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INTRODUCTION Arc welding is a skill and a craft that takes place in a variety of places. Welding can be done just about anywhere on earth; it can even be done underwater. Therefore, it is necessary to learn to perform quality welds in a large variety of environments and positions. The American Welding Society (AWS) has a given set of codes to describe the different types of welds, welding positions, quality factors, and when a particular weld should be used. It is important to become familiar with the types of welds, weld joints used, and some alternative uses of the arc welder in order to become skilled in the craft. TYPES OF WELDS There are two main types of welds made today. It is possible to identify the majority of welds made today by describing them as either a groove* or fillet weld. A groove weld is produced when the sides or ends of two pieces are put together. The shape of the edges that are joined together during the welding process determines the proper name for a groove weld. The following is a set of illustrations that describe some common types of groove welds.

* Underlined words are defined in the Glossary of Terms. -1-

A fillet weld is produced when metal is placed together to form a right angle. The fillet name actually describes the triangle of metal that is formed by the weld in this situation. Fillet welds are very prominent in the industry and understanding the nomenclature of welding is a key to becoming successful in the craft. TYPES OF WELD JOINTS A weld joint is the junction of two pieces of metal. This is the location at which two or more pieces of metal are to be joined. There are five common types of weld joints used today. These are: Butt Joint this is a type of joint made between two pieces of metal lying in the same plane. Tee Joint a joint that is made when two pieces of metal are placed together to form a T. Lap Joint joint made when two pieces of metal overlap one another. Corner Joint this is a joint made when two pieces of metal are placed at right angles to each other to make a 90degree angle. Edge Joint a joint that is formed by placing two pieces of metal parallel to one another or by stacking one on top of the other.

Common Weld Joints

AWS CODES It is important to become knowledgeable about every type of welding position in use today for making groove and fillet welds on metal plate and pipe. As mentioned earlier, the American Welding Society (AWS) has developed a system to simplify this process. The system is very easy to understand. If a G appears before each position this indicates that the weld being described is a groove weld. Conversely, if an F appears it indicates that the weld in question is a fillet weld. The system has been set up to also describe the type of welding position that is being used. In order to do this the AWS uses four digits. The numbers one through four are used to identify the types of welding positions possible. A 1 indicates that the weld was made in the flat position, a 2 indicates the horizontal position, a 3 the vertical position, and a 4 the overhead position. In addition to these four digits, a five and six are used to describe two types of welds used when working with pipe. The five indicates a horizontal fixed pipe position and the six indicates an inclined fixed pipe position. Some examples of weld names are:
1G groove weld, in the flat position 2G groove weld, in the horizontal position 3G groove weld, in the overhead position 4G groove weld, in the overhead position 5G groove weld on pipe, in the horizontal fixed position 6G groove weld on pipe, in the inclined fixed position 1F fillet weld, in the flat position 3F fillet weld, in the vertical position


The following is an illustration that adequately shows the AWS system at work.

Weld Testing Positions

Grove Weld Positions

In most instances it will be necessary to make more than one weld pass to properly secure a joint. There are a few terms that are given to the types of weld passes needed to adequately join two pieces of metal. Many times, the first weld pass will be referred to as the stringer, or root pass, and requires full penetration of the metal being welded. The second pass is referred to as a hot pass, the third is called a filler pass and the final pass is called a cap or cover pass. Keep in mind that not all weld joints will require all four weld passes to be run. Each pass is meant to cover the previous one and join a bit more of the metal to the welds.


PROCEDURE FOR MAKING BUTT WELDS A good place to start when learning how to perform butt welds on metal plate is in the flat position (1G). This is the most basic type of weld performed today. The following is one practice method for performing a butt weld in the flat position (1G): Use a welding machine that has been properly set up and adjusted, a 1/8-inch diameter electrode and two or more pieces of steel plate at least 1/2 or 3/4 inch thick. Practice with this size of metal because it coincides with the requirements of the Entry-Level Weldor Test. Tack weld the two plates together at the ends. Tacking will prevent the metal from warping during the welding process.

Begin on either end of the metal by establishing a molten weld pool on both plates. Keep the electrode in the molten weld pool until it flows together or for a count of three seconds. After the pool is well established, begin weaving the electrode slowly back and forth across the joint. Use any of the electrode movements that were discussed earlier. Continue along the length of the joint. After weld completion, cool, chip, and inspect the weld. Several passes will be needed to adequately construct a butt joint. Commonly, all four passes are used. Practice this type of weld repeatedly until possessing mastery of the weld. In most instances, full penetration is not required for this type of weld. In cases that call for full penetration, the plates should be beveled on the joint edge and the same procedure used. There are many types of practice methods used to complete butt welds. Acquire the knowledge needed to master butt welds in the 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G, and 6G positions. Repeated practice is key to becoming proficient at each of these welds. Become familiar with the types of weld tests that will be completed to determine the strength and quality of the welds you produce. Two common tests used by the American Welding Society (AWS) are the


X-ray and Guided Bend tests. Some excellent learning tools are available from the Instructional Materials Service (IMS). IMS offers two instructional videos that provide excellent instruction in Shielded Metal Arc Welding. These are: Video # 9989 Weld Test Coupon Preparation: Plate and Pipe, and Video # 9990 Performing the SMAW 2G, 3G, and 4G Weld Test: Plate/E-6010. PROCEDURE FOR MAKING FILLET WELDS The other common weld produced is the fillet weld. Much like the groove weld, there are many practice techniques that can be put to use to allow a person to master fillet welding. The following is one set of instructions for making a fillet weld on a tee joint in the flat position (1F). Use a welding machine that has been properly set up and adjusted, a 1/8-inch diameter electrode and two or more pieces of steel plate at least 1/4 inch thick. Tack weld the pieces together to form a right angle or a T. Be certain to chip the tack weld to remove any slag. If the slag is not removed, the final weld will be faulty.

A welded tee joint should be welded on both sides to increase the strength of the tee joint.

After the tack weld has been tacked and chipped, start at either end of the plate and establish a molten pool on both plates or hold for a count of three seconds. Use any of the electrode movements that have been discussed. It is suggested that you find a movement that works best for you and continue to use it. Often three passes will be needed to complete this type of joint. A root pass will be needed, as well as a filler and cap pass. -5-

When welding thin metal to heavy metal, the angle of the electrode should be about 60 towards the heavier metal.

One tip to bear in mind, fillet welding can be made much easier by placing the T joint in the V position. After tacking the two metal plates together, maneuver the two pieces to form a V shape. This allows for a flat type of weld, increased travel speed, and reduced undercutting. The arc should remain short and it is critical that the electrode be held in the center of the V to ensure that both plates are being joined equally. In some instances, more than one weld pass will be needed. In these cases, it is possible to practice weave patterns in the V during each pass.

HORIZONTAL, VERTICAL, AND OVERHEAD POSITION WELDING After you become skilled at welding in the flat position, it is necessary to begin welding in the three more difficult positions. The horizontal (2), vertical (3), and overhead (4) positions are referred to as out-ofposition welds, and are all challenging because it is harder to control the weld puddle. In all three of these positions, it becomes very difficult to control the molten metal in the puddle and keep it from falling from the weld area. Some general practices in out-of-position welding are as follows: Experiment with several amperage settings to determine which is best for horizontal, vertical, and overhead welding. Whenever possible, use the highest amperage possible for quality work and better weld penetration. In most cases, lower amperage will be needed for this type of work as compared to welding in the flat position. Place the electrode in the proper position.


Strike the arc and hold a shorter arc than is required for flat position welding. After an arc is established, begin moving the electrode very slowly, bringing the metal to a molten state. Continue this until the molten metal will no longer remain in the weld puddle. Increase travel speed until the desired weld buildup is obtained. Travel speed is critical to these types of welds. If a correct travel speed is used, the molten metal will solidify before dropping or sliding off. Use the proper size and type of electrode. (AWS) No. E6011 is one type of electrode that is suited for out-of-position welding. Consult an electrode classification chart to determine which electrodes are suitable for this type of work. One bit of information to keep in mind. Electrodes of smaller diameter are usually easier to control than larger diameter electrodes. Cool, chip, and inspect the welds for any defects as well as checking for uniformity. Vertical Welding There are two basic techniques for performing welds in the vertical position. These two techniques are commonly referred to as vertical up and vertical down. These two techniques can be used to perform welds in the 3G and 3F positions. The following is a set of instructions for performing vertical up and vertical down welds. For most weldors, light metal is easier to weld than heavy metal because it requires less penetration. For the practice sessions, use a thin metal, usually 1/8 inch. This will allow for a weldor to practice easier and get the feel of these more difficult welding positions. It is recommended that you use an electrode that is approximately eight inches long and that you begin by setting the amperage at 75. Be certain that the metal plate is secured in a vertical position. The use of adjustable locking pliers or C-clamps is recommended to aid in securing the metal in position. Position the electrode at an angle of 60 to the plate and in the path of the weld. The electrode should be perpendicular to the sides of the plate. For vertical down welding, begin at the top of the plate with a short arc. If the electrode sticks, stop and increase the amperage. If the electrode burns through the metal, lower the amperage. If the electrode continues to burn through the metal, increase the speed of the electrode movement downward.

Vertical Down Welding


When welding vertical up, position the electrode 85 to the plate in the path of the weld. Begin at the bottom of the plate and work up. Use the same procedures if the electrode sticks or burns through the metal.

As you become better at welding in the 3G and 3F positions, begin work on thicker metals. Experiment and increase the amperage accordingly. When welding thick plate, use one or more side-toside electrode movements. As with fillet welds, vertical up and vertical down welds will need more than one pass. A root pass should be made, along with a filler and cap pass. Horizontal Welding When welding in the 2G or 2F position it is necessary to control the weld puddle and travel speed to produce a strong weld. The horizontal position is used widely in agricultural sectors to make repairs. The steps necessary to perform welds in the 2G or 2F position are: Secure the plate in a position for running beads in a straight line from left to right. Use adjustable locking piers or C-clamps to secure the metal firmly. When performing this type of weld, the electrode and the plate sides should form a 90 angle. Lean the electrode slightly in the direction of the weld area.


Adjust the amperage, travel speed, and arc length to prevent the weld puddle from running or sagging. Metal that is over 1/8 inch thick should be beveled prior to welding in the horizontal position. If welding thicker metal, or metal that has been beveled, it is necessary to make more than one weld pass to enhance the strength of the weld. A root, filler, and cap pass will be necessary. Overhead Welding Welding in the 4G or 4F position is the most difficult of the out-of-position welds. The major challenge in this type of welding is controlling the weld puddle. The procedures for performing overhead welds are very similar to the flat position, except that they are far more difficult. It is necessary to pay special attention to the weld puddle and travel speed. You must maintain a short arc as well. The steps in overhead welding are: Secure the metal overhead with the use of an adjustable locking pliers or C-clamps. Find a position that is comfortable for you before starting to weld. Welding in the 4G or 4F position is much more difficult if the weldor is uncomfortable from the start. Adjust the amperage setting and travel speed. The amperage should be set at approximately the same setting as needed during vertical welding (3). Be certain to maintain a very short arc length throughout the entire process. Weld with a short arc and use a moderately fast rate of travel to prevent sagging and undercutting.

Overhead Welding

A weaving pattern is recommended for use on heavier metals. This motion must be faster than weaves used for other position welds. Three passes will be needed to complete this weld properly. Be aware of the danger of falling molten metal when welding in the 4G or 4F position. Personal protective equipment (PPE) should always be worn and becomes even more important when performing these types of welds. -9-

WELDING VARIOUS KINDS OF METALS Arc welding requires knowledge of the many metals that are being welded. As mentioned earlier, metals have a variety of different properties and characteristics. It is necessary to be familiar with the many types of metals and which types of electrodes and techniques can be used to weld them. The following is a list of different kinds of metals that require some knowledge and expertise to weld. Cast Iron Cast iron is more difficult to weld than other types of metals. This form of metal expands, contracts, and even crumbles under certain heating conditions. One important point to remember about cast iron, it can be damaged by both the heating and cooling processes. During the cooling phase, cracks may appear in or near the welded area. Consult an electrode identification chart to ensure the electrode used is correct for the metal that is being welded. In years past, it was recommended that steel-cored electrodes not be used for welding malleable cast iron. This is no longer the case. Low cost special steel electrodes are used today to weld cast iron and are available for purchase from most welding supply stores. These types of electrodes are recommended for repairing pits and cracks in castings. In cases where these types of electrodes are used you can finish the work with a grinder. The most commonly used electrode for welding cast iron has a Nickel (Ni) core. These electrodes produce a weld that can be sawed, drilled, ground, or machined in just about any way. Nickel-core electrodes are generally a bit more expensive than the mild steel variety. Advantages of using a nickel electrode are: the metals are machinable the casting does not require preheating the cooling speed does not have to be controlled Sheet Metal This metal can be described as any thickness of metal that is less than 1/8. The 1/8 metal is approximately the same thickness as a 7-gauge metal 0.1793 thick. Due to its thin size, sheet metal is very difficult to weld. It is very important to weld with the correct amount of heat and use a very short arc. The following steps should be followed when welding sheet metal. Utilize a low amperage setting and weld as rapidly as possible to prevent burning a hole in the metal. Be sure to have adequate heat to allow for complete fusion of the metal. Select an electrode that is no larger in diameter than the thickness of the metal being welded. Maintain a very short arc. In some cases, welders are equipped with special attachments that make it easier to strike an arc when the welder is set on the very low amperage needed for welding sheet metal.

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High Carbon Steel Much like cast iron, this type of metal requires some extra precautions to produce high-quality welds. High carbon steel is harder, stronger and more brittle than other types of steel. In short, high carbon steel is harder to weld because the effects of heating and cooling are greater. If heated too quickly, the steel can break or have hard spots. If high carbon steel is cooled too rapidly, the metal becomes brittle. Welding procedure is as follows: Use mild steel electrodes only if the metal is preheated before and during the weld procedure. Preheat the metal to a blue color and maintain this color throughout the weld. If using low-hydrogen electrodes, it is not always necessary to preheat the metal. If using a mild steel electrode, set the amperage lower than required for welding mild steel. Allow the metal and welding area to cool slowly. CUTTING WITH THE ARC WELDER Although less common today, there are still instances in the machine shop or agricultural laboratory in which an arc welder will be used to cut metals. Plasma cutters and oxyfuel torches are commonly used, yet there may be a time and place in which this skill will be needed. It is possible to cut, pierce, or gouge metal if the proper procedure is used. When using the arc welder as a cutting machine, more ventilation will be needed because more fumes are produced during cutting. Steps to follow in cutting metal with the arc welder include: Before beginning to cut, remove all flammable materials from the primary and surrounding work areas. Using the welder at high amperage levels can increase the amount of sparks and forces them to travel greater distances than normal. Select a mild steel (E6011) electrode 1/8 to 3/16 and set the amperage at 160 to 180. Extend the area to be cut out over the edge of the table and start the cut at the edge of the metal. Place a container of sand underneath the edge of the cut area to catch any molten metal. Strike and hold a long arc until a large molten puddle forms. After the puddle forms, begin moving the electrode up and down like a chisel. This shortening of the arc will blow the molten puddle loose from the plate. Continue to move across the plate, utilizing a long arc to form the puddle and a short arc to force the puddle out. Steps to follow in piercing holes in metal with the arc welder are: Strike the arc and hold steady, forming a large molten crater. As the metal enters a molten state, force the electrode downward through the plate. - 11 -

Cutting bevels can be accomplished with ease using a torch or grinder, but the arc welder can be used in the following manner: Lean the electrode in the direction of the bevel and strike the arc. Maintaining a long arc, work to keep the angle between the electrode and the metal the same as the desired finished bevel. Hold the electrode near the metal and move in the direction of the cut as the metal is blown from its path of travel. Use a shorter arc for the actual cutting process. SURFACING OF METALS It is sometimes necessary to cover the surfaces of tools and machines with metals to increase their strength, size, lifespan, and other properties. There are two major types of surfacing done today. These are: Hard surfacing process completed with an arc welder, that gives a hard, tough, cover to metals in order to resist corrosion, abrasion and impact loads. Metallizing spray coating process in which particles of metal are applied to worn metal surfaces. Special materials are required for use in hard surfacing. Some common materials used for hard surfacing with the arc welder are: iron, nickel, copper, or cobalt. These types of electrodes are available for use today and are utilized by applying a layer of wear-resistant metal to the surface or cutting edge of a tool or machine part. Hard surfacing is commonly used to repair worn edges of agricultural equipment, such as plowshares, cultivator sweeps, bucket teeth, harrow spikes, and planter shovels. Steps for hard surfacing are as follows: Prepare the metal for surfacing. Clean the metal thoroughly, removing all rust, deposited metal, and paint. Select the proper electrode by consulting an electrode identification chart. Set the amperage at the minimum level that is needed to strike an arc. (It is critical to set the amperage as low as possible in order to minimize the dilution of the deposited metal.) Work in a flat position to insure best results. Strike the arc and use a medium long arc as you begin to travel with the weld. Use a straight or weaving electrode movement. Remove all slag before any other layers or beads are run. Overlap the adjoining welds in order to provide complete fusion. The illustration on the next page demonstrates the proper methods for overlapping.

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Continue to run beads next to one another until the surface is covered. Use a whipping movement when welding along a thin edge. Peen the deposited metal as it cools. AWS CERTIFICATION This certification is available to anyone who possesses a talent for welding. The steps to follow when attempting to become an Entry-Level Weldor are: 1. 2. Complete and submit an application form. Pass a practical knowledge test. Subjects covered include: welding and cutting theory, welding and cutting inspection and testing, welding and cutting terms and definitions, base and filler metal identification, base and filler metal selection, common welding process variables, electrical fundamentals, drawing and welding symbol interpretation, fabrication principles and practices, and safety.

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A minimum grade of 75 is needed in order to pass with at least 90% of the safety questions being answered correctly. Pass performance tests. These tests involve reading and interpreting simple welding drawings and sketches, cutting parts to proper size, fitting sample assemblies, welding in the 2G and 3G positions, workmanship tests using GMAW and FCAW for carbon steel, and GTAW on carbon steel, stainless steel and aluminum. If all requirements are met the participant is certified as an Entry-Level Weldor.



The following is a table that illustrates some types of tests used in the industry today.

If you are interested in becoming certified, ask the agricultural science teacher at your school for details and information regarding the program. For arc welding activities related to your SAEP, refer to IMS #RB-221, Activities for Agricultural Science 221. After completing an activity, be sure to record the entry in the journal page of your Internet record book, and click on 221-H for the Course and Unit of Instruction. - 14 -

Acknowledgements Jared Doughty, Graduate Technician, Department of Agricultural Education, Texas A&M University, revised this topic Kirk Edney, Curriculum Specialist, Instructional Materials Service, Texas A&M University, reviewed this topic. Vickie Marriott, Office Software Associate, Instructional Materials Service, Texas A&M University, prepared the layout and design for this topic. Christine Stetter, Artist, Instructional Materials Service, Texas A&M University, prepared the illustrations for this topic. REFERENCES Alexander, R., E. Bohnart, and R. Witcraft. Welding, The Fundamentals of Welding, Cutting, Brazing, Soldering, and Surfacing of Metals. John Deere Publishing. 2000. Althouse, A., K. Bowditch, W. Bowditch, and C. Turnquist. Modern Welding. The Goodheart-Wilcox Company, Inc. 1988. American Welding Society: The AWS Certified Welder Program (Brochure). Anderson, W., T. Hoerner, and V. J. Morford. Metals and Welding. Hobar Publications. 1988. AWS QC7-93. Standard for AWS Certified Welders. American Welding Society. 1993. Jeffus, Larry. Welding: Principles and Applications. 4th Edition. Delmar 1999. Joint Design and Preparation of Metals. [Online] Available: Ch4.htm Matthews, J. & Sellon, W. Arc Welding: A Basic Manual of Instruction for Learning How to Use Arc Welding. The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation. Cleveland, OH. GLOSSARY OF TERMS Fillet Type of weld produced when pieces of metal are placed together to form a right angle. Gauge Measure of thickness of metal. Groove Type of weld produced when the sides or ends of two pieces of metal are put together. Machinable Capable of being sawed, drilled, grinded or machined in any way. Malleable Capable of being fashioned into a different form or shape. Metallizing Spray coating process in which particles of metal are applied to worn metal surfaces. Tack Joining two pieces of metal together with a very small, short weld to prevent warping or spreading.

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SELECTED STUDENT ACTIVITIES SHORT ANSWER/LISTING: Answer the following questions or statements in the space provided or on additional paper. 1. List and describe the five common types of weld joints. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why is it necessary to weld a tee joint on both sides? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. What is the major challenge to overcome when welding in the horizontal, vertical or overhead position? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. List three reasons for surfacing metals. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Why is it critical to utilize as low of amperage setting as possible when hard surfacing metals? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ADVANCED ACTIVITIES 1. Navigate the Internet searching for links that give information regarding the American Welding Society (AWS) welder certification programs. Find out the requirements, costs, and other pertinent information. Present your findings to the class and encourage them to begin work toward achieving certification. Research the many types of metals and the properties of each. Find information concerning electrode identification and formulate your own electrode identification chart. Show the many types of electrodes that can be used and the metals that they should be used on and why. Present the chart to your peers and continue to use it throughout the class. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Reproduction prohibited without written permission. Instructional Materials Service Texas A&M University 2588 TAMUS College Station, Texas 77843-2588 2002 - 16 -