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CHAPTER 2 INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS CHAPTER 2 INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS MEMORY CARD: MANUFACTURING OF CAUSTIC SODA, NaOH: Sodium

um hydroxide (or Caustic soda) is manufactured using Nelsons cell by the electrolysis of brine. Brine is a saturated solution of sodium chloride in water. Principle: Sodium hydroxide is manufactured by the electrolysis of brine. During electrolysis, H+ and Cl ions with lower discharge potential are evolved at the cathode and anode respectively. Na+ and OH ions which are not discharged combine to form sodium hydroxide. Reactions taking place during electrolysis o Ionisation: NaCl Na+ + Cl ; H2O H+ + OH + o At the cathode : 2H + 2e H2 o At the anode : 2Cl Cl2 + 2e + o Na + OH NaOH MANUFACTURING OF AMMONIA, NH3: Principle: Ammonia is manufactured by Habers process by direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen in the ratio 1:3 by volume. N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) 2NH3 (g) H = -92kJ

The reaction is reversible, exothermic and proceeds with decrease in volume. According to Le-Chateliers principle, the favourable conditions for the maximum yield of ammonia are: o A moderate temperature of 500oC o A high pressure of 200 atmospheres o Finely divided iron as a catalyst o Molybdenum(Mo) or Potassium oxide(K2O) or Aluminium oxide(Al2O3) as catalytic promoter o Removal of ammonia from the reaction mixture as soon as formed. Only 15 20% of the reaction mixture is converted into ammonia. MANUFACTURING OF SULPHURIC ACID, H2SO4: Principle: Manufacture of Sulphuric acid by Contact process is based on the oxidation of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide. 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2SO3 (g) H = -188kJ

The reaction is reversible, exothermic and proceeds with decrease in volume. According to Le-Chateliers principle, the favourable conditions for the maximum yield of sulphur trioxide are: o A moderate temperature of 450oC - 500oC o A moderate pressure of 2-3 atmospheres o Excess of air o Platinised asbestos or Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) as catalyst Sulphur trioxide is absorbed in Conc. H2SO4 to get Oleum or Fuming sulphuric acid (H2S2O7). Oleum is diluted with calculated amount of water to get 98% H2SO4 (i.e, conc. H2SO4) MANUFACTURING OF POTASSIUM DICHROMATE, K2Cr2O7: Potassium dichromate is manufactured from CHROMITE ORE, FeO.Cr2O3. in four stages 1. Concentration: by gravity separation method. 2. Roasting: Conversion of chromite ore into sodium chromate. 3. Conversion of sodium chromate into sodium dichromate. 4. Conversion of sodium dichromate into potassium dichromate.

ONE MARKS EACH


1. Sodium hydroxide pellets are stored in air-tight bottles. Give reason. A. It is highly hygroscopic & readily absorbs carbon dioxide from air. 2. Sodium hydroxide should not be touched with bare fingers. Give reason. A. Highly corrosive & hence corrode the skin converting it to pasty mass. 3. Name the products formed when sodium chloride is electrolysed in Nelsons cell. A. NaOH, Cl2 is liberated at anode and H2 is liberated at cathode. 4. Hydrogen gas is formed at the cathode in the Nelsons cell instead of sodium. Why? A. H+ ions having lower discharge potential are discharged at the cathode instead of sodium. 5. Asbestos lining is used in Nelsons cell. Why? A. To separate cathode and anode & hence prevents the recombination of products of electrolysis.

CHAPTER 2 INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS 6. How is sodium hydroxide purified? A. Sodium hydroxide is purified by dissolving in alcohol. Impurities like NaCl and Na2SO4 are insoluble in alcohol, are removed by filtration. Alcohol is evaporated to get pure NaOH. 7. Name the process used for the manufacture of ammonia. A. Habers process. 8. Name the promoter used in the manufacture of ammonia by Habers process. A. Molybdenum or K2O or Al2O3 is used as catalytic promoter. 9. High pressure is required for the synthesis of ammonia. Why? A. Manufacture ammonia from nitrogen & hydrogen is a reversible reaction & proceeds with decrease in volume. Hence high pressure is required. 10. What is the percentage of ammonia formed in the Habers process? A. 15-20% of reacting mixture is converted into ammonia. 11. How is ammonia separated from the product gases formed during Habers process? A. By cooling to -33.3oC liquid ammonia is formed (i.e, By cooling & condensing) 12. Name the catalyst used in the Contact process. A. Platinised asbestos or Vanadium pentoxide. 13. Gaseous mixture of sulphur dioxide & oxygen is thoroughly purified in Contact process. Why? A. If reactant gases are not pure, impurities associated with them easily poison the catalyst. 14. What happens when sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid? A. Oleum or Fuming sulphuric acid, H2S2O7 is formed. 15. How is oleum converted to sulphuric acid? A. Oleum is diluted with calculated amount of water to get 98% sulphuric acid. 16. Name the ore used in the manufacture of potassium dichromate. A. Chromite ore, FeO.Cr2O3. 17. Name the water soluble product formed when chromite ore is roasted with sodium carbonate & air. A. Sodium chromate, Na2CrO4 is formed. 18. Which colour is observed when potassium dichromate solution is mixed with potassium hydroxide? A. Yellow colour solution of potassium chromate is formed. 19. Which is the product formed when sulphuric acid is mixed with sugar. A. Carbon is formed by charring of sugar due to dehydration. 20. Name the radical detected by performing chromyl chloride test. A. Chloride radical is confirmed by chromyl chloride test. 21. What is meant by liquor ammonia? A. 100% ammonia obtained by condensing ammonia gas at -33.3oC 22. Ammonia cannot be dried with H2SO4 or P2O5. Why? A. Ammonia reacts with H2SO4 to form ammonium sulphate or with P2O5 to form Phosphoric acid. 23. Water is not used to absorb sulphur trioxide in Contact process. Why. A. Because it results in the formation of dense fog of the acid which is not absorbed by water. 24. What is meant by causticity? A. Corrosive action of bases like NaOH or KOH on skin is called causticity.

TWO MARKS EACH


1. Give any four uses of sodium hydroxide A. Sodium hydroxide is used; 1. as lab reagent in qualitative and quantitative analysis. 2. in the manufacture of soap, paper and artificial silk. 3. in the purification of Bauxite ore by Baeyers process. 4. in soda lime (NaOH + CaO) as decarboxylating agent. 2. Write any four uses of sulphuric acid. A. Sulphuric acid is used; 1. as lab reagent in qualitative and quantitative analysis. 2. in the manufacture of fertilizers. 3. in petroleum refining. 4. as a dehydrating and drying agent. 3. Write any four uses of ammonia. A. Ammonia is used; 1. as lab reagent in qualitative and quantitative analysis. 2. in the manufacture of fertilizers. 3. in the manufacturing of nitric acid and sodium carbonate. 4. as a coolant in refrigerators.

CHAPTER 2 INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS 4. Write any four uses of potassium dichromate. A. 1. as lab reagent in qualitative and quantitative analysis. 2. as an oxidising agent. 3. in chrome tanning of leather and as a mordant in dyes. 4. in chromyl chloride test for detection of chloride radical. 5. How do you convert potassium dichromate into potassium chromate? A. Potassium dichromate solution when heated with potassium hydroxide gives yellow solution of potassium chromate. K2Cr2O7 + 2KOH 2K2CrO4 + H2O 6. Explain dehydrating property of sulphuric acid with an example. A. Concentrated Sulphuric acid is powerful dehydrating agent as it removes elements of water from the substances containing hydrogen & oxygen. For example, sugar gets charred when conc. H2SO4 is added to it. C12H22O11 + 11H2SO4 12C + 11H2SO4.H2O 7. Explain oxidising property of potassium dichromate with an example. A. Potassium dichromate is powerful oxidising agent in acid medium as it provides nascent oxygen required for oxidation. Acidified potassium dichromate oxidises ferrous sulphate to ferric sulphate. K2Cr2O7 + 4H2SO4 K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + 4H2O + 3(O) [2FeSO4 + H2SO4 + (O) Fe2(SO4)3 + H2O] x 3 K2Cr2O7 + 7H2SO4 + 6FeSO4 K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + 3Fe2(SO4)3 + 7H2O 8. How do you prepare chromyl chloride? A. When potassium dichromate crystals are heated with soluble salts of chloride and conc. H2SO4, it gives red vapours of chromyl chloride. K2Cr2O7 + 4KCl + 6H2SO4 6KHSO4 + 2CrO2Cl2+ 3H2O 9. What is the reaction phosphorous pentachloride with sulphuric acid? A. Concentrated Sulphuric acid reacts with phosphorous pentachloride to give chlorosulphonic acid and sulphuryl chloride. HO SO2 OH + PCl5 HO SO2 Cl + POCl3 + HCl Chlorosulphonic acid HO SO2 OH + 2PCl5 Cl SO2 Cl + 2POCl3 + 2HCl Sulphuryl chloride 10. Explain the principles involved in the synthesis of ammonia by Habers process. A. Principle: Ammonia is manufactured by Habers process by direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen in the ratio 1:3 by volume. N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) 2NH3 (g) H = -92kJ According to Le-Chateliers principle, the favourable conditions for the maximum yield of ammonia are: o A moderate temperature of 500oC o A high pressure of 200 atmospheres o Finely divided iron as a catalyst o Molybdenum(Mo) or Potassium oxide(K2O) or Aluminium oxide(Al2O3) as catalytic promoter o Removal of ammonia from the reaction mixture as soon as formed. 11. What are the favourable conditions for the reaction 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 used in Contact process. A. According to Le-Chateliers principle, the favourable conditions for the maximum yield of sulphur trioxide are: o A moderate temperature of 450oC - 500oC o A moderate pressure of 2-3 atmospheres o Excess of air o Platinised asbestos or Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) as catalyst. 12. How is sulphur trioxide converted to sulphuric acid in Contact process? A. Sulphur trioxide is absorbed in conc. Sulphuric acid to get oleum or fuming sulphuric acid. SO3 + H2SO4 H2S2O7 Oleum Oleum is then diluted with calculated amount of water to get 98% sulphuric acid. H2S2O7 + H2O 2H2SO4 Oleum Sulphuric acid 13. Write the chemical equations for the reactions between: a. sulphur dioxide and potassium dichromate. b. conc. Sulphuric acid and cane sugar crystals. A. a. Potassium dichromate oxidises sulphur dioxide to sulphuric acid K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4 + 3SO2 K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + H2O b. Cane sugar gets dehydrated to carbon by concentrated sulphuric acid. C12H22O11 + 11H2SO4 12C + 11H2SO4.H2O 3

CHAPTER 2 INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS 14. Standard solution of sodium hydroxide cannot be prepared by direct weighing. Give reason. A. Sodium hydroxide is highly hygroscopic and absorbs carbon dioxide & hence the weight of sodium hydroxide is not the correct weight. Thus it is not primary standard. Hence, the solution of sodium hydroxide prepared is standardised by titrating against another standard solution. 15. When sodium hydroxide is exposed to air it becomes liquid and finally into white powder. Why? A. NaOH is highly deliquescent and absorbs moisture when exposed to air, so it becomes liquid. It further absorbs carbon dioxide of atmospheric air and forms sodium carbonate as a white solid. 16. Bottles containing liquor ammonia should be cooled before opening. Why? A. Liquor ammonia has a vapor pressure which varies with temperatures. At ambient temperatures, the vapor pressure of 26 Baume material just about equals atmospheric pressure. Hence, liquor ammonia should be stored in a closed container and kept cool, otherwise, the ammonia gas will come out of solution and the material strength will be reduced. 17. Ammonia has a pyramidal structure. Explain. A. The ammonia molecule has a trigonal pyramidal shape with a bond angle of 107.8, as predicted by the valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR theory). The central nitrogen atom has five outer electrons with an additional electron from each hydrogen atom. This gives a total of eight electrons, or four electron pairs that are arranged tetrahedrally. Three of these electron pairs are bond pairs, & one is lone pair of electrons. The lone pair of electrons repel more strongly than bond pairs, therefore the bond angle is not 109o28, as expected for a regular tetrahedral arrangement, but it is 107.8. 18. Explain chromyl chloride test. A. When potassium dichromate crystals are heated with soluble salts of chloride and conc. H2SO4, it gives red vapours of chromyl chloride. K2Cr2O7 + 4KCl + 6H2SO4 6KHSO4 + 2CrO2Cl2+ 3H2O When these vapours are passed through sodium hydroxide solution, it forms yellow solution of sodium chromate. CrO2Cl2 + 4NaOH Na2CrO4 + 2NaCl + 2H2O When the yellow solution is acidified and treated with lead acetate, it forms yellow ppt of lead chromate. This confirms the presence of chloride radical in a given inorganic salt. Na2CrO4 + (CH3COO)2Pb PbCrO4 + 2CH3COONa Yellow ppt 19. Chromate and dichromate ions are in equilibrium at pH = 4. Explain. A. In aqueous solution, chromate and dichromate anions exist in a chemical equilibrium. 2 CrO42 + 2 H+ Cr2O72 + H2O The predominance diagram shows that the position of the equilibrium depends on both pH and the analytical concentration of chromium. The chromate ion is the predominant species in alkaline solutions, but dichromate can become the predominant ion in acidic solutions. Hence at pH = 4, chromate and dichromate ions are in equilibrium. 20. Potassium dichromate is used as a primary standard whereas potassium permanganate is not. Give reason. A. Potassium dichromate is a primary standard because 100% pure potassium dichromate is available and its solution cannot be decomposed by organic matter present in distilled water. Hence, it retains the concentration for a long time and is used as a primary standard in volumetric analysis. 21. Show that equivalent weight of potassium dichromate is 1/6th of molecular weight in the acid medium. A. In the acid medium, one molecule of potassium dichromate provides 3 nascent oxygen atoms for oxidation. K2Cr2O7 + 4H2SO4 K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + 4H2O + 3(O) Hence, K2Cr2O7 3(O) 6 Equivalents of Oxygen. Therefore, Eq. mass of K2Cr2O7 = Molecular mass of K2Cr2O7 / 6. 22. When hydrogen sulphide is passed through potassium dichromate solution, a milky white turbidity is formed. Explain the reaction. A. When hydrogen sulphide gas is passed into acidified potassium dichromate solution hydrogen sulphide is oxidised to a pale yellow ppt of sulphur. Potassium dichromate is reduced to chromic sulphate. Hence, the orange colour of the solution turns green, which looks like milky white turbidity. K2Cr2O7 + 4H2SO4 K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + 4H2O + 3(O) [H2S + (O) H2O + S] x 3 K2Cr2O7 + 4H2SO4 + 3H2S K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + 3S + 7H2O 23. Zinc liberates hydrogen from cold dilute sulphuric acid but not from cold concentrated sulphuric acid. Give reason. A. Zinc reacts with dilute sulphuric acid to form zinc sulphate & hydrogen is liberated. Zn + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2 Whereas, Zinc reacts with conc. sulphuric acid to form zinc sulphate, water & sulphur dioxide gas is liberated, because conc. H2SO4 is an oxidising agent, hydrogen is not evolved instead water is formed. Zn + 2H2SO4 ZnSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O 4

CHAPTER 2 INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS 24. Potassium dichromate is used in volumetric analysis and not sodium dichromate. Why? A. Potassium dichromate is a primary standard because 100% pure potassium dichromate is available and its solution cannot be decomposed by organic matter present in distilled water. Hence, it retains the concentration for a long time and is used as a primary standard in volumetric analysis. THREE OR FOUR MARKS EACH 1. How is sodium hydroxide manufactured by Nelsons cell? A. Fresh brine Graphite Anode (+ve) H2 Gas Cl2 Gas Steel Cathode (-ve) Spent brine Cathode perforated steel tube Asbestos Diaphragm

Steam

Brine Solution Rectangular steel tank NaOH Solution Catch basin

PRINCIPLE: Sodium hydroxide is manufactured by the electrolysis of brine. During electrolysis, H+ and Cl ions with lower discharge potential are evolved at the cathode and anode respectively. Na+ and OH ions which are not discharged combine to form sodium hydroxide.

PROCESS: Nelsons cell consists of a rectangular steel tank. A perforated U-shaped steel tube is suspended in the tank and is the cathode. The U-tube is lined inside with asbestos. The asbestos lining acts as diaphragm. It separates the anode & cathode and prevents recombination of products of electrolysis. A saturated solution of sodium chloride (brine) is taken in the cell and is the electrolyte. A graphite rod is dipped into the electrolyte and it acts as the anode. On passing electric current, chlorine is liberated at the anode and hydrogen is liberated at the cathode. The reactions are; Ionisation: NaCl H2O At Cathode: At Anode: 2H + 2e 2Cl
+

Na+ + Cl H + OH H2 Cl2 + 2e NaOH


+

and

Na+ + OH

Solution of sodium hydroxide formed trickles through the pores of the cathode and collects in the catch basin. During electrolysis steam is passed into the outer tank. It keeps the electrolyte warm and increases conductivity of brine and also keeps pores of the U-tube clean. Solution of sodium hydroxide is evaporated to dryness. It is solidified in the form of pellets or flakes of 98% purity. It contains the impurities of NaCl and Na2SO4. PURIFICATION: Impure NaOH is dissolved in alcohol. Only sodium hydroxide dissolves leaving behind the impurities. It is filtered. The filtrate is evaporated to remove alcohol. Pure caustic soda obtained is fused at 430K and stored in air tight bottle.

CHAPTER 2 INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS 2. Explain the manufacture of ammonia by Habers process. Unreacted Gases Fe + Mo

Condenser

Water N2 H2 Compressor Convertor Recirculation Pump

Liquid Ammonia PRINCIPLE: Ammonia is manufactured by Habers process by direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen in the ratio 1:3 by volume. N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) 2NH3 (g) H = -92kJ

o o o o o

The reaction is reversible, exothermic and proceeds with decrease in volume. According to Le-Chateliers principle, the favourable conditions for the maximum yield of ammonia are: A moderate temperature of 500oC A high pressure of 200 atmospheres Finely divided iron as a catalyst Molybdenum(Mo) or Potassium oxide(K2O) or Aluminium oxide(Al2O3) as catalytic promoter Removal of ammonia from the reaction mixture as soon as formed. PROCESS:

1. COMPRESSION: A mixture of pure and dry nitrogen and hydrogen in the ratio 1:3 by volume is compressed to pressure of 200 atmospheres. 2. CONVERSION: The compressed gases are passed through a converter. The converter contains finely divided iron catalyst and a little of promoter. The converter is electrically heated to 500oC to start the reaction. Nitrogen combines with hydrogen to form ammonia. 500oC, 200 atm The reaction is exothermic and heat liberated maintains the required temperature and further heating is not required. About 15-20% of the reaction mixture is converted to ammonia. 3. COOLING: The mixture of gases is passed through a condenser. Ammonia gas condenses into liquid ammonia at 33.3oC. 4. RECYCLING: The unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen are recirculated by pumping back and mixed with fresh reacting gases. 3. Explain Contact process for the manufacture of sulphuric acid.
PURIFICATION UNIT

S or FeS2

S + O2 SO2

DUST CHAMBER

COOLING

SCRUBBER

COTTREL PRECIPITATOR

DRIER

TYNDALL BOX

2SO2 + O2 2SO3 OXIDATION TOWER (OR CONVERTER)

SO3 + H2SO4 H2S2O7 ABSORPTION TOWER

H2S2O7 + H2O 2H2SO4 DILUTION

98% H2SO4

FLOW CHART FOR MANUFACTURING OF SULPHURIC ACID BY CONTACT PROCESS

CHAPTER 2 INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS PRINCIPLE: Manufacture of Sulphuric acid by Contact process is based on the oxidation of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide. 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2SO3 (g) H = -188kJ The reaction is reversible, exothermic and proceeds with decrease in volume. According to Le-Chateliers principle, the favourable conditions for the maximum yield of sulphur trioxide are: o A moderate temperature of 450oC - 500oC o A moderate pressure of 2-3 atmospheres o Excess of air o Platinised asbestos or Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) as catalyst PROCESS: 1. SULPHUR BURNER: Sulphur or Iron pyrite is burnt in excess of air to form sulphur dioxide. S + O2 SO2 4FeS2 + 11O2 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2 2. PURIFICATION OF THE GASES: The mixture of sulphur dioxide and oxygen form the sulphur burner contains the impurities dust and arsenic oxide. These impurities easily poison the catalyst. Hence, the reacting gases are purified by passing through the purification unit as under; a. Dust Chamber : Steam condenses on dust particles which settle at the bottom. b. Scrubber : The gases are cooled & passed through scrubber where water removes the soluble impurities. c. Cottrell Precipitator: The colloidal impurities are removed by electrostatic precipitation. d. Drier : The gases are then dried by concentrated H2SO4 in the drier. e. Arsenic Purifier : It contains ferric hydroxide, which absorbs arseneous oxide impurities. f. Tyndall Box : The purity of the gases is tested here. A strong beam of light is sent into the box. If the path of the light (or gases) is invisible, the gases are pure and are sent forward. If the path of the light (or gases) is visible, the gases are impure. These are purified once again. 3. OXIDATION OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE: The pure and dry mixture of sulphur dioxide and oxygen is then preheated to 300oC and passed into a converter. The converter consists of iron pipes packed with platinised asbestos or V2O5 catalyst heated to 450oC. Sulphur dioxide is oxidised to sulphur trioxide. 450oC 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2SO3 (g) H = -188kJ Pt of V2O5 The heat liberated maintains the temperature of the catalyst. 4. ABSORPTION: Sulphur trioxide gas is passed into an absorption tower packed with quartz. Conc. H2SO4 is sprayed from the top. Fuming sulphuric acid (Oleum) collects at the bottom. SO3 + H2SO4 H2S2O7 Oleum Oleum is then diluted with calculated amount of water to get 98% sulphuric acid. H2S2O7 + H2O 2H2SO4 Oleum Sulphuric acid 4. How is potassium dichromate manufactured from chromite ore? A. Potassium dichromate is manufactured from chromite ore FeO.Cr2O3 in four stages 1. CONCENTRATION: Powdered chromite ore is concentrated by gravity separation method. Lighter gangue is carried away by water. Heavier ore particles are left behind. 2. ROASTING: CONVERSION OF CHROMITE ORE INTO SODIUM CHROMATE The concentrated ore is roasted with excess of sodium carbonate and air in a reverberatory furnace at 900-1000oC. Chromic oxide is converted to sodium chromate. 4FeO.Cr2O3 + 8Na2CO3 + 7O2 8Na2CrO4 + 2Fe2O3 + 8CO2 Roasted mass is extracted with hot water. A yellow solution of sodium chromate is obtained. Insoluble ferric oxide is filtered out. 3. CONVERSION OF SODIUM CHROMATE INTO SODIUM DICHROMATE: Sodium chromate solution is treated with calculated amount of conc. H2SO4. An orange red solution of sodium dichromate is formed along with sodium sulphate. 2Na2CrO4 + H2SO4 Na2Cr2O7 + Na2SO4 + H2O When the solution is concentrated and cooled, less soluble sodium sulphate (Na2SO4.10H2O) crystallizes out. It is separated by filtration. 4. CONVERSION OF SODIUM DICHROMATE INTO POTASSIUM DICHROMATE: The hot solution of sodium dichromate is treated with a calculated amount of potassium chloride. Sodium dichromate is converted into potassium dichromate. Na2Cr2O7 + 2KCl K2Cr2O7 + 2NaCl When the solution is concentrated, less soluble sodium chloride crystallizes out and is separated by filtration. Potassium dichromate separates as orange red crystals on cooling the mother liquor. 7