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What is CSHARP?

C# (pronounced see sharp) is a one of Dot Net programming language and supports functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines. Microsoft has introduced C# on June 2000 and updating/Introducing new features with different versions. The most recent version is C# 4.0, which was released in April 12, 2010. Explain different C# Types used to create a csharp program? Basically c# compiler supplies intrinsic data types (int, double, string etc) and programmers can define user defined data types(class, struct, enum etc). All above C# types fall into any one of the following categories

Value types Reference types

Explain Value type and reference type? Value Type Variables of value types directly contain their data. Value types store in stack. Reference Type Variables of reference types store references to their data Reference types store in Heap Memory.

.Net is the Development Plateform which provides advanced feature facilities for the web and window application along with the window services . The .Net is the Middle layer between the operating System and the .Net application .The feature of .Net that the .Net Component can talk with each other without worrying about the language in which they are originally.. Two main components are CLR stands for the common Language Runtime and the .Net FrameWork Base classes. The CLR performs the task of converting the IL to native code Which gives the .Net applications to be language Independent . The Other component Like .Net FramwWork Base Classes act as services to be provided to the .Net applications. Differences between VB.Net and C#, related to OOPS concepts? VB.NET is a windows application Where as C# is a console 1)What is the difference between vb and ? vb is object based and is object oriented.In ,oops concept is used How can i extract the formated word(bold,italic,underline,font,color etc) from the msword file. using CommonDialog class

eg:the code to invoke the default font dialog box by using the FontDialog control is given below: private sub displayfont_click(byval sender as system.object,byval e as system.eventargs) handles fontdialog.showDialog() textbox1.font=fontdialog1.font end sub the code to invoke the default font dialog box by instantiating the fontdialog class is: dim fdialog as new fontdialog() private sub displayfont_click(byval sender as system.object,byval e as system.eventargs) handles fdialog.showDialog() textbox1.font=fontdialog1.font end sub How does CLR solves dll hell? Unlike VB6; .net does not require to generate GUID for the dlls. The dlls are hosted thru applications ,IIS or windows services. These things internally refer to the physical locations of the file thus even if the dll is updated with certain functionalities the older application can still refer to the previous version of the Dll. How to send xml file on server using HTTP protocol? Through SOAP Protocol What is different between Web.Config and Machine.Config and Where it will be ? the settings made in the web.config file are applied to that particular web application only whereas the settings of machine.config file are applied to the whole application. Whats the difference bt. .dll extension and .exe extension files? The main difference between .dll and .exe is .dll is the In process component where it take up the clients memory space to run. So the communication between the application and component(dll) is very fast. .EXE is the Out of process component. It uses its own memory(not application memory) to run the component. The communication between the application and component is slow when compared to .dll What is the base class of .net? System.Object is the base class of .NET It Supports all classes in the .NET Framework class hierarchy and provides low-level services to derived classes. This is the ultimate superclass of all classes in the .NET Framework; it is the root of the type hierarchy.

How to store and retrieve images in sql server database through VB.NET SQL Server supports the ability for clients to store objects within tables What are Jagged Arrarys ? The other type of multidimensional array is the jagged array. A two dimensional jagged array can be thought of as a table where each row can have a different number of columns. Take for example, a table where families are the rows and family members are the columns. Unless each family has the same number of members, each row will have a variable number of columns. You can use a jagged array to represent such a table. A jagged array is really an array of arrays. To create a jagged array, you declare the array of arrays with multiple sets of parentheses or brackets and indicate the size of the jagged array in the first set of brackets (parentheses). How can we remove Handlers at Run time ? RemoveHandler myobj.myEvent, AddressOf MyEventHandler What are Satellite Assemblies? Satellite assemblies are user for localizing the applications resources. A satellite assembly is a DLL that contains only resource strings .we typically have one satellite assembly DLL for each language. Because these satellite assembly DLLs are separated from the main assembly (an .exe or DLL), it is easier to drop in multi-language support as we progress in your development process. What do you mean by Option Strict On ? Option Strict Visual Basic language in general does not require explicit syntax to be used when performing operations that might not be optimally efficient (e.g. late binding) or that might fail at run time (e.g. narrowing conversions). This permissive semantics often prevents detection of coding errors and also affects the performance of the application. VB.NET enables a programmer to enforce strict semantics by setting this option to On. When used, this option should appear before any other code. This option can be set to On or Off. If this statement is not specified, by default, it is set to Off. Syntax: Option Strict [On / Off] When it is set to On, it disallows any narrowing conversions to occur without an explicit cast operator, late binding and does not let the programmer omit As clause in the declaration statement. Since setting it to On requires explicit conversion, it also requires that the compiler be able to determine the type of each variable. Thus it is implied that Option Strict also means Option Explicit. Visual Basic .NET allows implicit conversions of any data type to any other data type. However, data loss can occur if the value of one data type is converted to a data type with less precision or a

smaller capacity. Setting this option to On ensures compile-time notification of these types of conversions so they may be avoided. How VB Implements the Disonnected Architecture as like VB.Net? In VB to implement a disconnected recordset, after you have filled the recordset with the data, set its active connection property to Nothing. That breaks the connection to the database.You can locally also save the data of the recordset by using its Save function.

SQL interview questions:(

What is the full form of SQL ? Structured Query Language (SQL). It is pronounced sequel.SQl is a language that provides an interface to relation database systems. It was developed by IBM. What are two methods of retrieving SQL? What is a deadlock in SQL ? Deadlock is a situation when two processes, each having a lock on one piece of data, attempt to acquire a lock on the others piece. Each process would wait indefinitely for the other to release the lock, unless one of the user processes is terminated. SQLServer detects deadlocks and terminates one users process. What is livelock in SQL ? A livelock is one, where a request for an exclusive lock is repeatedly denied because a series of overlapping shared locks keeps interfering. SQL Server detects the situation after four denials and refuses further shared locks. A livelock also occurs when read transactions monopolize a table or page, forcing a write transaction to wait indefinitely. Some important system function to get the current user details USER_ID() USER_NAME() SESSION_USER CURRENT_USER USER SUSER_SID() HOST_NAME(). Whats the difference between a primary key and a unique key?

Both primary key and unique enforce uniqueness of the column on which they are defined. But by default primary key creates a clustered index on the column, where are unique creates a nonclustered index by default. Another major difference is that, primary key doesnt allow NULLs, but unique key allows one NULL only. What cursor type do you use to retrieve multiple recordsets? What is candidate key, alternate key, composite key in SQL ? A candidate key is one that can identify each row of a table uniquely.Generally a candidate key becomes the primary key of the table. If the table has more than one candidate key, one of them will become the primary key, and the rest are called alternate keys.A key formed by combining at least two or more columns is called composite key. Explain the architecture of SQL Server What is the difference between a where clause and a having clause in SQL ? Where Clause in SQL is a kind of restiriction statement. You use where clause to restrict all the data from DB.Where clause is using before result retrieving. But Having clause is using after retrieving the data.Having clause is a kind of filtering command from the selected data. What is the basic form of a SQL statement to read data out of a table? Basic form to read data out of table in SQL is SELECT * FROM tablename. Answer with where close wont be proper because it is an additional thing with basic select statement. Whats the maximum size of a row in SQL table? 8060 bytes. What are the tradeoffs with having indexes? Faster selects slower updates Extra storage space to store indexes Updates are slower because in addition to updating the table you have to update the index. Whats the difference between DELETE TABLE and TRUNCATE TABLE commands in SQL? DELETE TABLE is a logged operation, so the deletion of each row gets logged in the transaction log, which makes it slow. TRUNCATE TABLE also deletes all the rows in a table, but it wont log the deletion of each row, instead it logs the de allocation of the data pages of the table, which makes it faster. TRUNCATE TABLE can be rolled back What is a join statement in SQL? join used to connect two or more tables logically with or without common field. What is normalization? Denormalization? Why do you sometimes want to denormalize? Normalizing data means eliminating redundant information from a table and organizing the data so that future changes to the table are easier. Denormalization means allowing redundancy in a table. The main benefit of denormalization is improved performance with simplified data retrieval and manipulation. This is done by reduction in the number of joins needed for data processing

How to restart SQL Server? from command line, using the SQLSERVR.EXE. -m is used for starting SQL Server in single user mode -f is used to start the SQL Server in minimal confuguration mode. What is a constraint in SQL? A constraint allows you to apply simple referential integrity checks to a table. There are four primary types of constraints that are currently supported by SQL Server PRIMARY/UNIQUE - enforces uniqueness of a particular table column. DEFAULT - specifies a default value for a column in case an insert operation does not provide one. FOREIGN KEY - validates that every value in a column exists in a column of another table. CHECK - checks that every value stored in a column is in some specified list. NOT NULL is one more constraint which does not allow values in the specific column to be null. And also it the only constraint which is not a table level constraint. Each type of constraint performs a specific type of action. Default is not a constraint. Different Types of joins in SQL INNER JOINs OUTER JOINs LEFT OUTER JOINS RIGHT OUTER JOINS FULL CROSS JOINs What types of index data Structures can you have? An index helps to faster search values in tables. The three most commonly used index-types are: B-Tree: builds a tree of possible values with a list of row IDs that have the leaf value. Needs a lot of space and is the default index type for most databases. Bitmap: string of bits for each possible value of the column. Each bit string has one bit for each row. Needs only few space and is very fast.(however, domain of value cannot be large, e.g. SEX(m,f); degree(BS,MS,PHD) Hash: A hashing algorithm is used to assign a set of characters to represent a text string such as a composite of keys or partial keys, and compresses the underlying data. Takes longer to build and is supported by relatively few databases. Types of cursors in SQL ? Static Dynamic Forward-only Keyset-driven What is a primary key? Primary Key is a type of a constraint enforcing uniqueness and data integrity for each row of a table. All columns participating in a primary key constraint must possess the NOT NULL property.For example user

Id should be unique for users, so we can make that field a s primary key in some tables for making sure that value wont repeat. What is a trigger? Triggers are stored procedures created in order to enforce integrity rules in a database. A trigger is executed every time a data-modification operation occurs (i.e., insert, update or delete). Triggers are executed automatically on occurrence of one of the data-modification operations. A trigger is a database object directly associated with a particular table. It fires whenever a specific statement/type of statement is issued against that table. The types of statements are insert,update,delete and query statements. Basically, trigger is a set of SQL statements A trigger is a solution to the restrictions of a constraint. What is index covering of a query? Index covering means that Data can be found only using indexes, without touching the tables What is a SQL view? An output of a query can be stored as a view. View acts like small table which meets our criterion. View is a precomplied SQL query which is used to select data from one or more tables. A view is like a table but it doesnt physically take any space. View is a good way to present data in a particular format if you use that query quite often. View can also be used to restrict users from accessing the tables directly.Its mainly used to view the data from various tables. What is blocking and when it is happening? Blocking happens when one connection from an application holds a lock and a second connection requires a conflicting lock type. This forces the second connection to wait, blocked on the first. How do you implement one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-many relationships while designing tables? One-to-One relationship can be implemented as a single table and rarely as two tables with primary and foreign key relationships.One-to-Many relationships are implemented by splitting the data into two tables with primary key and foreign key relationships.Many-to-Many relationships are implemented using a junction table with the keys from both the tables forming the composite primary key of the junction table.

Writing A perfect resume - In detail Here with this article we are providing step-by-step guidelines for making a perfect resume. Follow these guidelines and prepare your own strong resume that lands you in interview, that leads you to get a good job Part 1: Top heading Write your: Name Address

Phone number E-mail address EXAMPLE

Sree krishna.marella 1-1-1, sundar nagar Begumpet Mobile: +91 9999010101 Hyderabad Email: Part 2: The Objective This is an important part of your resume. Here you state what you would like to achieve out of working in the particular organization. Like, you may want to really learn how to be a good software engineer and master of designing and coding. You have to state the objective in terms of what you would like to do for the organization once you are appointed. It should be clear and straight to the point. The objective should just be two or three lines. What is the point of writing an objective? If you dont have an objective on your resume, you will just have a general resume. Your resume will not be targeted. Your resume will just talk about you and all your great accomplishments. A resume without an objective will not be able to convey to the employer what you will be able to do for the employer. Such a resume, since it is not targeted to meeting the employers needs will not produce results. Employers generally do not like to hire people who are working just for money. Employers like to hire people who are charged and motivated. Employers like people who have aims and want to accomplish or learn something. If you dont talk about your objective, you look like as if you want a job just for the sake of money. You will look like the kind of person who will not really work hard for the organization and give their fullest participation. So, it is very important that you have a Objective on your resume. Also make sure you do not put in an objective just because it sounds good. You must understand your objective. You will probably be asked about your objective when you go for the interview if your resume gets selected. Part 3: Educational Qualifications Education qualification should be in a descending order i.e. on the top you would have your recent qualification. Many and almost all of us have studied class I, V, VI etc ... so we dont need to mention these classes but we start with the first board exam we had given or Class 10th results. If you stood up with good marks, mention them along with the name of the school and the year you passed. If you had average score and you do not wish to include the same, leave it out (But remember the percentage you scored, the interviewer may ask you!). Then your Class 12th marks, your graduation, post graduation, and any other qualification you have achieved. Use bullets to mark your qualification, but remember not to use very stylish and fancy bullets, they might create a negative impact on the person reading your resume.

Part 4: Skills & Areas of Technical Expertise This is the location on your resume where you should showcase your skill set. Set it up on your resume like the following example modifying the headings and substituting your own information as needed Certifications Operating systems Software technologies Packages Software tools Knowledge of Example : MCSE; PGDCA, Auto CAD, .NET : windows 2000 xp, linux : .NET, java, testing tools : Ms-office2000, tally8.0 : informatica, Auto-cad, : Web designing, Photoshop, Networking, Hardware

Part 5: Experience Now, its turn for the experience if you have. If you dont have any work experience, dont worry, If you have any, remember to write them in descending order (the most recent place you have worked first and so on) just like your qualification. When mentioning your work experience, make sure you mention: The name of the company you worked for. Time OR duration you worked there. The designation you were appointed for. Part 6: Achievements As stated earlier, using a table to state your achievements is a good idea. What does the achievements section include? If you played any sport at state, national or international level, any competitions you took part in and won etc. then they will all come here. Try to mention those achievements that the employer would care about right on top. Like, if you are applying for a marketing post then it would be a good idea to mention that you won a marketing competition. A long list of unrelated achievements would be of little value. Not all achievements have to be big, but they have to show that you got results as you carried out your responsibilities. Many of your routine activities can be quantified and written as achievements that demonstrate your experience and knowledge. They can be proof of how youve HELPED the company! They should show the employer how he will be able to fulfill the needs of his organization by hiring you. Part 7: Strength and Hobbies Mention your strengths and hobbies here. When talking about your strengths, again it would be good if you can show the employer how your strengths would benefit his/her organization. If the strengths are related to the job you are applying for they will have a better effect. Save the company money? How much and how? Help improve sales? By how much?

Improve productivity and efficiency? Implement any new systems or processes? Help launch any new products or services? Achieve more with (same or fewer) resources? Resolve a major problem with little investment? Participate in any technical/operational improvements? Exceed accepted standards for quality or quantity? Identify the need for a program or service? Prepare any original reports, studies or documents? Serve on any committees? What was the outcome? Get elected to any boards, teams or task forces? Resolve customer problems? Get rated as outstanding in performance reviews?

Part 8: Concluding Section Put a heading personal details and include below information: Your full name Your date of birth Gender Marital status Fathers name Your name E-mail id Telephone number Passport Number (If you have ) Permanent address Part 9: Declaration Example Declaration: I here by declare that the information furnished above is true to the best of my knowledge Date: Place: (Name) ******