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A design procedure of ventilation systems, with air flow rates, heat and cooling loads, air shifts according occupants, air supply principles

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A ventilation system may be designed more or less according the following procedure: Calculate heat or cooling load, including sensible and latent heat Calculate necessary air shifts according the number of occupants and their activity or any other special process in the rooms Calculate air supply temperature Calculate circulated mass of air Calculate temperature loss in ducts Calculate the outputs of components - heaters, coolers, washers, humidifiers Calculate boiler or heater size Design and calculate the duct system

Calculate heat and cooling loads by Calculating indoor heat or cooling loads Calculating surrounding heat or cooling loads

Calculate the pollution created by persons and their activity and processes.

Convert Units

Temperature

Calculate air supply temperature. Common guidelines: For heating, 38 - 50oC (100 - 120oF) may be suitable For cooling where the inlets are near occupied zones , 6 - 8oC (10 - 15oF) below room temperature may be suitable For cooling where high velocity diffusing jets are used, 17oC (30oF) below room temperature may be suitable

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0

oC oF

Convert!

Length

Air Heating

1

m km in ft yards miles nautical miles

If air is used for heating, the needed air flow rate may be expressed as qh = Hh / cp (ts - tr) where qh = volume of air for heating (m3/s) Hh =heat load (W) cp = specific heat capacity of air (J/kg K) ts = supply temperature (oC) tr = room temperature (oC) = density of air (kg/m3)

Air Cooling

(1)

Convert!

Volume

1

m3 liters in3 ft3 us gal

Convert!

Velocity

If air is used for cooling, the needed air flow rate may be expressed as qc = Hc / cp (to - tr) where (2)

1

m/s

Engineering Standards

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qc = volume of airfor cooling (m3/s) Hc =cooling load (W) to = outlet temperature (oC) where to = tr if the air in the room is mixed

Example - heating load:

Convert!

Pressure

1

Pa (N/m 2 ) b ar mm H2 O kg/cm 2 psi inches H2 O

If the heat load is Hh = 400 W, supply temperature ts = 30 oC and the room temperature tr = 22 oC, the air flow rate can be calculated as: qh = 400 (W) / 1.2 (kg/m3) 1005 (J/kg K) (30 (oC) - 22 (oC)) = 0.041 m3/s = 149 m3/h

Moisture

Convert!

Flow

If it is necessary to humidify the indoor air, the amount of supply air needed may be calculated as: qmh = Qh / (x2 - x1) (3)

1

m 3 /s m 3 /h US gpm cfm

where qm = volume of air for humidifying (m3/s) Qh = moisture to be supplied (kg/s) = density of air (kg/m3) x2 = humidity of room air (kg/kg) x1 = humidity of supply air (kg/kg)

Dehumidifying

Convert!

If it is necessary to dehumidify the indoor air, the amount of supply air needed may be calculated as: qmd = Qd / (x1 - x2) Power Engineering International where qmd = volume of air for dehumidifying (m3/s) Qd = moisture to be dehumified (kg/s)

Example - humidifying

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If added moisture Qh = 0.003 kg/s, room humidity x1 = 0.001 kg/kg and supply air humidity x2 = 0.008 kg/kg, the amount of air can expressed as: Broadcast Engineering World Edition qmh = 0.003 (kg/s) / 1.2 (kg/m3) (0.008 (kg/kg)- 0.001 (kg/kg)) = 0.36 m3/s Alternatively the air quantity is determined by the requirements of occupants or processes.

The heat loss from a duct can be expressed as:

Engineering Standards

(5)

t1 = initial temperature in duct (oC) t2 = final temperature in duct (oC) k = heat loss coefficient of duct walls (W/m2 K) (5.68 W/m2 K for sheet metal ducts, 2.3 W/m2 K for insulated ducts) tr = surrounding room temperature (oC) The heat loss in the air flow can be expressed as: H = 1000 q cp (t1 - t2) where q = mass of air flowing (kg/s) (5b)

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cp = specific heat capacity of air (kJ/kg K) (5) and (5b) can be combined to H = A k ((t1 + t2) / 2 - tr)) = 1000 q cp (t1 - t2) (5c)

Units as heaters, filters etc. must on basis of of air quantity and capacity be selected from manufactures catalogues.

7. Boiler

The boiler rating can be expressed as: B = H (1 + x) where B = boiler rating (kW) H = total heat load of all heater units in system (kW) x = margin for heating up the system, it is common to use values 0.1 to 0.2 Boiler with correct rating must be selected from manufacturer catalogues. (6)

8. Sizing Ducts

Air speed in a duct can be expressed as: v=Q / A where v = air velocity (m/s) Q = air volume (m3/s) A = cross section of duct (m2) Overall pressure loss in ducts can be expressed as: dpt = dpf + dps + dpc where dpt = total pressure loss in system (Pa, N/m2) dpf = major pressure loss in ducts due to friction (Pa, N/m2) dps = minor pressure loss in fittings, bends etc. (Pa, N/m2) dpc = minor pressure loss in components as filters, heaters etc. (Pa, N/m2) Major pressure loss in ducts due to friction can be expressed as dpf = R l where R = duct friction resistance per unit length (Pa, N/m2 per m duct) l = length of duct (m) Duct friction resistance per unit length can be expressed as R = / dh ( v2 / 2) where R = pressure loss (Pa, N/m2) = friction coefficient dh = hydraulic diameter (m)

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Ventilation - Systems for ventilation and air handling - air change rates, ducts and pressure drops, charts and diagrams and more

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Air Intakes and Outlets - Ventilation systems - air intakes and outlets and rules of thumbs Classification of Ventilation Systems - Ventilation systems can be classified by functions, distribution strategies or by ventilation principles Equal Friction Method - The equal friction method of sizing ducts is easy and straightforward to use Heater and Coolers in Ventilation Systems - Basic equations of heat transfer and selecting criteria of heaters and coolers Minor Loss Resistance in Ventilation Ducts - Air velocity, minor loss coefficient and minor loss in ventilation ductworks Sizing Circular Ducts - A rough guide to maximum air volume capacity of circular ducts in comfort, industrial and high speed ventilation systems Sizing Ducts - The ductwork of ventilation systems are often sized with either the Velocity, the Constant Pressure Loss (or Equal Friction Loss) - or the Static Pressure Recovery Methods

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