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Department of Civil Engineering National University of Singapore Email: cveweeth@nus.edu.sg

The deflections of a structure within elastic limit can be determined using various methods.

These includes the energy methods which are based on the Conservation of Energy Principle, which states that: work done by all the external forces (e.g. P1 & P2) acting on a structure, Ue is transformed into internal work or strain energy, Ui which is developed when the structure deforms.

Ue = Ui

If the materials elastic limit is not exceeded, the elastic strain energy will return the structure to its undeformed state when the loads are removed.

For illustration of strain energy, assume a force being applied to a spring. When the point on the spring at which the force is applied moves (displaces), work is done (work done = force x distance). Consequently, the spring is compressed or stretched, depending on the direction of the force. The spring is now in a state where it is able to do work, that is, there is energy within the spring and this energy is called strain energy. The work done by the force has transformed into the strain energy in the spring.

F F d W.D. = F x d

Principle of Virtual Work and Method of Least Work are two energy methods that will be discussed later. However, before developing the energy methods, the determination of the external work and strain energy caused by a force and/or a moment will be dealt with first.

When an external force F undergoes a displacement dx in the same direction as the force, the work done is dUe = F dx. If the total displacement is x, the work becomes

U e = Fdx

0

Consider now the effect caused by an axial force applied to the end of a bar as shown. As the magnitude of F is gradually increased from zero to some limiting value F = P, the final elongation of the bar becomes . If the material has a linear elastic response, then F = (P/ )x. Substituting into above equation and integrating from 0 to , we get U e = 1 P 2 which represents the shaded triangular area as shown. Conclusion: when a force is applied gradually, the magnitude builds linearly from zero to some value P and hence the work done is equal to the average force magnitude (P/2) times the displacement ().

Suppose now that P is already applied to the bar and another force F is now applied, so that bar deflects further by an amount , the work done by P (not F) when the bar undergoes further deflection is

U e = P

Hence the work represents the shaded rectangular area as shown. In this case, P does not change its magnitude since is caused only by F. Therefore, work is simply the force magnitude (P) times the displacement (). In summary, when a force P is applied followed by application of the force F, the total work done by both forces is represented by the triangular area ACE. The triangular area ABG represents the work of P that is caused by its displacement , the triangular area BCD represent the work of F since this force causes a displacement , and lastly, the shaded rectangular area BDEG represents the additional work done by P when displaced by as caused by F. Total work done = P + F + P

a structure can also undergo rotational displacement which is caused by a moment, such as bending or torsion.

External Work-Moment

The work of moment dU is defined by the product of magnitude of moment M and the angle d through which it rotates, that is dU = M d. If the total angle of rotation is radians, the work becomes

U e = Md

0

As in the case of force, if the moment is applied gradually to a structure having a linear elastic response from zero to M, the work is then

Ue = 1 M 2

However, if the moment is already applied to the structure and other loadings further distort the structure by an amount , then M rotates , and the work is

Ue = M

When an axial force N is applied gradually to the bar, it will strain such that external work done by N will be converted into strain energy, which is stored in the material. Provided the material is linear elastic, Hookes law is valid, = E, and if the bar has a constant cross-sectional area A and length L, the normal stress is = N/A and the final strain is = /L. Substituting and into the Hookes law, the deflection can be formulated as

NL AE

Substituting into the equation Ue = P with P = N, the strain energy in the bar is therefore

Ui =

N 2L 2 AE

Consider the beam shown which is distorted by the gradually applied point load P and distributed load w. These loads create an internal moment M in the beam at a section located a distance x from the left support. The resulting rotation of the element dx is given by M dx (Refer to 1st year lecture notes) d = EI Since the strain energy is gradually developed, the internal work done is U i = U e = 1 M and hence dU i = 1 M d 2 2 Therefore, we obtain

dU i =

M 2 dx 2 EI

and the strain energy for the beam can be determined by integrating this result over the beams entire length L. The result is

Ui =

0

M 2 dx 2 EI

Now that the external work and strain energy for a force and a moment have been formulated, the next step is to illustrate how the conservation of energy principle* can be applied to determine the displacement at a point on a structure. Consider finding the displacement at the point where the force P is applied to the cantilever beam shown. The internal work (strain energy) is given by and the external work by L M 2 dx Ui = U e = 1 P 2 2 EI 0 The moment can be expressed as a function of position x as M = Px. Substituting this and equating external work to internal strain energy, the unknown displacement can be obtained as P

1 2

P =

( Px) 2 dx 2 EI 0

PL3 = 3EI

* also known as principle of work and energy

M x

Example (refer to page 602, example 10.4 in F. P. Beer and E. R. Johnston Mechanics of Materials" 2nd edition, McGraw Hill.)

Although the solution to obtain the unknown displacement by the principle of work and energy seems quite direct, application of this method is limited to only a few selected problems. For instance, the application of this method is limited to problems where only one load is applied to the structure. If more than one load was applied (i.e. at different locations), there would be an unknown displacement under each load.

P1

P2

L1 L2

Since it is possible to write only one work equation (internal work = external work) for the beam, it cannot be used to solve for more than one unknown displacement.

1 2

P 1 + 1 P2 2 = 1 2

L1

( P x) 2 dx 2 ( P2 x) 2 dx 1 + 2 EI 2 EI 0 0

L

Further the limitation shown in the previous slide, another limitation is that only the displacement under the force can be obtained (since the external work depends upon both the force and its corresponding displacement).

P

1 2

P =

( Px) dx 2 EI 0

2

PL 3EI

M x

In other word, the displacement elsewhere on the beam cannot be obtained from this method. To circumvent these limitations, John Bernoulli in 1717 introduced the Principle of Virtual Work sometimes referred to as unit-load method while in 1879, Alberto Castigliano introduced the Method of Least Work referred to as Castiglianos Second Theorem. Both these methods provides a general means of obtaining the displacement and slope at any point on a structure, be it a beam, frame or truss.

Suppose it is necessary to determine the displacement of point A on the body of arbitrary shape loaded by the loads P1, P2 and P3 as shown. To solve, first consider a load P acting in the same direction as is gradually applied on the body without P1, P2 and P3. For convenience, let P have a unit magnitude, that is P = 1. This load P, however, would induce an external displacement in the direction of the applied load. Besides the external displacement, internal loads (stresses) u and corresponding internal displacements (strains) dL would also be induced in the body. By the principle of work and energy: External Work = Internal Work P = udL

u u

Now consider the loads P1, P2 and P3 are gradually applied on the body. These loads, however, would induce the displacements 1, 2 and 3 in the direction of the applied loads, respectively. Besides the external displacement, internal forces u and corresponding displacements dL would also be induced. By principle of work and energy: External Work = Internal Work Pi i = u dL

u u

On the other hand, if P was gradually applied first on the body followed by the loads P1, P2 and P3. By principle of work and energy: Total External Work = Total Internal Work (P + Pi i) + P = ( udL + u dL) + udL which would then, based on the first two equations, reduce to P = udL u u

Pi+P

However, in the given problem, only loads P1, P2 and P3 are applied to the body. Therefore, the load P is considered as a virtual load which induce internal virtual forces u. The term virtual is used to describe the load, since it is imaginary and does not actually exist as part of the real loading. Recall the derivation earlier,

P = udL

The product of a virtual load and a real displacement is a virtual work. The principle of virtual work is based on the above equation in which the external virtual work is equal to the internal virtual work. For convenience, it is assumed that P = 1 and therefore

1. = udL

In other words, unknown (real) displacement = (virtual internal forces due to a virtual load of magnitude 1 unit applied at the point and in the direction where the unknown displacement is to be determined) (real internal displacement due to the applied force) Note that the above two equations are known as virtual work equation

For the purpose of explanation let us determine the vertical displacement of joint B of the truss shown subjected to loads P1 and P2 using the principle of virtual work. Consider a member of the truss having a length L, cross-sectional area A and modulus of elasticity, E. The applied loadings P1 and P2 would cause the member to deform an amount L = NL/AE, where N is the axial force in the member, caused by the loads. unknown displacement = (virtual internal forces due to a virtual load of magnitude 1 unit applied at the point and in the direction where the unknown displacement is to be determined) (real internal displacement due to the applied force) The virtual-work equation for the truss is therefore nNL 1. = where AE 1 = external virtual unit load acting on the truss joint (B) in the stated direction (vertical) of n = internal virtual force in the truss member caused by the external virtual unit load N = internal axial force in the truss member caused by the real loads L = length of member A = cross-sectional area of member E = modulus of elasticity of member

10

Refer to Procedure for Analysis (page 2 of handout) Example (refer to page 306, example 8-13 part (a) in R. C. Hibbeler "Structural Analysis" SI Edition, 2005, Prentice Hall.)

11

Fig 8.32

Fig 8.32

12

Occasionally, errors in fabricating the lengths of the members of a truss may occur. Also, in some cases truss members must be made slightly longer or shorter in order to give the truss a camber. Camber is often built into a bridge truss so that the bottom chord will curve upward by an amount equivalent to the downward deflection of the chord when subjected to the bridges full dead weight.

13

If a truss member is shorter or longer than the intended length either deliberately or by fabrication error, the displacement of a truss joint from its expected position () can be determined from the virtual work equation

1. = n dL

Unknown (real) displacement = (virtual internal forces due to a virtual load of magnitude 1 unit applied at the point and in the direction where the unknown displacement is to be determined) (real internal displacement due to the applied force)

Note: real internal displacement in this case would be due to the difference in length of member from its intended size as caused deliberately or by fabrication error

where 1 = external virtual unit load acting on the truss joint in the stated direction of n = internal virtual axial force in a truss member caused by external virtual unit load = external joint displacement caused by fabrication errors dL = difference in length of member from its intended size as caused deliberately or by fabrication error. ( +ve for increase in length, -ve for decrease in length)

Example (refer to page 306, example 8-13 part (b) in R. C. Hibbeler "Structural Analysis" SI Edition, 2005, Prentice Hall.)

14

Fig 8.32

15

In some cases, truss members may change their length due to temperature. If is the coefficient of thermal expansion for a member and T is the change in its temperature, the change in length of a member is L = (T)L. Hence, we can determine the displacement of a selected truss joint due to this temperature change from the equation

1. = n (T) L Unknown (real) displacement = (virtual internal forces due to a virtual load of magnitude 1 unit applied at the point and in the direction where the unknown displacement is to be determined) (real internal displacement due to the applied force in this case due to temperature change) where 1 = external virtual unit load acting on the truss joint in the stated direction of n = internal virtual force in the truss member caused by external virtual unit load = external joint displacement caused by the temperature change = coefficient of thermal expansion of member T = change in temperature of member (+ve increase in temperature, -ve decrease in temperature) L = length of member

16

Example (refer to page 309, example 8-15 in R. C. Hibbeler "Structural Analysis" SI Edition, 2005, Prentice Hall.)

The method of virtual work can also be applied to deflection problems involving beams and frames. Consider the beam shown. Here, the displacement at point A is to be determined. To compute , a virtual unit load acting in the direction of is placed on the beam at A and the induced internal virtual moment m is determined by the method of sections at an arbitrary location x from the left support. When the real loads act on the beam, the element dx rotates by d = (M/EI) dx. Therefore, by principle of virtual work external virtual work = internal virtual work unknown displacement = (virtual internal moment due to a virtual load of magnitude 1 unit) (real rotational displacement due to the applied force)

1. =

0 L

mM dx EI

real loads

virtual loads

17

Example (refer to page 313, example 8-16 in R. C. Hibbeler "Structural Analysis" SI Edition, 2005, Prentice Hall.)

In a similar manner, if the tangent rotation or slope angle at a point on the beams elastic curve is to be determined, a unit virtual moment is applied at the point, and the corresponding induced internal virtual moments m have to be determined. Since the work of the virtual unit moment is 1., then unknown (real) rotation = (virtual internal moment due to a virtual moment of magnitude 1 unit) (real rotational displacement due to the applied force)

1. =

0 L

m M dx EI

where 1 = external virtual unit load acting on the beam or frame in the direction of m = internal virtual moment in the beam or frame, expressed as a function of x and caused by the external virtual unit load m = internal virtual moment in the beam or frame, expressed as a function of x and caused by the external virtual unit moment M = internal moment in the beam or frame, expressed as a function of x and caused by the real loads (sagging moment [HAPPY]= +ve, hogging moment [SAD]= -ve) E = modulus of elasticity of the material I = moment of inertia of cross-sectional area, computed about the neutral axis

18

Example (refer to page 314, example 8-17 & page 320, example 8-20 in R. C. Hibbeler "Structural Analysis" SI Edition, Prentice Hall, 2005)

Castiglianos Theorem

This method, which is referred to as Castiglianos second theorem or the method of least work, applies only to structures that have constant temperature, unyielding supports (no movement in the direction of restraint) and linear elastic material response**. If the displacement of a point is to be determined, the theorem states that it is equal to the first partial derivative of the strain energy in the structure with respect to a force acting at the point and in the direction of displacement.

i =

U i Pi

In a similar manner, the slope at a point in a structure is equal to the first partial derivative of the strain energy in the structure with respect to a moment acting at the point and in the direction of rotation.

i =

U i M i

**Note that this is different from virtual work which can be applied to structure subjected to varying temperature, yielding support (support giving way) and non-linear elastic material response.

19

Consider a body (structure) of any arbitrary shape which is subjected to a series of n forces P1, P2 Pn at points 1, 2 . n. Since the external work done (Ue ) by these loads is equal to the internal strain energy (Ui ) stored in the body, and the external work is a function of the external loads, it can be stated that

Ui = Ue = f(P1, P2 Pi Pn)

Now, if any ONE of the forces, say Pi at point i, is increased by a differential amount dPi while all the other forces remain unchanged, the internal work is also increased (dUi) such that the new total strain energy becomes

U i + dU i = U i +

U i dPi Pi

Note that the i in the Ui refer to internal work whereas the i in the Pi refers to the load at any point i = 1 to n

On the other hand, if the force dPi was applied to the body at point i first, then this will cause the body to be displaced by a differential amount di in the direction of dPi. The increment in strain energy would be dPi di. This quantity, however, is a second-order differential and may be neglected. Further application of the loads P1, P2, , Pi, Pn at points 1, 2, , i, ..., n which displace the body 1, 2 , ..., i, ..., n, yields the new total strain energy

Pi+dPi

Ui + dUi = Ui + dPi i

dPi

di

20

U i + dU i = U i +

U i dPi Pi

represents the strain energy in the body determined by first applying the loads P1, P2 Pn and then followed by dPi and the equation

U i + dU i = U i + dPi i

represents the strain energy determined by first applying dPi and then followed by the loads P1, P2 Pn. Because the total strain energy remains the same and does not depend on the order of application of loads, these two equations must be equal and therefore

i =

U i Pi

which proves the theorem: i.e. the displacement i at point i in the direction of Pi is equal to the first partial derivative of the strain energy with respect to Pi applied at point i.

The strain energy for a member of a truss is given earlier as Ui = N2L/2AE. Substituting this equation into the equation = U i i and omitting the subscript i, we have

Pi

N 2L 2 AE P

However, it is generally easier to perform the differentiation prior to summation. In the general case L, A and E are constant for a given member and therefore we may write

N L = N P AE

where = external joint displacement of truss to be determined P = external force applied to the truss in the direction of at joint where displacement is to be determined N = internal force in the member caused by both force P and the given loads on the truss (+ve for tension force, -ve for compression force) L = length of member A = cross sectional area of member E = Youngs modulus of member

21

Example (refer to page 330, example 8-23 in R. C. Hibbeler "Structural Analysis" SI Edition, Prentice Hall, 2005)

The internal bending strain energy for a beam or frame is given earlier as

Ui =

0

M 2 dx 2 EI

L

i =

L

dx EI

where = external displacement of the point caused by the real loads acting the beam/frame P = external force applied to the beam/frame in the direction at the location where the displacement is to be determined M = internal moment in the beam/frame, expressed as a function of x and caused by both the force P and the given loads. E = Youngs modulus of beam/frame I = moment of inertia of cross section area of beam/frame computed about neutral axis

22

Example (refer to page 335, example 8-26 in R. C. Hibbeler "Structural Analysis" SI Edition, Prentice Hall, 2005)

If the slope at a point is to be determined, we must find the partial derivative of the internal moment M with respect to an external moment M acting at the point, i.e.

M dx = M M EI 0

L

where = external rotation of the point caused by the real loads acting on the beam/frame M = external moment applied to the beam/frame in the direction of M = internal moment in the beam/frame, expressed as a function of x and caused by both the moment M and the given loads. E = Youngs modulus of beam/frame I = moment of inertia of cross-section area of beam/frame computed about neutral axis

23

Example (refer to page 336, example 8-27 and page 337, example 8-28 in R. C. Hibbeler "Structural Analysis" SI Edition, Prentice Hall, 2005)

24

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