Inspection of Concrete Structures -1 Concrete is inherently a durable material, but its durability under any given set of exposure

conditions varies with the concrete mixture proportions; the presence and positioning of reinforcement; and the detailing, placing, finishing, curing, and protection it received. In service, it may be exposed to conditions of abrasion, moisture cycles, cycles of freezing and thawing, temperature cycles, corrosion of reinforcement, and chemical attack. Deterioration of the concrete and the potential reduction of its service life can result. Plain and reinforced concrete structures do not always behave as intended. When the performance of a concrete structure is less than desirable, the structure must be evaluated. The inspector must identify the type of deterioration, its causes and recommend ways to repair or correct the deficiency. Figure 1 is a flow diagram outlining the typical activities involved in the inspection and repair of concrete structures.

Figure 1. Steps in the Inspection and Repair of Concrete Structures There are two distinct groups of concrete deficiencies: structural failures, and lack of durability and serviceability. Structural failures usually result from a design deficiency or an overloading condition. Overloads may be either manmade or natural. An example of a man made overload is a load that exceeds the allowable floor loading in a building. An example of a natural overload is an earthquake.

Concrete deficiencies that result in lack of durability and serviceability may be caused by material, production, or environmental factors. These three factors were discussed in the three previous modules and will not be covered again. DETERMINING THE CONDITION OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES All concrete structures deteriorate with time. The anatomy of life cycle of a typical concrete structure is shown in Figure 2. Following a trouble-free period, the deterioration continues to build up and the cumulative damage will require a repair at some stage to restore its original strength. Thereafter, the cycle is repeated again as shown in Figure 2. Accordingly, all structures should be inspected periodically. In an inspection, a process or object is viewed closely with critical appraisal. Inspections are usually carried out by an inspector or a professional engineer. The following items are important when making these inspections:  Reasons for conducting the inspections  Preliminary inspections  Detailed inspections

Figure 2. Anatomy of Life Cycle for a Structure Reasons for Conducting Inspections Inspections of concrete structures are carried out for one or more of the following reasons:  To determine the present condition of the structure  To determine the type and extent of deterioration  To determine the causes of deterioration and whether the deterioration is still active  To estimate the rate of deterioration

 To estimate the time remaining before repair or replacement  To estimate the effects of deterioration on serviceability if repair or replacement is deferred  To determine if the proposed changes to the structure will affect the structure‟-s safety and service life  To estimate the most cost-effective means to prevent further deterioration to the structure  To study the performance of a material under a specific exposure condition To assess the condition of an existing concrete structure, the engineer must assemble and systematically analyze the relevant structural information and data. Because comprehensive assessments can be costly, experts generally recommend a two-step approach consisting of a preliminary inspection and a detailed inspection. In the two-step approach, perform the detailed inspection only if the preliminary inspection indicates that it is necessary. The next two subsections discuss the preliminary and detailed inspection. Preliminary Inspection The preliminary inspection is the first and most important single effort in the evaluation of a structure before rehabilitation. The preliminary inspection provides the initial analytical data that are used to assess the structural adequacy of an existing structure. The preliminary inspection is normally a walkthrough examination of the structure to visually evaluate the structural components. No elaborate physical tests are performed. When the results of the preliminary inspection are available, the decision can be made whether or not it is necessary to conduct a detailed inspection. The basic steps of the preliminary inspection are as follows:  Review the available documents to gather relevant information.  Conduct a site inspection to gather descriptive information of problems.  Perform a preliminary analysis to classify the situation.  Present the preliminary findings and recommendations for the detailed inspection and rehabilitation alternatives. Gather Relevant – Information Before conducting a preliminary inspection, the inspector normally reviews the available plans, specifications, and construction records (site-related documentation). These documents, if available, will not only expedite the site inspection, but will facilitate an evaluation that is more accurate and‟ easier to perform. When possible, assemble the site related documentation before the on-site inspection. Summarize the site-related documents in a format that can serve as a checklist to support the on-site inspection. Some of the data items that are useful in most investigations are as follows:  Name, location, type and size of structure  Date constructed  Project engineer, contractor when built

 Concrete supplier  Materials used and sources; test reports  Code requirements that were applicable at the time of design.  Previous inspection reports  Sketch map  Photographs  Exposure conditions  Changes to structure since constructed When any of these items is not available, the inspector must obtain the required information from the plant operators or maintenance personnel, in the course of the on-site inspection. Identify problems As early as possible in his inspection, the inspector should attempt to determine if it is safe to continue to use the structure or if the structure poses a threat to the safety of personnel in the area. If the structure appears to pose a safety hazard, defer the inspection, and notify the proponent immediately. Continue the inspection only after correction of the unsafe or hazardous conditions. The inspector may use a maintenance rating scale to help him decide if the situation is safe or unsafe. The maintenance rating scale also helps the inspector decide what action is required by the condition rating of a structure. Once it is determined that the structure is safe, the inspection can continue. During the preliminary inspection, the inspector records the nature and extent of the observed problems and identifies the “„affected members. Record the frequency and severity of the problems throughout the structure. A walk-through of the structure may be adequate to establish the structure‟s condition. The walk-through is easy to do, quickly carried out, and requires no expensive equipment. The only requirement for the walk-through is adequate illumination of the area to be inspected and some recommended items. The walk-through analysis provides visual documentation and evaluation of the nature and extent of any deterioration, defects or damage. Use photographs to record the level and extent of deterioration. Besides physical damage or deterioration, the inspector will also look for displacement or misalignment of elements, foundation settlement, joint movement, staining, and dampness. Also note the following effects of humidity: condensation, steel corrosion, sulfate attack, and popouts. Unless the proponent identifies only specific areas for inspection, the walkthrough should begin at one end of the structure and proceed in a systematic manner until all surfaces have been viewed. If these surfaces can

be accessed, inspect both the external and internal surfaces of a structure. If possible, photograph the areas of significant distress for later reference. Place a familiar object or scale in the photograph to show the relative size of the included area. Describe each observed problem in clear, concise detail. Avoid generalization unless an observation is common to more than one area. Use threedimensional isometric drawings to show offsets or distortions of structural features, depth of delaminations, location of reinforcement steel, and extent of steel corrosion. Determine Possible Causes During the walk-through, the inspector should not only be aware of the nature and extent of the problems observed, but also of the items that may be responsible for, or contribute to, those problems. It is extremely important that the causes of a problem are properly identified in order to achieve a successful repair. The major causes of concrete problems are the environment, construction practices, materials, structural movement and previous repairs. To help identify the causes of the problem, the inspector should evaluate and record the answers to the questions that are related to:  Environment  Construction Procedure  Materials  Structure  Previous Repairs The inspector should assess all the possible causes of each problem and eliminate the causes that are not probable. Classify the Situation The inspector should classify the severity of the identified problems. Severity classifications include:
   

Light, Medium, Severe, or Very Severe.

These classifications may be determined on the basis of the area affected, the depth affected, the volume of concrete affected, the width of cracks, the total length of cracks in a given area, or other relevant factors. Classify the structural components to pinpoint the critical elements that most urgently need repairs. Use classification techniques to evaluate the changes that occur in the condition of the structure from one inspection to the next. Use this evaluation of change to estimate the rate of deterioration. Identify Rehabilitation Alternatives

Summarize the results of the preliminary inspection in a report that accomplishes the following objectives:
   

Record the nature and extent of the observed problems. Identify the affected members or areas. Estimate or define the causes of the problems. State the requirement for a detailed investigation.

If the preliminary inspection has identified the concrete problems, and a detailed investigation is not required, the report may also state the conclusions and make recommendations for the rehabilitation of the structure. Rehabilitation options can be divided into the following four categories:
   

No repair Cosmetic Repair Structural Repair Replacement

For structures in the “no repair” category, no repairs are required in the immediate future, but the structure should be inspected on a regular basis. Often, the “no repair“ option is overlooked, although this option is frequently the most advisable choice from an economic and functional point of view. If damage is very slight and does not pose a safety hazard, it may be preferable to let the structure continue to deteriorate until repairs are economically feasible or until the structure no longer meets the safety requirements. In some cases, it may be better to let the structure deteriorate to the lowest acceptable service level that is consistent with safety. Situations that would allow the structure to deteriorate include structures that have been damaged extensively and require costly repairs. Another example would be the structures that are old and outdated. When the structure has reached its lowest acceptable service level, it may be repaired, replaced or abandoned. Cosmetic repairs restore the initial appearance of the structure. The repairs may or may not correct the causes of the deterioration of the structure. If the selected repairs do not consider the causes of the original deterioration, the decision will reduce the service life of the repaired areas. For example, a concrete patch made with Type I Portland Cement that is applied to a structure made of Type V Portland Cement will fail if the patch is subjected to sulfates, even though the patch corrects the appearance of the structure.

For structural repairs, replace or repair the distressed sections to restore the structural integrity of the section. Repair or replacement reduces or eliminates the causes of the deterioration. These types of repairs may include surface protection, cathodic protection, chloride extraction, and realkalization. If the damage is very extensive and the repair is expensive, the optimal repair approach may be to demolish the deteriorated section and replace it with a new section. If a section can be formed and cast with ready-mix concrete, it may be cheaper to replace the section than to use shotcrete methods, specialty repair mortars, or hand-applied concrete mixtures. When comparing the costs of alternate repair on a cubic meter or cubic yard basis, repair mortar or concrete mixtures are often 10 to 15 times more expensive than ready-mixed concrete.

Detailed Inspection The following conditions indicate the need for a detailed inspection:  When the information gathered during a preliminary inspection indicates a need for closer examination  When either the inspectors or plant operators note potentially serious deterioration  When there is a plan to increase significantly the loads on a structure  When the condition of the structure has changed significantly since the last inspection A detailed inspection generally involves several tasks which are shown schematically in a flow chart in Figure 3. Field measurements and tests include the following:  Delamination, voids, crack mapping  Corrosion activity/potential mapping  Carbonation  Concrete cover, spacing of rebars  Concrete strength and variability  Concrete quality (other than strength) Various nondestructive test methods are used in the field tests.

Figure 3. General Flow Chart of Inspection Samples are collected from the site to determine various properties of in-situ concrete. Samples are generally in the form of:  cores  broken concrete pieces

 powdered samples extracted by drilling  sawed beams Samples collected from the fields are tested in the laboratory to obtain necessary information which may include:  Compressive strength of concrete  Cement content  Chloride and sulfate content  Permeability  Aggregate type and gradation  Alkali-aggregate reactivity  Density, air voids This section will cover the following specific types of detailed inspections:  Delamination Survey  Crack Survey  Half-Cell Potentials  Pachometer (Cover) Survey  Chloride Content  Moisture Content  Ultrasonic Testing  Rebound Hammer Test  Impact-Echo Test  Concrete Core Extraction and Test

Delamination Survey Delaminations are not usually visible on the concrete surface, but wet stains my indicate delaminations. Sounding is a simple and effective method to identify and locate delamination below the concrete surface. The inspector strikes the surface of a concrete section with an inspector‟s hammer or steel bar to detect planes of delamination. A change in sound near the area of the delamination indicates the presence of delamination. The surface over a defective area emits a “hollow” or “drum-like” sound. A sound area that is not delaminated emits a “ringing” noise. To sound slabs, the inspector drags a heavy steel chain or sections of chain over the slab surface to detect delaminated areas. ASTM D 4580 recommends the sounding procedures to detect delaminations in pavements and slabs. The inspector may also use automatic electromechanical devices and infrared thermography to detect delamination. To conduct a delamination survey, perform the following procedures:
  

Locate the delaminated areas of the concrete structure Outline the delaminated areas in paint or permanent ink Record the delaminated areas on a structural plan or sketch.

The survey may require the removal of some of the delaminated sections to determine the depth of the delamination and the condition of the reinforcement steel. Record all information relevant to the delaminated sections. Crack Survey Cracks are characterized by length, direction, width, and depth. A crack may be active or passive. Active cracks may be caused by variations in atmospheric or internal temperature, changes in moisture content, reinforcement corrosion, chemical reactions, settlement, or various loading conditions. The width of an active crack changes as the magnitude of the cause of the crack changes. For example, an active crack will increase in size (width and depth) as the moisture content of the concrete decreases. When the moisture content of the concrete increases, the width of the crack will diminish. Passive cracks are sometimes called “dormant” or “inactive” cracks. Passive cracks may be caused by construction errors, shrinkage, dead loads, variations in internal temperature, or shock waves. After a passive crack has formed, the size of the crack rarely changes. A good crack survey includes the following steps: Locate all cracks.

Measure or estimate the widths and lengths of all cracks and then record the results. Measure the width of cracks with a crack comparator or crack microscope. Record the size and location of the cracks on a structural plan, grid sheet, or sketch. Label and record the leached or stained cracks separately. Also record sealed cracks. Classify the cracks using the following scale: H (hairline), less than 0.1 mm, N (narrow), 0.1 to 0.3 mm, M (medium), 0.3 to 0.7 mm, or W (wide) greater than 0.7 These letters should be noted beside each crack listed on the sketch. Classify each crack as active (A) or passive (P). The letter “A” should be noted beside each active crack on the grid sheet. It is not necessary to label passive cracks. Always determine the causes of all cracks, if possible, especially the active cracks and cracks that affect the structural integrity of the concrete member. The inspector usually locates the cracks visually. To locate very fine cracks, wet the concrete surface and allow it to dry. Water trapped in the cracks will cause the cracks to appear as dark lines. Locate internal cracks by sounding, impact echo testing, or ultrasonic pulse velocity methods. If there is limited access to certain parts of the structure, remote viewing may be the only way to inspect for cracks. Fiber optic methods (the borescope), periscopes, and video cameras are the tools that the inspector may use for remote viewing. If it is not obvious whether a crack is active or passive, it may be necessary to monitor the crack through the use of one of the following tools:
    

Optical comparator. Glued glass strips (“tell-tale”) Glued in-place crack gauges Electrical transducers (LVDTs) Extensometers.

Make a “tell-tale” of two thin glass or metal strips and position them side-byside over the crack. Bond the two plates on opposite sides of the crack, and make aligned marks across each plate (see Figure 4). Any changes in the distance between these two marks indicate relative movement of the parts separated by the crack. Other methods can be used, as follows:

   

Make a mark at the end of the crack. Progressive cracking causes the crack to extend beyond the mark. Wedge a pin or toothpick into the crack. Extension of the crack causes the pin to loosen and move. Tape a piece of notched tape or paper across the crack. When the crack widens, the tape tears. When the crack narrows, the tape wrinkles. Glue gauge points on opposite sides of the crack. Measure the distance between the gauge with calipers or an extensometer. If this distance changes, the crack is active. The difference in the measurement indicates the amount of movement.

Figure 4. “Tell-tale” Installed over a Crack to Evaluate Movement Half-cell Potential Corrosion of the steel occurs when the passivity of the steel is destroyed by carbonation or by chloride ions. When steel corrodes in concrete, a potential difference develops between the anodic and cathodic areas of the steel. To detect this difference, place a reference cell (copper/copper sulfate halfcell) on the surface of the concrete, and measure the potential difference between the reinforcing steel and the standard reference electrode. Figure 5 shows the test setup. The copper/copper sulfate half-cell is recommended because it is rugged and stable. To locate the reinforcing steel, a structural diagram or a Pachometer can be used. The Half-Cell Potential test is often referred to as the corrosion potential survey. This module uses both terms. Use the corrosion potential survey to measure the “actual” corrosion activity of reinforcing steel. ASTM C 876 specifies the procedures for performing the corrosion potential survey. Mark a grid system on the surface of the concrete. Take the measurements on the grid system.

Figure 5. Test Setup for Potential Measurement Note: The corrosion potential survey should not be carried out on concrete members that contain epoxy-coated reinforcement steel. The epoxy coating will make the results invalid. For accurate results, the concrete should have sufficient moisture to be conductive but no standing water at the time of the corrosion potential survey. The test grid points should be wet when performing the surveys during prolonged dry spells. On exposed concrete decks, the presence of contaminants may influence the measurement results. Therefore, recommend chipping hammers or grinding devices to remove 2 mm (0.08 inch) of concrete from the surface at each grid point. The interpretations of half-cell potential measurements taken with copper/copper sulfate electrodes are as follows: If the potentials over an area are numerically less than -0.20 volts (V), there is a greater than 90% probability that no reinforcing steel corrosion is in progress in that area, at the time of measurement. If the potentials over an area are in the range from -0.20V to -0.35 V, the corrosion activity of the reinforcing steel in that area is uncertain. If potentials over an area are numerically greater than -0.35 V, there is a greater than 90% probability that reinforcing steel corrosion is in process in that area, at the time of measurement. Positive readings usually mean that insufficient moisture is available in the concrete and that the readings are invalid. The half-cell test does not indicate the rate of corrosion, nor can the test detect corrosion in post-tensioned strands or corrosion in discontinuous reinforcing steel. It is often necessary to supplement the half-cell potential measurements with other data, such as, resistivity of concrete, chloride content, depth of carbonation, delamination survey findings, rate of corrosion results, and environmental exposure conditions. These additional tests are needed to formulate solid conclusions relative to corrosion activity of embedded steel and its probable effect on the service life of the structure. Pachometer (Cover) Survey

Inadequate cover of reinforcing steel is one of the primary causes of steel corrosion and subsequent deterioration of the concrete. To establish that the steel is adequately protected, it is necessary to measure the depth of the outer layer above the reinforcing steel. Magnetic devices known as pachometers or covermeters are used to determine the location of embedded steel reinforcement in concrete. If the size of the reinforcement is known, the amount of concrete cover can be determined. The two categories of magnetic equipment that are used to locate reinforcing steel and to measure its size are the handheld pachometer and an automated device that is mounted on wheels. The automated device has a data recording system that can perform rapid measurement over a large area. The hand-held pachometer is used more frequently. A pachometer measures the disturbance in a magnetic field. The magnitude of the disturbance is proportional to the size of the steel reinforcing bar and the distance from the bar to the probe. Pachometers or covermeters can determine the depth of concrete cover to an accuracy of 6 mm (1/4 in.) when the reinforcement steel is at a depth of 0 to 75 mm (0 to 3 in.). The accuracy of these devices is inversely proportional to the amount of reinforcing steel (rebar) that is present in the concrete. The devices are less accurate when they are used to measure more heavily reinforced concrete. In some cases, where the reinforcement is heavily congested, the devices cannot identify either the location of the rebar or the depth of cover. Chloride Content Determination Chloride salts are present, to some extent, in most, if not all, concrete structures. Experts consider an amount of chloride less than about 0.01 per cent chloride ion by weight of concrete to be insignificant in all types of concrete. Higher proportions of chloride are potentially hazardous to embedded metals. The risk of corrosion of the embedded steel increases sharply with the increase of chloride content of the concrete above the threshold limit. The chloride ion content may be determined from powdered concrete samples that are obtained from holes drilled in the concrete or from pulverized concrete cores. Field powder samples are usually taken from the structural members under investigation at various locations and at various depths. At each sample level, the pulverized material is collected and stored in a clean container. The hole should be cleaned (vacuum cleaning is recommended) and the next sample should be drawn at the next desired depth. Samples may be taken at depths of 0 to 12 mm (0 to 0.5 in.), 12 to 25 mm (0.5 to 1.0 in.), 25 to 50 mm (1 to 2 in.), 50 to 75 mm (2 to 3 in.), 75 to 100 mm (3 to 4 in.), and at greater depths. Where deep holes are to be drilled, care must be taken to prevent contamination of the sample from the abrasion of the rotary drill bit against

the sides of the hole. The location and depth of the samples must be recorded. When concrete cores are tested for chloride content, the cores are usually cut into slices of 10 mm (3/8 in.) thick. The chloride content is measured on powdered samples made from alternate 10 mm (3/8 in.) slices taken to a depth of 90 mm (3 in.). Powdered samples should be representative of the depth level that is sampled. They should consist of at least 30 grams of pulverized material that is finer than a 315 µm sieve. The powdered samples are usually analyzed in a laboratory through the use of a standard, wet-chemical method. Laboratory analysis may determine the total chlorides (acid-soluble chlorides) or the water-soluble chlorides in the sample. AASHTO T-260 specifies test procedures for chloride. This standard may be obtained in the Technical Library in the industry standards. Normally, the report presents the result of the chloride analysis as a percentage of chloride ion by weight of concrete. When the cement content of the concrete is known, the report may express the percentage of chloride ion content by weight of cement. To avoid confusion, all reports must specify the basis of the results, whether the weight of concrete or weight of cement. It is also essential that the report clearly specifies the basis of the test method (either acid-soluble or water-soluble). Normally, the acid-soluble chloride content will be higher than the water-soluble chloride content for the same sample. It is usually best to present the chloride test results in tabular form to make it easier to compare chloride levels at different locations and depths. Table 1 presents a sample chloride test summary. Chloride test results may also be presented in a graph that provides a “chloride profile” of chloride content at each depth for each location as shown in Figure 6. “Cast-in”, admixed or original chlorides, will generally have similar chloride concentrations throughout the member (Sample A in Figure 6). In contrast, chlorides that have entered the concrete after the member was cast will have higher concentrations at the surface and lower Itvels further into the member. Table 1. Chloride Content by Weight of Cement Sample Location A B C D E F G 0 -10 0.30 0.38 0.33 1.05 0.30 0.55 Depth, mm 1 0 – 30 0.44 0.71 0.33 1.08 1.50 0.30 0.95 30 – 50 0.65 0.38 0.30 0.94 0.05 0.30 0.05

H Average Maximum Minimum

0.48 1.05 0.30

1.50 0.70 1.50 0.30

0.05 0.34 0.94 0.05

Figure 6. Chloride Content (%) in Cement The chloride content of the concrete will usually be highest adjacent to an external surface (Sample B in Figure 6). Test results that produce an unexpected profile through the thickness of the member should be verified through the use of a duplicate test. Moisture Content Determination The following are some of the reasons why it may be necessary to determine the moisture content of concrete:
  

To assess the probability of steel corrosion, carbonation, alkaliaggregate reaction and chemical attack To determine when coatings, sealers or floor coverings may be applied. To assess the effectiveness of coatings or sealers.

The moisture content of the concrete may be determined through the use of the following:  Oven-drying powdered concrete samples that are obtained from holes drilled in the concrete.

Oven-drying of cores that are taken from the concrete

Moisture meters that operate on the principle that the dielectric properties of concrete change with changes in the moisture content.

A nuclear moisture gauge.

Nuclear moisture meters operate on the principle that materials such as water decrease the speed of fast neutrons in accordance with the amount of hydrogen produced in the test specimen. The nuclear moisture meter must be operated by trained and licensed personnel.

The moisture content of the concrete can be estimated through the measurement of the relative humidity in the concrete. Humidity measurement techniques include relative humidity meters and the HumMeter crystal. Relative humidity meters (electronic hygrometers) are surface gauges that usually give average moisture content to a depth of 100 mm (4 in.). Probes will measure the relative humidity in holes that are drilled in the concrete. The Hum-Meter crystals are inserted into an 18 mm (0.7 in.) hole that is drilled to the required depth and sealed with an airtight connector ring. After eight hours, equilibrium is established between the concrete humidity and the crystals in the probe. A scale that is buried with the crystals changes color in accordance with the degree of humidity. The probe is removed and the relative humidity is read. This meter measures the relative humidity between 40% and 95% RH with an accuracy of 3%. To establish the presence of moisture in concrete, a 1.2 m x 1.2 m (4 x 4 ft.) clear polyethylene sheet is taped to the concrete. If moisture collects under the sheet, one of the quantitative methods discussed previously may be used to determine the actual moisture content. However, inspectors should exercise care in the use of quantitative measurements of moisture content because of the following:

The readings from moisture meters are based on the dielectric properties of the concrete and are influenced by the salt content and temperature of the concrete. The readings from nuclear moisture meters may be influenced by moisture gradients in the concrete, which will cause erroneous measurement results.

Moisture content is reported as the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the mass of water in the concrete sample to the oven-dry weight of the sample. Note: Inspectors should exercise caution in the interpretation of test results. The test results are easily misrepresented

Inspection of Concrete Structures- II
Ultrasonic Testing (Pulse Velocity Test) An ultrasonic test measures the velocity of an ultrasonic pulse through a concrete member or sample. Listed below are the reasons for using ultrasonic testing:
 

Assess the uniformity and relative quality of the concrete. Indicate the presence of cracks and voids.

 Estimate the depth of a well formed crack that may be present in the concrete.  Indicate changes in the concrete properties that may take place between successive ultrasonic tests.

Estimate the severity of cracking or deterioration (measured as part of the condition survey of a concrete structure). Assess the filling of cracks that have been epoxy injected.

Pulse velocity tests measure the transit time of an ultrasonic pulse between two transducers, a transmitter and a receiver. The velocity of the pulse can be determined from the transit time and the distance between the transmitter and the receiver. The equation for the calculation of pulse velocity is:

Pulse Velocity = ASTM C 597 specifies the procedures for measuring ultrasonic pulse velocity. The pulse velocity measurement set consists of a pulse generator, a transmitter, a receiver, an amplifier, a circuit that measures the elapsed time, a time display unit, and connecting cables. Note that the pulse generator, receiver, amplifier, timing circuit, and time display unit are all incorporated in the velocity meter shown in the schematic diagram of the pulse velocity measurement set (Figure 7).

Figure 7. Pulse Velocity Measurement Setup

Figure 8. Type of Measurement There are three ways in which the transducers may be arranged, as shown in Figure 8: (a) direct transmission through opposite faces (b) semi-direct transmission through adjacent faces (c) indirect transmission at the same face. Since the maximum pulse velocity is transmitted at right angles to the face of the transmitter, the direct method is the most reliable from the point of view of transmit time measurement. Also, the path is clearly defined and can be measured accurately, and this approach should be used wherever possible for assessing concrete quality. The semi-direct method can sometimes be used satisfactorily if the angle between the transducers is not too great, and if the path length „is not large. The disadvantage of this transmission is that the path length is less clearly defined. It is generally regarded as adequate to take this from center to center of transducer faces. The indirect method (Figure 8c) is definitely the least satisfactory, since the received signal amplitude may be less than 3% that for a comparable direct transmission. The received signal is dependent upon scattering of the pulse discontinuities and is thus highly subject to errors. The pulse velocity will be predominantly influenced by the surface zone concrete, which may not be representative of the body, and the exact path length is uncertain. The following procedure is necessary to account for this lack of precision of path length:

a series of readings with the transmitter fixed and the receiver being located at a series of fixed stations along a chosen line (Figure 9). The results are plotted and the mean pulse velocity is given by the slope of the best straight line through the data points.

Figure 9. Indirect Pulse Velocity Measurement The velocity of the sound waves through the concrete is reduced by the presence of voids or cracks. The transit velocity is also influenced by the density of the concrete, moisture content, amount of aggregate, and presence of reinforcing steel. If the reinforcement steel runs parallel to the direction of wave propagation, the ultrasonic pulse will travel through the steel at a velocity that is 1.2 to 1.9 times greater than the pulse velocity in concrete. The increased pulse velocity in the reinforcement steel will reduce the time required for the pulse to travel between the transmitter and the receiver, indicating an inaccurate pulse velocity by the test set. Proper interpretation of pulse velocity results requires a high level of expertise and should not be attempted without adequate training. When a pulse velocity method is used to evaluate the filling of cracks by epoxy injection, the equipment should be calibrated on an uncracked section of concrete. The transducers are then placed at a given distance on either side of the injected crack and the readings are taken at several locations. Readings that are taken along the crack, are compared to the calibration readings of the uncracked concrete. A properly repaired crack (one that is completely filled with epoxy) will show a transit velocity equal to the uncracked section. If the velocity readings along the crack are lower than the calibration velocity, the crack has not been completely filled, and it may be necessary to reinject the crack. Rebound Hammer Test The rebound hammer test (also known as the Schmidt rebound hammer) measures the hardness of a concrete surface through the use of the rebound principle. The rebound principle states that the amount (distance) that an

elastic mass rebounds after impact depends on the hardness of the surface against which the mass strikes The results of the rebound hammer test are used for the following purposes:
 

To assess uniformity of in-situ (in-place) concrete. To outline zones or regions (areas) of poor quality or deteriorated concrete in structures.

 To indicate strength development in concrete. Although there is a general correlation between compressive strength of concrete and hammer rebound number (numerical result of the rebound hammer test), experts disagree over the accuracy of the strength estimates that are derived from the rebound number. It should be remembered that the rebound hammer test is not a substitute for the standard compressive strength test on concrete specimens. Several types and sizes of rebound hammers are commercially available to test various sizes and types of concrete construction. Some hammers contain devices to record the rebound numbers. Figure 10 shows one type of the rebound hammer and its parts. Test areas for rebound hammer tests must be at least 150 mm (6 in.) in diameter. Heavily-textured surfaces, soft surfaces, or surfaces with loose mortar must be ground smooth before they can be tested. Smooth-formed or trowelled surfaces are to be tested without grinding. The hammer is held against the concrete in a perpendicular position, as shown in Figure 11. ASTM C 805 specifies the procedures for determining rebound numbers. In the rebound hammer test, a spring-loaded steel strikes a steel plunger in contact with the concrete surface. The spring-loaded hammer travels with a fixed and reproducible velocity. The distance that the steel hammer rebounds from the steel plunger is measured by a linear scale attached to the frame of the instrument. The rebound distance is reported as the rebound number, or R-value recorded to two significant figures.

Figure 10. Rebound Hammer and its parts

Figure 11. Rebound Hammer in Use The test is sensitive to local variations in the concrete quality. For instance, the presence of a void under the plunger would result in a very low rebound number. The presence of a large piece of aggregate under the plunger would result in an excessively high rebound number. Because of the sensitivity of the indicated rebound number to local variations in concrete quality, it has been suggested that at least 16 readings be taken in a 0.09 square meter (1 square foot) area. The three highest and three lowest readings should be discarded, and the remaining ten readings should be averaged to yield the average rebound number. All rebound numbers should be recorded, and the average rebound number should be calculated for each test area. Rebound numbers may be recorded in a tabular form or as a histogram. If the readings are to be compared, the direction of impact (e.g., horizontal, upward, downward, or angled) must be the same for all readings. Figure 12 shows the recorded readings from a series of rebound hammer tests.

Figure 12. Record of the Results of a Rebound Test Although the rebound hammer test is a quick and inexpensive way to check the relative quality of concrete, it has several limitations. The user should be aware of these limitations when he evaluates the test results. Some of the factors that affect the results of rebound hammer tests are as follows:
      

Smoothness of the concrete surface. Age and type of-concrete. Surface and internal moisture condition of the concrete. Type of coarse aggregate. Carbonation of the concrete surface. Direction of impact. Temperature of the rebound hammer.

Impact-Echo Test Impact-echo tests are used to detect the following concrete defects:
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Cracks. The depth of cracks that appear on the surface .of the concrete. Voids. Delaminations. Honeycombs. Voids below reinforcing steel.

Rusting reinforcing steel in concrete (to a maximum depth of about 2 meters (6.5 feet).

The equipment can also be used to measure the thickness of concrete and to estimate the concrete‟s compressive strength. The impact-echo test hardware consists of the following:
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A lightweight housing that contains a selection of impactors and a receiving transducer. A portable computer that receives, stores, and analyzes the test signal. An artificial intelligence software analyzes the signal and predicts the probability and depth of the defects.

Figure 13 is a schematic diagram of the test system.

Figure 13. Impact – Echo Test System A mechanical impact on the surface sends a short duration stress pulse into the structure under test. The waves that are reflected by the defects in the concrete, such as the void in Figure 13 or external boundaries, are received by a transducer and sent to the computer. The reflective waves are transformed into a frequency spectrum by the computer, which displays the results on the screen.The system takes less than two seconds to acquire and process each reading. Because the impact-echo test is a single-point measurement technique, a series of readings must be taken to ensure that a comprehensive set of data is obtained. Although the equipment is comparatively easy to use, significant expertise is needed to interpret the test results accurately. Operators should have considerable training in the use of the impact-echo test equipment and in the conduct of inspections of concrete structures. The knowledge of electronics is also helpful. Concrete Core Extraction The size of the cores that are taken from the concrete structure for test purposes will depend on the aggregate size and, in some cases, on the accessibility of the structure. The procedures that should be used to obtain

concrete cores are specified in ASTM C 42, Standard Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete. However, a core diameter of at least 75 mm (3 in.) is generally required, although 100 mm (4 in.) would be the preferred minimum. The selection of the area to be sampled should be based on previous nondestructive testing and should include both sound and deteriorated areas. The number of cores needed for analysis is a function of the surface area and the size of the structure under investigation. The investigating engineer should pre-plan the exact drilling locations. Review and modify the plan, as necessary, as the drilling progresses. Use a pachometer to avoid damage to the top mat of steel during the coring process. Exercise care not to take the cores through prestressing steel, utility ducts, embedded cathodic protection components (such as cables), or areas immediately above or below bearings. The cores should be long enough to carry out the required tests and should extend below the top mat of reinforcing steel. If the concrete is in poor condition, the core may become fragmented as it is drilled. In such cases, identify each fragment with respect to its orientation so that the fragments can be pieced together later for laboratory analysis. Sketches are preferred for identifications of the origin of fragments. Assign each a number to identify its location in the structure. Carefully transport the cores to the laboratory to avoid shipping damage. Examine the inside of the core hole carefully for horizontal cracks and assess the condition of the concrete. Record the condition of any rebar found inside of the hole. Clean the sides of the hole, and remove any water. To repair core holes, tamp a stiff mixture of approved concrete repair material into the hole in layers until the top of the filler material is leveled with the concrete surface. If removing the specimens from holes drilled downward and perpendicular to a horizontal surface, recommend the use of a shot drill. For the specimens that follow, the preferred drilling tool is a diamond-bit core barrel mounted on specially built drilling equipment:  For holes drilled in other directions.

For cases in which the specimen diameters are to be accurately measured, such as for compressive strength determinations.

In some cases, large pieces of concrete may be sawed from the structure through the use of diamond-tipped saw blades. Cores are extracted from these pieces of concrete in a laboratory through the use of diamond-bit core barrels. Examine each core visually, and record the following information on a core log data sheet:

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Identification of the core and its location in the structure Dimensions of the core Location of cracks, rebar, or deleterious material. Description of the concrete appearance Depth of the hole drilled Other observations, such as concrete coating, topping, and repair area

Tests on Concrete Core Examination of small-diameter cores that are obtained from selected areas of a structure can provide valuable information on the quality of concrete and on any changes that may have occurred in the course of its service life Concrete cores may be tested to determine the strength of the in-place concrete. The compressive strengths of core samples are required to analyze the structural capacity and condition of a structure. ASTM C 42 contains the required procedures and the equipment to test concrete core. Information that can be obtained from lab analysis of concrete cores includes the following:
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Compressive strength Density Absorption Water permeability Chloride content and sulfate content Cement content Pulse velocity Rapid chloride permeability Formation and composition of the concrete (Petrographic Analysis).

The strength of a core is influenced by the core‟s length-to-diameter ratio, moisture content, location in walls and columns, and the presence of reinforcing steel in the core. Give appropriate consideration to the following factors when evaluating test results:
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Core diameter Length of the specimen before and after it is capped. Moisture condition at the time of the test Nominal maximum size of aggregate

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Direction of application of load on the specimen with respect to the horizontal plane of the concrete, as placed Compressive strength, expressed to the nearest 69 kPa (10 psi)

Use the density or specific gravity of concrete to assess the following:
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Uniformity of the concrete in the structure. Conformance with concrete specifications. Variations in compressive strength.

ASTM C 642 specifies the required procedures and the equipment to measure the specific gravity of concrete. To determine the specific gravity of a concrete core, the core is weighed in air and underwater. The core‟s density is equal to the difference between the core‟s weights in air and in water divided by the core‟s weight in air. The formula for this calculation is as follows: dc = where: dc = core density Wa = core weight in air Ww = core weight in water The concrete density (or specific gravity) test report should include the following items:
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Moisture condition of the core Weight of the core in air Weight of the core when it is submerged in water Calculated core density, expressed in kg/m3 (lb/ft3)

The density measurements are used to determine the following:
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Uniformity of the concrete Conformance with specification Variations in strength

Absorption is the process by which a liquid is drawn into and fills the permeable pores in a porous solid. The absorption rate is the amount of water absorbed and expressed as a percent. The test for the absorption rates is specified in ASTM C 642. Use the absorption rate of a core to assess the following:
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Uniformity of the concrete in the structure Volume of pore space in the concrete Susceptibility to aggressive solutions

ASTM C 642 contains the required procedures and equipment to test core absorption. To measure core absorption, the concrete core is first dried until the weight ceases to change with additional drying time. The core is then submerged in water at approximately 21°C (70°F) for not less than 48 hours. (As an alternative to the second step, the core can be placed in boiling water for five hours.) After the immersion period, the core is surface dried with a towel and weighed. The core‟s absorption value is equal to the difference between the weights of the surface-dried core and the oven-dried core divided by the weight of the oven-dried core. The formula for this calculation is as follows: ac = where: ac = core absorption value Ws = weight of the surface-dried core Wo = weight of the oven-dried core The absorption test report should include the following items:
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Oven-dry weight. Surface-dry weight after immersion (or surface-dry weight after the core is boiled). Absorption (%).

Permeability is defined as either of the following:
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The amount of water migration through concrete when the water is under pressure; or, The ability of concrete to resist penetration by water or other substances (e.g., liquid, gas, and ions).

Concrete used in structures that must retain water, or structures that are exposed to weather or other severe conditions must be virtually impermeable (watertight). The watertight property of concrete is defined as the ability of the concrete to hold back or retain water without visible leakage. Generally the same properties of concrete that make it less permeable also make it more watertight. The overall permeability of concrete to water is a function of the permeability of the paste, the permeability and gradation of the aggregate, and the relative proportion of paste to aggregate. Decreased permeability improves the concrete‟s resistance to resaturation, sulfate and other chemical attack, and chloride ion penetration. Use water permeability values to assess the following:
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The water tightness of the concrete. Concrete mix proportions Susceptibility to aggressive solutions

US Army Corps of Engineers publications, CRD-C48 and CRD-C 163, contain the required procedures and equipment to test concrete permeability. Permeability of mature, good quality concrete is approximately equal to 1X10-10 cm/s. To test concrete permeability, concrete cores, or slices from the concrete cores, are placed in a test apparatus and are subjected to a water pressure of 1.38 MPa (200 psi) until flow through the specimen becomes essentially constant. It usually takes between 14 and 20 days for the flow to become constant. The water that passes through the sample is collected, and the water volume is recorded. The rate of flow is equal to the volume of collected water (expressed in cubic centimeters or cubic inches) divided by the period of time over which the water was collected (expressed in hours). The following formula can be used to calculate the rate: r= where: r = Rate of flow V = Volume of water collected

T = Time period that water was collected The coefficient of permeability can then be calculated by using Darcy‟s equation. Concrete permeability test reports should contain the following items:
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Characteristics of the concrete The age at which the specimens were tested Values of permeability for each specimen Average values for groups of similar specimens Observations of any unusual features of the test procedure

The risk of corrosion to the reinforcing steel that is embedded in concrete is proportional to the chloride content of the concrete. Chloride ion concentration in concrete is measured to assess this risk. This procedure was previously covered in the topic Chloride Content Determination. These are the main topics of concern in chloride content determination:
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Cores sliced. Slices pulverized. Powdered samples tested. Test and reporting procedures are the same as for powdered field samples.

Chloride permeability of concrete (the ability of concrete to resist penetration of chloride ions) can be determined through the use of tests of concrete cores or slices from concrete cores. AASHTO T-277 and ASTM C1202 contain the required procedures and equipment to measure chloride permeability. The rapid chloride permeability test measures the amount of electrical current that is passed through a 95 mm (3.75 in.) diameter by 50 mm (2 in.) high core specimen when one end of the core is immersed in sodium chloride solution and when a potential difference of 60 V dc is maintained across the specimen for six hours. The total charge that is passed (in Coulombs) is related to chloride permeability. Some doubts have been expressed about the usefulness of the rapid chloride test. The main criticism is that the measurement conditions are severe and may cause both physical and chemical changes in the concrete specimen, which result in unrealistic results. Care must be taken when the results of this test are interpreted, particularly when the test is used on surfacetreated concrete specimens. The risk of corrosion of embedded steel also increases proportionally as the chloride permeability of the concrete increases. Therefore, the chloride permeability of concrete is often measured to assess this risk using the rapid chloride permeability test. The test results are also used for the following reasons:

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Specification acceptance Design purposes Service evaluation Research and development

Petrographic analysis is a detailed microscopic examination of hardened concrete to determine the formation and composition of the concrete and to classify the concrete type, condition, and serviceability. The petrographic examination attempts to answer the following general questions: What is the concrete composition? How is the concrete put together? ASTM C 856 specifies the required procedures and equipment necessary to perform petrographic examination. The petrographic examinations can be used for the following purposes:
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Detailed determination of the condition of the concrete. Determine the causes of inferior quality, distress, or deterioration of the concrete. Determine the probable future performance of the concrete. Determine whether the concrete in a structure did or did not conform to specifications. Provide a description of the cementitious matrix. Determine whether alkali-silica reactions, alkali-carbonate reactions, cement-aggregate reactions, or reactions between contaminants have taken place and what effects these reactions may have had upon the concrete. Determine whether the concrete has been subjected to and affected by sulfate attack or other chemical attack. Inclusion as part of a survey of the safety of a structure for a present or proposed use. Determine whether the given concrete that has been subjected to fire is essentially undamaged or whether this concrete has been moderately or severely damage_. Investigate the performance of an aggregate. Determine the factors that caused a given concrete to serve satisfactorily in the environment to which it was exposed.

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Determine the presence and nature of surface treatments, such as dry shake applications on concrete floors.

Petrographic examinations should be conducted exclusively by persons who are qualified by experience and education to operate the test equipment and to record and interpret the results. To perform the petrographic examination, a surface of the concrete core or a surface of a slice from a concrete core is polished or, etched. The specimens are examined under a stereomicroscope, a polarizing microscope, or a metallographic microscope. Physical and chemical tests may also be made on the specimens. The report of the petrographic examination should include the following items:
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Location and orientation of the concrete samples in the structure. History of the sample, if available. Physical and chemical tests made on the samples, together with the test results. Description of the samples. Interpretation of the nature of the materials and of the chemical and physical events that have led to the success or distress of the concrete.

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Carbonation Test Carbonation in concrete is caused by chemical reaction between atmospheric acidic gases (such as carbon dioxide) and the products of cement hydration. The reaction results in significant reduction in pH value of the pore solution due to removal of hydroxyl ions. Apart from the presence of higher level of acidic gases, factors influencing the carbonation of concrete include concrete mix design, curing, moisture condition and high temperature. As carbonation of concrete destroys the passivity of steel, concrete becomes highly vulnerable to corrosion of reinforcement. Carbonation of concrete can be detected by using a suitable liquid which reacts with alkali but not acid. Commonly used liq1Jlid is phenolphthalein. If the spraying of phenolphthalein over the concrete body shows: purple color no or negligible carbonation (concrete in alkaline state) no coloration carbonation (concrete becomes acidic) To determine the depth of carbonation, a broken piece of concrete across the thickness or a core is used. The depth of no coloration indicates the depth of carbonation.

CONDITIONS THAT MAY LEAD TO A STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT Evaluation is defined as the process that determines the structural adequacy of a structure or a component for its intended use. Evaluation, by its nature, implies the use of personal judgment by those qualified as experts. Because these experts must ultimately take professional responsibility for the evaluation, the requirements for evaluation cannot be standardized. Structural evaluation of reinforced concrete structures should only be carried out by professional engineers or structural specialists. Some of the conditions that could be encountered in a preliminary or detailed inspection that should lead to a structural evaluation include the following:
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Major cracking Loss of section Excessive deflection Lateral or vertical movement. Out of plumb Change in loading

Major Cracking Major cracking is defined as cracks that pass completely through a structural member or cracks which are significantly wide. In structures that contain water or other liquids, these cracks will enable the contained fluid to leak. Loss of Section For concrete to function effectively as an element that carries some of the structural load, it must have adequate compressive strength and adequate cross-sectional size. Cross-sectional size contributes to member stiffness. A loss of section caused by disintegration of the concrete, steel corrosion, fire, or impact will affect both the element‟s capacity to carry load and the protection offered to the reinforcing steel. Deflection Deflections of beams, floors, and columns are usually caused by loadings and foundation settlement or heaving. Deflections caused by overloads usually result in identifiable crack patterns. Excessive deflections may seriously affect the structural integrity of the structure. Lateral or Vertical Movement Lateral or vertical movement in a structure may be caused by foundation settlement or heaving, changes in the active or passive soil pressures, impact, or overloads. Cracking is always associated with the movement. Out of Plumb A concrete member may become out of plumb because of lateral or vertical movement of the structure. Other forces that can cause a concrete member

to be out of plumb are impact or overloads. Plumbness may be checked with a carpenter‟s level, plumb bob, or a surveyor‟s transit. Change in Load The assumed load on a structure consists of the following basic components:
 

Dead loads Superimposed loads (e.g., live loads, wind loads, and earthquakes)

Dead loads change very little after a structure has been built, unless the structure is modified. Live loads involve weights, such as furniture and its contents, storage, people, vehicles, equipment, oil, and water. Superimposed loads may exceed the values assumed in the design of the structure. Significant increases in superimposed loads can lead to major cracking, increase in deflection, and complete collapse or failure.

GLOSSARY absorption The process by which a liquid is drawn into and tends to fill the permeable pores in a porous solid. active crack A crack that undergoes changes in width and/or length with time. alkali-aggregate reaction The reaction between the alkalis (sodium and potassium) that are in Portland cement and certain siliceous rocks and minerals (such as opaline, chert, strained quartz, and acidic volcanic glass) that are „present in some aggregates. The products of the reaction may cause concrete in service to crack or expand abnormally. carbonation The reaction between atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and a hydroxide or oxide to form a carbonate, especially in cement paste, mortar, or concrete. Carbonation of concrete is the reaction of CO2 with calcium compounds produced by the cement hydration to produce calcium carbonate. chloride content The amount of chloride ion in a powdered concrete sample, usually expressed as a percentage by weight of concrete or of cement. compressive strength The measured maximum resistance of a concrete or mortar specimen to axial compressive loads, expressed as force per unit cross-sectional area. It is the specified resistance used in design calculations. delamination A separation along a plane parallel to a surface, as in the separation of a coating from a substrate or as in the separation of the layers of a coating from each other. In the case of a concrete slab, a horizontal splitting, cracking, or separation of a slab in a plane roughly parallel to and generally near the upper surface. density Mass per unit volume, usua1ly expressed in kilograms per cubic meter or pounds per cubic foot.

map cracking Cracks that intersect and exteAd below the surface of hardened concrete. Map cracking is caused by shrinkage of the drying surface concrete, which is restrained by concrete at greater depths at which little or no shrinkage occurs. Map cracks vary in width from fine and barely visible to open and well defined. oven-dry The condition that results when a sample has been dried to essentially constant mass in an oven at a temperature that – has been fixed, usually between 105°C and 115°C (221°F and 239°F). passive crack A crack that does not change in width and/or length. Passive cracks are sometimes called “dormant” or “inactive” cracks. passivity The ability of steel to remain neutral and not to react with outside influences such as chemicals, water or gases. petrographic analysis A detailed microscopic examination of hardened concrete to determine the formation and composition of the concrete and to classify the type, condition, and serviceability of the concrete. scaling Local flaking or peeling away of the near-surface portion of hardened concrete or mortar. It is the flaking or peeling of a layer from metal. shrinkage A decrease in either length or volume that may be restricted to effects of moisture content or chemical changes. siliceous A material that contains silica or a silicate. sounding A test for delamination in which the surface of the concrete is struck by a hammer or steel bar and in which the change in sound emitted from the concrete is noted. soundness The freedom of a solid from cracks, flaws, fissures, or variations from an accepted standard. In the case of cement, soundness is the freedom from excessive volume change after the cement is set. In the case of aggregate, soundness is the ability to withstand the aggressive action (particularly the action due to weather conditions) to which the concrete that contains the aggregate is exposed to. Spall A fragment, usually in the shape of a flake, that has been detached from a larger mass by a blow, the action of the weather, pressure, or expansion within _e larger mass. sulfate attack Either a chemical reaction or a physical reaction (or both) that occurs between sulfates (usually in soil or ground water) and concrete or mortar. tell-tale Any device that is used to indicate the movement of a crack

CAUSES AND CONTROL OF CRACKS IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES
CAUSES AND CONTROL OF CRACKING Introduction This post presents a brief summary of the causes of cracks and means for their control. Cracks are categorized as occurring either in plastic concrete or hardened concrete. Cracking of plastic concrete

Plastic shrinkage cracking-”Plastic shrinkage cracking (Fig. 1.1) occurs when subjected to a very rapid loss of moisture caused by a combination of factors which include air and concrete temperatures, relative humidity, and wind velocity at the surface of the concrete. These factors can combine to cause high rates of surface evaporation in either hot or cold weather.” When moisture evaporates from the surface of freshly placed concrete faster than it is replaced by bleed water, the surface concrete shrinks. Since plastic shrinkage cracking is due to a differential volume change in the plastic concrete, successful control measures require a reduction in the relative volume change between the surface and other portions of the concrete. These measures include the use of fog nozzles to saturate the air above the surface and the use of plastic sheeting to cover the surface between finishing operations.

Settlement cracking – After initial placement, vibration, and finishing, concrete has a tendency to continue to consolidate. During this period, the plastic concrete may be locally restrained by reinforcing steel, a prior concrete placement, or formwork. This local restraint may result in voids and/or cracks adjacent to the restraining element (Fig. 1.2). When associated with reinforcing steel, settlement cracking increases with increasing bar size, increasing slump, and decreasing cover (Dakhil et al. 1975). The use of the lowest possible slump, and an increase in concrete cover will reduce settlement cracking.

Cracking of hardened concrete

Drying shrinkage-A common cause of cracking in concrete is restrained drying shrinkage. Drying shrinking is caused by the loss of moisture from the cement paste constituent, which can shrink by as much as 1 percent. Fortunately, aggregate provides internal restraint that reduces the magnitude of this volume change to about 0.06 percent. On wetting, concrete tends to expand. These moistureinduced volume changes are a characteristic of concrete. If the shrinkage of concrete could take place without restraint, the concrete would not crack. The higher the water content, the greater the amount of drying shrinkage (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation 1975). Drying shrinkage can be reduced by increasing the amount of aggregate and reducing the water content.

Thermal stresses-Temperature differences within a concrete structure may be caused by portions of the structure losing heat of hydration at different rates or by the weather conditions cooling or heating one portion of the structure to a different degree or at a different rate than another portion of the structure. These temperature differences result in differential volume changes. When the tensile stresses due to the differential volume changes exceed the tensile stress capacity, concrete will crack. Cracking in mass concrete can result from a greater temperature on the interior than on the exterior. Procedures to help reduce thermally-induced cracking include reducing the maximum internal temperature, delaying the onset of cooling, controlling the rate at which the concrete cools, and increasing the tensile strength of the concrete. Chemical reaction-Deleterious chemical reactions may cause cracking of concrete. These reactions may be due to materials used to make the concrete or materials that come into contact with the concrete after it has hardened. Some general concepts for reducing adverse chemical reactions are presented here, but only pretesting of the mixture or extended field experience will determine the effectiveness of a specific measure. Concrete may crack with time as the result of slowly developing expansive reactions between aggregate containing active silica and alkalies derived from cement hydration, admixtures, or external sources (e.g., curing water, ground water, alkaline solutions stored or used in the finished structure.) The alkalisilica reaction results in the formation of a swelling gel, which tends to draw water from other portions of the concrete. This causes local expansion and accompanying tensile stresses, and may eventually result in the complete deterioration of the structure. Weathering-The weathering processes that can cause cracking include freezing and thawing, wetting, drying, heating and cooling. Cracking of concrete due to natural weathering is usually conspicuous, and it may give the impression that the concrete is on the verge of disintegration, even though the deterioration may not have progressed much below the surface. Damage from freezing and thawing is the most common weather-related physical deterioration. Concrete is best protected against freezing and thawing through the use of the lowest practical water cement ratio and total water content, durable aggregate and adequate air entrainment. Adequate curing prior to exposure to freezing conditions is also important. Allowing the structure to dry after curing will enhance its freezing and thawing durability. Other weathering processes that may cause cracking in concrete are alternate wetting and drying, and heating and cooling.

Both processes produce volume changes that may cause cracking. If the volume changes are excessive, cracks may occur.

Corrosion of reinforcement-Corrosion of a metal is an electrochemical process that requires an oxidizing agent, moisture, and electron flow within the metal; a series of chemical reactions takes place on and adjacent to the surface of the metal (ACI 201.2R). The key to protecting metal from corrosion is to stop or reverse the chemical reactions. This may be done by cutting off the supplies of oxygen or moisture or by supplying excess electrons at the anodes to prevent the formation of the metal ions (cathodic protection). Reinforcing steel usually does not corrode in concrete because a tightly adhering protective oxide coating forms in the highly alkaline environment. This is known as passive protection. Reinforcing steel may corrode, however, if the alkalinity of the concrete is reduced through carbonation or if the passivity of this steel is destroyed by aggressive ions (usually chlorides). Corrosion of the steel produces iron oxides and hydroxides, which have a volume much greater than the volume of the original metallic iron (Verbeck 1975). This increase in volume causes high radial bursting stresses around reinforcing bars and results in local radial cracks. These splitting cracks can propagate along the bar, resulting in the formation of longitudinal cracks (i.e., parallel to the bar) or spalling of the concrete. A broad crack may also form at a plane of bars parallel to a concrete surface, resulting in delamination, a well-known problem in bridge decks. Cracks provide easy access for oxygen, moisture, and chlorides, and thus, minor splitting cracks can create a condition in which corrosion and cracking are accelerated. Cracks transverse to reinforcement usually do not cause continuing corrosion of the reinforcement if the concrete has low permeability. This is due to the fact that the exposed portion of a ba.r at a crack acts as an anode. At early ages, the wider the crack, the greater the corrosion, simply because a greater portion of the bar has lost its passive protection. However, for continued corrosion to occur, oxygen and moisture must be supplied to other portions of the same bar or bars that are electrically connected by direct contract or through hardware such as chair supports. If the combination of density and cover thickness is adequate to restrict the flow of oxygen and moisture, then the corrosion process is self sealing (Verbeck 1975). Corrosion can continue if a longitudinal crack forms parallel to the reinforcement, because passivity is lost at many locations, and oxygen and moisture are readily available along the full length of the crack. Other causes of longitudinal cracking, such as high bond stresses, transverse tension (for example, along stirrups or along slabs with two-way tension), shrinkage, and settlement, can initiate corrosion.

For general concrete construction, the best protection against corrosion-induced splitting is the use of concrete with low permeability and adequate cover. Increased concrete cover over the reinforcing is effective in delaying the corrosion process and also in resisting the splitting and spalling caused by corrosion or transverse tension (Gergely 1981; Beeby 1983). In the case of large bars and thick covers, it may be necessary to add small transverse reinforcement (while maintaining the minimum cover requirements) to limit splitting and to reduce the surface crack width (ACI 345R). In very severe exposure conditions, additional protective measures may be required A number of options are available, such as coated reinforcement, sealers or overlays on the concrete, corrosion-inhibiting admixtures, and cathodic protection (NCHRP Synthesis 57). Any procedure that effectively prevents access of oxygen and moisture to the steel surface or reverses the electron flow at the anode will protect the steel. In most cases, concrete must be allowed to breathe, that is any concrete surface treatment must allow water to evaporate from the concrete.

Poor construction practices-A wide variety of poor construction practices can result in cracking in concrete structures. Foremost among these is the common practice of adding water to concrete to improve workability. Added water has the effect of reducing strength, increasing settlement, and increasing drying shrinkage. When accompanied by a higher cement content to help offset the decrease in strength, an increase in water content will also mean an increase in the temperature differential between the interior and exterior portions of the structure, resulting in increased thermal stresses and possible cracking. By adding cement, even if the water-cement ratio remains constant, more shrinkage will occur since the relative paste volume is increased. Lack of curing will increase the degree of cracking within a concrete structure. The early termination of curing will allow for increased shrinkage at a time when the concrete has low strength. The lack of hydration of the cement, due to drying, will result not only in decreased long-term strength, but also in the reduced durability of the structure. Other construction problems that may cause cracking are inadequate formwork supports, inadequate consolidation and placement of construction joints at points of high stress. Lack of support for forms or inadequate consolidation can result in settlement and cracking of the concrete before it has developed sufficient strength to support its own weight, while the improper location of construction joints can result in the joints opening at these points of high stress. Methods to prevent cracking due to these and other poor construction procedures are well known (see ACI 224R, ACI 302.1R, ACI 304R, ACI

305R, ACI 308, ACI 309R, ACI 345R, and ACI 347R), but require special attention during construction to insure their proper execution.

Construction overloads-Loads induced during construction can often be far more severe than those experienced in service. Unfortunately, these conditions may occur at early ages when the concrete is most susceptible to damage and they often result in permanent cracks. Precast members, such as beams and panels, are most frequently subject to this abuse, but cast-in-place concrete can also be affected. A common error occurs when precast members are not properly supported during transport and erection. The use of arbitrary or convenient lifting points may cause severe damage. Lifting eyes, pins, and other attachments should be detailed or approved by the designer. When lifting pins are impractical, access to the bottom of a member must be provided so that a strap may be used. The PCI Committee on Quality Control Performance Criteria (1985, 1987) provides additional information on the causes, prevention and repair of cracking related to fabrication and shipment of precast or prestressed beams, columns, hollow core slabs and double tees. Operators of lifting devices must exercise caution and be aware that damage may be caused even when the proper lifting accessories are used. A large beam or panel lowered too fast, and stopped suddenly, results in an impact load that may be several times the dead weight of the member. Another common construction error that should be avoided is prying up one corner of a panel to lift it off its bed or “break it loose.” When considering the support of a member for shipment, the designer must be aware of loads that may be induced during transportation. Some examples that occur during shipment of large precast members via tractor and trailer are jumping curbs or tight highway corners, torsion due to differing roadway superelevations between the trailer and the tractor, and differential acceleration of the trailer and the tractor. Pretensioned beams can present unique cracking problems at the time of stress release-usually when the beams are less than one day old. Multiple strands must be detensioned following a specific pattern, so as not to place unacceptable eccentric loads on the member. If all of the strands on one side of the beam are released while the strands on the other side are still stressed, cracking may occur on the side with the unreleased strands. These cracks are undesirable, but should close with the release of the balance of the strands. In the case of a T-beam with a heavily reinforced flange and a highly prestressed thin web, cracks may develop at the web-flange junction. Another practice that can result in cracks near beam ends is tack welding embedded bearing plates to the casting bed to hold them in place during concrete placement. The tack welds are broken only after enough prestress is

induced during stress transfer to break them. Until then, the bottom of the beam is restrained while the rest of the beam is compressed. Cracks will form near the bearing plates if the welds are too strong. Thermal shock can cause cracking of steam-cured concrete if it is treated improperly. The maximum rate of cooling frequently used is 70 F (40 C) per hour (ACI 517.2R; Verbeck 1958; Shideler and Toennies 1963; Kirkbride 1971b). When brittle aggregate is used and the strain capacity is low, the rate of cooling should be decreased. Even following this practice, thermally induced cracking often occurs. Temperature restrictions should apply to the entire beam, not just locations where temperatures are monitored. If the protective tarps used to contain the heat are pulled back for access to the beam ends when cutting the strands, and if the ambient temperatures are low, thermal shock may occur. Temperature recorders are seldom located in these critical areas. Similar conditions and cracking potential exist with precast blocks, curbs, and window panels when a rapidsurface temperature drop occurs. It is believed by many (ACI 517.2R; Mansfield 1948; Nurse 1949; Higginson 1961; Jastnebski 1961; Butt et al. 1969; Kirkbride 1971a; Concrete Institute of Australia 1972; PCI Energy Committee 1981) that rapid cooling may cause cracking only in the surface layers of very thick units and that rapid cooling is not detrimental to the strength or durability of standard precast products (PCI Energy Committee 1981). One exception is transverse cracking observed in pretensioned beams subjected to cooling prior to detensioning. For this reason, pretensioned members should be detensioned immediately after the steam-curing has been discontinued (PCI Energy Committee 1981). Cast-in-place concrete can be unknowingly subjected to construction loads in cold climates when heaters are used to provide an elevated working temperature within a structure. Typically, tarps are used to cover windows and door openings, and high volume heaters are operated inside the enclosed area. If the heaters are located near exterior concrete members, especially thin walls, an unacceptably high thermal gradient can result within the members. The interior of the wall will expand in relation to the exterior. Heaters should be kept away from the exterior walls to minimize this effect. Good practice also requires that this be done to avoid localized drying shrinkage and carbonation cracking. Storage of materials and the operation of equipment can easily result in loading conditions during construction far more severe than any load for which the structure was designed. Tight control must be maintained to avoid overloading conditions. Damage from unintentional construction overloads can be prevented only if designers provide information on load limitations for the structure and if construction personnel heed these limitations.

Errors in design and detailing-The effects of improper design and/or detailing range from poor appearance to lack of serviceability to catastrophic failure. These problems can be minimized only by a thorough understanding of structural behavior (meant here in the broadest sense). Errors in design and detailing that may result in unacceptable cracking include use of poorly detailed reentrant comers in walls, precast members and slabs, improper selection and/or detailing of reinforcement, restraint of members subjected to volume changes caused by variations in temperature and moisture, lack of adequate contraction joints, and improper design of foundations, resulting in differential movement within the structure. Examples of these problems are presented by Kaminetzky (1981) and Price (1982). Reentrant comers provided a location for the concentration of stress and, therefore, are prime locations for the initiation of cracks. Whether the high stresses result from volume changes, in-plane loads, or bending, the designer must recognize that stresses are always high near reentrant comers. Well-known examples are window and door openings in concrete walls and dapped end beams, as shown in Fig. 1.4 and 1.5. Additional properly anchored diagonal reinforcement is required to keep the inevitable cracks narrow and prevent them from propagating. The use of an inadequate amount of reinforcing may result in excessive cracking. A typical mistake is to lightly reinforce a member because it is a “nonstructural member.” However, the member (such as a wall) may be tied to the rest of the structure in such a manner that it is required to carry a major portion of the load once the structure begins to deform. The “nonstructural element”nthen begins to carry loads in proportion to its stiffness. Since this member is not detailed to act structurally, unsightly cracking may result even though the safety of the structure is not in question. The restraint of members subjected to volume changes results frequently in cracks. Stresses that can occur in concrete due to restrained creep, temperature differential, and drying shrinkage can be many times the stresses that occur due to loading. A slab, wall, or a beam restrained against shortening, even if prestressed, can easily develop tensile stresses sufficient to cause cracking. Properly designed walls should have contraction joints spaced from one to three times the wall height. Beams should be allowed to move. Cast-in-place post-tensioned construction that does not permit shortening of the prestressed member is susceptible to cracking in both the member and the supporting structure (Libby 1977). The problem with restraint of structural members is especially serious in pretensioned and precast members that may be welded to the supports at both ends. When combined with other problem details (such as reentrant comers), results may be catastrophic (Kaminetzky 1981; Mast 1981). Improper

foundation design may result in excessive differential movement within a structure. If the differential movement is relatively small, the cracking problems may be only visual in nature. However, if there is a major differential settlement, the structure may not be able to redistribute the loads rapidly enough, and a failure may occur. One of the advantages of reinforced concrete is that, if the movement takes place over a long enough period of time, creep will allow at least some load redistribution to take place. The importance of proper design and detailing will depend on the particular structure and loading involved. Special care must be taken in the design and detailing of structures in which cracking may cause a major serviceability problem. These structures also require continuous inspection during all phases of construction to supplement the careful design and detailing.

Externally applied loads-It is well known that load-induced tensile stresses result in cracks in concrete members. This point is readily acknowledged and accepted in concrete design. Current design procedures (ACI 318 and AASHTO) Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges) use reinforcing steel, not only to carry the tensile forces, but to obtain both an adequate distribution of cracks and a reasonable limit on crack width. Current knowledge of flexural members provides the basis for the following general conclusions about the variables that control cracking: Crack width increases with increasing steel stress, cover thickness and area of concrete surrounding each reinforcing bar. Of these, steel stress is the most important variable. The bar diameter is not a major consideration. The width of a bottom crack increases with an increasing strain gradient

between the steel and the tension face of the beam. The equation considered to best predict the most probable maximum surface crack width in bending was developed by Gergely and Lutz (1968). A simplified version of this equation is: in which w = most probable maximum crack width, in.; ? = ratio of distance between neutral axis and tension face to distance between neutral axis and centroid of reinforcing steel (taken as approximately 1.20 for typical beams in buildings); fs = reinforcing steel stress, ksi; dc = thickness of cover from tension fiber to center of bar closest thereto, in.; and A = area of concrete symmetric with reinforcing steel divided by number of bars, in2 A modification of this equation is used in ACI 318, which effectively limits crack widths to 0.016 in. (0.41 mm) for interior exposure and 0.013 in. (0.33 mm) for exterior exposure. However, there is little correlation between surface crack width for cracks transverse to bars and the corrosion of reinforcing, these limits do not appear to be justified on the basis of corrosion control. There have been a number of equations developed for prestressed concrete members (ACI 224R), but no single method has achieved general acceptance. The maximum crack width in tension members is larger than that predicted by the expression for flexural members (Broms 1965; Broms and Lutz 1965). Absence of a strain gradient and compression zone in tension members is the probable reason for the larger crack widths. On the basis of limited data, the following expression has been suggested to estimate the maximum crack width in direct tension (ACI 224R): w = 0.10 fs (dc A)0.33 x 10-3 (1.2) Additional information on cracking of concrete in direct tension is provided in ACI 224.2R. Flexural and tensile crack widths can be expected to increase with time for members subjected to either sustained or repetitive loading. Although a large degree of scatter is evident in the available data, a doubling of crack width with time can be expected (Abeles et al. 1968; Bennett and Dave 1969; Illston and Stevens 1972; Holmberg 1973; Rehm and Eligehausen 1977). Although work remains to be done, the basic principles of crack control for load-induced cracks are well understood. Well-distriiuted reinforcing offers the best protection against undesirable cracking. Reduced steel stress, obtained through the use of a larger amount of steel, will also reduce the amount of cracking. While reduced cover will reduce the surface crack width, designers must keep in mind that cracks (and therefore, crack widths) perpendicular to reinforcing steel do not have a major effect on the corrosion of the steel, while a reduction in cover will be detrimental to the corrosion protection of the reinforcing.

Durability of Concrete Structures

A long service life is considered synonymous with durability. Since durability under one set of conditions does not necessarily mean durability under another, it is customary to include a general reference to the environment when defining durability. According to ACI Committee 201, durability of Portland cement concrete is defined as its ability to resist weathering action, chemical attack, abrasion, or any other process of deterioration; that is, durable concrete will retain its original form, quality, and serviceability when exposed to its environment. No material is inherently durable; as a result of environmental interactions the microstructure and, consequently, the properties of materials change with time. A material is assumed to reach the end of service life when its properties under given conditions of use have deteriorated to an extent that the continuing use of the material is ruled either unsafe or uneconomical. Materials Related Failures Concrete Deterioration can be caused by: - The use of inappropriate materials. - Poor construction practices. Environmental Related Causes of Concrete Durability Problems The inferior durability characteristics of concrete may be caused by the environment that the concrete is exposed to. The following environmental condition can affect the concrete durability: - Temperature. - Moisture. - Physical factors. - Chemical factors. - Biological factors. These factors may be due to weathering conditions (temperature, and moisture changes), or to abrasion, attack by natural or industrial liquids and gases, or biological agents.

Durability problems related to environmental causes include the following: steel corrosion, delamination, cracking, carbonation, sulfate attack, chemical attack, scaling, spalling, abrasion and cavitation. Dimensional Stability The influence of shrinkage and creep on concrete cracking: under restraining conditions in concrete, the interplay between the elastic tensile stresses induced by shrinkage strains and the stress relief due to the viscoelastic behavior is at the heart of the deformations and cracking in most structures. To understand the reason why a concrete element may not crack at all or may crack but not soon after exposure to the environment, we have to consider how concrete would respond to sustained stress or to sustained strain. The phenomenon of a gradual increase in strain with time under a given level of sustained stress is called creep. The phenomenon of gradual decrease in stress with time under a given level of sustained strain is called stress relaxation. Both manifestations are typical of viscoelastic materials. When a concrete element is restrained, the viscoelasticity of concrete will manifest into a progressive decrease of stress with time (Fig. 4-1 curve b from Mehta textbook). Thus under the restraining conditions present is concrete, the interplay between elastic tensile stresses induced by shrinkage strains and stress relief due to viscoelastic behavior is at the heart of deformations and cracking in most structure.

Thermal Shrinkage In general, solids expand on heating and contract on cooling. The strain associated with change in temperature will depend on the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material and the magnitude of temperature drop or rise. Except under extreme climatic conditions, ordinary concrete structures suffer little or no distress from changes in ambient temperature. However, in massive structures, the combination of heat produced by cement hydration and relatively poor heat dissipation conditions results in a large rise in concrete temperature within a few days after placement. Subsequently, cooling to the ambient temperature often causes the concrete to crack. Since the primary concern in the design and construction of mass concrete structures is that the completed structure remains a monolith, free of cracks, every effort to control the temperature rise is made through selection of proper materials, mix proportions, curing conditions, and construction practices. With low tensile strength materials, such as concrete, it is the shrinkage strain from cooling that is more important than the expansion from heat generated by cement hydration. This is because, depending on the elastic modulus, the degree of restraint, and stress relaxation due to creep, the resulting tensile stresses can be large enough to cause cracking. For instance, assuming that the coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is 10 × 10?6 per °C, and the temperature rise above the ambient from heat of hydration is 15 °C, then the thermal shrinkage caused by the 15 °C temperature drop will be 150×10?6. The elastic modulus (E) of ordinary concrete may be assumed as 3 × 106 psi. If the concrete member is fully restrained (Dr = 1), the cooling would produce a tensile stress of 450 psi. Since the elastic tensile strength of ordinary concrete is usually less than 450 psi, it is likely to crack if there is no relief due to stress relaxation. Factors Affecting Thermal Stresses Degree of restraint (Kr ) . A concrete element, if free to move, would have no stress development associated with thermal deformation on cooling. However, in practice, the concrete mass will be restrained either externally by the rock foundation or internally by differential deformations within different areas of concrete due to the presence of temperature gradients. For example, assuming a rigid foundation, there will be full restraint at the concrete-rock interface (Kr = 1.0), however, as the distance form the interface increases, the restraint will decrease, as shown in the following Figure (from Mehta textbook).

Temperature change. The hydration of cement compounds involves exothermic reactions which generated heat, and increase the temperature of concrete mass. Heating causes expansion, and expansion under restraint results in compressive stress. However, at early ages, the elastic modulus of concrete is low and the stress relaxation is high, therefore, the compressive stress will be very small, even in areas of full restraint. In design, to be conservative, it is assumed that a condition of no initial compression exists.

Thermal Properties Of Concrete Coefficient of thermal expansion is defined as the change in unit length per degree of temperature change. Selecting an aggregate with a low coefficient of thermal expansion when it is economically feasible and technologically acceptable, may, under certain conditions, become a critical factor for crack prevention in mass concrete. This is because the thermal shrinkage strain is determined both by the magnitude of temperature drop and the linear coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete; the latter, in turn, is controlled primarily by the linear coefficient of thermal expansion of the aggregate which is the primary constituent of concrete. The reported values of the linear coefficient of thermal expansion for saturated Portland cement pastes of varying water/cement ratios, for mortars containing 1:6 cement/natural silica sand, and for concrete mixtures of different aggregate types are approximately 18, 12, and 6 to 12 × 10?6 per °C, respectively. The coefficient of thermal expansion of commonly used rocks and minerals varies from about 5 × 10?6 per °C for limestones and gabbros to 11 to 12 × 10?6 per °C for sandstones, natural gravels, and quartzite. Since the coefficient of thermal expansion can be estimated from the weighted average of the components, assuming 70 to 80 percent aggregate in the concrete mixture, the calculated values of the coefficient for various rock types (both coarse and fine aggregate from the same rock) are shown in Fig. 4-24. The data in the figure are fairly close to the experimentally measured values of thermal coefficients reported in the

published literature for concrete tested in moist condition, which is representative of the condition of typical mass concrete. Specific heat is defined as the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a material by one degree. The specific heat of normal weight concrete is not very much affected by the type of aggregate, temperature and other parameters. Typically the values of specific heat are in the range of 0.22 to 0.25 Btu/lb.F. Thermal conductivity gives the flux transmitted through a unit area of a material under a unit temperature gradient. The thermal conductivity of concrete is influenced by the mineralogical characteristics of aggregate, and by the moisture content, density, and temperature of concrete. Typical values of thermal conductivity for concretes containing different aggregate types range between 23-25 25 Btu in/h.ft2.F. Extensibility and Cracking As stated earlier, the primary significance of deformations caused by applied stress and by thermal and moisture-related effects in concrete is whether or not their interaction would lead to cracking. Thus the magnitude of the shrinkage strain is only one of the factors governing the cracking of concrete. From 4-1 it is clear that the other factors are: • Modulus of elasticity. The lower the modulus of elasticity, the lower will be the amount of the induced elastic tensile stress for a given magnitude of shrinkage. • Creep. The higher the creep, the higher is the amount of stress relaxation and lower the net tensile stress. • Tensile strength. The higher the tensile strength, the lower is the risk that the tensile stress will exceed the strength and crack the material. The combination of factors that are desirable to reduce the advent of cracking in concrete can be described by a single term called extensibility. Concrete is said to have a high degree of extensibility when it can be subjected to large deformations without cracking. Obviously, for a minimum risk of cracking, the concrete should undergo not only less shrinkage but also should have a high degree of extensibility (i.e., low elastic modulus, high creep, and high tensile strength). In general, high strength concretes are more prone to cracking because of greater shrinkage and lower creep; on the other hand, low strength

concretes tend to crack less, probably because of lower shrinkage and higher creep.