description ANALOG SIGNAL AND REFERENCE

FS

Full-Scale Adjust Control. A resistor (RSET) is connected between this pin and

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ADJUST

AGND. This determines the magnitude of the full-scale DAC current. The relationship between RSET and the full-scale current is as follows: IOUT FULL SCALE = 18 FSADJUST/RSET FSADJUST = 1.15 V nominal, RSET = 6.8 k typical.

REFOUT

Voltage Reference Output. The AD9834 has an internal 1.20 V reference that is made available at this pin.

3 17

COMP VIN

DAC Bias Pin. This pin is used for decoupling the DAC bias voltage. Input to Comparator. The comparator can be used to generate a square wave from the sinusoidal DAC output. The DAC output should be filtered appropriately before being applied to the comparator to improve jitter. When Bit OPBITEN and Bit SIGN/PIB in the control register are set to 1, the comparator input is connected to VIN.

19, 20

IOUT, IOUTB

Current Output. This is a high impedance current source. A load resistor of nominally 200 should be connected between IOUT and AGND. IOUTB should preferably be tied through an external load resistor of 200 to AGND, but it can be tied directly to AGND. A 20 pF capacitor to AGND is also recommended to prevent clock feed through. POWER SUPPLY

AVDD

Positive Power Supply for the Analog Section. AVDD can have a value from 2.3 V to 5.5 V. A 0.1 F decoupling capacitor should be connected between AVDD and AGND.

DVDD

Positive Power Supply for the Digital Section. DVDD can have a value from 2.3 V to 5.5 V. A 0.1 F decoupling capacitor should be connected between DVDD and DGND.

CAP/2.5V

The digital circuitry operates from a 2.5 V power supply. This 2.5 V is generated from DVDD using an on-board regulator (when DVDD exceeds 2.7 V). The regulator requires a decoupling capacitor of typically 100 nF that is connected from CAP/2.5 V to DGND. If DVDD is equal to or less than 2.7 V, CAP/2.5 V should be shorted to DVDD.

7 18

DGND AGND

Digital Ground. Analog Ground.


DIGITAL INTERFACE AND CONTROL

MCLK

Digital Clock Input. DDS output frequencies are expressed as a binary fraction of the frequency of MCLK. The output frequency accuracy and phase noise are

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determined by this clock.


9

FSELEC T

Frequency Select Input. FSELECT controls which frequency register, FREQ0 or FREQ1, is used in the phase accumulator. The frequency register to be used can be selected using Pin FSELECT or Bit FSEL. When Bit FSEL is used to select the frequency register, the FSELECT pin should be tied to CMOS high or low.

10

PSELEC T

Phase Select Input. PSELECT controls which phase register, PHASE0 or PHASE1, is added to the phase accumulator output. The phase register to be used can be selected using Pin PSELECT or Bit PSEL. When the phase registers are being controlled by Bit PSEL, the PSELECT pin should be tied to CMOS high or low.

11

RESET

Active High Digital Input. RESET resets appropriate internal registers to zero; this corresponds to an analog output of midscale. RESET does not affect any of the addressable registers.

12

SLEEP

Active High Digital Input. When this pin is high, the DAC is powered down. This pin has the same function as Control Bit SLEEP12.

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

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The AD9834 is a fully integrated direct digital synthesis (DDS) chip. The chip requires one reference clock, one low precision resistor, and eight decoupling capacitors which digitally creates sine waves up to 37.5 MHz. The internal circuitry of the AD9834 consists of the following main sections: Numerically controlled oscillator (NCO), Frequency and phase modulators, SIN ROM, a DAC, Comparator, and a regulator.

NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR PLUS PHASE MODULATOR NCO mainly consists of two frequency select registers, two phases offset registers, a phase accumulator and a phase offset adder. The main component of the NCO is a phase accumulator which is of 28-bit. A continuous time signal normally has a phase range of 0 to 2. The input to the phase accumulator is selected from the FREQ0 register and FREQ1 register which is controlled by the FSELECT pin or the FSEL bit. NCOs inherently generate continuous phase signals, hence avoiding any output discontinuity when switching between frequencies.

SIN ROM The SIN ROM mainly uses the digital phase information as an address and converts the phase information into amplitude DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTER (DAC) The AD9834 contains a high impedance current source which is a 10-bit DAC which is capable of driving a wide range of loads. The DAC is configured for either single-ended or differential operation. IOUT and IOUTB are connected with the help of equal external resistors to AGND to develop complementary output voltage. COMPARATOR The AD9834 is used to generate synthesized digital clock signals. This is done by using the on-board self-biasing comparator which has the role of converting the sinusoidal signal of the DAC to a square wave. The output from the DAC is normally filtered externally before being applied to the comparator input.
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REGULATOR The AD9834 has two separate power supplies for the analog and digital sections. We had the applied voltage at the DVDD pin of the AD9834 which was less than 2.7V Hence the Pin CAP/2.5V and Pin DVDD was tied together, thus bypassing the on-board regulator. To apply the AD9834 as a clock generator, we had to limit the selected output frequency to <33% of reference clock frequency which was 75MHz in our case , and thereby we avoided generating aliased signals that fall within, or close to, the output band of interest.

Software description

From this window, we can control all the functionality of the AD9834. The main features are listed below and described in detail in the sections that follow. Access to both Frequency Register 0 and Frequency Register 1 Access to both Phase Register 0 and Phase Register 1 Access to the RESET bit

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Ability to sweep through a frequency range using either the Frequency Register 0 or Frequency Register 1 Access to the programming method Access to the sleep options Access to sign bit output options Access to the IOUT output options

FREQUENCY REGISTERS

The AD9834 contains two frequency registers that can be programmed individually. The evaluation board software allows the user to enter any frequency value between 0 Hz and half the master clock frequency. If a value outside this range is entered, the software chooses the closest valid value. The frequency value is converted to a 28-bit decimal number that is loaded to the appropriate frequency register after clicking Enter. The hexadecimal equivalent is also displayed in the main window.

PHASE REGISTERS

The AD9834 contains two phase registers that can be individually loaded with different values. The phase numbers are entered as integer values between 0 and 4095 (corresponding to 0 to 360 phase shift). The values are loaded to the appropriate phase register after clicking Enter.

RESET MODE

The RESET bit in the control register of the AD9834 is controlled by the Reset Bit = 0 and Reset Bit = 1 buttons of the AD9834 evaluation board software. The RESET bit is initialized to 0 on power-up by the AD9834 evaluation software. Setting the RESET bit to 1 (by clicking Reset Bit = 1 in the main window) sets the phase accumulator to zero phase corresponding to an analog output of midscale.

SWEEP FACILITY

Clicking Sweep in the main window displays the Sweep Output Frequency dialog box, which can be used to program the AD9834 to produce a continuously increasing or decreasing frequency sweep. The user can enter a start frequency, a stop frequency, or a step frequency. There is also the option of setting the delay between steps, and the number of time the sweep is to be repeated.

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The sweep values in the following example generate the frequency outputs shown in Table 6. If the frequency span is not an integer multiple of the step frequency, the span from the second to last frequency to the last frequency is such that the stop frequency is the last frequency output to the AD9834. Both Frequency Register 0 and Frequency Register 1 can be loaded with separate frequency, step, delay, and loop information, but the output from the AD9834 depends on which frequency register is selected via the FSEL pin or Freq Reg bit.

PROGRAMMING METHOD The choice of programming method controls the selection of the frequency and phase registers used to provide the output. If the hardware option is chosen, the frequency and phase selection come from the FSEL and PSEL pins, respectively. This disables changing the frequency and phase registers from software as required. If the software option is chosen, the registers are selected by software. Note that registers are not set to a known value on power-up, so the user should set all the registers to a known value.

SLEEP OPTIONS The control register of the AD9834 contains two sleep bits that put the part into a power-down mode. The sleep options on the evaluation board provide full access to both bits.

Sleep Options Option Full Power-Up Disable Internal Description Nothing on the AD9834 chip is powered down. The internal clock of the AD9834 is disabled. The DAC output remains at its present value as the

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Clock Power-Down DAC

NCO is no longer accumulating. The DAC on the AD9834 is powered down. This is useful when the AD9834 is used to output the NCOs MSB only. Note that this option corresponds to the SLEEP pin. When the chosen programming method is hardware, this option is ignored as the SLEEP pin controls the powerup/-down operation of the DAC.

DAC and CLK Down

Both the CLK and the DAC are powered down.

SIGN BIT OUTPUT OPTIONS The sign bit output options control what the user sees on the SIGN BIT OUT pin. The options are described below. The user can access this pin through the SMB SBOUT.
Option Output Disabled Phase Accumulator MSB Comparator Divide Output by 2 Description There is no output at SIGN BIT OUT. The MSB from the phase accumulator is connected to the SIGN BIT OUT pin. This connects the on-chip comparator of the AD9834 to the SIGN BIT OUT pin. This determines the frequency of the square waveform on the SIGN BIT OUT pin. The user has the option to divide this frequency by 2 by checking this box.

IOUT OUTPUT OPTIONS The AD9834 provides two IOUT output options
Option Sinusoidal Ramp Description The output from the SIN ROM is fed to the DAC, which results in a sinusoidal output in IOUT. The SIN ROM can be bypassed so that a linear up/down ramp is output from the DAC.

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Procedure
THE CONNECTIONS

THE BATTERY AND DDS CONNECTIONS

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The Experiment was carried out in Microwave electronics lab where firstly the dc convertor was connected and a voltage was kept between 2.3V and 5.5V. The output wire was connected with the two devices which we would be discussing ahead in the discussion.

The evaluation board was set up as under two stages:

1. Time Domain. 2. Frequency Domain.

1. Time domain

Time Domain is mainly the analysis of amplitude of functions or sine waves/ signals with respect to time, an oscilloscope is used to analyse the signals in the time domain. We know that f(t) = sin(wt) Here w is frequency component and in this case we observe a sine wave as a DDS produces a sine wave The following equipments were used for the experiment 3. A computer

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4. Evaluation board AD9834 5. Oscilloscope 6. DC power Supply 7. Wire to connect the Spectrum analyser and Iout. 8. Wire to connect the printer port and the Evaluation board. 9. Lab view Simulation software

Initially a simulation was carried out on the analog devices ADIsimDDS design tool For the output frequency of 7.2 Mhz the time domain graph without the Filter

We Know that in the evaluation board AD9834 we use a band pass filter, hence if we apply the filter we get the following graph

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The start frequency was 0 MHz and the End frequency was 100 Mhz

In practical situations a series of similar graphs were observed on an oscilloscope.

We used an Oscilloscope to observe the exact wave shape of an electrical signal as per the schematic. In addition to the amplitude of the signal, an oscilloscope here was used to show distortion, the time between two events such as pulse width, period, or rise time and relative timing of two related signals.

ADI Sim DDS design tool


The advantage of this tool is to assist a user to select and evaluate Analog Devices; Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) IC's which also included AD9834 DDS. It allows a user to analyse a device, enter

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the desired operating conditions and evaluate its general performance. The tool uses mathematical equations to approximate the overall performance of the selected device & calculates possible errors. Operation Procedure: Select the correct device (In our case it was AD 9834). 1. Ref. Clock Frequency Enter the desired device Reference Clock Frequency, also known as the Master Clock, It is normally automatically selected in our case it is 75MHz. 2. Desired Output Frequency Enter the desired DDS Output Frequency. We selected various output frequencies between 7.2 to 9.2 MHz. Note: The Ref. Clock Frequency determines the number of discrete DAC steps or points contained in the output frequency. Due to Nyquist requirements the output frequency is generally limited to approximately 40 % of the Clock Frequency. In case of an AD9834 the maximum output frequency could be 37.5 MHz. 3. Modifying the Filter Response The tool provides a check box and configuration and also provides setup for the filter response applied to the DDS output. In case of the AD9834 evaluation board we select the filter as a band pass filter hence needs to select the option of a band pass filter.

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Configuration of a band pass filter

In this band pass filter f1 is the desired output freq i.e. . 7.2 MHz f2 is the clock frequency i.e. 75MHz

It was observed that the AD9834 used digital signal processing to construct output wave forms which were sinusoidal in nature. A frequency sweep was done between 7.2 and 9.2 MHz.

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A Few Graphs which were detected on the ADSim Simulation = 75 MHz fo = 7.2 MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 7.3 MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 7.4 MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 7.5 MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 7.6 MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 7.7 MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 7.8 MHz

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= 75 MHz fo = 7.9 MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 8.0 MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 8.1

fo = 8.2 MHz

fo = 8.3 MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 8.4MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 8.5 MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 8.6 MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 8.7 MHz

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= 75 MHz fo = 8.8 MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 8.9MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 9.0 MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 9.1 MHz

= 75 MHz fo = 9.2 MHz

2, Frequency Domain
Fourier theory (WANG, T. T. & FAN, H. Y. 2009) tells us that the time-domain is made up of few sine waves of appropriate frequency, amplitude, and phase. We can transform a time-domain signal into its frequency domain equivalent. Measurements in the frequency domain tell us how much energy is present at each particular frequency. Fourier theory says that the constituent sine waves are separated in the frequency domain by 1/T where T is the time period of the signal.

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Frequency-domain graph shows how much of the signal lies within each given frequency band over a range of frequencies. People who work in wireless communications are interested in out-of-band and spurious emissions. For e.g., cellular radio systems must be checked for harmonics of the carrier signal that might interfere with other systems operating at the same frequencies as the harmonics. Engineers are also very interested about the distortion of the message modulated onto a carrier. Spectrum monitoring is another important frequency-domain measurement activity. The Spectrum monitoring can be done with the help of a spectrum analyser as per Agilent Spectrum Analysis Basics (2006).

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The following equipments were used for the experiment A computer Evaluation board AD9834 Spectrum Analyser DC power Supply Wire to connect the Spectrum analyser and I out. Wire to connect the printer port and the Evaluation board. Lab view Simulation software.

We used a spectrum analyzer to find the frequency, power, noise, modulation and spurs. The time domain signal is digitalised using a Fourier analyser, then uses digital signal processing (DSP) techniques to perform a fast Fourier transform (FFT) and display the signal in the frequency domain.

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A spectrum analyser was used in order to analyse the frequency coming out of the (I out) In one example for 7.2 MHz Here F1= Desired output frequency (7.2 MHz) F2= clock frequency (75 MHz) Harmonic Spur formula First = f1, second = f2-f1, third f2+f1, fourth = 2f2-fi, Fifth 2f2+f1

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The Start frequency was set as 0 MHz, The end frequency was set as 100 MHzs. Hence the simulation should have been as under

Spectrum Analyser
This photo shows when we were able to set an exact frequency of 7.2 MHz the clock frequency is 75MHz hence we observe second harmonic was observed in the clock frequency of 75-7.2 = 67.8

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67.8MHz. Fo=7.2 MHz

Fo= 7.3 MHz

Fo=7.5MHz

Fo=7.6MHz

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Fo=7.7MHz

Fo=7.8MHz

Fo=7.9MHz

Fo=8.0MHz

Fo=8.1MHz

Fo=8.2MHz

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Fo=8.3MHz

Fo=8.4MHz

Fo=8.5MHz

Fo=8.6MHz

Fo=8.7MHz

Fo=8.8MHz

Fo=8.9MHz

Fo=9.0MHz

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Fo=9.1MHz

Fo=9.2MHz

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Lab View Simulation designed to explain the control of a Direct Digital Synthesizer
LAB VIEW (E. Lunca, S. Ursache and O. Neacsu (2011))

Lab View is system design software that provides engineers and scientists with the tools needed to create and deploy measurement and control systems through unprecedented hardware integration. Lab VIEW programs are called virtual instruments, or VIs, because their appearance and operation imitate physical instruments, such as oscilloscopes and millimetres. Lab VIEW contains a comprehensive set of tools for acquiring, analysing, displaying, and storing data, as well as tools to write the code. Lab View programme that was made can be organized in to two parts
1.

Front panel It represents the interface between the source programme and the user.

2.

Diagram Block-

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The edited source programme which was made on the lab view to explain the working of a DDS.

A DDS system is basically made up of a Lookup Memory, an accumulator (counter), and a Digital to Analog Converter. The Lookup Memory (LM) contains one cycle of the waveform to be generated. Lookup table, is a set of consecutive memory addresses, every memory addresses contains value of a sine function for a particular angle. In case of an AD9834 Evaluation board, the LM is 12-bits, 4096 samples contains one cycle (2^12).N= address and x[n

If n increases by 1, [n] Increases by

360 0.0879 . 4096


x[n] 0

n 0

[n]

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1 2 341 4095

0.0879 .1758 30 359.9121

0.0015 .0031 0.5 -0.0015

The Accumulator is similar to a counter, but it has more features. The most important feature is the ability to count by almost any number as well as one. In this example, the Accumulator is simulated by a while loop and a shift register to count by the Frequency Control Word. The count is done with U32 representation and therefore, simulates a 28 bit counter. When it reaches its highest values, the "counter" rolls over as an Accumulator does.

The Accumulator value is converted to an array of Booleans so that it can easily take the top 12 bits, and then convert this array to an integer value. The high 12 bits of the "Accumulator" are sent to the LM and index the array. The indexed value of the Lookup Memory is a 16 bit signed integer sample of the sine wave, and this value is sent to the DAC. Phase, Frequency and Control words are all sent to the AD9834 via a 3-wire interface. The three signals used to transfer these words are: FSYNC, SDATA, and SCLK. Each word is 16 bits in length, so all transfers are 16 bit transfers. But in case of an Evaluation board Ad9834 we did not consider the SCLCK because we did not use an external clock instead only used the clock frequency of 75 MHz. The appendix has a detailed VI block diagram.

Calculations/ Results
Due to Binary Quatitization the Actual Output Frequency may differ from the Desired Output Frequency. We see that the DDS Tuning equation is

(1)
= output frequency. = Amount of Phase Accumulator increased in each clock cycle =??? = Number of bits = 28 bits = 75 MHz
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We know that the frequency range of output frequency is between 7.2 MHz to 9.2 MHzs with a step size of 10 KHz. Hence we see that the output frequency needs to be changed with a step size of 10 KHz.

The output frequency can be changed instantaneously with no phase discontinuity by simply changing the contents of the M-register. However, practical DDS systems first require the execution of a serial or byte-loading sequence to get the new frequency word into an internal buffer register which precedes the parallel-output M-register. This is done to minimize package pin count.. Frequency resolution of the system is equal to fc/2n.

This equation (1) is known as the DDS Tuning equation. Hence


Output Frequency S/no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Fo (Khz) 7200 7210 7220 7230 7240 7250 7260 7270 7280 7290 7300 7310 7320 7330 7340 7350 7360 7370 7380 7390 7400 7410 Clock frequency Fc (MHz) 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 Bit rate n 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 Phase accumulator increment each cycle 25769803780 25805595170 25841386560 25877177960 25912969350 25948760750 25984552140 26020343530 26056134930 26091926320 26127717720 26163509110 26199300510 26235091900 26270883290 26306674690 26342466080 26378257480 26414048870 26449840260 26485631660 26521423050

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23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

7420 7430 7440 7450 7460 7470 7480 7490 7500 7510 7520 7530 7540 7550 7560 7570 7580 7590 7600 7610 7620 7630 7640 7650 7660 7670 7680 76900 7700 7710 7720 7730 7740 7750 7760 7770 7780 7790 7800 7810 7820 7830

75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75

28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28

26557214450 26593005840 26628797240 26664588630 26700380020 26736171420 26771962810 26807754210 26843545600 26879336990 26915128390 26950919780 26986711180 27022502570 27058293960 27094085360 27129876750 27165668150 27201459540 27237250940 27273042330 27308833720 27344625120 27380416510 27416207910 27451999300 27487790690 27523582090 27559373480 27595164880 27630956270 27666747670 27702539060 27738330450 27774121850 27809913240 27845704640 27881496030 27917287420 27953078820 27988870210 28024661610

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65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

7840 7850 7860 7870 7880 7890 7900 7910 7920 7930 7940 7950 7960 7970 7980 7990 8000 8010 8020 8030 8040 8050 8060 8070 8080 8090 8100 8110 8120 8130 8140 8150 8160 8170 8180 8190 8200 8210 8220 8230 8240 8250

75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75

28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28

28060453000 28096244390 28132035790 28167827180 28203618580 28239409970 28275201370 28310992760 28346784150 28382575550 28418366940 28454158340 28489949730 28525741120 28561532520 28597323910 28633115310 28668906700 28704698090 28740489490 28776280880 28812072280 28847863670 28883655070 28919446460 28955237850 28991029250 29026820640 29062612040 29098403430 29134194820 29169986220 29205777610 29241569010 29277360400 29313151800 29348943190 29384734580 29420525980 29456317370 29492108770 29527900160

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107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148

8260 8270 8280 8290 8300 8310 8320 8330 8340 8350 8360 8370 8380 8390 8400 8410 8420 8430 8440 8450 8460 8470 8480 8490 8500 8510 8520 8530 8540 8550 8560 8570 8580 8590 8600 8610 8620 8630 8640 8650 8660 8670

75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75

28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28

29563691550 29599482950 29635274340 29671065740 29706857130 29742648520 29778439920 29814231310 29850022710 29885814100 29921605500 29957396890 29993188280 30028979680 30064771070 30100562470 30136353860 30172145250 30207936650 30243728040 30279519440 30315310830 30351102230 30386893620 30422685010 30458476410 30494267800 30530059200 30565850590 30601641980 30637433380 30673224770 30709016170 30744807560 30780598950 30816390350 30852181740 30887973140 30923764530 30959555930 30995347320 31031138710

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149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190

8680 8690 8700 8710 8720 8730 8740 8750 8760 8770 8780 8790 8800 8810 8820 8830 8840 8850 8860 8870 8880 8890 8900 8910 8920 8930 8940 8950 8960 8970 8980 8990 9000 9010 9020 9030 9040 9050 9060 9070 9080 9090

75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75

28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28

31066930110 31102721500 31138512900 31174304290 31210095680 31245887080 31281678470 31317469870 31353261260 31389052650 31424844050 31460635440 31496426840 31532218230 31568009630 31603801020 31639592410 31675383810 31711175200 31746966600 31782757990 31818549380 31854340780 31890132170 31925923570 31961714960 31997506360 32033297750 32069089140 32104880540 32140671930 32176463330 32212254720 32248046110 32283837510 32319628900 32355420300 32391211690 32427003080 32462794480 32498585870 32534377270

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191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201

9100 9110 9120 9130 9140 9150 9160 9170 9180 9190 9200

75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75

28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28

32570168660 32605960060 32641751450 32677542840 32713334240 32749125630 32784917030 32820708420 32856499810 32892291210 32928082600

There were 201 different readings taken which was taken individually using the ADIsimDDS Design tool & practically using a spectrum analyser please refer to the appendix for the detailed readings which were observed using the tool.

Discussion
There were 201 different readings taken which was taken individually using the ADIsim DDS Design tool & practically using a spectrum analyser. As per David Brandon. (2007) the main feature of a direct digital synthesizer is the ability to produce frequency agile tone with residual phase noise which we were also able to produce but there where spurs which were observed.

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The Digital Word required be loading into or writing to the DDS to Obtain the Actual Output Frequency. It can be in Decimal Hexadecimal or Binary. In case of AD 9834 we use the hex decimal for example Example of The phase accumulator increment For 7.2 MHz is 189374C and for 9.2 Mhz 1F67153 There were spurs which were noticed which led to further research in to the sources and how could they be changed.

The spurious emissions were observed.

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The main sources of spur in a DDS were due to


1. Reference clock 2. Truncation in the phase accumulator 3. Angle to amplitude mapping errors 4. DAC errors

Reference clock
In case of an AD9834 evaluation board the DDS acted like a high resolution frequency divider with the reference clock in input and the DAC as the output. When we try modulating the clock amplitude it generates spurs in the output spectrum, The attenuation calculation of 20 log (75Mhz/7.2MHz) predicted a 20.35dB improvement. Whereas when we calculated it was noted that there was additional spur attenuation. This was because the modulating sine wave of the reference clock encounters a limiter which converted the AM spurs to PM. A high rate reference clock spends less time to traverse the region where noise is jittered. As per Intel (1999) Lower clock frequencies allowed higher resolution and better spectral purity for any given number of bits in the accumulator (N) and a given ROM size

Phase Truncation
The power dissipation and die area is reduced. The o/p is divided in to two sections the phase word p which sends to the mapper and discards bits M= T-P where T is the phase accumulators tuning word width. This is the reason for the production of phase modulation spurs. When we do practical

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experiments DDS drives a PLL where the spur within the loop is amplified by 20 log (N) dB, where N is the multiplication factor. The frequency of spur offset = Spur offset frequency. = Decimal value of discarded bits. = Number of discarded bits. = Reference clock output frequency. ,

The Phase truncation mechanism

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Phase truncation spur was observed in the experiments carried on. Due to the phase truncation we observed that the first harmonic is generally the strongest , It causes phase modulation with a periodic waveform.

Angle to Amplitude Mapping


The phase to amplitude conversion of a time sampled sine wave is

Where Vai is the sample amplitude, Vp is the half of DACs full scale voltage and oi is the value of samples phase word. It was observed that retaining more bits in the phase word reduces these errors, i.e. set the phase word to a minimum of 3 bits wider than DAC.

Quantization Noise, DAC Nonlinearities


We can calculate the quantization noise as it is directly proportional to the DAC resolution SNR = 7.21 N +1.3 (dB) Where N is the DAC resolution in bits.

In the end we came to a conclusion that we can reduce the spurs caused by aliases by increasing the reference frequency fref Solution

Spurs generally occurs due to uniform stepped periodic sequences.

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We can introduce a few jitters (minimal noise) which should be able to destroy the periodicity. This would convert the spur energy in to broad band phase noises.

As per Chao Huang (2009) frequency planning is the only way that works in eliminating the spurs of DDS in real circumstances.

Aliasing in DDS systems


(http://www.digikey.com/us/en/techzone/wireless/resources/articles/fundamentals-of-direct-digitalsynthesis.html) There is one important limitation to the range of output frequencies that can be generated from the simple DDS system. The Nyquist Criteria states that the clock frequency (in case of AD9834 it was 75 MHz) must be at least twice the output frequency. We saw that practical limitations restricted the actual highest output frequency to about 1/3 the clock frequency. It shows the output of a DAC in a DDS system where the output frequency is 30 MHz and the clock frequency is 100 MHz. An antialiasing filter must follow the reconstruction DAC to remove the lower frequency (100 - 30 =70 MHz) as shown in the figure below.

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Since we have an output between 7.2 MHz and 9.2 MHz the filter needs to be a low Band pass filter.

Band-pass filters
As per J. Vankka (2005) DDS has constraints to reach higher frequencies due to large frequency ratio between clock and output signal frequencies. Finateu, T (2007) said that meeting RF communication system requirements are strongly affected by this drawback.

There are applications where a particular band, or spread, or frequencies need to be filtered from a wider range of mixed signals. Filter circuits can be designed to accomplish this task by combining the properties of low-pass and high-pass into a single filter. The result is called a band-pass filter. (http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_2/chpt_8/4.html).

Creating a band pass filter from a low-pass and high-pass filter is shown using block diagrams:

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System level block diagram of a band-pass filter. What emerges from the series combination of these two filter circuits is a circuit that will only allow passage of those frequencies that are neither too high nor too low. Using real components, here is what a typical schematic might look like

Design of a single supply Band pass filter

Design Procedure 1. Put the value of C1=C2 2. Calculate R1=R4 = 1/ 2 * * C1*Frequency Q (gain) = 10 dB Q= (R3+R4)/2R1
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3. Calculate R3= 19*R1 4. Calculate R2= R1/19 5. Put the value of Cin =Cout which should be 200 times C1 In case we have two supplies just change the earth connection as the ve supply The band pass filters can also be used to generate waveforms above Nyquist frequency the replicated images can be filtered to extract the desired image and the sampled signals duplicate at multiples of the sampling frequency (Fout nFs) Xian Qijun(2008) DDS various applications such as radio, instrumentation and radar system. The older version of DDS have been troubled by large and unpredictable Spurious responses but now a days the spurs are small, we can plan to place the spurs outside the bandwidth of interest . In AD 9834 we see that the application only uses fraction of the output spectrum and attenuate the rest with the help of external filters. As discussed before that the bandwidth of interest is typically between 0 Hz to about 40 % of the clock or sampling frequency. This sub-Nyquist limitation is due to transition band of the external image rejection filter as per Brandon. David (2004).

Conclusion
Summary of Features in AD9834 are as follows: (i) A high resolution frequency of three different types of waveform is generated: sine wave, square wave and triangular wave. We were concerned about the sine wave. The output frequency the chip is changed by changing the value of the phase accumulator. (ii)Due to crystal locked output frequency, there is a stable output frequency since there is no time & temperature drift for the frequency. (iii) Theoretically, the AD9834 is able to generate a maximum output frequency of fMCLK/2. The maximum clock frequency that can be used by the AD9834 is 75 MHz. Therefore, the chip is able to generate a highest frequency of 37.5MHz. (iv) It had been used for digital communication system, spectrum systems which are spread. (v) In future the synthesizers will have higher clock speeds and lower spur levels. (vi) Appropriate in terms of size, switching frequency, resolution, fixedness and accuracy

The project was successful because most of the objectives were completed and more over there were added objectives which were completed.
Background information was collected effectively and there was a deep understanding about the direct digital synthesis and applications of direct digital synthesizers.

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The Evaluation board was used to test the effectiveness of obtaining the precision wave forms between the range of 7.2 MHz and 9.2 MHz with a step size of 10 KHz. There was precise phase control without affecting the output frequencies. The basic functioning of a direct digital synthesizer was understood, the required input sources for the output frequencies were kept in consideration.

Got specific output frequency since Fout = FTW * MCLK / 2^N where FTW is the register value for setting the output frequency and N is the size of the register. With the AD9834 N = 28. To solve for a FTW for a desired output frequency, FTW = (Fout / MCLK) * 2^N. The changes in an output frequency were established. Both the time domain as well as the frequency domain was taken into consideration getting both oscilloscopes as well as spectrum analyzer in to usage. There was a detailed study and practical experiment done to find out the usage of the evaluation board. Prototype development on the sources of spur and errors in a direct digital synthesizer and practically observation with the help of spectrum analyzer. Solutions were researched and developed to reduce the spur. Basic designing of a lab view programme which explained the functioning of a direct digital synthesizer. Design considerations for a filter was taken into account and a designing of a band pass filter. 201 different readings were taken and the design tool ADI Sim DDS was used effectively to evaluate the general simulated performance of the AD 9834 DDS chip. The tool used mathematical equations to approximate the overall performance of AD9834 and calculated all possible errors. Two different interactive design tools were used effectively (refer appendices). Designing a lab view program to input serial data was learnt and the initial stage of development was undertaken by developing a lab view programme for explaining the functioning of a DDS. Consideration was given to appropriate technologies which have been developed as well as broader area of practical implementation of a direct digital synthesizer. In addition to personal and supervisors input there was additional input taken from the engineer zone of Analog devices and high level of achievement in gaining knowledge by external support of Dr. Liam, Dr. Kevin G from Analog devices.

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Further Work
Developing a lab view Programme to practically input serial data on to a DDS. Use a system development platform (SDP) to build, demonstrate, and prototype embedded systems and to connect it to the evaluation board, through the use of interposer and 3rd party boards. As discussed earlier AD9834 is ideal agile frequency source in the transmitter section of the sonobuoy, so a further task would be to develop a sonobuoy for are the detection, localization, identification, and tracking of seismic events and underwater targets such as submarines and whales.

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Project Management and Costing


The project was started as a design engineering project. There was a need of the lab. There was a meeting with the project supervisor at least once in two weeks Microsoft Project was used to assist in developing the plan and also to assign resources, to analyse the various work load and it also helped in managing the budget. There was continuous review during the project process. The Initial costing of the devices was calculated from the websites of analog devices and national instruments though the evaluation board was available we have calculated the cost in order to analyse the real cost in case we would have to undertake this project from the scratch in a Business environment. There were few reviews which were taken in to considerations from the initial plan, due to little delay in getting the oscilloscope and spectrum analyser we had to delay the practical reading of the direct digital synthesizer. Additionally a mind map was created which focussed on the learnings form the project in stages hence making the project move in a flow.

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A Mind Map was made which summarised the tasks as well as the outcomes of Project.

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Costing
The total costing involves the material cost, cost of supervision and the cost of man power in case the project was supposed to be carried out in a real environment. Material cost: Most of the hardware was available but in case the project was carried out in a real practical environment there would be a need to buy all these hardware and software. Material and instrument Direct Digital Synthesizer(Eval AD9834) Cost of the Wires Cost of lab view software Connectors Cost of spectrum analyser Total Cost 60.83 10 12.29 3.5 20,095 20181.62

In case of practical work we would not need the test equipments for the whole time hence we would have hired the equipments, instead of buying it to make it economical. So the

hiring cost is 50 per week (http://www.hotfrog.co.uk/Companies/Watt-Power-Test-TestEquipment/Test-and-Measurement-Equipment-168294) Hence the total cost of the material = 60.83+10+12.29+3.5+50 = 136.62

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Supervision cost: There was regular meeting with the supervisor which was held once to twice in every two weeks and 1 hour per week in the first semester and every week in the second semester; the fee of supervision was set as 60 pounds per hour. In total there was more than 41 hours of supervision direct or indirect by the project supervisor as well as the engineer zone( Analog devices) The total supervision cost = 60*1*41 = 2460

Manpower cost: The whole project was completed in 24 weeks, and every week approximately 18 hours was spent in the project. The cost of man power is set as 8 pounds per hours. The total manpower cost = 24*18*8 = 3456 pounds Therefore, the total project cost = material cost+ manpower cost+ supervision cost = 136.32+2460+3456 = 6052.62 Pounds

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References
Adrio Communications. (2010) Radio-Electronics.Com. Available at: http://www.radioelectronics.com/info/rf-technology-design/pll-synthesizers/direct-digital-synthesizer-ddstutorial.php(Accessed: 28 Oct 2011).

Agilent Spectrum Analysis Basics. (2006). Available at: http://cp.literature.agilent.com/ litweb/pdf/ 5952-0292.pdf. (Accessed 20 Jan 2012) Analog Devices. (2010) www.digikey.com Available: http://www.digikey.com/us/en/techzone/wireless/resources/articles/fundamentals-of-directdigital-synthesis.html. (Accessed 20 Nov 2011).

Analog devices (2010) Analog.com. Available at: http://www.analog.com/static/importedfiles/eval_boards/137452056EVAL_AD9834EB.pdf (Accessed: 30Oct 2011). A Technical Tutorial on Digital Signal Synthesis.(1999), Analog Devices, Inc. Available at: http://www.analog.com/static/imported-files/tutorials/450968421DDS_Tutorial_rev12-299.pdf. (Accessed 13 Nov 2011) Dayton R.L (1988) Guide to Integrating Digital Services: T1, DDS, and Voice Integrated Network Architecture. New York: McGraw-Hill.

David Brandon (2004) DDS design. Technical report, Analog Devices.

David Brandon.(2007) Determining if a spur is related to the dds/dac or to some other source. Technical report, Analog Devices.Available at: http://www.analog.com/static/imported-files/application_notes/131351807AN_927.pdf. (Accessed 21 Feb 2012). Direct Digital Synthesizer (2010) Wikipedia. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_digital_synthesizer (Accessed: 26 Oct 2011). Direct Digital Synthesis Frequently Asked Questions, Analog Devices, Inc.

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Eva Murphy, Colm Slattery (2004) Analog.com. Available at: http://www.analog.com/library/analogDialogue/archives/39-08/dds_apps.html (Accessed: 24 Dec 2011). E. Lunca, S. Ursache and O. Neacsu (2011) Graphical Programming tools for electrical engineering higher education. Finateu, T.; Belot, D.; Badets, F.; Begueret, J.-B.; Deval, Y.; (2007), "A new direct digital transmitter architecture for constant envelope modulation," Information, Communications & Signal Processing, 6th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1-5, 10-13 Dec. 2007 doi: 10.1109/ICICS.2007.4449823 [Online]Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4449823&isnumber=4449533 (Accessed: 21 Nov 2011).

http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_2/chpt_8/4.html (Accessed: 04 Jan 2012).

IC MAX038 pdfserv.maxim-ic.com/en/ds/MAX038.pdf Accessed December 2011

Intel (1999) Introduction to direct digital synthesis http://teleinfo.pb.bialystok.pl/~krashan/pracownia/ddsintro.pdf (Accessed 24 March 2012)

Jeff Patterson. (2010), Wikipedia. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Direct_digital_synthesizer_block_diagram.png)(Accessed:2 4 Nov 2011). Jim Surber and Leo McHugh, Analog.com, Available at: http://www.analog.com/library/analogDialogue/archives/30-3/single_chip.html (Accessed 21 Dec 2011). J. Vankka, (2005) Digital Synthesizers and Transmitters for Software Radio. Springer.

Kroupa,Venceslav F.(1999),Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers, IEEE Press, Ruzari Abdul Rahim,Teo Chin HEng, S Sulaiman& Ms Abdul Manaf(2006) Pc controlled function generator using Direct digital synthesis technology for electrical capacitance

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Tomography, Available at: http://eprints.utm.my/4110/1/JTD_2005_21.pdf ( Accessed 20 March 2012)

Schewel, J (1999). Direct digital synthesis: some options for FPGA implementation (Paper #: 3844-02) SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3844 ISBN: 0-8194-3437-X, 180 pages Boston, MA, USA.

Smiths, J. (1998) Modern communication circuits. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill. Turner, C. S. 2003. Recursive discrete-time sinusoidal oscillators. Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE, 20, 103-111. Wang, t.t. & Fan, h.y. 2009. Application of Fourier Slice Theorem in Wigner Operator Theory and New Complete Representation. Communications in Theoretical Physics, 52, 829831. Xian Qijun,Chen wenyuon, ShouDangdoug (2008) Design of an Active band pass filteron signal generator Available at :http://issuu.com/dangdangshao/docs/design_of_the_active_band_pass_filter_on_the_signa (Accessed on 13 th March 2012)

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Analog devices data sheet, Available: http://www.analog.com/static/importedfiles/data_sheets/AD9834.pdf [Online] (Accessed: 21 Nov 2011).
Agilent Spectrum Analysis Basics. (2006). Available at: http://cp.literature.agilent.com/ litweb/pdf/ 5952-0292.pdf. (Accessed 20 Jan 2012)

Ask the Application Engineer33: All about Direct Digital Synthesis (Analog Dialogue, Vol. 38, August 2004). http://www.analog.com/library/analogDialogue/cd/vol30n3.pdf. (Accessed: 3 Oct 2011)

A Technical Tutorial on Digital Signal Synthesis, (1999), Analog Devices, Inc. Available: http://www.analog.com/static/importedfiles/application_notes/342944199941808540227AN237.pdf Accessed :( 2 Nov 2011).

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Dobkin, Bob and Williams, Jim(2011) Analog circuit design: a tutorial guide to applications and solutions.

Fundamentals of Direct digital Synthesizer, Analog Devices Available: http://www.analog.com/static/imported-files/tutorials/MT-085.pdf (Accessed: 27 Oct 2011).

Yi, S.-c., Chen, J.-J., Lin, C.-H. & Lee, K.-T. (2008). A low-power direct digital frequency synthesiser. International Journal of Electronics, 95, 593-599 (Accessed: 2 Dec 2011).

Adrio Communications (2010) Radio-Electronics.Com. Available at: http://www.radioelectronics.com/info/rf-technology-design/pll-synthesizers/direct-digital-synthesizer-ddstutorial.php(Accessed: 28 Oct 2011).

Analog Devices. (2010) www.digikey.com Available: http://www.digikey.com/us/en/techzone/wireless/resources/articles/fundamentals-of-directdigital-synthesis.html. (Accessed 20 Nov 2011).

Analog devices (2010) Analog.com. Available at: http://www.analog.com/static/importedfiles/eval_boards/137452056EVAL_AD9834EB.pdf (Accessed: 30Oct 2011). A Technical Tutorial on Digital Signal Synthesis, 1999, Analog Devices, Inc. Direct Digital Synthesizer (2010) Wikipedia. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_digital_synthesizer (Accessed: 26 Oct 2011). David Brandon (2007). Determining if a spur is related to the dds/dac or to some other source. Technical report, Analog Devices. Direct Digital Synthesis Frequently Asked Questions, Analog Devices, Inc. Eva Murphy, Colm Slattery (2004) Analog.com. Available at: http://www.analog.com/library/analogDialogue/archives/39-08/dds_apps.html (Accessed: 24 Dec 2011). E. Lunca, S. Ursache and O. Neacsu (2011) Graphical Programming tools for electrical engineering higher education.
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Finateu, T.; Belot, D.; Badets, F.; Begueret, J.-B.; Deval, Y.; (2007), "A new direct digital transmitter architecture for constant envelope modulation," Information, Communications & Signal Processing, 6th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1-5, 10-13 Dec. 2007 doi: 10.1109/ICICS.2007.4449823 [Online]Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4449823&isnumber=4449533 (Accessed: 21 Nov 2011).

http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_2/chpt_8/4.html (Accessed : 04 Jan 2012). Jeff Patterson. (2010), Wikipedia. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Direct_digital_synthesizer_block_diagram.png)(Accessed:2 4 Nov 2011). Jim Surber and Leo McHugh, Analog.com, Available at: http://www.analog.com/library/analogDialogue/archives/30-3/single_chip.html (Accessed 21 Dec 2011). J. Vankka, (2005) Digital Synthesizers and Transmitters for Software Radio.Springer,.

Kroupa,Venceslav F.,Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers, IEEE Press, 1999 L. Cordesses (2004), Direct Digital Synthesis: A Tool for Periodic Wave Generation (Part 1) IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, DSP Tips & Tricks column, pp. 5054, Vol. 21, No. 4. (Accessed 21 October 2011) L. Cordesses (2004), Direct Digital Synthesis: A Tool for Periodic Wave Generation (Part 2) IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, DSP Tips & Tricks column, pp. 110117, Vol. 21, No. 5. Ruzari Abdul Rahim,Teo Chin HEng, S Sulaiman& Ms Abdul Manaf(2006) Pc controlled function generator using Direct digital synthesis technology for electrical capacitance Tomography, Available at: http://eprints.utm.my/4110/1/JTD_2005_21.pdf ( Accessed 20 March 2012)

Smiths. J. (1998) Modern communication circuits. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill.

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Turner, C. S. (2003). Recursive discrete-time sinusoidal oscillators. Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE, 20, 103-111. Victor S. Reinhardt (1993) Spur reduction techniques in direct digital. Available at: http://www.ttcla.org/ vsreinhardt/DDS%20spur%20 reduction%20techniques.pdf (Acessed 14 th April 2012)

Xian Qijun,Chen wenyuon, ShouDangdoug (2008) Design of an Active band pass filter on signal generator Available at: http://issuu.com/dangdangshao/docs/design_of_the_active_band_pass_filter_on_the_signa (Accessed on 13 th March 2012)

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Appendices
Schematic Diagram of DDS AD9834

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EAVLUATION BOARD AD9834 of Analog Devices

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