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EC301 : Computer Network Fundamental

Chapter 1.0 Introduction to Network


Noted prepared by: Pn. Wan Fazlini Idayu binti Wan Fakari

CLO 1: you should be able to explain the hardware devices to build Local Area Network (LAN) for a specific implementation. (C2)
note: C2 = comprehensive

Chapter 1 will appear in: Theory test Quiz (1)

What is a Network?
A network consists of 2 or more computers connected together, and they can communicate and share resources (e.g. information)

1.1 Basic Concepts And Component Of Computer Network

Networked Computing Relative & Standalone Computing


Networked Group of computers and other devices connected by some type of transmission media Networks enable users to share devices and data, collectively called a networks resources Standalone Uses programs and data only from its local disks and is not connected to a network

Advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fewer Peripherals Needed Increased Communication Capabilities Avoid File Duplication and Corruption Lower Cost Licensing Centralized Administration Conserve Resources

Advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing


1. Fewer Peripherals Needed 2. Many devices can be connected on a network. Each computer on the Increased Communication Capabilities network does not need to have its own printer, scanner, or backup device. 3. Multiple printers can be set up in a centraland Corruption the Avoid File Duplication location and shared among network users. All network users send print jobs to a central print server that 4. manages the Cost Licensingserver can distribute print jobs over Lower print requests. The print multiple printers, or queue jobs that require a specific printer. 5. Centralized Administration 6. Conserve Resources

Advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fewer Peripherals Needed Increased Communication Capabilities Avoid provideDuplication and Corruptionused to File several different collaboration tools that can be Networks communicate between network users. collaboration tools include eLower Cost Licensing Onlineinstant messaging. With these mail, forums and chats, voice and video, and tools, users can communicate with friends, family, Centralized Administration and colleagues. Conserve Resources

Advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fewer Peripherals Needed Increased Communication Capabilities Avoid File Duplication and Corruption Lowermanages network resources. Servers store data and share it with Cost Licensing A server users on a network. Confidential or sensitive data can be Centralized Administrationaccess thatprotected and shared with the users who have permission to data. Document tracking software can be used to prevent users from overwriting files, or Conservethat others are accessing at the same time. changing files Resources

Advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fewer Peripherals Needed computers. Many Application licensing can be expensive for individual software vendors offer site licenses for networks, which can dramatically Increased Communication Capabilities or an reduce the cost of software. The site license allows a group of people entire organization to use the application for a single fee. Avoid File Duplication and Corruption Lower Cost Licensing Centralized Administration Conserve Resources

Advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fewer Peripherals Needed Centralized administration reduces the number of people needed to manage the devices and Communication time and cost to the network, Increased data on the not need reducingCapabilities company. Individual network users do to manage their own data and devices. One administrator can control the data, devices, and permissions of Avoid File Duplication and Corruptionin ausers on the network. Backing up data is easier because the data is stored central location. Lower Cost Licensing Centralized Administration Conserve Resources

Advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fewer Peripherals Needed Increased Communication Capabilities Avoid File Duplication and Corruption Data processing can be distributed across many computers to prevent one computer from becoming overloaded with processing tasks. Lower Cost Licensing Centralized Administration Conserve Resources

Type of networks
There are essentially two types of network architecturesclient-server and peer-to-peer. Peer-to-pear networks A Peer-to-peer model can be defined as a decentralized environment, where the user must be assigned permissions on each workstation in order to access any available resources. Client/server network A client-server model can be defined as a centralized environment, where all users, objects, resources, and so on are administered in a centralized location and can, if configured, use any network resources on any workstation on the domain. sends information from a client computer to a server, which then relays the information back to the client computer, or to other computers on the network

Computers connect with each other in a workgroup to share files, printers, and Internet access. This is used to connect a small number of computers.

Sketch a Peer-to-peer network


A peer-to-peer distributed network architecture is composed of participants that make a portion of their resources (such as processing power, disk storage, and network bandwidth) available directly to their peers without intermediary network hosts or servers. Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client-server model where only servers supply, and clients consume.

Sketch a Client/server network


In this arrangement, a single computer called a 'server' is given the duty to provide a particular service on behalf of one or more 'client' computers. The clients make requests to the server and the server responds to the requests. There are many kinds of server that include
File server - stores, handles and serves files to clients Print server - stores, handles and organizes printing jobs for its clients FTP server - provides a means to move large amounts of data Video server - stores and distributes video files Backup server - sits on the network taking periodic backups of clients.

Categories of networks

Fundamental Network Classifications


Local Area Networks (LANs): A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or group of buildings Wide Area Networks (WANs): Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries). Or, less formally, a network that uses routers and public communications links The largest and most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet. WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together, so that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): o A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN). The term is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network). It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks by bridging them with backbone lines. The latter usage is also sometimes referred to as a campus network.

LAN (Local Area Network)


Allow resource sharing between computers.
Computers Peripheral devices Transmission medium (e.g. cable)

3 types of topology
Bus topology Star topology Ring topology

LANs
Hub

Figure 6-4

a device that facilitates connection LAN acts logically like a bus.

Star the dominant topology today.

Examples of Ethernet LAN Diagram

MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)


Uses services provided by a network service provider. (Tel. Company)
Individual users computers Organizations LANs

Many Tel. Company provide a popular MAN service called SMDS (Switched Multimegabit Data Services)
Prior to SMDS's arrival in 1995, the only way to connect LANs was through a dedicated private line.

MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)

WAN (Wide Area Network)


The connection of individual computers or LANs over a large area (country, world). User using a telephone line to connect to an ISP (Internet Service Provider) is using a WAN.
Negotiates fee
ISP Tel. company

Wide Area Network (WAN)

Classification of networks according to its size


COMPUTER NETWORKS SYSTEM Local Area Network (LAN) AREA SIZE Small Area (10km) Big Area (10~50km) Biggest Area (more than 50km) EXAMPLE School, laboratory, in building City, State World, country, Internet

2 3

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN)

Element of Client/server network


Client Server Workstation Network interface card Network operating system Node Connectivity device Backbone Segment Topology Transmission media

Element of Client/server network


Client Server Workstation Network interface card Network operating system Node Connectivity device Backbone Segment Topology Transmission media
request and receive information over the network client. Client computers also depends primarily on the central server for processing activities

A computer on the network that manages shared resources; servers usually have more processing power, memory, and hard disk space than clients. They run network operating software that can manage not only data, but also users, groups, security, and applications on the network.

Element of Client/server network


Client Server Workstation Network interface card Network operating system Node The device inside a computer that connects a computer to the network media, thus allowing it to communicate Connectivity device with other computers; many companies (such as 3Com, Backbone IBM, Intel, SMC, and Xircom) manufacture NICs, which come with a variety of specifications that are tailored to Segment the requirements of the workstation and the network. Some connect to the motherboard, which is the main Topology circuit that controls the computer, some are integrated as Transmission media part of the motherboard, and others connect via an
external port. NICs are also known as network adapters. A personal computer (such as a desktop or laptop), which may or may not be connected to a network; most clients are workstation computers.

Element of Client/server network


Client Server Workstation Network interface card Network operating system Node Connectivity device Backbone Segment Topology Transmission media
The software that runs on a server and enables the server to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. Examples include various types of UNIX and Linux operating systems, Microsoft Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2008, and Mac OS X Server.

A client, server, or other device that can communicate over a network and that is identified by a unique number, known as its network addressers.

Element of Client/server network


Client Server Workstation Network interface card Network operating system Node Connectivity device Backbone Segment Topology Transmission media
-A specialized device that allows multiple networks or multiple parts of one network to connect and exchange data. A client/server network can operate without connectivity devices. However, medium- and large-sized LANs use them to extend the network and to connect with WANs.

The part of a network to which segments and significant shared devices (such as routers, switches, and servers) connect. A backbone is sometimes referred to as "a network of networks," because of its role in interconnecting smaller parts of a LAN or WAN.

Element of Client/server network


Client A part of a network. Usually, a segment is composed of a group of nodes that use the same Server communications channel for all their traffic Workstation Network interface card refers to the way computers and peripherals are Network operating system configured to form networks. The physical layout of a computer network. Topologies vary according Node to the needs of the organization and available hardware and expertise. Networks can be arranged Connectivity device in a ring, bus, or star formation, and the star formation is the most common. Hybrid Backbone combinations of these patterns are also possible. Segment Topology The means through which data is transmitted and Transmission media received. Transmission media may be physical, such as wire
or cable, or atmospheric (wireless), such as radio waves.

Element of Client/server network


Client - request and receive information over the network client. Client computers also depends primarily on the central server for processing activities Server - A computer on the network that manages shared resources; servers usually have more processing power, memory, and hard disk space than clients. They run network operating software that can manage not only data, but also users, groups, security, and applications on the network. Workstation - A personal computer (such as a desktop or laptop), which may or may not be connected to a network; most clients are workstation computers. Network interface card - The device (pronounced nick) inside a computer that connects a computer to the network media, thus allowing it to communicate with other computers; many companies (such as 3Com, IBM, Intel, SMC, and Xircom) manufacture NICs, which come with a variety of specifications that are tailored to the requirements of the workstation and the network. Some connect to the motherboard, which is the main circuit that controls the computer, some are integrated as part of the motherboard, and others connect via an external port. NICs are also known as network adapters. Network operating system - The software that runs on a server and enables the server to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. Examples include various types of UNIX and Linux operating systems, Microsoft Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2008, and Mac OS X Server. Node - A client, server, or other device that can communicate over a network and that is identified by a unique number, known as its network addressers. Connectivity device - A specialized device that allows multiple networks or multiple parts of one network to connect and exchange data. A client/server network can operate without connectivity devices. However, medium- and large-sized LANs use them to extend the network and to connect with WANs. Backbone - The part of a network to which segments and significant shared devices (such as routers, switches, and servers) connect. A backbone is sometimes referred to as "a network of networks," because of its role in interconnecting smaller parts of a LAN or WAN. Segment - A part of a network. Usually, a segment is composed of a group of nodes that use the same communications channel for all their traffic Topology - refers to the way computers and peripherals are configured to form networks. The physical layout of a computer network. Topologies vary according to the needs of the organization and available hardware and expertise. Networks can be arranged in a ring, bus, or star formation, and the star formation is the most common. Hybrid combinations of these patterns are also possible. Transmission media The means through which data is transmitted and received. Transmission media may be physical, such as wire or cable, or atmospheric (wireless), such as radio waves.

Networking Terminology

Computer network topology


Bus Ring Star Hybrid

Computer network topology


Bus Ring Star Hybrid
all computers are linked by a single line of cable

Computer network topology


Bus Ring Star Hybrid
each computer or workstation is connected to two other computers, with the entire network forming a circle

Computer network topology


Bus Ring Star Hybrid
multiple computers and peripheral devices are linked to a central computer, called a host

Computer network topology


Bus Ring Star Hybrid
combine network layout types to meet their needs