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LiveCDCustomization WhycustomizeLiveCDs
YoumaywishtocustomisetheUbuntuDesktopLiveCdto: makeyourownLinux/Ubuntudistribution showoffaparticularapplication localisetoacertainlanguage removesoftwarepackages addsoftwarepackages updatesoftwarepackages changesystemdefaults(theme,icons,desktopbackground,panels, browserhomepage,etc)
Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. WhycustomizeLiveCDs HowtoCustomisetheUbuntuDesktopCD SystemRequirements Installpre-requisities Obtainthebasesystem 1. ExtracttheCD.isocontents 2. ExtracttheDesktopsystem 3. Prepareandchroot Customizations 1. Apt-get 1. Prerequisites 2. Tasks 2. CustomBackgroundforGNOME 3. Changegconfvalues(fonts,panels etc.) 1. Makingseveralgconfchanges 4. Changedefaultlanguageofgfxboot 5. Customizationlimits 6. MiscellaneousDefaults 7. AdvancedCustomizations 1. LiveCDKernel 2. Removingthe(Casper) Autologin 3. Bootinit 4. Rebuildinginitrd Cleanup ProducingtheCDimage 1. Assemblingthefilesystem 2. TestingtheCD 1. Troubleshooting 3. BurningtheimagetoCD Additionalusesfortheimage Comments

6.

HowtoCustomisetheUbuntu DesktopCD
TheeasiestwaytocreateacustomLiveCDistouseUbuntuCustomization Kit.Whatfollowsisthemanualwayofaccomplishingthesame. YoumightalsowanttocreateaLiveCDfromanexistinginstallation;inthis case,Remastersysisforyou.
7. 8.

ThisguideisfortheDesktopLiveCd;thereisanotherpage referringtocustomisationoftheAlternativeInstallCd&theServerInstall Cd.Also,thereisaguideonhowtocreateaLiveCdwithoutusingan existingLiveCd.

SystemRequirements
Atleast3-5GBoffreespace Atleast512MBRAMand1GBswap(recommended) squashfs-tools genisoimage,whichprovidesmkisofs

9. 10.

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AnUbuntukernelwithsquashfssupport(presentinUbuntu6.06andlater) QEMU/KVM,VirtualBoxorVMwarefortesting(optional)

Whencustomizing9.10KarmicKoala(orlater)inan9.04JauntyJackalope(orearlier)environment,squashfs-tools mustbeupdatedtoversion4.0.Conversely,theversionofsquashfs-toolsinUbuntu9.10isnotcompatiblewithearlier versionsofUbuntu.

Thearchitecture(Amd64ori386)tobestoredontheLiveCDshouldbethesameasthearchitectureusedtoperformthe customization,ortheLiveCDmaynotrun.ItisnottrivialtocustomizeanAMD64LiveCDusingani386operatingsystem,for example.

Installpre-requisities
Makesurethatyouhaveinstalledtheneededtools
sudo aptitude install squashfs-tools genisoimage

Obtainthebasesystem
DownloadanofficialDesktopCDfromhttp://releases.ubuntu.com/ Note:theexampleshownhereusestheubuntu-9.04-desktop-i386.isoDesktopCD.Replaceitwiththenameofyouriso.For example,ifyouhaveaubuntu-11.04-desktop-i386.isoimage,thecommand:
mv ubuntu-9.04-desktop-i386.iso ~/livecdtmp

wouldbechangedto:
mv ubuntu-11.04-desktop-i386.iso ~/livecdtmp

Moveorcopyitintoanemptydirectory
mkdir ~/livecdtmp mv ubuntu-9.04-desktop-i386.iso ~/livecdtmp cd ~/livecdtmp

ExtracttheCD.isocontents
MounttheDesktop.iso
mkdir mnt sudo mount -o loop ubuntu-9.04-desktop-i386.iso mnt

Extract.isocontentsintodir'extract-cd'
mkdir extract-cd sudo rsync --exclude=/casper/filesystem.squashfs -a mnt/ extract-cd

ExtracttheDesktopsystem
ExtracttheSquashFSfilesystem
sudo unsquashfs mnt/casper/filesystem.squashfs sudo mv squashfs-root edit

Prepareandchroot
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Ifyouneedthenetworkconnectionwithinchroot
sudo cp /etc/resolv.conf edit/etc/

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Dependingonyourconfiguration,youmayalsoneedtocopythehostsfile
sudo cp /etc/hosts edit/etc/ sudo mount --bind /dev/ edit/dev sudo chroot edit mount -t proc none /proc mount -t sysfs none /sys mount -t devpts none /dev/pts

(thesemountimportantdirectoriesofyourhostsystem-ifyoulaterdecidetodeletetheedit/directory,thenmakesuretounmount beforedoingso,otherwiseyourhostsystemwillbecomeunusableatleasttemporarilyuntilreboot) ToavoidlocaleissuesandinordertoimportGPGkeys


export HOME=/root export LC_ALL=C

Customizations
Apt-get
Prerequisites
In9.10,beforeinstallingorupgradingpackagesyouneedtorun
dbus-uuidgen > /var/lib/dbus/machine-id

and
dpkg-divert --local --rename --add /sbin/initctl ln -s /bin/true /sbin/initctl

Tasks
Toviewinstalledpackagesbysize
dpkg-query -W --showformat='${Installed-Size}\t${Package}\n' | sort -nr | less

Whenyouwanttoremovepackagesremembertousepurge
aptitude purge package-name

CustomBackgroundforGNOME
Generallybackgroundfilesarelocatedin/usr/share/backgrounds.Copyyourpngfilethere,adjustownerandfileaccess,and editthefiles: 1. /usr/share/gnome-background-properties/ubuntu-wallpapers.xmland 2. /usr/share/gconf/defaults/16_ubuntu-wallpapersorotherfilesinthesamedirectory.bychangingthestring/usr/share /backgrounds/warty-final-ubuntu.pngtopointtoyourfile Eventuallychangeoraddattributestootherconfigurationfilessuchas:/var/lib/gconf/debian.defaults/%gconf-tree.xmlor /etc/gconf/gconf.xml.defaults/%gconf-tree.xml). Historical:MoreforDapper...

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Changegconfvalues(fonts,panelsetc.)
Tomakeanychangeonthegconfattributesyoumustaddthevaluethatyouwantinthefile/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.defaults /%gconf-tree.xml.AddingavalueinthatfilewillchangethedefaultvaluesofGnomeorotherapplications,soyoucanchange fonts,backgrounds,themes,cursorsetc. Insteadofeditingthefilewithgeditoranothertexteditor,youcanusethegconftool-2,underthechrootenvironment,runningthe followingline:
gconftool-2 --direct --config-source xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.defaults --type string --set yourkey "yourvalue"

wherestring,yourkeyandyourvaluemustbethetype,keyandvaluethatyouwanttochange...

Makingseveralgconfchanges
Editinggconfbysettingeachvalueseparatelytakestoomuchtime.Thereisabetterway: Makeatestuserandadjustthesettingsasyouwish.Run
gconftool-2 --dump /the/settings/branch/you/need > ~/live/your-new-settings.xml sudo chown root:root ~/live/your-new-settings.xml sudo mv ~/live/your-new-settings.xml ~/live/edit/your-new-settings.xml

andthen,inthechrootenvironment,run
gconftool-2 --direct --config-source xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.defaults --load /your-new-settings.xml rm /your-new-settings.xml

Thiswayyoucanimportthewholebranch,e.g./apps/panel-allsettingsforGnome'spanels.Notethatthiswayyouimportnot onlythekeys,butalsotheirdescriptions,soallGConfdescriptionswillbechangedtothelanguagewhichwassetforthetest user,andtherewillbenowaytosafelychangethemback.Someprograms(forexample,keyboardshortcutsinPreferencesmenu) usedescriptionsfromGConf.

Changedefaultlanguageofgfxboot
Thiscustomizationmustbedoneoutsidethechroot.
sudo aptitude install dpkg-dev uck apt-get source gfxboot-theme-ubuntu gfxboot cd gfxboot-theme-ubuntu*/ make DEFAULT_LANG=fi sudo cp -af boot/* ../extract-cd/isolinux/

Change"fi"toyourpreferredlocale.NotethatthisdoesnotchangewhichlanguagesareavailableintheF2menu.Formoreinfo aboutgfxbootcustomization,seeUbuntuCustomizationKit. Aotherwaytochangethedefaultlanguageofgfxbootwithoutrebuildthepackagesistocreateafilenamelanginthe isolinuxdirectorycontainingyourlocale'sname.

Customizationlimits
AftercustomizationmakesurethattherearenouserswithanUID>999.Otherwiseyourimagewon'tbootbecausenoinitialuser isavailable(see/usr/share/initramfs-tools/scripts/casper-bottom/10adduser).Whileinchroot:
awk -F: '$3 > 999' /etc/passwd

Ifyougetanyhits,trychangingtheuid:
usermod -u 500 $hit

MiscellaneousDefaults
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Youmaywishtoeditthefilesin/etc/defaulttochangesystembehavioratstartup.Youmightalsoedit/etc/profile, /etc/bash.bashrc,and/etc/bash_completiontochangeloginsettingsforallusersonthesystem.Youcannotdirectlyeditdefaults forthelivecduser(e.g.,casper,ubuntu,oruser)sincethataccountiscreatedatboottime.Youcandirectlyeditroot'sdefaultfiles (/rootinthechrootenvironment). Ifyouwishtochangethedefaulttimezoneusedbythelivecd,run:


dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

Ifyouhaveaddedalocaleandwishtomakeitthedefault,update/etc/default/locale.Youmayhavetocompilethelocale:
locale-gen new_locale update-locale LANG=new_locale LANGUAGE=new_locale LC_ALL=new_locale

Thesechangesmustbemadeasrootinthechrootenvironment.

AdvancedCustomizations
LiveCDKernel
Ifyouwanttocustomizefurtherthebootprocess,youcanchangethelivecdkernel,bycopyingthevmlinuzandinitrdyouwantin placeoftheonesyoufindinextract-cd/casper. i.e.
sudo cp edit/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.15-26-k7 extract-cd/casper/vmlinuz sudo cp edit/boot/initrd.img-2.6.15-26-k7 extract-cd/casper/initrd.gz

Notethattheinitialramdiskfilenamefornewerreleases(since9.10)iscasper/initrd.lz(not.gz).

Removingthe(Casper)Autologin
TheautologinfeatureoftheJaunty/9.04liveCDisabitofanon-the-flyboot-hack.Afterextractingtheinitrd.gz,youneedtoedit thecasper-bottom/25configure_initscriptandthenrecreatetheinitrd.gzfile,replacingtheoriginalinextract-cd/casper.Theprocess todosogoeslikethis:
# # # # # # cd extract-cd/casper mkdir tempdir cd tempdir gunzip -dc ../initrd.gz | cpio -imvd --no-absolute-filenames cp scripts/casper-bottom/25configure_init scripts/casper-bottom/25configure_init.orig vi scripts/casper-bottom/25configure_init

Nowlookforline25whichhastheconditionalstatementtotest$USERNAME. Line25performsaconditionalevaluationandifitevaluatestotrue,itwillexecutethecodewithintheifblock.Theifblock containscodetomodifyfilesusedinthebootprocesstocreatethelivecdautologin. Todisabletheautologinfeature,Remove$USERNAME,butjustleavethequotes.The-nmodifierteststhe$USERNAMEstring toseeifit'slengthisnon-zero.Byremovingthevariable,andleavingtwodoublequotes,thisstatementevaluatestofalsebecause thetwodoublequoteseffectivelymakeazero-bytestring.Besuretoleavenowhitespacebetweenthequotesbecausewhitespace willmaketheevaluationtrueandexecutionwilfallintotheifblock.


21:log_begin_msg "$DESCRIPTION" 22: 23:# Arrange for shells on virtual consoles, rather than login prompts 24: 25:if [ -n "$USERNAME" ]; then

Aftermakingthechange,line25willlooklikethis:
25:if [ -n "" ]; then

Savethefileandquittheeditor.Then,fromextract-cd/casper/tempdirrunthefollowingcommandtore-createtheinitrd.gzfile.

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Thereareothermethodsforre-creatingtheinitrd.gzfileonthispagewhichmayworkalso.:
# cp ../initrd.gz ../initrd.gz.orig # find . | cpio -o -H newc | gzip -9 > ../initrd.gz

Thiswillcreateanewinitrd.gzfilewithnoautologin.YoucanthencontinuetoremastertheCDasdescribedonthispage.Be suretocreateauserandpasswordtologinwithbeforeyouremasterthecd.Ifyoudonot,youwillnotbeabletologin afterbooting! Also,IhavereadafewarticlesmentioningthatKarmic(9.10)usesinitrd.lzinsteadofinitrd.gz.Idonotknowifthisistrue,but shouldmentionitincaseyouarenotgettingtheexpectedresults.Tounpacktheinitrd.lzfile,youneedtodothis:


# # # # cd extract-cd/casper mkdir lztempdir cd lztempdir lzma -dc -S .lz ../initrd.lz | cpio -imvd --no-absolute-filenames

Andtore-createtheinitrd.lzfile:
# cp ../initrd.lz ../inird.lz.orig # find . | cpio --quiet --dereference -o -H newc | lzma -7 > ../initrd.lz

Bootinit
Youhavetoeditthefilesinedit/usr/share/initramfs-tools/scripts/casper-bottom/*Forexampleyoucanchangethehostnameorthe livecduser. i.e.
sudo nano edit/usr/share/initramfs-tools/scripts/casper

andedittheusernameorhostname
sudo nano edit/usr/share/initramfs-tools/scripts/casper-bottom/10adduser

toediteventhelivecduser'spassword. Ifyou'recustomizing10.04,youneedtoeditvariablesin/etc/casper.conffortheuserandhostnamesinsteadofmodifyingthe scripts P.S.inordertoobtainanencryptedpassword,youhavetousethemkpasswdprogramthat'sshippedwithwhoispackage!

Rebuildinginitrd
Afteryou'vemodifiedthekernel,initscriptsoraddednewkernelmodules,youneedtorebuildtheinitrd.gzfileandsubstituteit intothecasperdirectory.
sudo chroot edit mkinitramfs -o /initrd.gz 2.6.15-26-k7

(replacethekernelversionwiththeonethattheCDwillbootwith-thiscanbefoundinedit/lib/modules)***doIneedtomount proc,sys,devptsafterchroothere?Gordon Exitfromthechrootjailandmovethisfiletoextract-cd/casper:


exit mv edit/initrd.gz extract-cd/casper/

Cleanup
Besuretoremoveanytemporaryfileswhicharenolongerneeded,asspaceonaCDislimited.Aclassicexampleisdownloaded packagefiles,whichcanbecleanedoutusing:

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aptitude clean

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Ordeletetemporaryfiles
rm -rf /tmp/* ~/.bash_history

Ordeletehostsfile
rm /etc/hosts

Ornameserversettings
rm /etc/resolv.conf

Ifyouinstalledsoftware,besuretorun
rm /var/lib/dbus/machine-id

and
rm /sbin/initctl dpkg-divert --rename --remove /sbin/initctl

fromwithinthechrootenvironment. nowumount(unmount)specialfilesystemsandexitchroot
umount /proc || umount -lf /proc umount /sys umount /dev/pts exit sudo umount edit/dev

Note:if"umount/proc"commandfails,"umount-lf/proc"willbeusedtoretryautomatically.

ProducingtheCDimage
Assemblingthefilesystem
Regeneratemanifest
chmod +w extract-cd/casper/filesystem.manifest sudo chroot edit dpkg-query -W --showformat='${Package} ${Version}\n' > extract-cd/casper/filesystem.manifest sudo cp extract-cd/casper/filesystem.manifest extract-cd/casper/filesystem.manifest-desktop sudo sed -i '/ubiquity/d' extract-cd/casper/filesystem.manifest-desktop sudo sed -i '/casper/d' extract-cd/casper/filesystem.manifest-desktop

Compressfilesystem
sudo rm extract-cd/casper/filesystem.squashfs sudo mksquashfs edit extract-cd/casper/filesystem.squashfs -nolzma

Note:The-nolzmaoptionisonlyavailablefromHardy,andwasremovedinKarmic.Also,thesquashfshastobe generatedusingaversionofmksquashfsthatiscompatiblewiththekernelusedontheCDyouarecustomizing.For example,youcannotgenerateajauntysquashfsonkarmic,asthejauntykernelisnotabletomountasquashfsprepared usingmksquashfsfromkarmic. Forslightlyhighercompressionatthecostofcompressiontime,youcanincreasetheblocksize:


sudo mksquashfs edit extract-cd/casper/filesystem.squashfs -b 1048576

Updatethefilesystem.sizefile,whichisneededbytheinstaller:
printf $(sudo du -sx --block-size=1 edit | cut -f1) > extract-cd/casper/filesystem.size

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Setanimagenameinextract-cd/README.diskdefines
sudo vim extract-cd/README.diskdefines

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(youcanuse"sudonanoextract-cd/README.diskdefines"ifyouhavedifficultiesunderstandingvim) Removeoldmd5sum.txtandcalculatenewmd5sums
cd extract-cd sudo rm md5sum.txt find -type f -print0 | sudo xargs -0 md5sum | grep -v isolinux/boot.cat | sudo tee md5sum.txt

CreatetheISOimage

sudo mkisofs -D -r -V "$IMAGE_NAME" -cache-inodes -J -l -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/boot.cat -no-emul-boot -boot-l

TestingtheCD
Testusingqemuemulator
qemu -cdrom ubuntu-9.04.1-desktop-i386-custom.iso -boot d -m 512

Orifyouhavehardwareaccelerationforkvm
kvm -cdrom ubuntu-9.04.1-desktop-i386-custom.iso -boot d -m 512

Youcanalsotestwithvirtualbox-ose,whichisfreesoftwareandavailableintheUbuntuuniverserepository.

Troubleshooting
Someexperienceproblemsvirtualizingtheisoafterchangingthelivecdlinuxkernel.Ifyoudo,goclickF6whenthebootscreen isshowing.Movethecursorbetweensplashquietand--andwrite:all_generic_ide

BurningtheimagetoCD
Simple!Justdo
cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom ubuntu-9.04-desktop-i386-custom.iso

Additionalusesfortheimage
InstallUbuntufromaUSBstick InstallationFromImageLoadedOnHardDrive

Comments
Ifyouhaveanycommentsorquestions,pleasefeelfreetoaddthemhere. Ifyouareansweringaquestion,pleaserewritethequestionintoatipthatanswersthequestion.(tohelpkeepthingstothepoint.) Newquestionsatthebottom(Iguess.) IhavecreatedansmallCustomizationExample(namedFirebirdLiveCD)byaddinganfirebird2.1-superandflamerobinpackages (thisapplytoubuntuHardyHeronalsoitwastestedwithxubuntu8.04)http://flamerobin.blogspot.com/2008/08/creatingflamerobinfirebird-livecd-with.html Warning:qemudidnotworkformeasgivenintheguideabove.Eventhenormal8.04livecdwouldnotbootcorrectly.Every

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time,Iwouldgetthrownintotheashshell(busybox,initramfs)andwhilethere,a"cat/casper.log"wouldrevealthatitwas "Unabletofindamediumcontainingalivefilesystem".Justusevirtualbox-ose.Itactuallyworkswithvirtualbox.However,after usingapt-gettoinstallvirtualbox-ose,Ihadtorun"sudodepmod"againinorderforthevboxdrvmoduletobefoundby modprobe.Hopethathelps! -rocketman768 Warning:Squashfsiscurrentlyindevelopmentandisthusnotfinalizedasaformat.Thismeansyoucannotassumea filesystem.squashfscreatedusingtheUbuntu9.04versionofmakesquashfswillbecompatiblewiththesquashfsdriveanolder liveCD.IwascustomizinganUbuntu7.10LiveCDandwhentestingitalwaysbooteditan(initramfs)prompt--thesquashfswas notgettingmountedas/.IhadtobuildfromwithinanUbuntu7.10chroottogetittowork. --Bob/Paul IhavecreatedansmallCustomizationExample(namedFirebirdLiveCD)byaddinganfirebird-super-serverandflamerobin packages(thisapplytoubuntudapperdrake)http://flamerobin.blogspot.com/2006/05/creating-flamerobinfirebird-live-cd.html I createdanupdatedguidewithUbuntuFestyFawnalsowithanisodownloadfortheFirebird/Flamerobinlivecd http://flamerobin.blogspot.com/2007/09/creating-flamerobinfirebird-livecd-with.html IhavecreatedtoolforautomaticremasteringofliveCDimages.Seehttp://uck.sourceforge.net/. Features: GUIforsimplecreationoflocalizedCDs(includingchanginggfxbootandinstallinglanguagepacks) ScriptforcustomizationofISO,SquashFSandinitrdonliveCD. http://www.atworkonline.it/~bibe/ubuntu/custom-livecd.htmseemstohavesomeniceinfo.nolicensethatIcanseesowewould needtoaskpermissionfromtheauthortousitsmaterial. IfyouwanttomaketheCDbootfaster,youmighttrysortingthefilessothattheyareintheCDintheorderthattheyare accessed:http://lichota.net/%7Ekrzysiek/projects/kubuntu/dapper-livecd-optimization/ GreatHowTo.Iamhavingoneissuehowever.Iwouldliketousecustomxorg.confandsources.listfiles.Anytipsondoing this?Thanks. Simply,copythefilestoedit/etc/inthesameway(andatthesametime)thatyoucopyintheresolv.confandhostsfiles. Ihavefoundthatcopyingxorg.confdoesn'twork,astheboot-timescriptsoverwriteit.Besides,youcan'tguaranteethata particularxorg.confwillrunonallhosts.I'mcurrentlytryingtogetthebinaryNVIDIAdriverstoworkoutoftheboxifan NVIDIAcardispresent.IfIfigureouthowtofixthexorg.conf,I'llpostithere.--JeremyVisser I'vemanagedtogetSynapticrunningfromwithinthechrootenvironment,butitdoeshangwhenItrytoapplypackages.What youdoisrun"Xnest-ac:1"togetanXnestservertorunondisplay:1withoutaccesscontrolsoanyonecanconnecttoit.Then, inthechrootenvironment,run"exportDISPLAY=:1"togetprogramstousethedisplay.Then,type"metacity&"tobeableto movewindows.Finally,run"synaptic". Itworksfineuntilyoutrytoapplypackages,whereithangsforme.--JeremyVisser Shouldn'tthemkinitramfscommandusethecasperscripts,like"mkinitramfs-oinitrd.gz2.6.15-23-386-d/usr/share/initramfstools"? TherearetricksonhowyoucangettofeeltheGNOMEsysteminyourchrootenvironment. 1.Copyyourxorg.confinthechrooted"etc/X11/"directory.

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cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf edit/etc/X11/

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2.CreategenericdevicesonyourchrootsystemusingMAKEDEV
cd /dev/ MAKEDEV generic

3.StartXorrestartgdm
/etc/init.d/gdm start

SupposedyouwanttomakemodificationsontheDesktop,thatwillbeusedbyallthenewusers,justchangeyour$HOMEto /etc/skel/andstartgdmorX.
export HOME=/etc/skel/

IfyouwanttoloadalltheotherstuffGNOMEneeds(i.e,dbus,avahi,network-manager),justbootas(single-usermode),and startdbusinyourchrootedenvironment.
/etc/init.d/dbus start

Anexampleofthewholeprocedure.(undersingle-usermode)
sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart sudo cp /etc/resolv.conf edit/etc/ sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf edit/etc/X11/ sudo chroot edit mount -o none /proc mount -o none /sys export HOME=/etc/skel/ cd /dev/ MAKEDEV generic /etc/init.d/dbus start /etc/init.d/gdm start

---joelbryan Hello, IamabouttobuildanewLivecdandhaveaquestion:WhenIchangetheusername,hostnameandtheuser'spasswordtheuser loginautomaticallyduringbootingthelivesystem.Butthisisnotdesired.Isitcorrect,thatIhavetoenterapasswordundera DesktopLiveCDwhenIdelettheencryptedpasswordin/usr/share/initramfs-tools/scripts/casper-bottom/10adduser? Thanks Changingusernameandpasswordwillnotchangeloginbehaviour,becausethisisdonein/usr/share/initramfs-tools/scripts /casper-bottom/15autologin ---AlexanderHosfeld HavingtroublestartingaMySQLserverfromwithinthechrootjail.Anysuggestions? -Dave Hey, IamtryingtomakeacustomizedlivecdofKubuntu6.06thatwillbecompletlypreconfigured,sothatwhentheuserclicksonthe installicononKDEtheinstallershoulddoeverythingbyitself,meaningthattheinstallershouldnotaskanyquestionstotheuser. TodothisIamtryingtowriteapreseedfiletotelltheinstallertheinformationthatitneeds. TheproblemisthatevenwiththispreseedfileIcouldonlytelltheinstallerwhatistheusernamethatitshoulduse,therestofthe informationissimplyignoredbytheinstaller.

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Imustbedoingsomethingwrongandwouldappreciateanyandallhelpgivenme. Thanks,Komyg PS:ShouldIpostmypreseedfilehere? Ifthelivecdisnotgoingtobeusedforthepurposesofinstallingwhatfilescanberemoved?Canthe"pool"filescontainingthe .debsberemovedtoo? -Mike IfIwanttoputinmyLiveCDapplicationsthataren'tinthesources.list(likeooffice2.2orperlaudioconverter),whatcainIdo? -Isoldanne Whenyou'reinthechrootyoucaninstallapplicationsjustlikeyouwouldonalivesystem.Ifyouinstallfromsourceyoucanfeel freetodeletethesourcetarbalandmakefoldersafteryoudo'makeinstall'. -Bob/Paul Togetdesired/etc/X11/xorg.confonecanmodifythe/usr/bin/dexconf.Thisscriptgeneratesxorg.conf automaticallyinliveCDsessionaccordingtothebootedmachine. Forexample:
# diff ~/bin/dexconf /usr/bin/dexconf 268,269c268 < Option "XkbLayout" "us,il" < Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll" --> Option "XkbLayout" "$XKB_LAYOUT"

--yotam Icantdochroot.Whenirunitagetthiserror chroot:cannotruncommand`/bin/bash':Nosuchfileordirectory Pleasehelpmeout IhadthesameproblembecausethefilesystemthatIwasworkingonwasFAT32insteadofEXT2orEXT3.Becauseof that,/bin/bashwasnotanexecutableIguess.Ifthatisyourcasealso,thenpleasetryagainonapartitionthatisEXT2or EXT3(theLinuxtypeofpartition).Goodluck,--vvim Hi,I'vecreatedasimplescripttoeaseremasteringtheKubuntuLiveCD.Itusesaufstoavoidcopyingallthefilesbackandforth. Maybeitwillbeusefulltootherstoo.Thescriptmustberunasroot.


CD="${1:-kubuntu-9.04-desktop-i386.iso}" ; shift # exit after any error: set -e which mkisofs mksquashfs tempfile sed WDIR=`mktemp -d $PWD/kubuntu-remastered.XXXXXXXXXX` ISO="$WDIR/${CD##*/}" ISO="${ISO%.iso}-remastered-KDM.iso" EXIT="" function addExit { EXIT="$@ ; $EXIT" trap "$EXIT" EXIT HUP TERM INT QUIT

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} function mnt { local margs="$1" ; shift local mp="$WDIR/$1" for D in "$@" ; do mkdir -v -p "$WDIR/$D" done mount -v $margs "$mp" addExit "umount -v $mp" } # mount the CD image mnt "-t auto $CD -o loop,ro" cd

le:///home/student/Desktop/LiveCDCustomization ...

# mount compressed filesystem mnt "-t squashfs $WDIR/cd/casper/filesystem.squashfs -o ro,loop" sq # create joined writable filesystem for the new CD mnt "-t aufs -o br:$WDIR/cd-w=rw:$WDIR/cd=ro none" cd-u cd-w # create joined writable filesystem for the new compressed squashfs filesystem mnt "-t aufs -o br:$WDIR/sq-w=rw:$WDIR/sq=ro none" sq-u sq-w echo ">>> Updating CD content" ( cd sq-u # DO YOUR CUSTOMIZATION STUFF HERE, CHROOT, MODIFY FILES, ETC. # ... # ... ) echo ">>> Compressing filesystem" mksquashfs $WDIR/sq-u/ $WDIR/cd-u/casper/filesystem.squashfs -noappend

echo ">>> Recomputing MD5 sums" ( cd $WDIR/cd-u && find . -type f -not -name md5sum.txt -not -path '*/isolinux/*' -print0 | xargs -0 -- md5sum > md5sum.txt echo ">>> Creating ISO image $ISO" mkisofs \ -V "Custom KUbuntu Live CD" \ -r -cache-inodes -J -l \ -b isolinux/isolinux.bin \ -c isolinux/boot.cat \ -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table \ -o "$ISO" \ $WDIR/cd-u # The trap ... callbacks will unmount everything.

---PetrPudlak IneedtoknowhowtoconfigurethelivecdsothatitdoesnotuseSWAP! Pleasehelpme! --iceman Hi,I'vebeenexperiencingproblemswithaptitudeandI'mprettysureitsbecauseI'mdoingallthisstuffonNTFSpartition (accordingtothisthreadhttp://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=521905).ButIhavenootherchoice,coz'I'vegotlessthen 1,7GBonmyext3partition.Anysuggestion?THX ErrormessagesI'vebeengetting,whentryingtoinstallorupdateaptitude: "E:Couldn'tmakemmapof25165824bytes-mmap(19Nosuchdevice)W:UnabletomunmapE:Thepackagelistsorstatusfile

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couldnotbeparsedoropened." -heethen(heethenatcentrumdotcz)

le:///home/student/Desktop/LiveCDCustomization ...

Iwouldsuggestcreatinganext3filesystemwithinyourNTFSpartition.Tocreatethefile,type ddif=/dev/zeroof=/mnt/hda1/workspace.imgbs=1024count=$((1024*1024*15)) WhereIassumedyourNTFSpartitionwasonhda1,andyouwantedtocallthenewfilesystemworkspace.img(it'sreallyjusta filewithinNTFS),andthatyouwanted15Gbofroomtowork.(Youdon'tneedthatmuch,butwith15Gbyoushouldhaveplenty ofroom.)Thenyouformatthenewfilesystemwiththecommand sudo/sbin/mkfs.ext3/mnt/hda1/workspace.img thencreateamountpoint sudomkdir/mnt/workspace thenmountthenewfilesystem sudomount-oloop/mnt/hda1/workspace.img/mnt/workspace YoucanthenuseasmuchspaceontheNTFSpartitionasyouwant,andhaveallthebenefitsofext3(likegettingthe***thingto work).--Tom Editinggconfbysettingeachvalueseparatelytakestoomuchtime.Thereisabetterway: Makeatestuserandadjustthesettingsasyouwish.Run
gconftool-2 --dump /the/settings/branch/you/need > ~/live/your-new-settings.xml sudo chown root:root ~/live/your-new-settings.xml sudo mv ~/live/your-new-settings.xml ~/live/edit/your-new-settings.xml

andthen,inthechrootenvironment,run
gconftool-2 --direct --config-source xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.defaults --load /your-new-settings.xml rm /your-new-settings.xml

Thiswayyoucanimportthewholebranch,e.g./apps/panel-allsettingsforGnome'spanels. ---JacobPopovubuntu-9.04-desktop-i386.iso Istherenowaytocopytheuser'sgconf-valuestothedefaultgconf-valuesinthechrootedenvironment?Thiswouldbealoteasier thanwritingcommands. IttookmealongtimetofindthedetailsforconfiguringastaticIPontheliveCDwithoutdoingitintherootfilesystem.This enablesyoutocreateafewbootoptionswithdifferentstaticdetailsandaDHCPonbutallfromthesamerootfs. Thereisacasperparameterwhichisintheform: ip=IFACE,ADDRESS,NETMASK,GATEWAY[:IFACE,ADDRESS,NETMASK,GATEWAY]* --silid

http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=839670 IthinkIhavediscoveredhowtodothis: 1)Editaccordingly/usr/share/initramfs-tools/scripts/casper-bottom/23networking

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2)Runupdate-initramfs-u-k$version -Robert

le:///home/student/Desktop/LiveCDCustomization ...

Inordertogetthelivecdtobootfromastaticaddressfoundinthe/etc/network/interfacesfile. Ieditthe/etc/network/interfacesfileandaddastaticaddressfortheinterfaceeth0.
auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 10.xxx.xxx.xxx netmask 255.255.255.0 gateway 10.xxx.xxx.1

editsomepath/isolinux/text.cfgaddip=frommediaaftersplash
label live menu label ^Try Ubuntu without any change to your computer kernel /casper/vmlinuz append file=/cdrom/preseed/ubuntu.seed boot=casper initrd=/casper/initrd.gz quiet splash ip=frommedia --

Thiswasalittlehardtofind.ThanksRobertNicholasA.SchembiPittsburghPAUSA I'vetriedinstallingadobeflashplayerbutwhileitinstallsfineonchroot,andthenshowsasinstalledwhenbootingfromCD. FirefoxthinksitisnotinstalledandIneedtoinstallitmanually.Anybodycomeuponasimilarproblem

ItriedtocustomizeUbuntuHardybyinstallingtheRTkernelanddidthechangesaswritteninthehowto...itgoeswell,but bootinginvboxisreallyslow.Whatcouldbethecause?Itriedisonceagainandalsoinanothervboxinstallation,butstillthat problem.Wouldbeniceifsomeonecanpointmetoansolution!thanksinadvanceseealsothread:http://ubuntuforums.org /showthread.php?p=7334890#post7334890edit:IthinkithassomethingtodowiththefactthatitisanRTkernel(fromHardy) ...SomeonewithexperiencewithaddingcustomRTkernels?

Iwroteascripttoautomatetheextraction/chroot/regenerationprocesses:http://david.decotigny.fr /wiki/wakka.php?wiki=RemasterUbuntu.Ithasbeentestedonajauntyx86_64hostforajauntyi386CDimage. --DavidDecotigny

Toputthedefaultuserinthe"video"group,
printf "\nADD_EXTRA_GROUPS=1\nEXTRA_GROUPS="video"\n" >> /etc/adduser.conf

--CarlKarsten

InordertoeditaKarmicLiveCDinanyreleasepriortoKarmic,itlookslikeyouwillneedtoupgradesquashfs-toolstosupport SquashFSv4.0:
root@maxwell:/home/Z_Custom# unsquashfs mnt/casper/filesystem.squashfs Filesystem on mnt/casper/filesystem.squashfs is (4:0), which is a later filesystem version than I support!

Iinstalledsquashfs-tools_4.0-1fromtheKarmicreleaseintomyIntrepidinstallationanditseemstobefinenow.Maybewe shouldupdatethesedirectionstoreflectthat? Sincerely, --JohnD.Zollo

Hi..HowcanIaddanaPostInstallationscript?Imean,Iwanttoexecuteascriptjustaftertheinstallationprocess.THisscriptis simpleandsetafewthingstocustomizetheinstallation.

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Anyideas? BestRegards --Alejandro

le:///home/student/Desktop/LiveCDCustomization ...

Hallo,I'mtryingtoremasterubuntu9.10livecd.I'mfollowinginstructionfromthispage.WhenI'mtryingtobootfrom customizedsystemit'sseemsIcan'tlogintothesystem,soIcan'tgotthesystemrunning. Iamfollowinginstructionfromlimitationpartaboutuserid.Andmakesuretherearenoneofusershasuidmorethen999.But, aftermakingthesquashfsfilesystemIgotamessagethattoldmeaboutauserwithuid1000.Actuallymyhostsystemhasauser withuid1000.I'musingthisusertoremasterubuntulivecd. Doesmyuid(1000)thatIusedforremasteringthelivecdmakethenewlivecdcan'tlogin?Ifitdoes,howtofixit?AmImustuse anotheruserwithuidlessthen999toremasterthelivecd? BestRegards asw_te

Hello,whatisthebestwaytoremastertheKarmicreleaseLiveCD(inVirtualBox)toincludeallthelatestupdates(morethan150) includingnewkernelandudev?Thekernelchangedfrom2.6.31-14to2.6.31-16andalsoudev. apt-get autoremoveremovestheoldheaders,butIhavetopurgetheoldkernelmanually(apt-get purge linuximage-2.6.31-14-generic). Thefirstproblemis,update-initramfs -u -k allstillrunsfortheoldkernel,too.Only aptitude reinstall udevseemstostopthis (depmod -a && dpkg --configure -a && dpkg-reconfigure udevdoesnothelp). Thesecondproblemis,howdoIprepareinitrdandisolinuxtorunandinstallfromasubdirectory(tocreateamulti-bootDVD)? ThebaseoftheDVDisUbuntu,so/containsubuntu-9.10-desktop-i386.iso,/kubuntucontainskubuntu-9.10-desktop-i386.iso andsoon.MostthingsrunfinewhenIintroducetheprefixtoscripts/casperand/isolinux/text.cfg:
LIVE_MEDIA_PATH=casper $path/.disk/casper-uuid append file=/cdrom/preseed/kubuntu.seed boot=casper initrd=/casper/initrd.lz quiet splash --

becomes
LIVE_MEDIA_PATH=kubuntu/casper $path/kubuntu/.disk/casper-uuid append file=/cdrom/kubuntu/preseed/kubuntu.seed boot=casper initrd=/kubuntu/casper/initrd.lz quiet splash --

ButtheprefixeddistributionsshowonlyanInstallUbuntu9.10linkonthedesktop,notKubuntu(Xubuntu,LUbuntu,...). Thanks,RenLeonhardt

Hi! IwashopingtobeabletoremastertheUbuntuLivediscsothatIcanstickitintoalmostanycomputer,haveitbootupbutNOT gointotheGUI,justautologinandrunamediaplayerwitharguements(likeastreamaddress).Washopingtobeabletomake myowneasyinternetradioappliance.Giveoldpentiumcomputerswithsoundcardstobusinessesandtheycanplaymystationon theirPAforfree! --Matt

IupdatedtheKarmicLiveCDwiththelatestupdatesinsidechrootusingaptitudewithupdate,dist-upgrade,purgelinux-image2.6.31-14-generic,installzshzsh-doc,installubuntu-restricted-extras,andenabledDVDplayback.

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le:///home/student/Desktop/LiveCDCustomization ...

TheresultingisofileturnedoutlargerthanaCD,andIputitonaUSBDisk.Thesystembootsfine,hasthelatestupdatesandcan playrestrictedformats'outofthebox'.WhenItravel,IcanjustcarryaUSBDiskinsteadofacomputer! AllreleasesincludingUbuntu9.10KarmicKoalanowhavenewerkernelsavailableviaupdates.ThekernelintheliveCD *MUST*matchtheonesinsidesquashfs.Ifitdoesnot,yougetstrangeproblems(likethewirelessinterfacenotbeingdetectedor CDsnotbeingrecognized) i.e.forKarmic


sudo cp edit/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.31-16-generic extract-cd/casper/vmlinuz sudo cp edit/boot/initrd.img-2.6.31-16-generic extract-cd/casper/initrd.gz

SinceKarmicusesinitrd.lz,Ihadtouncompressthe.gzfileandputitbackin.lzformat.
cd extract-cd/casper sudo mv initrd.lz inird.lz.orig gzip -dc initrd.gz | sudo lzma -7 > initrd.lz cd ~/live

Toconservespace,youcanremovetheoriginalinitrdfilesbeforechangingthedirectoryback
sudo rm -f inird.lz.orig initrd.gz

Best,PradeepSekar

Ihaveafewquestions,Iamremasteringacopyof9.04foracommunityschoolprogramiranintoafewproblems #1howdoyouremovetheoptiontoupdateto9.10intheupdatemanager#2howdoyougettheCDtoberecongnizedin ubiquityinstallerasthenameddistroinsteadofubuntu9.04(whenigotoreinstallthesoftarestillsaysitisaubuntu9.04cd) #3howdoyouinstallanewkernelintothelivecdandinstallpart,iwasabletoupgradeitto28.18butwhenitryputting31onit ...itjustwontboot. #4ihaveareposserver,ieditthesources.listbutubuntureposarestilltheprimary,howdoichangethatover? #5finally,itookoutgnomegames,andiwanttoaddalistofeduacationalgames,butiwantthatasaoptionalinstall.(some computerswonhavegamesonthere)isthereawaytoaddthe/.Gamesfolderwithoutactaullyhavingdatainit?itrieddoingthis inthechrootadnrootmenuanditstilldoesnotshowuponinstall... Thankyou ashlessburn

CananyonetellmehowIcantakeouttheoptionofinstallingtheLiveCDatboot.Ijustwantthemtobeabletouseit,notinstall. Thanks --Steve

Youcaneditthebootoptionsinextract-cd/isolinux/text.cfgDeletealllinesandsub-linesofalabelyoudon'tlike:Forexampleyou candelete:
label live-install menu label ^Install Ubuntu kernel /casper/vmlinuz append file=/cdro...

--jancelis

Toremovetheautologin,youmakeusworkintheextract-cddirectory.Doesthismeanthatthisprocesshastobethelastone? Dowehavetodoitafterallthemodificationsontheeditdirectory?Dowehavetofirstcreatethenewuserinthechroot?thx

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--lsga

le:///home/student/Desktop/LiveCDCustomization ...

I'mhavingtroubleproperlyaddingarepository.Howdoyouaddonetoalivecd?--Muscovy

Hi,I'mworkingonaunnattendedinstallCDusingUbuntuLucid10.04,andIfoundthatifyouerase/sbin/initctltheautomatic installdoesn'trun.Alsotheinstructiontogeneratetheinitctlusingdpkg-divertisnotworking.Sobecareful... Alejandro

Icustomizethelivecdandinstallapache2,webmin,,,buthowtomakeitstartaftertheautomatic-login? Gordon

IuseaversionofUbuntuthatdoesnotautomaticallyStartthegraphicalsystem(startxcommand)HowcanIaddthattoberunat boot? RJ

Iamcurrentlyworkingonaminorupdategiven10.10isout.Unfortunately,Igotheldupandnowtimehasrunout.MainlyI wantedtomakethescriptsmorecopy/pastefriendly.SoIaddedafewenv-variablesandusethosethroughoutthescript.I'vedone thereplacementsalready,butIdidn'tgetaroudtodosometesting. Inthemeantime,I'lldumpmycurrentversionintotheabovelinktosavemywork. exhuma

aptitudecan'tpurgepackages. Theprogram'aptitude'canbefoundinthefollowingpackages: aptitude aptitude-gtk(Youwillhavetoenablecomponentcalled'universe') Try:apt-getinstall<selectedpackage>

Unabletofindamediumcontainingalivefilesystem(SOLUTION) Whencreatingalive-usbwithUnetbootinfromWindows(Vista/7)yousometimesgetthiserror.Afriendofminesuggested anothersolutionthanalloftheabove.CreatetheUSBstickwithUnetbootinfromaLinux(Ubuntu)boxandNOTawindows system.Apparentlysomethingisdifferentbetweenthetwobecausenowmysystemjustbootsflawlessly! SantanaNL

Regardingthe"Unabletofindamediumcontainingalivefilesystem"-IhadthissameproblemwhentryingtoinstallUbuntu10.04,10.10,and10.10netbookeditiononanetbookusingaUSBstick.I triedcreatingallthreeusing10.10'sbootdiskcreator,11.04'sbootdiskcreator,Unetbootinon11.04,andUnetbootinon Windows7.Inallcases,Iwasabletomakeittotheusbbootmenuandwouldselect'Install'.TheUbuntulogowouldshowthatit wasprocessingforawhileandthenfailwiththeabovemessageinaterminal. Intheend,itwasn'taproblemwiththeisoorthecreatedUSBstick.TheUSBdrivejustwasn'tmounted(orwouldbecome unmountedafterItellittogothroughthe'Install'procedure.SinceIcouldn'tfigureouthowtoboottheusbfromtheprovided terminal,IjusttriedremovingandreinsertingtheUSBdriveonceIsawtheUbuntulogoandtheprogressblips.

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Iwasabletogetpastthisproblemtwice,sofar,withthissolution. bananax182

le:///home/student/Desktop/LiveCDCustomization ...

ForallofyouseminewmaybenotquiteasknowledgeableUbuntuusers,asmyself,theliveCDenvironmentdoesnotutilizeall ofthetypicalrepositoriesthatitwouldasifyouinstalledit.Youmightneedtoaddtheparticularrepositoryofinteresttoinstalla programforyourliveCD. Forinstance,IwantedtocreatealiveCDwithdcflddonit.Ihadtoeditetc/apt/sources.listwithinthechrootedenvironmenttoadd theuniverserepository.Iuncommentedthefollowingtolinesinetc/apt/sources.listtoinstalldcfldd:


deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu natty universe deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu natty universe

Thenjustupdatedaptandinstalledasnormal:
apt-get update apt-get install dcfldd

Sorryifeveryonealreadyknewthis.Ijustfigureditmaybehelpfultouserslikemyself. mrgrant

Hi I'msurepeopleappreciatecommentssuchasyourMrGrant.Otherwisepeoplemightfeeltheyaretheonlyonessuffering fromsomethingormaybefeeltheyaretoblame. OnanormalLiveCdthereisan"installer"icon.DOesanyoneknowhowicangetthaticonontoanormalUbuntudesktop?Ihave doneafullinstalltoalargeusb-stickandinstalledthingslike"GPartEd"butidefinitelymisshavignthatinstallericon& functionality.RegardsfromTom

Iamlookingtoupdateorseeanupdatetothisguidethataddressesacustomlauncheronunity.Sotheideaisoncethedesktopand unityhaveresolvedtothescree,Icanclickonacustomlauncherwithoutlookingindashtofindit.Thismessageshouldbe replacedwiththisinformation,incasesomeoneelsebeatsmetothepunch. Chad

Iamatotalbeginner.HowdoItakemycurrentcomputerconfigurationandturnitintoainstallCD?Thanks! Nick (Sorryifmyquestionsoundsdumb)

HiNick:) Thislinkmighthelp https://help.ubuntu.com/community/LiveCDCustomizationFromScratch butiwouldavoidit.It'snotdumb,justtricky. Insteadyoucanback-upallyoursettings,configfiles/foldersanddatabybackingupthe/homefolder.Youcanmoveyour/home toanewpartitiontoseparateyourdata(includingconfigsandstuff)fromtheOperatingSystem.Thatallowsyoutore-installthe OSwithoutmessinganythingup https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Partitioning/Home/Moving It'sevenpossibletohave2differentOperatingSystemssharingthesame/homealthoughit'snotrecommended. Betterplacestoaskquestionsare

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http://www.linuxquestions.org http://www.ubuntuforums.com andLaunchpad Regardsfrom Tom

le:///home/student/Desktop/LiveCDCustomization ...

Ithinkthisentrycouldbeimprovedbyaddingsomeexplanationofwhatwearetryingtoaccomplishwiththesecommands.Pretty muchanytimeitsays"youneedtouse"or"rememberto"itwouldbegreattoknowwhy.Justmytwocents. Mike LiveCDCustomization(lastedited2012-04-2621:23:47bysleepycat@static209-87-231-210.storm.ca[209.87.231.210]:sleepycat)

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