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CONTENTS

SL.
NO

DATE

EXPERIMENT

1.

12.03.12

RECTANGULAR CONTOURING.

2.

13.03.12

RADIAL CONTOURING

3.

14.03.12

DOUBLE PLANE METHOD.

4.

14.03.12

FLY LEVELLING.

5.

15.03.12

PROFILE LEVELLING

6.

16.03.12

TRIANGULATION.

7.

16.03.12

TRI-LATERATION.

PG.NO

SIGN

1.RECTANGULAR CONTOURING
1.1 AIM
To prepare a contour map of the given ground surface by the method of rectangulation.
1.2 INSTRUMENTS USED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Dumpy level with tripod


Chain
Tape
Ranging rod
Levelling staff
Cross staff
Arrows
Ropes

1.3 PROCEDURE
The dumpy level is the setup at anywhere in the contour area and temporary
adjustments are done.
The boundary area of the contour is marked using lime powder.
The area of the contour is divided into networks of rectangle by lines at right angles
and their corners marked with pegs or arrows.
The contour interval of the sides of the square may from 80X60m preferably the size
of the rectangulation may be uniform.
In every 5m the intervals are taken.
Take the bench mark.
After taking the R.L. of the bench mark the corners of these rectangles are surveyed
with leveling instrument.
Each point of the R.L. is to be noted.
Contours having the same R.L. are joint together and contours never intersect with each other
contours.

NAME OF LOCATION :
SURVEYOR

INSTRUMENT NO :

STATION

B.S

B.M
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
A11
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
B10
B11
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10
C11
D1
D2
D3

0.590

DATE

I.S
1.300
1.320
1.330
1.320
1.350
1.330
1.340
1.330
1.330
1.320
1.310
1.320
1.330
1.340
1.370
1.350
1.340
1.320
1.310
1.330
1.330
1.340
1.320
1.320
1.330
1.340
1.320
1.310
1.310
1.320
1.320
1.330
1.360
1.290
1.300
1.330

F.S

H.I

R.L

100.590

100.00
99.290
99.270
99.260
99.270
99.240
99.260
99.250
99.260
99.260
99.270
99.280
99.270
99.260
99.250
99.220
99.240
99.250
99.270
99.280
99.260
99.260
99.250
99.270
99.270
99.260
99.250
99.270
99.280
99.280
99.270
99.270
99.260
99.230
99.300
99.290
99.260

REMARKS

D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D10
D11
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
E8
E9
E10
E11
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
F10
F11
G1
G2
G3
G4
G5
G6
G7
G8
G9
G10
G11
H1

1.320
1.350
1.300
1.290
1.310
1.310
1.300
1.300
1.280
1.280
1.280
1.300
1.280
1.290
1.280
1.280
1.280
1.280
1.280
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.260
1.270
1.250
1.240
1.240
1.270
1.260
1.250
1.250
1.260
1.260
1.250
1.180
1.180
1.200
1.210
1.230
1.240
1.240
1.130

99.270
99.240
99.290
99.300
99.280
99.280
99.290
99.290
99.310
99.310
99.310
99.290
99.310
99.300
99.310
99.310
99.310
99.310
99.310
99.340
99.340
99.340
99.330
99.320
99.340
99.350
99.350
99.320
99.330
99.340
99.330
99.330
99.340
99.410
99.410
99.390
99.380
99.360
99.350
99.350
99.460
99.440

H2
H3
H4
H5
H6
H7
H8
H9
H10
H11
I1
I2
I3
I4
I5
I6
I7
I8
I9
I10
I11
J1
J2
J3
J4
J5
J6
J7

J8
J9
J10
J11
K1
K2
K3
K4
K5
K6
K7
K8
K9
K10

1.150
1.120
1.120
1.150
1.170
1.150
1.200
1.200
1.230
1.210
1.090
1.080
1.040
1.030
1.010
1.030
1.090
1.140
1.140
1.120
1.100
1.010
0.990
0.960
0.960
0.950
1.000
1.060
1.080
1.100
1.120
1.120
0.980
0.960
0.950
0.940
0.940
0.990
1.050
1.090
1.090
1.100

99.470
99.470
99.440
99.420
99.440
99.390
99.390
99.360
99.380
99.500
99.510
99.550
99.560
99.560
99.580
99.560
99.500
99.450
99.450
99.470
99.490
99.580
99.600
99.630
99.630
99.640
99.590
99.530
99.510
99.490
99.470
99.470
99.610
99.630
99.640
99.650
99.650
99.600
99.540
99.500
99.500
99.490

1.130

K11

99.460

ARITHMETIC CHECK
SUM OF B.S-SUM OF F.S = LAST R.L FIRST R.L
0.591.13 = 99.46100
0.54 = 0.54

RESULT:
The contour map has been plotted by using the obtained reduced level

2.RADIAL CONTOURING METHOD


2.1 AIM
To prepare a contour map for the given surface by radial contour method.

2.2 INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED


1.
2.
3.
4.

Theodolite with tripod


Leveling staff
Ranging rods
Hammer

2.3 FORMULA USED


D = K s cos 2 + C cos
V = ( K s sin 2 )/2 + C cos

2.4 FORMULA DESCRIPTION


D = Distance between the station point and R.L of the point in (m)
K=100 (multiplying constant)
=Vertical angle
v=vertical distance
s=staff intercept

2.5 PROCEDURE
Set the instrument at the station point

and do all the temporary adjustments

required.
Then place the leveling staff at the B.M and note down the reading.
Then set the Vernier A and B to O and place the ranging rod at a distance at .
Hold the staff at suitable interval of 5m.Note down the reading at all
corresponding point and also note the vertical angle O.
Repeat the same with different angle by keeping the lower clamp fixed and the
clamp as movable.
The unknown distance between the reduced levels is calculated by using the
above mentioned formula.

A contour map is drawn after obtaining the R.L.

2.6 RESULT
The contour map has been plotted with its reduced level

3. DOUBLE PLANE METHOD


3.1 AIMS
To determine the Reduced Level of two elevated objects and the level difference
between them.

3.2 INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Theodolite with tripod


Levelling staff
Cross staff
Tape
Ranging rods
Plumb bob

3.3 PROCEDURE
Setup the theodolite at A and level it accurately with respect to the altitude
bubble
With the vertical verneir set to zero reading & the altitude bubble in the center
of its run,take the reading on the levelling staff kept at the near B.M station
Direct the telescope towards P and bisect it accurately. Clamp both the plates
Read the vertical angle 1
Direct the telescope towards Q by unclamping the upper clamp screw and
bisect it accurately. Clamp both the plates and note horizontal angle 1 and
vertical angle 2
Direct the telescope towards another instrument station B in which it is at a
known distance of 10m from the main instrument and note the horizontal
angle 2
Shift the instrument to the station B and repeat steps 1& 2.
Now direct the telescope towards Q and bisect it accurately. Note the vertical
angle 3
Now direct the telescope towards P and bisect it accurately. Note the
horizontal angle 3 and vertical angle 4
Direct the telescope towards instrument station A and note the horizontal
angle 4

3.4 RESULT
R.L of P = 113.11m
R.L of Q = 121.50m
Difference elevation between tower P & Q =

5. PROFILE LEVELLING.
DATE: 15.03.2012.

5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.1.1 LEVELLING
Levelling is a branch of surveying and the objects of which is
1. To find the elevation of given point with respect to a given or assumed datum.
2. To establish point at a given elevation or at different elevation with respect to a given or
assumed datum.

5.1.2 PROFILE LEVELLING


Profile leveling is the process of determining elevation of point at short measured
intervals along a fixed line such as the centre line of a Railway, Highway, or Sewer.

5.1.3 LONGITUDINAL SECTIONING


The fixed line may be a single straight line or it may be composed of a succession of
straight lines or of a series of straight lines connected by curve is known as Longitudinal
Sectioning.

5.1.4 CROSS SECTIONING


Cross sections are run at right angles to the longitudinal profile and on either side of it
for the purpose of lateral outline of the ground surface. They provide the data for estimation
quantities of earth work and for other purposes.

5.2 TERMS USED IN PROFILE LEVELLING


5.2.1 DATUM
Datum is any surface to which elevation are referred.

5.2.2 BENCH MARK


Bench mark is a relatively permanent point of reference whose elevation with respect to
same assumed datum is known.

5.2.3 BACK SIGHT


Bench mark is the sight taken on a leveling staff held at a point of known elevation.

5.2.4 FORE SIGHT


Fore sight is a sight taken on a rod held at a point of unknown elevation, to ascertain the
amount by which the point is below the line of sight and thus to obtain the elevation of the
station.

Intermediate station is the point, intermediate between two turning point on which only
fore sight is taken to determine the elevation of the station.

5.2.5 CHANGE POINT


Change point is a point o which both fore sight and back sight are taken on a line of
different levels.

5.3 LONGITUDINAL SECTIONING


5.3.1 AIM
To determine the longitudinal section of the elevated point on the ground surface by
profile leveling.

5.3.2 INSTRUMENT REQUIRED


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Dumpy level with tripod.


Tape.
Chain.
Cross staff.
Levelling staff.
Ranging rods.

5.3.3 PROCEDURE
Set up the dumpy level on the instrument station and do all the temporary
adjustments.
Hold the leveling staff on B.M and note the reading as Back sight.
Now hold the leveling staff at starting point and note the reading.
At a constant interval of 5m distance, note the reading.
In longitudinal sectioning, necessary change points are adopted upto the end point.

5.3.4 PLOTTING THE PROFILE


The horizontal distances are plotted along the horizontal axis to some scale and the
distances are also marked. The elevations are plotted along the vertical axis. Each ground point is
thus plotted by the two co-ordinates. The various points are obtained and jointed by straight
lines.

CONTINUE,

5.4 CROSS SECTIONING


5.4.1 AIM
To determine the cross section of the elevated point on the ground surface by profile
leveling.

5.4.2 INSTRUMENT REQUIRED


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Dumpy level with tripod.


Tape.
Chain.
Cross staff.
Levelling staff.
Ranging rods.

5.4.3 PROCEDURE
Set up the dumpy level on the instrument station and do all the temporary
adjustments.
Hold the leveling staff on B.M and note the reading as Back sight.
By using cross staff, at an offset of 2m interval bisect the ranging rods on either sides
of the longitudinal profile.
Hold the leveling staff at each point and note the longitudinal profile up to the last
station.

5.4.4 PLOTTING THE CROSS SECTION


Cross sections are plotted almost in the same manner as the longitudinal section
except that in this case both the scales are kept equal. The points along the longitudinal section
are plotted at the centre point of the horizontal axis. The points to the left of centre point are
plotted to the left and those to the right are plotted to the right. The points are obtained are joined
by straight lines.

PROFILE LEVELLING.
PLACE OF SURVEY: THRIUVANNAMALAI

INSTRUMENT NO : D/L-04

SURVEYOR NAME:
HELPERS

DATE: 15.03.2012
: BATCH MEMBERS.

STATION

B.S

B.M

1.630

I.S

F.S

1.720
1.710
1.710
1.710
1.690
1.690
1.930
2.010
1.960
1.910
1.960
1.900
1.980
1.680
1.680
1.660
1.770
1.720
1.680
1.610
1.000
1.030
1.050
1.040
1.030
1.060
2.720

1.050
2.030
2.050
2.040
2.050
2.130
2.190
2.210
1.630

H.I

CLIMATE: HOT

R.L

101.630 100.000
99.910
99.920
99.920
99.940
99.940
99.940
99.700
99.620
99.670
99.720
99.670
99.730
99.650
99.950
99.950
99.970
99.860
99.910
99.950
100.020
100.630
100.600
100.580
100.590
100.600
100.570
103.300 100.580
101.270
101.250
101.260
101.250
101.170
101.110
101.090
101.670

CHAINAGE
C
R
15

1
1
0.5
1
1
0.5
30
1
1
0.5
1
1
0.5
45
1
1
0.5
1
1
0.5
60
1
1
0.5
1
1
0.5
75
1
1
0.5
1
1
0.5

REMARKS

1.590
1.600
1.630
1.650
1.680
0.750

1.680

102.370

0.970
0.970
1.040
1.910
1.090
1.280
1.320
1.250
1.240
1.290
1.330
1.400
1.580
1.630
1.300
1.270
1.330
1.440
1.440
1.630
1.790
0.840
0.860
0.960
1.130
0.910
0.950
1.170
0.440
0.480
0.440
0.520
0.510
0.550
0.780

0.600
0.940
0.950
1.000
1.030
1.020
1.310
1.420
1.080

102.550

101.710
101.700
101.670
101.650
101.620
101.620
101.400
101.400
101.330
101.180
101.280
101.090
101.050
101.120
101.130
101.080
101.040
100.970
100.790
100.740
101.070
101.100
101.040
100.930
100.970
100.740
100.580
101.530
101.510
101.410
101.240
101.460
101.420
101.200
101.930
101.890
101.930
101.850
101.840
101.820
101.770
101.610
101.600
101.550
101.520
101.530
101.240
101.130
101.470

90
1
1
0.5
1
1
0.5
105
1
1
0.5
1
1
0.5
120
1
1
0.5
1
1
0.5
135
1
1
0.5
1
1
0.5
150
1
1
0.5
1
1
0.5
150
1
1
0.5
1
1
0.5

1.050
0.980
1.040
1.100
1.160
1.410
1.100
1.170
1.170
1.230
1.150
1.310
1.370
1.450
1.420
1.480
1.530
1.380
1.410
1.430
1.500
1.510
1.510
1.530
1.370
1.340
1.320
1.430
1.340
1.350
1.380
1.410
1.390
1.290
0.460
0.480
0.490
0.520
0.450
0.470
1.230

0.520
1.470
1.300
1.310
1.240
1.360
1.410
1.430
1.380

103.260

101.500
101.570
101.510
101.450
101.390
101.150
101.450
101.380
101.380
101.320
101.400
101.240
101.180
101.100
101.130
101.070
101.020
101.170
101.140
101.120
101.050
101.040
101.990
101.020
101.180
101.210
101.230
101.120
101.210
101.200
101.170
101.140
101.160
101.260
102.090
102.070
102.060
102.030
102.100
102.080
102.030
101.790
101.960
101.950
101.020
101.900
101.850
101.830
101.880

1.450
1.380
1.330
1.380
1.430
1.410
1.420
1.460
1.480
1.440
1.380
1.370
1.360
0.670
0.740
0.800
0.780
0.700
0.730
0.770
0.120
0.250
0.190
0.100
0.240
0.260
1.510

0.240
1.530
1.540
1.550
1.540
1.520
1.570
1.560
1.530
1.500
1.510
1.520
1.570
1.580
1.590
1.420
1.440
1.440
1.460
1.390
1.370
1.350
0.540

104.530

101.810
101.880
101.930
101.880
101.830
101.850
101.840
101.800
101.780
101.820
101.880
101.890
101.900
102.590
102.520
102.460
102.480
102.560
102.580
102.530
102.490
103.140
103.070
103.160
103.020
103.000
103.020
103.000
102.990
102.980
102.990
103.010
102.960
102.970
103.000
103.030
103.020
103.010
102.960
102.950
102.940
103.110
103.090
103.090
103.070
103.140
103.160
103.180
102.990

0.510
0.610
0.600
0.560
0.680
2.100

0.670

104.960

0.020

106.200

1.970
1.970
2.090
2.160
2.120
2.060
2.010
1.720
1.750
1.780
1.770
1.690
1.700
1.690
0.950
1.070
1.110
1.100
0.900
0.870
0.880
0.080
0.120
0.250
0.310
0.080
0.020
1.260
1.340
1.380
1.560
1.560
1.320
1.300
1.280
1.050
1.120
1.200
1.200
1.140
1.100
1.070
0.390

102.020
102.920
102.930
102.970
102.850
102.860
102.990
102.990
102.870
102.800
102.840
102.900
102.950
103.240
103.210
103.180
103.190
103.270
103.260
103.270
104.010
103.890
103.850
103.860
104.060
104.090
104.080
104.880
104.840
104.710
104.650
104.880
104.940
104.950
104.860
104.820
104.640
104.640
104.880
104.900
104.920
105.920
105.080
105.000
105.000
105.060
105.100
105.130
105.810

0.380
0.430
0.440
0.420
0.400
1.150

0.380

106.970

1.070

108.550

1.850
1.890
1.910
1.900
1.730
1.710
1.670
1.790
1.850
1.840
1.850
1.780
1.840
1.880
1.940
1.660
1.660
1.670
1.720
1.750
1.770
0.810
0.810
0.820
0.770
0.860
1.000
2.650
2.330
2.270
2.390
2.360
2.360
2.420
2.420
2.010
1.990
2.030
2.090
2.130
2.160
2.190
2.030

105.820
105.770
105.760
105.780
105.800
105.820
105.120
105.080
105.060
105.070
105.240
105.260
105.300
105.180
105.120
105.130
105.120
105.190
105.130
105.090
105.330
105.370
105.370
105.300
105.250
105.220
105.200
106.160
106.160
106.150
106.200
106.110
105.970
105.900
106.220
106.280
106.160
106.190
106.190
106.130
106.130
106.540
106.560
106.520
106.460
106.420
106.392
106.360
106.520

1.990
2.060
2.130
2.160
2.220
1.920

2.260

108.210

0.260

109.840

2.050
2.080
2.100
2.070
2.070
2.090
1.990
1.750
1.720
1.810
1.830
1.720
1.760
1.810
1.140
1.190
1.210
1.250
1.170
1.220
1.190
0.080
0.130
0.190
0.240
0.110
0.150
1.890
1.600
1.620
1.640
1.600
1.660
1.720
1.410
1.410
1.400
1.430
1.470
1.500
1.530
0.970
1.000

106.560
106.490
106.420
106.390
106.330
106.290
106.160
106.130
106.110
106.140
106.140
106.120
106.220
106.460
106.490
106.400
106.380
106.490
106.450
106.400
107.070
107.020
107.000
106.960
107.040
106.990
107.020
108.130
108.080
108.020
107.970
108.100
108.160
107.950
108.240
108.240
108.240
108.200
108.240
108.180
108.120
108.430
108.430
108.400
108.410
108.370
108.350
108.310
108.870

1.010
1.040
0.990
1.050
1.460

1.090
1.390
1.400
1.420
1.500
1.410
1.450
1.470
0.980
1.040
1.090
1.040
0.960
1.020
1.100

110.210

108.840
108.830
108.800
108.850
108.790
108.820
108.810
108.790
108.710
108.800
108.760
108.740
109.230
109.170
109.120
109.170
109.250
109.190
109.110

CHECK:
Sum of B.S Sum of F.S = Last R.L First R.L
20.05-10.95 = 109.11-100
9.110 = 9.110
Hence Okay