CHINA’S HARMONY RENAISSANCE WHAT THE WORLD MUST KNOW

BY FRANCIS C. W. FUNG, Ph.D.

WORLD HARMONY ORGANIZATION SERIES OF PUBLICATIONS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. FORWARD………………………………………………………………………… 1 II. ABOUT THE AUTHOR…………………………………………………………… 3 III. CHINA’S HARMONY RENAISSANCE -WHAT THE WORLD MUST KNOW……………………………………………4 IV. CHINESE HARMONY AND AMERICAN DEMOCRACY IN 21ST CENTURY……………………………….. 11 V. CHINESE HARMONY CULTURE OLD AND NEW, PROMISE FOR A LESS CONFRONTATIONAL WORLD?.................................. 25 VI. CHINESE HARMONY AND AMERICAN DEMOCRACY IN 21ST CENTURY(EXCERPT OF IV. PUBLISHED BY XINHUANET)………………. 55 VII. CHINESE HARMONY RENAISSANCE; CAN WORLD IGNORE IT? (EXCERPT OF III. PUBLISHED BY XINHUANET)…………………………… 63 VIII. AUTHOR’S PUBLICATION LIST……………………………………………... 68

FOREWARD
Unilateralism and cultural conflicts in the beginning of the 21st Century seem to be unstoppable in view of extremism between conflicting parties and the overwhelming U.S. media dominance around the globe. To those who yearn for diversity of culture and opinion in the United States, the American domination of world media and government policies have been stifling indeed. For fifty years the author lived as a minority in the U.S., after emigrating from Shanghai, China. During the last twenty years he feels the weight of U.S. unilateral world opinion through its constant impact on his family and community. Out of necessity he developed a long term kinship interest in Chinese ancient culture and current developments even though his U. S. education and professional career are in business and engineering. The recent rediscovery of ancient Chinese philosophies of balance and harmony in China cannot be timelier. The U.S. is badly in need of a dose of the gentle, tolerant and accepting Eastern philosophy that is the essence of Chinese wisdom. This can be particularly inviting for those who are truly interested in Chinese language, culture and world harmony. This primer on ancient Chinese harmony teaching can hopefully bring a glimmer of light to those hopeful that “The World of Harmony Will Surely Come”. China during the last one hundred and fifty years, ever since the Opium War, has been searching for its identity. The present Peoples Republic of China, rising from the plunder of Western and Japanese Imperialism, is only fifty seven years old. It is relatively young and short in terms of China’s glorious five thousand years of ancient history. For 2500 years China has benefited from the long tradition handed down from Laotze and Confucius which emphasized its rich cultural value in harmony teachings. It is this harmony culture that enabled China to survive changes in power, foreign invasions, internal strife, other struggles throughout its long history. Today, China has rediscovered its ancient heritage in the teachings of harmony, and, in doing so, China rediscovered itself. This is not unlike Europe’s rediscovery of ancient Greek democracy during the European Renaissance period after the Dark Ages that led to the Enlightenment and the spirit of America. The U.S. has had over 230 years since its independence to refine its democratic form of government. In the 21st century China’s harmony movement may reach out to the world to challenge U.S. democracy as more peaceful and accepting in a world of diverse cultures. Ultimately, the greater harmony philosophy can envelop democracy to bring viable alternatives for resolution of national and international conflicts. The U.S. must wake up to the fact that the Cold War era is over. Today, the common desire for the people of the world is development and harmony. China’s belief in world development and harmony gives it the platform to reach out on world stage. For 57 years, the United States has kept its moral high ground while relentlessly interfering in Chinese domestic affairs. By rediscovering its harmony heritage, China is returning to its cultural roots, and in doing so, regains this moral high ground. This will help to provide a balance to the dominance of world stage by the U.S. The advancement of harmony will reduce current world conflicts and confrontations. China is now actively engaging in discussions on the Harmony World, but unfortunately, the U.S. media has not reported these major events of Harmony Society and Harmony World discussions from China. The longing for peace, development, equality, justice, and other common values is shared by all nations, and is summed up by the Chinese world harmony belief system. This longing has great rallying power. It agrees with wishes of the entire world’s people, and agrees with tide of the times. That is why it has most of the world’s nations and people’s acceptance and support. Harmony as world belief which also reflects China’s determination to be a responsible major country in the world community. 1

China’s world harmony belief reflects its deep concern about current problems of world development. Today’s world discord is due largely to unilateralism, unbalanced development, different states of development, and new and old cultural differences. The harmony concept implies diversity; therefore, each nation can develop in its own unique cultural climate according to its state of development. Harmony will grow in the fertile soil of the diversity of the cultures of the world, spreading and contributing to the world harmony movement. Confucius said: “Jun Zi He Er Bu Tong, Xia Ren Tong Er Bu He” (Gentlemen can disagree and still have harmony; petty persons can agree and do not have harmony). World development cannot be dominated by one country. In an ancient Chinese saying, “one must allow one hundred flowers to bloom and one hundred schools of thought to contend.” Reaching for harmony, human development must be elevated to the highest level to benefit the whole world and all the people. Harmony world will earn the hearts of all the people in the world. It will become the common language and aspiration.

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR Francis C.W. Fung, Ph.D.
Dr. Fung originally came from Shanghai, China at age 16 by way of Hong Kong to study at Brown University during the 1950’s. He also attended Johns Hopkins University and University of Notre Dame culminating in a Ph. D. degree with major in aerospace engineering. His early career during the 1970’s included university teaching, aerospace industries (Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory) and ten years at National Institute of Technology (in energy conservation and fire safety research). During the 1980’s he returned to China by the invitation of Chinese Academic of Science to lecture at the Academy and Jiao Tong University in the fields of energy conservation. It was during this period he founded Finance and Technology Associates, a premier business consulting firm specialized in international technology transfer and commercialization. Among the U.S. companies he represented included Cooper Rolls (a joint venture between Cooper industries and Rolls Royce empower turbine technology), Combustion (Nuclear Power) Engineering and MTI (in energy conservation technology). Dr. Fung is a highly creative teaching and research oriented professional in engineering, technology transfer, international business development, Chinese ancient culture relevant to natural sciences and current events. He has published widely in areas of aerospace engineering, fire and safety, energy conservation and current events related to China’s modernization. Of late he has devoted his time to research and teaching on international business, Chinese ancient culture, Current China developments on ‘Scientific Development Concept’ and ‘Harmony Society and Harmony World’. Dr. Fung taught Multi-national Corporations and Joint Ventures in the International School of Business of San Francisco State University. By the recommendation of the SFSU Confucius Institute, he has submitted two foreign affairs papers for publication to NABE 2007, Feb conference. The theme of the conference is “One Nation: Many Languages and Cultures in a Changing World”. The two papers submitted are titled: “Chinese Harmony and American Democracy in 21st Century” and Chinese Harmony Culture Old and New, Promise for a Less Confrontational World?” Two of his recent world affairs harmony papers titled “Chinese harmony renaissance-Can world ignore it?” and an abridged version of previous two papers under the title “Chinese harmony and American democracy in 21st century” were published by Xinhuanet on Nov. 1 and Nov 2, 2006 and reprinted at the end of this book.

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(I)

CHINA’S HARMONY RENAISSANCE, WHAT THE WORLD MUST KNOW*
BY FRANCIS C. W. FUNG, PH.D. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT THE AUTHOR (I) CHINA’S HARMONY RENAISSANCE, CAN AMERICA IGNORE IT?

(II) CHINA’S HARMONY RENAISSANCE, HOW IT ALL BEGAN? (III) THE COMING OF THE HARMONY WORLD (IV) CHINESE HARMONY AS SYSTEM ENGINEERING BLUE PRINTS (V) THE ULTIMATE PRINCIPLE OF HARMONY

© Copyright: 2006, Francis C.W. Fung All rights reserved. Violation will be prosecuted

*This paper in an abridged form under a new title “Chinese harmony: Can world ignore it?” published by Xinhuanet on No. 2, 2006 is reprinted in full at the end of this book.

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(I)
CHINA’S HARMONY RENAISSANCE: CAN AMERICA IGNORE IT?
On Oct. 8, 2006 the Chinese government convened the sixth plenum of the 16th Chinese People’s Conference, Central Committee meeting to launch the National campaign to build a harmonious society. The resulting Harmony Communiqué is a system engineering blue print to guide China on its path of rejuvenation. It will be an arduous and long undertaking to build a harmonious socialist society in modern China, no less challenging to the CPC as the revolutionary “Long March” of Chinese history. Oct. 8, 2006 will be remembered as the most important milestone of China’s Harmony Renaissance. By rediscovering harmony culture, China is rediscovering its own rich ancient cultural harmony traditions. It is of similar in importance to Europe’s Renaissance after the rediscovery of ancient Greek culture. China’s harmony development will herald a brand new period of vitality and national spirit as the country enters a new period of sustainable development. By developing its own harmony society, China becomes the standard bearer of a harmony world. Harmony, as taught by Chinese ancients, embraces ideas of democracy as a way of conflict resolution between the ruler and the ruled. China has practiced harmony as a way of life since Laotze and Confucius for at least 2500 years. In contrast, American Democracy is only 230 years old, developing after Independence, and borrowing from the traditions of European Enlightenment. As China’s Harmony Socialism wins gradual international recognition, it will provide an alternative model to American-style Democracy as the leading 21st century governance system. To keep its position as the most influential political and cultural leading country of the world America cannot afford to overlook the 21st century Chinese Harmony Society and Harmony World development herald by China’s Harmony Renaissance. The consequence could be the isolation and unwitting fall of the greatest military and economic empire of our time through its inability to keep up with the pace of world harmony consensus. The mightiest American military power cannot dictate world order any longer, as is exemplified by the Iraqi War, and the Iran and North Korea nuclear confrontations. The overwhelming desires of developing countries for common development are closing the curtains on the world of international power politics. The world will be caught up in the surging tide of common development and harmony conversion. The Harmony World of unity in diversity of world cultures and governance systems will surely come. Harmony will give China a place on the world stage to express its ancient heritage and the moral high ground to challenge the U.S. leadership in international relations. For over fifty years America interfered in China’s domestic affairs in the name of democracy. Now harmony contains democracy ideals also as conflict resolution government and its citizens. The table will be turned between the West and China during the 21st century. Since the Opium War, over 150 years ago, China finally able to raise its head and stand up against the West. By doing so, China will have the unity and vitality to continue its sustainable reform and opening up to a new era.

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(II)
CHINA’S HARMONY RENAISSANCE, HOW IT ALL BEGAN?
The Sixth Plenum meeting from October 8 to 11, 2006 was a major Chinese government national meeting to discuss major policy decisions to launch a national campaign to build a harmonious society.* In terms of its impact on the future Chinese society and the future world, policies announced during this meeting will have a longer lasting effect than China’s recent policies of reform and opening up. These policies, initiated under the guidance of Deng Xiao Ping, led to profound benefits for China and the world, but the nation is ready for the next step in its process of transformation. By comparison, the October 8 meeting provided the needed national spirit of harmony which continues on the success of the Scientific Concept of Development launched during 2002. This new spirit is built on the essence of ancient Chinese teachings of harmony which remains unparalleled for its richness in the world. Due to the rapid expansion of economic and industrial activities, China, over the past twenty some years, has developed from an egalitarian society to a society of unbalanced wealth distribution, and from a self-sufficient society to one, like other developed nations, that depends heavily on outside energy and other material resources. The Scientific Development Concept was thus conceived by the Chinese leaders in 2002 to provide a blueprint for a long term sustainable development. In time, this blueprint is expanded to include also all old and new conflicts in China’s grand modernization. Harmony being China’s dominant philosophy for 2500 years it is no surprise, despite the onslaught of Western culture for the last two hundred years China rediscovered its ancient heritage. This is not unlike the return of harmony philosophy to the golden Han dynasty after the Spring and Autumn Warring States period. In the fertile soil of Chinese harmony garden after Chinese leaders called for Harmony Society development, ideas of harmony spread like wild fire. Creative ideas of Harmony Society from government officials, intellectuals, think tanks, academicians and the general public is currently sweeping through the country. We may once again witness a major New Harmony movement excelling the ancient teachings of ancient harmony that has guided China for the last 2500 years. A true period of led hundred flowers bloom and hundred schools content may be in the making surpassing the Spring and Autumn period debates in scope and magnitude. This time the Chinese culture may take a leap into the future World of Harmony.


*

In this paper all news on China current events are directly obtained from Xinhua and People’s Daily websites.

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(III) THE COMING OF THE HARMONY WORLD
In today’s world of extreme disparity among nations, need for international economic and political change is driven by: the widening gap in stages of development, the increase of injustice in world order, and the growth of clashes between civilizations. As seen in the recent unilateral Iraq War, the crisis in Sudan, and the nuclear confrontation with North Korea and Iran, the world is hastening towards confrontation. Written in Chinese characters, the term, “crisis” is composed of the opposing elements, “danger” and “opportunity”. In Chinese harmony belief, the opposition of Ying and the Yang, or the strong and the gentle, are in constant contest. When Ying and Yang are in balance, harmony is reached, as is illustrated by the Daoist double fish circle of life. When viewed as a globe the Ying envelops the Yang as the outside shell. Laotze’s philosophy of renunciation of force is also reflected in forming Chinese words. The word “martial” in Chinese means “stop the use of weapons”. The word “war” in Chinese means “imbalance of weaponry”. When country specific harmony societies grow in their own fertile soil with distinctive cultural characteristics, World Harmony will surely spread. Each society will have its own appropriate harmony theory and practices reflecting the wide differences in states of development, needs and culture. For harmony to take root, basic needs must be met, and the society must be equitable, social order must work smoothly, cultural values must have sustaining power, and the mobility of different stratum in society should be assured. Indices such as Happiness, Harmony, Environment, Rural and Urban must be customized according to each country’s will and development. Great debates are happening today in China over whether Socialism with Chinese characteristics become Socialism with Chinese harmony. This direct definition was posted by the author for the first time ever in the media. In the last couple of years China has extended the philosophy of Harmony to the practice of international relations, from Harmony Society to Harmony Region and Harmony World. In doing so, China, as one of the world’s ancient civilized nations, is expressing to the world its choice and determination to travel the road of peace and development. Harmony as the core of Chinese traditional cultural belief, reflects the concepts of appropriate and properly balanced relationships between man and man, man and nature, man and society and harmony among nations. In fact Harmony Society and Harmony World are manifestations of ancient Chinese cultural values as explained in author’s separate papers. Western cultures, in contrast to the East, tend to emphasize conflict rather than harmony, personal, national, and world affairs in terms of good and evil, right and wrong. God must triumph over the Devil, good over the bad, and the individual struggles to conquer sin and redeem his soul. Armies fight with the conviction that God is on their side, and leaders, like George Bush, call upon believers to support them in righteous wars. The powerful U.S. media, adhering to the same tenants, does not report contrasting views. Thus, Western nations, most notably the United States today, justify aggression through their own self righteousness, convincing themselves that they are duty bound to change or eliminate hostile countries that do not adhere to Western principles. Rather than accepting differences they attempt to destroy differences to achieve uniformity in international political ideology. In such an atmosphere, international relations become power politics, with the assumption that new democracies that arise will be fashioned in the mold of American and Western European systems. 7

In China today foreign policy is an extension of domestic policy and, at the same time, serves domestic policy. Hu Jintao, President of China, pointed out, China must “Closely connect our development with the progress of mankind. Develop our self through maintaining world peace and at the same time through our own development to promote world peace”. The Chinese government has officially stated the central ideas of Harmony China and Harmony World as: China wants to build a harmony society of “democracy and rule of law, justice and righteousness, trustworthiness and friendliness, full of vitality, stable and orderly, a society of man and nature in harmony”. A Harmony World envisioned by China is “adherence to multilateralism, realization of mutual security, adherence to mutually beneficial cooperation, realization of mutual prosperity, adherence to the spirit of tolerance and building a Harmony World together”. President Hu Jintao, on April 22, 2005, when attending the Asian African Summit meeting, suggested that “promoting friendship among different cultures, equal dialogue, develop common prosperity and together build a harmony world”. This was the first time the concept of Harmony World appeared on the world stage. Two months later on July 1st, 2005, President Hu Jintao visited Moscow. Harmony World was written into the China Russian 21st Century World Order Joint Communiqué”. For the first time World Harmony was recognized as common policy belief between two major countries. This marks the new World Harmony concept’s gradual entrance into the vision of a world society. Chinese leaders thoughts on World Harmony were quickly deepening, for two months later, on September 15, 2005, President Hu Jintao gave a speech at the United Nation General Assembly in which he detailed the deep contents of World Harmony. Participants of the meeting gave the speech a resounding response, and world media also gave the speech heightened notice and positive evaluation. It is generally considered that China as a major responsible country is transmitting to the world its longing for peaceful world development. The speech also served to relate China’s message to build a peaceful, prosperous and Harmony World together with the rest of the world. Harmonious and cooperative China stands ready to work for sustainable and long lasting peace and mutual prosperity with the rest of the world.

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(IV) CHINESE HARMONY AS SYSTEM ENGINEERING BLUE PRINT
China’s cultural contribution to the world is the harmony philosophy just as Europe and America are the breeding grounds for democracy. This comparative evaluation of both cultures is detailed by the author’s paper titled “Chinese Harmony and American Democracy in 21st Century”. China for most of its 5000 years of recorded culture was an agricultural society, in contrast to Europeans, most of whom were descendants from pastoral nomads. As a continuing ancient culture China was firmly rooted to cultivating the land handed down through the generations. This dependency on agriculture led to an inclination to harmonize with nature rather than to challenge nature. The order of nature is harmony with Ying and Yang in dynamic balance as taught by Laotze. As a result harmony philosophy grew in the fertile land of this Middle Kingdom until it was challenged by Western democracy as late as the 1900’s. Chinese ancient culture, rich in harmony teaching begun 2500 years ago by Laotze and Confucius, was preserved and handed down with continuing refinement until modern times. Laotze’s instructions of harmony were rooted in observation of the origin of the universe and natural science. His philosophy of human activity harmonizing with nature was all embracing, including the practice of FENG SHUI (living with nature), physical science, agriculture and Chinese ancient medical practice. Chinese medical practice is holistic, based on the belief that biological systems must maintain internal balance to be healthy. The goal of treatment is to restore the balance of opposing forces in this total system. This led to the belief that human biological systems, society, and nations are constantly in an influx of ever changing contending forces. Harmony is achieved when the contending forces come to a balance or mutual acceptance under a certain set of conditions. All systems are constantly shifting, complex, and seldom just black and white (or in western terms, good or bad). This concept of harmony is just as fitting in today’s complex world and society as it was during the time of Laotze. Confucius’ teaching comprises social systems including: man with himself, man between men, man and society and relations between groups and countries. This includes harmony between government and its citizens, which means that democracy is part of harmony system analysis. In keeping with Chinese harmony philosophy, balance is achieved through self discipline, high moral value, social order rather than strict law and penal system. The use of physical force is to be avoided, and employed only as a last resort. Harmony Society discussions in today’s China under the present leadership are returning to the old roots of system analysis and ever changing balance of major forces in a changing world. This is based on the very nature of Chinese peoples’ longing for harmony and the ancient teaching of tolerance, acceptance and equity. Both Laotze and Confucius teachings were comprehensive system engineering analyses of Harmony for ancient China, and the Communique is a system analysis of Socialism with Chinese characteristics for today’s China.

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(V) THE ULTIMATE PRINCIPLE OF HARMONY
The ultimate principle of Chinese ancient principles, as expounded by LAOTZE in DAO DE JING, is the balance of YING and YANG but ultimately YING envelopes YANG and is beautifully illustrated in the Daoist circle sign of life. In our three dimensional world the Daoist circular sign actually is a sphere with the outside covered by a dark shell. In Section Forty Two of LAOTZE’s DAO DE JING it states that ”DAO SHENG YI, YI SHENG ER, ER SHENG SAN, SAN SHENG WAN WU. WAN WU FU YING ER BAO YANG, CHONG CHI YI WEI HE.” In Qin Nanji’s publication “Brief History of the Universe’s Origin” (private communication), this sentence is interpreted as Negative (dark) energy created proton, proton created neutron and meson, that in turn created DNA, together all life and matter were created in the universe. Parts of this interpretation by Qin Nanji, remain to be tested and discussed for its validity. However it is known observation today that dark energy represents over eighty percent of the universe and visible matter is the smaller remaining part. The second sentence in above quoted from DAO DE JING however, clearly stated that all matters carry YING but YING envelops Yang, and when Ying and Yang is in dynamic balance harmony is produced. This general theme of YING over YANG runs through DAO DE JING. To name a few images from DAO DE JING; soft overcomes the hard like dripping water eventually bores a hole in the hardest rock, water flows over and immerses that blocks it. Water representing Ying can both float and sink a boat. Harmony represents soft power to resolve conflicts as opposed to warfare which represents hard power. In today’s conflicting world one model of democracy cannot be forced on other nations of different cultures and at different developing stages. Democracy works best by softly and patiently winning over the hearts and minds of people. Countering extremism by extremism is bound to lead to ultimate destruction of both sides. The best way to resolve conflicts is to bring harmony to the confronting parties. This can start by understanding the differences in cultural understandings and causes of conflicts through mutual respect, trust, tolerance and acceptance. Confucius said “JUN ZI HE ER BU TONG, XIAO REN TONG ER BU HE” which means that gentlemen place harmony above ideological differences, and petty people fight for ideology differences. “HAI NAI BEI CHUAN, YU YONG NAI DA”( The sea takes in hundreds of rivers, it can be big only if it contains). World harmony will surely come.

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CHINESE HARMONY AND AMERICAN DEMOCRACY IN 21ST CENTURY
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT (I) (II) HUMAN CIVILIZATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF HARMONY ANCIENT AND PAST HARMONY DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES

(III) BEGINNING OF MAJOR WORLD RELIGIONS (IV) DEMOCRACY AS ENLIGHTENMENT MOVEMENT IN THE WEST (V) HARMONY THE DOMINANT PHILOSOPHY OF ANCIENT CHINA (VI) HARMONY AS TAUGHT BY LAOTZE AND CONFUCIUS (VII) EAST AND WEST CULTURAL TEMPERAMENT DIFFERENCE (VIII) HARMONY AND DEMOCRACY AT THE BEGINNING OF 21ST CENTURY (IX) THE ULTIMATE PRINCIPLE OF HARMONY © Copyright: 2006, Francis C.W. Fung All rights reserved. Violation will be prosecuted

CHINESE HARMONY AND AMERICAN DEMOCRACY IN 21ST*CENTURY*
By Francis C. W. Fung, Ph. D.

ABSTRACT*
The motivation to study Chinese language and culture goes far beyond the economic successes of greater China as a global business language. As the ancient world culture with the longest uninterrupted historical record, the richness of China’s teachings of harmony as a dominant philosophy is unparalleled. China is going through dramatic changes in adjusting to the conflicts of the new and the old. To address the multitude of domestic and international conflicts, China has resurrected the ancient teachings of Confucius, and has rediscovered itself with renewed hope of achieving a Harmonious Society and Harmonious World. The teaching of Chinese culture cannot depart from teachings of harmony. It is the essence of Chinese teachings and heritage to the world. Adherence to the harmony philosophy has ensured the survival of Chinese culture through the ages, despite past foreign occupation and the challenge of Western modernity. Confucius harmony is thought provoking and easily learned.

* Paper submitted to 2007 National Association for Bilingual Education Meeting, Feb. 7-10, San Jose, CA. One Nation: Many Languages and Cultures in a Changing World. All rights reserved. Any distribution or publication must by author’s prior written permission.

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Examples are Li Tze Yong, He Wei Gui (In ceremony, harmony is prized) and Jun Zi He Er Bu Tong, Xiao Ren Tong Er Bu He (Unity in diversity is above uniformity). From the perspective of harmony, three major movements of human civilization are religion, democracy and harmony. Today’s world is in great disharmony with religion conflicts, international inequity, and the disparity between North and South. To lead us out of this convulsion we must look beyond religion and democracy to harmony as the basis of equality, mutual respect, tolerance and acceptance. Harmony envelops democracy, yet as basic human longing it is not institutionalized. The spread of harmony has been uniquely peaceful compared to religion and democracy. Will harmony bring a more moderate future world? American democracy faces the challenge of Chinese harmony as the leading global philosophy in the 21st century. Teaching harmony in U.S. is paramount.

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(I)
HUMAN CIVILIZATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF HARMONY DEVELOPMENT
From the perspective of harmony, human civilization is the progress of relationship conflict resolutions between; 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Human and nature (birth of religions etc) Human and human (philosophy, religious and moral teachings) Members of a group (family, tribes and nomads morals and codes and standards) Citizens to society at large (philosophy, values teaching and imposition of laws) Rulers and the ruled (hierarchy social structure, elite values and government propaganda, democracy development) 6) Clashes between religions (such as current clash between Muslim and western values) 7) Ideology contests (socialism and capitalism, democracy vs. broader harmony) 8) Dependence and Independence development between national blocks (Developed, undeveloped, developing, poor and rich) Above is a list indicating by way of illustration, only some of the major outstanding issues in conflict resolution and achieving harmony. The following in the interest of leading to a current universal harmony exposition, only major world harmony development movements will be summarized. They are also past global harmony movements that have by far the major repercussions on human civilization.

(II) ANCIENT AND PAST HARMONY APPROACHES
From time immemorial humans had to cope with nature, the need of shelter and the fear of nature’s extreme furor. This fear was as natural as nature itself and a solution was paramount from the outset. Obvious approaches to addressing this issue were: acceptance of life, submission to the will of God to placate nature, harmonizing with nature, and persevering as best as one could. These approaches were combined, at times, for expediency. As civilization progressed, and local and global societies became more complex and conflicting issues prolific, more harmony solutions were needed. To deal with these prolific issues four Global movements, as far as we can ascertain, have dominated. These historical developments seem to have originated regionally and spread worldwide. The historical developments so far; are acceptance of life in primitive cultures, formation and development of religion, philosophies of harmonies with nature and society, the propagation of religion and ideology.

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(III) BEGINNING OF MODERN WORLD RELIGIONS
As far as one can ascertain the major world religions practiced today originated from the mystic East and can be narrowed to Central Asia along the silk-road including India and the middle East. There seems to be continuity in development from the earliest religion to the latest. The following is a short introduction of origin of modern religion as mankind’s effort to harmonize with nature. One might surmise that organized religions are human’s group effort to harmonize with nature by submitting to the will of God. There are reasons perhaps to accept the speculation that certain cultures may be more spiritual from a religious view point, although some cultures have defined spirituality from a moral value view point. The Christian religion, following the Jewish faith, originated from Middle East, opened up a long tradition of Western religions including the Catholic Faith and the many other sects of Christianity. Subsequently, European and the American organized religions spread Christianity world wide. Buddhism originated in India and propagated to China beginning in the Han Dynasty (1st century). At the height of China’s Tang Dynasty (7th century), the Tang monk, Xuanzang, took a seven year long journey to India and brought back original Sanskrit scripture, reinvigorating China’s interest in Buddhism. Incidentally, today Buddhism has vanished in India but flourished in Japan, Korea and Southeast Asia by spreading from China. On his return Xuanzang dedicated the rest of his life to translating the Sanskrit scripture. His translation has become valuable documentation in recovering parts of lost Buddhism and Indian Culture. All religions offer the faithful harmony to nature and God and peace of mind. As distinction, the Jewish Faith prides itself on the Ten Commandments of Moses; the Christian faith is firmly rooted in the concept of human original sin and of love and forgiveness from God. On the other hand, Islam preaches strong justice. Buddhists practice detachment, which seems to suit East Asian beliefs. Though religions could be all embracing and unifying, each faction feels the threat of the other religions. Religions soothed fear of nature and death, but in themselves, created a great deal of conflict and distrust because of human intolerance. This conflict has persisted throughout history. Many inter-religious wars were fought as exemplified by the ten year Christian crusade to conquer the Middle East. Today we are at the threshold of another Islamic and Western culture clash. The Baha’i Faith, a late major religion, approximately one hundred and fifty years old, is now on the scene. It was an off spring from Islam in Persia (modern day Iran), and grew out of conflict with Islam. This development reminds us of the evolution of Christianity from the Jewish Faith. The Baha’i Faith in its short history has spread over all continents, a feat which took the Christian faith close to two thousand years of well organized propagation. The attractiveness of the Baha’i Faith lies in the themes of unity between all religions, between man and woman and between God, between science and the spiritual, and in the elimination of extreme poverty. It attempts to unify major religions by preaching one God and progressive revelation to connect founders of all religions as from one and only one universal God for all mankind. As noble as it may be, so far the Baha’i Faith has yet to unite all major religions. The Baha’i theme of unity of religion fell short of the broader harmony philosophy as discussed here. Two curious facts remain in the development of the Baha’i Faith. First, the Baha’i Faith again originated from the East as did other major religions. Second, the fear of the threat of one religion from another religion remained as each faith continued to reject the harmony philosophy of moderation, tolerance, equality and acceptance. 14

(IV) DEMOCRACY AS ENLIGHTENMENT MOVEMENT IN THE WEST
Democracy grew out of the Age of Enlightenment in Europe (1600 to 1789), a movement to resolve the conflicts between the ruler and the ruled in France and England. Its philosophy was against superstition, encouraging development of science, and against easy acceptance of authority. Two leading philosophers of the time were the Frenchman, Rousseau, and the Englishman, John Lock. The first was regarded as more radical and the second was more practical. That may explain why the French movement led to violent revolution which over threw the French monarchy, and the British democracy movement went through peaceful constitutional reform. The United States of America, formerly a colony of England, defeated the occupier and declared Independence on 1776 during the Age of Enlightenment. The early new citizens being immigrants of Europe, were quick to adopt the ideas of liberty, fraternity and democracy. As a result, the drafters of the US constitution and Bill of Rights that guaranteed citizen rights were heavily influenced by Rousseau and John Lock. Many elements of the present day US government including theory, structure and policy were penned by Thomas Jefferson, an original signer of the US Constitution and Bill of Rights. The documents spelled out the rights and duties of the citizen, majority rule and the separation of powers. These harmonizing concepts were a great influence on today’s governments. The drafting of a constitution for new governments is today a standard fare. The leaders of the US government then and still now are mostly aristocrats or elites of the society. From the very beginning there were two opposing forces, the powerful at one end and the masses at the other, which see-saw through out the entire relatively short US history. This is exemplified by President McKinley at the turn of the nineteenth century, who was an out and out capitalist. He was assassinated for his polices which favored the wealthy classes at the expense of the common man. President Teddy Roosevelt, nicknamed the “trust buster”, rolled back the business excesses caused by McKinley’s policies. The 1930’s depression years caused were suffering among the masses which led to massive labor unrest. As a result, President F.D. Roosevelt implemented the New Deal economic policy to redress the mass suffering. Although American citizens have more freedom of choice in life in relation to other societies of today, true democracy of equality and mass representation on important issues remains elusive. Today the US media is owned by a few big businesses, and is easily influenced by the government and big business. In foreign policy especially, media self censorship is prevalent and political correctness is the name of the game. As discussed under international democracy, the powerful US media over shadows world media. Despite freedom of press and freedom of speech, US citizens are not fully aware of real world opinion towards the US. US foreign policy is again controlled by minority elite supporting the government. In its eagerness to export democracy as an ideology supported by the U.S. military, media and elite, US approaches can be inflexible and doctrinaire. Often democracy is touted as transparent and peaceful. Attempts to export the democracy model between government and citizens in this case have the opposite effect of causing world disharmony. This is seen in the US unilateral Iraq war that has exasperated US population and the world. All wars of aggression of modern times were launched with high sounding goals necessary for the morale of the invading forces. 15

(V) DOMINANT PHILOSOPHY OF ANCIENT CHINA
In the following, PIN YIN will be used along with English equivalent explanation for important Chinese terms so that readers of Chinese can relate to the original Chinese characters. This is necessary because the need to retain the power and flavor of ancient Chinese writing. Also PIN YIN has become the supplementary language for Chinese minorities and foreigners who learn Chinese. The best reference for Chinese history and ancient Chinese teachings is ZHONG GUO TONG SE by Fan Wenlan. This is an eight volume compilation of Chinese history and culture from ancient times to MIN GUO. This was a major undertaking of its kind. It took the author a lifetime. Most was compiled between 1940 and 1950, a very difficult period for China. This is a source book for this paper, but other reference on LAOTZE and Confucius are readily available by Googling these classic texts on Internet. All quotations of Confucius teachings are from SHI SHU WU JING (the four classics and the five scripture). The four Confucius classics are LUN YU, ZHONG YONG, DA SUE, MENCIUS. Throughout China’s long history as an ancient culture, unlike the Middle East, it did not produce a religion of world importance, and unlike the West it did not produce a comprehensive home grown democracy system to resolve conflicts between the ruler and the ruled. China obviously, however, had notions of religion and democracy, when Confucius admonished his followers to respect God but keep a distance, and Mencius advocated good government and put citizens above the rulers. Instead, through considerable debate and evolution, China settled on the philosophies of CHUNG YUN, HE XIE (moderation, harmony) and hierarchy social structures. Family and social order were promoted by emphasizing SAN GANG WU CHANG, REN, YI , LI , ZHI, XIN (the three important relations in the order of: ruler and the ruled, father and children, husband and wife and five basic societal moral values) and LUN LI DAO DE (family and moral values). More explanations of these ancient Chinese harmony and related ancient teachings will be followed in the next section. This system of profuse teaching was drilled into students from Day One and all through a scholar’s life. Youngsters’ first standard reading text was SAN TZE JING (a simple rhyme of Confucius teaching). To be recited by students word for word (my children still cut their teeth on Chinese characters, and Chinese words with this text during 1990’s in Taiwan). The moderation and harmony philosophy reinforced by morals and values as a social system was very different from the Western democracy concepts of citizen rights and duties enforced by law and order. Ancient China did practice laws, but sparsely, when compared to the comprehensive European laws and the complex and voluminous US case study system. The strength of US modern culture lies in the implementation of Government and law practices, and not merely in its democratic ideology. The ideal of democracy, as harmony between government, society and citizens, is universally accepted by today world. It will take time for the developing countries to grow their own appropriate democratic system in their own soil. Harmony as seen from ancient Chinese philosophy, included the practices of acceptance, tolerance, mutual respect, equality and patience, but not the use of heavy penal correction. China, as a huge ancient country, was divided into many kingdoms as Europe is today. It was united two thousand years ago under Qin Shi Huang Di (Qin the first Emperor). Under the ancient system, as explained above, a loose unity existed in China for two thousand years, despite repeated invasion by the Xiong Nu, Jing, Mongols and Manchu. Its resilient culture survived intact until it was severely challenged by the Western expansionism and industrial revolution at the end of Manchu Dynasty. Today the challenge to Chinese Culture from the West is in the form of Western Democratic ideology. Prior to Qin Dynasty, during Warring 16

States period, major philosophies were fighting it out. This led to BAI HUA CHI FAN, BAI JIA CHI MING (let hundred flowers bloom, hundred schools contend). In the end, LAOTZE and Confucius triumphed. This all happened before the time of Christ. Without disrespect to God and nature, the prolific creation of religion and philosophies in the Middle East, South Asia to Confucius. From the previous discussions one may characterize the three major world approaches of basic societal harmony and order as: Eastern origin religion order, Western Democracy and law, and Chinese moral values combined with hierarchy society order. In reality, in any society the three approaches are combined with various changing importance in practice. For the complex modern society of today the importance of law and order is on the rise. In some societies challenged by Western democracy and materialism, religious fundamentalism is also on the rise in opposition to Western influence. But societal harmony for the future as global interactions expands, is perhaps best served by an appropriate balance of the three approaches. This development will call for more genuine exchange and dialogue between world cultures. For the past two centuries the cultural flow has predominantly from West to East. The wisdom of five thousand years of ancient Chinese culture of harmony and moral values had provided long term stability and survival, cannot be easily dismissed.

(VI) HARMONY AS TAUGHT BY LAOTZE AND CONFUCIUS
As a start harmony was taught by the sages as the practices of acceptance, tolerance, mutual respect, equality and patience. This is HAI NA BEI CHUAN, YU YONG NAI DA (a society that accepts and contains outside contribution will grow. The essence of the implementation process, according to Confucius is XIU SHEN QI JIA ZI GUO PING TIEN XIA (discipline oneself, harmony at home, order in the country before extending peace to the world). As we proceed, all following concepts of harmony were from LAOTZE, Confucius and Confucius’ students’ teachings. All original quotations will be quoted here in PINYIN for those who know Chinese characters. In time PINYIN could be come a complementary Chinese language for non native speakers of Chinese. LAOTZE teachings are primarily from DAO DE JING or DAO YUEN JING, attributed to him. There were no records of students of LAOTZE although Confucius supposedly had sought advice from LAOTZE. According to LAOTZE, the universe was created from YING or negative (dark) energy. From this infinite negative or dark energy all matter and galaxies were created. This includes the earth and the solar system. A brief history of the origin of universe according to Qin Nanji’s interpretation of LAOTZE’S DAO YUEN JING, explains the relation between LAOTZE and modern quantum physics (to be published). From the YING comes the Yang. YING and YANG for a harmonious society and world normally exist in balance as beautifully represented in the Daoist circle sign. The YANG and Ying entwine in the Daoist circle in perfect harmony and beauty. In a three dimensional world the Daoist circle is a sphere with the YING enclosing both the YING and YANG on the outside surface. LAOTZE always emphasized that YING embraces YANG, the soft ultimately overcomes the hard when harmony is not achieved. His philosophy renounced war and advocated balance, harmony and peace. 17

As mentioned above LAOTZE preached HE HE (harmony and together) as in HE HE ER XEN (two immortals of harmony and togetherness) and TIEN REN HE YI (heaven and men unity). China throughout history was predominantly an agricultural society. LAOTZE’s philosophy of harmony with heaven and nature was well accepted by the Chinese. The idea of YING YANG balance also became the guiding philosophy of traditional Chinese medicine. After the Qin and Han dynasties the philosophy of HE HE was widely applied. It penetrated all schools of thoughts and all subsequent historical periods. It became gradually accepted and agreed upon as the cultural spirit of the Chinese thought. Throughout two millennia of Chinese culture, Confucius and his students continued to exert a strong influence on Chinese thinking. Even when conflict and contradiction of ideas were unavoidable, the philosophy of harmony and ZHONG YUN TZE DAO (the Way of the Golden Mean) continued to advise moderation and avoidance of extreme. Challenged by Western cultural and military advances during the last two centuries, China’s traditional thinking was shaken to the core. Today, under reform and opening up, Chinese society is undergoing profound changes on many fronts. In the shifting social structure, promulgation of many new laws is taking place to change to more responsive governance by incorporating US and Western ideas and experience. In its search for a model society appropriate to the Chinese nation, there have been continuing discussions and debates. Faced with today’s global ideology and religious conflicts, unilateralism, and extreme unequal parity of rich and poor between North and South, the harmony philosophy is rediscovered in China. Like fresh air the ancient teachings of LAOTZE and Confucius are coming back, China is rediscovering itself. The Chinese are again quoting ancient harmony teachings. We hear phrases such as LI TZE YONG, HE WEI GUI (in applying courtesy, harmony is most important), JUN ZI HE ER BU TONG, XIAO REN TONG ER BU HE (gentlemen can have harmony and disagree, little people can agree and still does not have harmony). In the recent Chinese media we have begun to see discussion of ideas such as HE XIE SHE HUI (Harmony society) and HE XIE SHI JIE (harmony world).

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(VII) EAST AND WEST CULTURAL TEMPERAMENT DIFFERENCE
The outward expression of LAOTZE’s and Confucius’ influence on Far Eastern culture can easily be seen as a result of HE and LI (harmony and ceremony). Their operas are more formalistic such as KUNQU and KABUKI performances. There are numerous daily life rituals such as tea ceremonies and flower arrangements besides large scale or formal ceremonies as in many societies. Their gardens are often a blend of natural and man made. In China, the beauty of Suzhou and Hangzhou gardens earned the recognition of Paradise on earth. The most acclaimed beautiful scenery is Westlake in Hangzhou. It is a large landscape with a man made lake improved over centuries by poets and officials. It is a classic example of a work of art as a blend of nature and man. Typical examples of Western gardens are strikingly beautiful for their manicured lawns and plants. Societal order is maintained by simple order and moral values rather than a comprehensive system of laws. From time immemorial, advancement in Chinese society was more through education and civil service examinations. The Chinese invented the civil service system. Competition by physical strength was looked down upon. Most competitive sports on the other hand were invented by the West. As a whole the East Asian culture is more reserved, less prompt to challenge nature. Hence, the industrial revolution was more likely to occur in the West. On today’s information highway, material incentives and western cultural influence massed assaults on Chinese traditional values and way of life. As a result, teachings of tolerance, acceptance, patience and human relation hierarchy order are in decline. However, the historical fact that East Asian culture had the longest uninterrupted survival testifies to its resilience and adaptability. In its recent soul searching to rediscover a new China, harmony as a way to solve a broad range of conflicts is resurfacing. The strength of US society lies in its stable government and system of laws. This started from the European Enlightenment movement and continued for the last 230 years since independence. This is a relative short period for national development by any standard. The reasons for US stability are many fold. It lies outside the scope of the present dissertation. Suffice to say the key reasons are; economic prosperity, absence of major world wars fought within US territory and acceptance of the form of government and system of laws by the population in general. From the perspective of the history of the rise and fall of past empires, US complacency and resistance to change are clear. Its government system is unable to keep up with the world economic change and its system of laws is getting cumbersome. Its government system and ideology is not the answer-all for the vast differences that exist among the multitude of developing nations. Each nation is seeking its own form of harmony between the government and its citizens. To expand its worldwide influence the US government, media and American think tanks assert that America is democratic and thus is transparent. The American viewpoint persists to exert that in this conflicting world, the US is not capable of using violent force and that its organized military aggression is not the use of violence. All violence was and will be started by nations that do not agree with us. Despite the fact this line of logic does not deceive any person of reason outside of this country. As long as US citizens love and buy it out of patriotism, they accept it as good logic and good policy. There is no argument needed for any serious student of politics to understand that the US government is transparent only when it wants to be. The massive US military and its preparation for war are always shrouded in the utmost secrecy in the 19

name of security. Any declassification is after-the-fact, of little interest, and easily forgotten by its citizens. The only people remembered are the victims that suffered terribly by the devastating wars. That is why the US can launch one war after the other and continue to have the support of its citizens. After the Second World War U.S. prestige was at the highest. Today world opinion towards the US is at its lowest by surveys around the world. Yet citizens of the US continue to feel that we are the most peace loving nation in the world thanks to the US government and media omission and propaganda. Today conflicts against extremism are prolific in the world. These span difference between religions, ideologies, cultures, forms of government or simply distrust. The extremes of the privileged and the under privileged, the rich and the poor, the powerful and the powerless the North and the South, the developed and the developing nations have reached alarming proportions. The philosophy of harmony encompassing patience, acceptance, tolerance, equality and mutual support, as presented in the previous section, must be broadly accepted to prevent major catastrophes breaking out in all corners of the world. Major nations together with United Nations must stand up and take the necessary creative actions to minimize these occurrences. Domestically the US, after his assassination, praised Martin Luther King and endorsed his passive civil rights movement to resolve black and white racial conflicts. This showed a great deal of wisdom by the US government and the public. Yet in international conflicts US loudly proclaimed preemptive strikes to countries who do not agree with us. Democracy, as the only tool for conflict resolution, is very limited and does not comprise a core approach. The complexity of the multi national conflicts requires comprehensive system engineering studies of creative harmony solutions. First, we must abandon unilateralism. This will allow consorted multinational studies to come up with indigenous and appropriate solutions to suit the diverse conditions that exist among nations. The reality of nations as we see in today’s world is in total lack of international democracy and equality.

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(VIII) HARMONY AND DEMOCRACY AT THE BEGINNING OF 21ST CENTURY
Democracy grew out of the 17th century Enlightenment movement as a resolution of the conflicts between the ruler and the ruled. But the movement as a tradition had inspired many national revolutions. The notable ones for this discussion were the French revolution, American independence war and the Chinese 1911 revolution extending to the 1949 revolution led by Mao Zedong. However, three hundred years is very short for human history. Through out Chinese history every 300 years or so peasants would rise up to overthrow the emperor. However, the ancient philosophies of harmony and moderation were always able to restore stability, prosperity and a loosely united empire. Even after foreign Mongolian and Manchu invasions stability were restored with the invaders being converted by Chinese culture. The resilience of the Chinese nation lies in its deep rooted harmony philosophies coupled with prosperity at the beginning of each successful dynasty. This typically goes on in every 300 years or so for two millennium. China, after two hundred years of Western and Japanese humiliation and invasion, had lost its direction for a while. Today with relative prosperity returning, demands for harmony as a way to resolve conflicts in a complex modern society return in force. This is how China rediscovered itself from the roots of its ancient culture. This may proof to be like the European renaissance after the Dark Age in rediscovering the ancient Greek culture.

The Chinese feudal society was not an absolute civil order that was unalterable. During WUHAN (the first Han Emperor) period immediately after Qin Shi Huang Di, Tung Zhongsu the great Confucius scholar, instilled LAOTZE’S YING YANG philosophy into Confucius teaching. The idea that opposing forces are constantly struggling for balance, lay the foundation for change. JUN BU REN CHEN BU YI (If the ruler is not kind and loving, the ruled can rise up to defy his order). This was always true as demonstrated by the over thrown of decadent dynasties by peasant revolutions. Basic democratic ideals were also formed during that time. This is what China calls today MIN WEI BEN, people based ideals. The teaching of MIN WEI BEN means CHEN WEI ZHONG, JUN WEI QIN (the ruled is more important than the ruler in good government, or a good government should put its people above the ruler). This REN BEN (people based) ideal have reined for two thousand years and is again being revived. The idea of anti corruption and anti dictatorial government is innate in China as well as in many other cultures. Simply put as in a Confucius saying, DE REN XIN ZHE DE TIEN HSIA, SHI REN XIN SHE SHI TIEN HSIA (the ruler who lost people’s hearts lost his empire, the ruler who won people’s hearts won the empire). This is the basis of a society centered on teaching of moral values and virtue. It did not heavily rely on a system of law. In fact in many ways in ancient China moral and values were above law. Law was only the bottom line. The ideal was a person who committed a crime as a punishment instead of going directly to jail could just WA DI WEI LAO (Just draw a circle on the ground and stand in the middle to think and repent). Moral and values standard were high. Emphasis was placed on self correction rather than on penal correction. During the times of Confucius the society was in harmony. It was said during that time, LU BU SHI WEI, YE BU BI HU ( lost are found, doors are not closed at night). This was the Chinese concept of government by moral value, societal order and harmony.

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Democracy as a movement for the most part is universally accepted in the world today. One needs only to look at how many new countries or changing countries are calling themselves democracies. However, the US has its own definition. This mostly means that countries agreeing with the US are democracies. Democracy as a system of government needs to take hold and grow in the fertile soil of developing countries and countries evolving from their old cultures. This ideal of anti corruption and anti dictatorship is changing traditional order by reform. Harmony advises renunciation of force. In time democracy will grow and wrought its fruits in the global modern environment. In the 1980’s Soviet planed economy dissolved due mostly to its own in competitiveness to the Western market economy. In cold war rhetoric it was called US capitalism triumphs over communism. Communism thus had a bad name. But the bad connotation mainly comes from the cold war mentality that communism means enslavement due largely to the US propaganda. It is not the intent of the present paper on harmony to take sides. It is important to point out for those who did not grew up during the cold war era, the US media divided the world into the free world and the communist world. This explains why the US government and media have a tendency to call countries that challenge us as plotting to take away our freedom. This is highlighted by President Bush’s repeated use of the word freedom in his 2004 and 2006 September 11, 2006 addresses. Now the idea of freedom is also not an unknown concept. Many societies have abandoned enslavement and it is against universal laws. The Chinese abandoned slavery as early as the period of Spring and Autumn, more than two thousand years ago. The country transitioned from slave state of Eastern Zhou to FENJIAN (Feudal society) after the Warring State period. Those violated it when found are put in jails in all civilized societies. Credit must be given to Lincoln for his belief of freeing the black slaves in the US during the time of US civil war. This event has worldwide repercussions and earned Lincoln great recognitions in the world. At the end of Vietnam war the US withdrawal caused a great deal of societal soul searching. The good that came out of it was the nonviolent civil rights marches led by Martin Luther King that won universal rights for African Americans. Both Lincoln and Martin Luther King are great men who won freedom and equality for African Americans. International equality has yet to be recognized by the US. For many weak and poor nations in the world, struggling for equal economic and political equality is a must for their survival. This is a vast subject that must be discussed in the resolution of conflicts under the broad concept of a harmonious world. The US Neo-conservatives encouraged by the collapse of the Soviet economy, believe that US democracy is the cure all for all world conflicts. In fact the prevalent doctrine is that Iraq can be the test case in the Middle East as Eastern Europe was after the Cold War. The Domino Theory is again trumpeted in unison. Since 911, notably on September 11, 2006, President Bush elevated the conflict between Islam and US as the greatest ideological struggle against the extreme Islam terrorists of the 21st Century in a major speech. This is to counter an extreme minority movement with an extreme reaction from the militarily most powerful country in the world. The irony is that democracy is already spreading in the world without the use of force. Democracy by its simplest essence as a way of conflict resolution is actually deeply embedded in the general concept of harmony. The use of force is also forgetting the philosophy of harmony that includes patience, acceptance, tolerance, mutual respect and avoidance of war. Democracy in conflict resolution is a well honed management system engineering study for the US since its independence. The ancient harmony philosophies had worked well for keeping Eastern Asia stable for two thousand years. It is being rediscovered by China because of the prolific of conflicts in the world between the old and new, rich and poor, powerful and the powerless, due to its own reform and opening up. In discovering the old philosophies, China rediscovered itself, just like rediscovering Greek culture after the Dark Age brought the 22

Renaissance to Europe. It will be logical for China to combine the US experience in engineering Democracy into its government system and to revitalize the ancient concept of harmony. It will require exchange and cooperation between the East and West to harmonize this great undertaking. Societal needs for East and West are similar; however there are great differences in approaches and logical thinking. The concept of time and perspective on history also requires a great deal of harmonizing. The West and Far East together have the technology and the ready financial resources to bring the necessary actions together to make a beginning.

As President Bush has said often, there is a lot of work to be done. As a start we can initiate active discussions between proponents of democracy and harmony. Extensive studies can be initiated to identify the root causes of conflicts in the world. President Hu Jintao of China during his speech at Yale University April 21st, 2006 sounded out the ideas of harmony and harmony world and invited discussions and cooperation with the US. If the interest is high, continuing system engineering studies for conflict resolution can be supported by interested scholars from East and West. A task of this world magnitude, needless to say, must be inclusive. To repeat a Chinese ancient saying again, BEI HUA QI FAN, BEI JIA QI MIN (let hundred flowers bloom and hundred schools of thoughts contend).

(IX) THE ULTIMATE PRINCIPLE OF HARMONY
The ultimate principle of Chinese ancient principles, as expounded by LAOTZE in DAO DE JING, is the balance of YING and YANG but ultimately YING envelopes YANG and is beautifully illustrated in the Daoist circle sign of life. In our three dimensional world the Daoist circular sign actually is a sphere with the outside covered by a dark shell. In Section Forty Two of LAOTZE DAO DE JING it states that DAO SHENG YI, YI SHENG ER, ER SHENG SAN, SAN SHENG WAN WU. WAN WU FU YING ER BAO YANG, ZHENG CHI YI WEI HE. In Qin Nanji’s publication.“Brief History of the Universe’s Origin” (private communication), this sentence is interpreted as Negative energy created proton, proton created neutron and meson, that in turn created DNA, together all life and matter were created in the universe. This interpretation by Qin Nanji remains to be tested and discussed for its validity. It is by no means an accepted scientific conclusion. The second sentence in above quoted from DAO DE JING however, clearly stated that all matters carry YING but YING envelops Yang, and when filled with CHI harmony is produced. The common interpretation of this is the ultimate Daoist harmony principle repeated through out DAO DE JING. YING and YANG when charged with CHI, result in harmony. But ultimately YING triumphs over YANG by containing Yang. HAI NA BEI CHUAN, YU YON NAI DA (The sea accepts hundreds rivers, it can only be big if it contains).

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This general theme of YING over YANG runs through DAO DE JING and is supported by TAI JI CHUAN practices (the ultimate Chinese martial arts). To name a few illustrations from DAO DE JING ; soft overcomes the hard like dripping water eventually bores a hole in the hardest rock, water flows over and immerses that blocks it, water extinguishes fire. Water representing Ying can both float and sink a boat. War and confrontation is to be avoided, moderation eventually overcomes aggression. Harmony represents soft power to resolve conflicts as opposed to warfare which represents hard power. In today’s conflicting world our model of democracy cannot be forced on other nations of different culture and at different developing stages. Democracy works best by softly and patiently winning over the hearts and minds of people. Countering extremism by extremism is bound to lead to ultimate destruction of both sides. War does not solve confrontations, but moderation (negotiation) can resolve conflicts. Soft power (ideals and heightened values) eventually will overcome military power. The best way to resolve conflicts is to bring harmony to the confronting parties. This can start by understanding the causes of conflicts through mutual respect, trust, tolerance and acceptance. The world will progress for all mankind till eternity when harmony is universally accepted. The world of harmony shall surely come. A ten thousand miles journey begins with the first step. Let us end for now by repeating what was quoted before. JUN ZI HE ER BU TONG, XIAO REN TONG ER BU HE. For an interpretation different from the translation in previous section, I will say gentlemen place harmony above ideological differences. Let us look forward to unity in diversity and all diverse cultures coexist and flourish..

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CHINESE HARMONY CULTURE OLD AND NEW, PROMISE FOR A LESS CONFRONTATIONAL WORLD?
BY FRANCIS C. W. FUNG, PH. D. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT (I) FROM SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT TO HARMONY

(II) FROM HARMONY SOCIETY TO HARMONY WORLD (III) SOCIALISM WITH CHINESE CHARACTERISTICS IS SOCIALISM WITH CHINESE HARMONY (IV) COMMUNIQUE OF THE SIXTH PLENUM OF THE 16TH CENTRAL COMMITTEE (V) COLLECTION OF EXPERT COMMENTS ON THE COMMUNIQUE (VI) COLLECTION OF MEDIA REVIEWS ON THE COMMUNIQUE (VII) THE 21ST CENTURY CHINESE HARMONY PERSPECTIVE (VIII) WORLD HARMONY, A LESS CONFRONTATIONAL WORLD? APPENDIX A: DOMINANT PHILOSOPHY OF ANCIENT CHINA, HARMONY AS TAUGHT BY LAOTZE AND CONFUCIUS, EAST AND WEST CULTURAL TEMPERAMENT DIFFERENCE, THE ULTIMATE PRINCIPLE OF HARMONY APPENDIX B: FULL TEXT OF THE SIXTH PLENUM OF THE 16TH CENTRAL COMMITTEE

GLOSSARY OF PIN YIN TERMS AND CHINESE CHARACTERS

© Copyright: 2006, Francis C.W. Fung. All rights reserved. Violations will be prosecuted

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CHINESE HARMONY CULTURE OLD AND NEW, PROMISE FOR A LESS CONFRONTATIONAL WORLD? 1
By Francis C. W. Fung, Ph.D.

ABSTRACT* In today’s world of extreme disparity among nations, need for national economic and political change is driven by: the widening gap in stages of development, the increase of injustice in world order, and the growth of clashes between civilizations. The world is hastening towards confrontations such as in the recent unilateral Iraq War, North Korea and Iran nuclear crisis and the Israel and Lebanon War. The term crisis (Wei Ji) in Chinese means danger and opportunity. In Chinese harmony belief, the Ying and the Yang or the strong and the gentle are in constant contest. When Ying and Yang are in balance harmony is reached as illustrated by the Daoist double fish circle. When viewed as a globe, the Ying envelops the Yang as the outside shell. Laotze’s philosophy of renunciation of force is also reflected in forming Chinese words. The word martial (Wu) in Chinese means stop the use of weapon. The word war (Zhang) in Chinese means imbalance of weaponry. When country specific harmony societies grow in their own fertile soil, World Harmony will surely spread. Each society will have its own appropriate harmony theory and practices for the wide difference of cultural and state of development. For harmony to take root the society must be equitable, social order must work smoothly, cultural values must have sustaining power, and the mobility of different stratum in society should be assured. Indices such as Happiness, Harmony, Environment, Rural and Urban must be customized according to each country’s will and development. The term Harmony (He She) when broken up into its four radicals is ‘He Ko Yen Jia’. This can be interpreted today as the rights of subsistence and free speech. Great debates are happening today in China. Will Socialism with Chinese characteristics develop into Socialism with harmony?

DESCRIPTION
Chinese harmony for renunciation of force is inherent in Chinese culture. The word martial (Wu) means stop weapons and war (Zhang) means imbalance in weaponry. Harmony (He She) in Chinese radicals means the right of subsistence and freedom of speech. Will Socialism with Chinese characteristics become Chinese socialism with harmony?

Paper submitted to 2007 National Association for Bilingual Education Meeting, Feb. 7-10 San Jose, CA. One Nation: Many Languages and Cultures in a Changing World. All rights reserved. Any distribution or publication must by author’s prior written permission.

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(I) FROM SCEINTIFIC DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT TO HARMONY SOCIETY
From October 8 to 11, 2006 Chinese government convened a national meeting to discuss major policy decisions to launch a national campaign to build a harmonious society. By the flurry of prepublications and preplanning announcements this meeting will be the most significant planning meeting for the 57 year young government. In terms of its impact on the future Chinese society and the future world, policies announced during this meeting will have more long lasting effect than China’s reform and open up policies. Not that the recent reform and open up policies by Deng Xiaoping did not lead to profound benefits for China and the world. By comparison, this meeting rides on the success of the Scientific Concept of Development launched during 2002 and is build on the essence of Chinese ancient teaching of harmony. In its richness, as discussed in the latter sections, the Chinese ancient teaching of harmony is unparalleled. In this paper all news on China current events are directly obtained from Xinhua and People’s Daily websites. Due to the rapid expansion of economic and industrial activities in China during the last twenty some years China has developed from an egalitarian society to a society of unbalanced wealth distribution and a self sufficient society to one that depends heavily on energy and outside material resources like all developed nations. The Scientific Development Concept was thus conceived by the Chinese leaders to provide a blue print for a long term sustainable development. In time this blue print is expanded to include also all old and new conflicts in China’s grand modernization. Harmony being China’s dominant philosophy for 2500 years it is no surprise, despite the onslaught of Western culture for the last two hundred years China rediscovered its ancient heritage. This is not unlike the return of harmony philosophy to the golden Han dynasty after the Spring and Autumn Warring States period. There were thousands of battles fought between feudal states of the time but finally peace and stability was restored. In the fertile soil of Chinese harmony garden after Chinese leaders called for Harmony Society development, ideas of harmony spread like spring bamboo shoots after the rain. Creative ideas of Harmony Society from government officials, intellectuals, think tanks, academicians and the general public is currently sweeping through the country. We may once again witness a major new harmony movement excelling the ancient teachings of ancient harmony that has guided China for the last 2500 years. A true period of led hundred flowers bloom and hundred schools content may be in the making surpassing the Spring and Autumn period debates in scope and magnitude. This time the Chinese culture may take a leap into the future World of Harmony.

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(II) FROM HARMONY SOCIETY TO HARMONY WORLD
In today’s world of extreme disparity among nations, need for national economic and political changes are driven by: the widening gap in stages of development, the increase of injustice in world order, and the growth of clashes between civilizations. The world is hastening towards confrontations such as in the recent unilateral Iraq War, North Korea and Iran nuclear crisis and the Israel and Lebanon War. The term crisis (Wei Ji) in Chinese means danger and opportunity. In Chinese harmony belief, the Ying and the Yang, or the strong and the gentle, are in constant contest. When Ying and Yang are in balance harmony is reached, as illustrated by the Daoist double fish circle. When viewed as a globe the Ying envelops the Yang as the outside shell. Laotze’s philosophy of renunciation of force is also reflected in forming Chinese words. The word martial (Wu) in Chinese means stop the use of weapon. The word war (Zhang) in Chinese means imbalance of weaponry. When country specific harmony societies grow in their own fertile soil, World Harmony will surely spread. Each society will have its own appropriate harmony theory and practices for the wide difference of cultural and state of development. For harmony to take root the society must be equitable, social order must work smoothly, cultural values must have sustaining power, and the mobility of different stratum in society should be assured. Indices such as Happiness, Harmony, Environment, Rural and Urban must be customized according to each country’s will and development. The term Harmony (He She) when breaks up into its four radicals are He Ko Yen Jia. This can be interpreted today as the rights of subsistence and free speech. Great debates are happening today in China. Will Socialism with Chinese characteristics develop become Socialism with Chinese harmony? This direct linkage was first defined by the author in published media. In the last couple of years China has extended the philosophy of Harmony to the practice of international relations, from Harmony Society to Harmony Region and Harmony World. China is expressing to the world the peace and development road chosen by a civilized old country. Harmony is the core of Chinese traditional cultural believe. This is the concept of appropriate and properly balanced relationship between man and man, man and nature, man and society and harmony among nations. In fact Harmony Society and Harmony World are manifestations of ancient Chinese cultural values as explained in later sections. It is important to point out that on conflict resolution Western mentality tends to think of good and evil rather than Ying and Yang in balance. Ying and Yang can be intermingled and in advance or retreat and still maintain a fluid balance. Western philosophy emphasizes conflict rather than harmony. God and Devil represents good and bad and God must triumph over Devil. When in conflict, the U.S. believes that God is always on our side, thus we are duty bound to change or eliminate hostile countries that do not agree with us. Rather than accepting differences we must destroy differences to achieve uniformity on international political ideology. Never mind that we believe in democracy for our own country. International relations are power politics, international democracy between different nations is not an acceptable concept ever worthy of discussion by the U. S. media. In fact it is never mentioned. In China today foreign policy is an extension of domestic policy and, at the same time, serves domestic policy. Hu Jintao, President of China, pointed out, China must “Closely connect our development with the progress of mankind. Develop our self through maintaining world peace and at the same time through our own development to promote world peace”. The Chinese government has officially stated the central ideas of Harmony China and Harmony 28

World as: China wants to build a harmony society of “democracy and rule of law, justice and righteousness, trustworthiness and friendliness, full of vitality, stable and orderly, a society of man and nature in harmony”. A Harmony World envisioned by China is “adherence to multilateralism, realization of mutual security, adherence to mutually beneficial cooperation, realization of mutual prosperity, adherence to the spirit of tolerance and building a Harmony World together”. President Hu Jintao, on April 22, 2005, when attending the Asian African Summit meeting, suggested that “promoting friendship among different cultures, equal dialogue, develop common prosperity and together build a harmony world”. This was the first time the concept of Harmony World appeared on world stage. Two months later on July 1st, 2005, President Hu Jintao visited Moscow. Harmony World was written into China Russian 21st Century World Order Joint Communique”. For the first time World Harmony was recognized as common policy belief between two major countries. This marks the new World Harmony concept’s gradual entrance into the vision of world society. At the same time Chinese leaders thoughts on World Harmony are also deepening. After two more months, on September 15, 2005, President Hu Jintao gave a speech at the United Nation General Assembly. In that speech he detailed the deep contents of World Harmony. Participants of the meeting gave the speech a resounding response. World media also gave the speech heightened notice and esteemed evaluation. It is generally considered that China as a major responsible country, is transmitting to the world its longing for peaceful development. The speech also served to relate China’s message to build a peaceful, prosperous and Harmony World together with the rest of the world. Harmonious and cooperative China stands ready to work for sustainable and long lasting peace and mutual prosperity with the rest of the world.

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(III) SOCIALISM WITH CHINESE CHARACTERISTICS IS SOCIALISM WITH CHINESE HARMONY
China’s cultural contribution to the world is harmony philosophy just as Europe and America are the breeding grounds for democracy. This comparative evaluation of both cultures is detailed by the Author’s paper titled “Chinese Harmony and American Democracy in 21st Century”. China for most of its 5000 years recorded culture was an agricultural society never big in animal herding as most European tribes. As a continuing ancient culture it was firmly rooted to cultivating the land that was handed down from generations. This dependency on agriculture led to innate inclination to harmonize with nature rather than to challenge nature. As a result harmony philosophy grew in the fertile land of this Middle Kingdom until it was challenged by Western democracy as late as the 1900’s. Chinese ancient culture was rich in harmony teaching. It began 2500 years and more, by Laotze and Confucius (as presented in Appendix A). It was preserved and handed down with continuing refinement until modern times. As discussed in Appendix A, Laotze’s instructions of harmony was rooted in observation of the origin of the universe and natural science. His philosophy of human activity harmonizing with nature was all embracing, including the practice of FENG SHUI (living with nature), physical science, agriculture and Chinese ancient medical practice. Chinese medical practice is holistic. It is more prevention than cure. When a person is not feeling well, it is likely that his biological system is out of balance within himself or with nature. Treatment is to restore the balance of opposing forces in this total system. This led to the belief that human biological system, society, and nations are constantly in an influx of ever changing contending forces. Harmony is achieved when the contending forces come to a balance or mutual acceptance under a certain set of conditions. All systems are constantly shifting, complex and seldom just black and white. This concept of harmony is just as fitting in today’s complex world and society as it was during the time of Laotze. Confucius teaching includes the whole social system of man with himself, man between man, man and society and relations between countries. This includes harmony between government and its citizens, which means democracy is part of harmony system analysis. In keeping with Chinese harmony philosophy, balance is achieved through self discipline, high moral value, social order rather than strict law and penal system. Although in today’s complex society an added touch of modern law is necessary. The use of physical force is to be avoided, when employed only as a last resort. Harmony Society discussions in today’s China under the present leadership is returning to the old roots of system analysis and ever changing balance of major forces in a changing world. It contains the innate nature of Chinese longing for harmony and the ancient teaching of tolerance, acceptance and equity. Both Laotze and Confucius teachings are comprehensive system engineering analysis of Harmony for ancient China. The Communique is a system analysis of Socialism with Chinese characteristics for today’s China. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is Socialism with Chinese harmony as defined by the author for the first time in published media.

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(IV) COMMUNIQUE OF THE SIXTH PLENUM OF THE 16TH CPC CENTRAL COMMITTEE
In modern terms harmony comes to being because of the inevitability of conflicts and differences that exist in the complex modern world. Harmony is also the guidance for opposing developmental forces. Harmony balances developmental movement, moderates differences, put order into chaos and unifying diversity. It is unity in diversity. It is an arduous and long undertaking to build a harmonious socialist society in modern China. The difficulties are manifold and extremely challenging as indicated in the Communique. It is a truly grand system engineering in execution. It is not without reason that some in Chinese government called the harmony undertaking as the party’s new Long March. The world will no doubt take its hat off in commending China when successful. In a capsule the Communique states, “ By the year 2020, the goals and objectives of building a harmonious socialist society are: socialist democracy system becomes more democratic, government by law basically realized, people’s rights are respected and protected; the uneven developments of city and countryside are gradually reversed, equitable and orderly wealth distribution structure in place, all family income generally increased, people will live a more comfortable life; full employment more sufficient, social security system for city and country side basically built; all basic services are more complete, the standards of governance and service are substantially raised; the quality of the whole nations moral thinking, scientific culture and state of health noticeably raised, good moral value, harmonious human relation further formed; the whole society’s creativity significantly strengthened, an innovative nation basically built; social management system more perfect, good social order; resources utilization significantly improved, environmental conditions largely turned around; realizing all around construction to achieve the goal of well off society for over one billion population, strive for the harmonious society that every body can contribute what he can and receives what he needs”. The following are direct selections from high lights of the Communique:
The plenum fully analyzed the current situation and tasks and discussed the key issues of building a harmonious socialist society. The plenum unanimously agreed that social harmony is the intrinsic nature of the socialism with Chinese characteristics and an important guarantee of the country's prosperity, the nation's rejuvenation and the people's happiness. The building of a harmonious socialist society is an important strategic task, which was put forward by the CPC under the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of the "Three Represents" and with full implementation of the scientific concept of development. The task was brought forward on the basis of the overall plan of the socialist cause with Chinese characteristics and the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society. To build a harmonious socialist society was the intrinsic demand of constructing a socialist modernized country which is prosperous, strong, democratic, civilized and harmonious. It also embodied the common aspiration of the whole Party and people of all ethnic groups. The plenum believed that currently the Chinese society is harmonious in general. However, there exist many contradictions and problems, which affect social harmony. Human society has been developing and progressing amid movements of all kinds of conflicts. The building of the harmonious socialist society is a consistent process, during which social conflicts are resolved. We must always remain sober minded, be vigilant in peace time, thoroughly understand the feature of the country in the current phase of development, study and analyze the contradictions and problems and their origins in a scientific way, be more active to face up to the conflicts and solve them, and try utmost efforts to increase harmonious factors and reduce disharmonious factors to consistently boost social harmony. The plenum requested all Party members continue to emancipate the mind, seek truth from facts, keep pace with the times, be realistic, consciously act according to rules, be based on the current situation while keeping eyes on the future, do what our strength allows and exert every effort to continuously advance the building of the

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harmonious socialist society. The plenum requested all Party members contribute to the building of the socialist harmonious society, which should be regarded as a long-term historical task that runs through the whole process of the socialist cause with Chinese characteristics and a vital realistic task for comprehensively building a moderately prosperous society. The plenum stressed that the harmonious socialist society we are going to build is a harmonious society built and shared by all Chinese people along the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics and under the leadership of the CPC. We must adhere to the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of "Three Represents", adhere to the Party's basic line, basic program and basic experience, adhere to the guidance of scientific concept of development in overall economic and social development, follow the overall requirement of building a democratic society under the rule of law, a society based on equity and justice, an honest and caring society, a society full of vigor and a stable and orderly society in which humans live in harmony with nature, strive to develop social services, promote social equity and justice, foster a culture of harmony, improve public administration, enhance creativity of the society, pursue the road of common prosperity, and push forward coordinated development of social construction, economic construction, political construction and cultural construction with the emphasis on solving issues people care about most and issues that concern their most immediate and most realistic interests. The plenum puts forward the main objectives and tasks for building a harmonious socialist society by 2020, which are as follows: the socialist democratic and legal system is further improved; the fundamental principle of administering the country according to law is implemented in an all-around way; people's rights and interests enjoy concrete respect and guarantee; widening of gap between urban and rural development and development between different regions is gradually reversed; a reasonable and orderly income distribution pattern takes shape in general; wealth of households increase universally and people lead more affluent lives; employment rate is relatively high and a social security system covering both urban and rural residents is established in general; basic public service system is further improved and the government attains relatively big improvements in administrative and service levels; the ideological and moral qualities, scientific and cultural qualities and health qualities of the whole nation are improved markedly and further progress is made in fostering a sound moral atmosphere and harmonious interpersonal relationship; creativity of the whole society is enhanced markedly and an innovation-based country is established in general; public administration system is further improved and social order is in good condition; efficiency of utilization of resources is enhanced markedly and visible improvement in ecological environment is achieved; the objective of building a moderately prosperous society of a higher level and in an all-around way to benefit the Chinese people of more than 1 billion is realized and striving to attain a situation in which all people do their best according to their abilities, everyone is provided for and people live together in harmony. The plenum stressed that the following principles must be followed in building a harmonious socialist society: adhering to putting people first; adhering to development in a scientific way; adhering to reform and opening up; adhering to democracy and the rule of law; adhering to properly handling the relationships between reform, development and stability; and adhering to participation of the whole society under the leadership of the Party. The plenum pointed out that development is the prerequisite of social harmony. We must adhere to solving problems on the road ahead through promoting development and make great efforts to develop social productive forces and constantly consolidate the material base for social harmony. Meanwhile, we must put more attention to developing social services and push forward economic and social development in a coordinated way. Social equity and justice is a basic condition of social harmony, while a sound system provides the fundamental guarantee to social equity and justice. We must accelerate construction of the system that plays an important role in ensuring social equity and justice to guarantee people's rights and interests in political, economic, cultural and social fields and guide our citizens to exercise their rights and fulfill their obligations according to law. Nurturing a culture of harmony is an important task of building a harmonious socialist society, while socialist core value system is the essential element of the culture of harmony. We must adhere to the guiding role of Marxism in ideological fields, firmly control the development direction of socialist advanced culture, advocate harmony concepts and nurture the spirit of harmony to further foster common ideals and beliefs for the whole society and solidify the ideological and moral base for the whole Party and people of various ethnic groups to work hard in unison. Enhancing public administration and maintaining social stability is a prerequisite of building a

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harmonious socialist society. We must innovate the public administration system, integrate public administration resources, improve the level of public administration, improve the public administration pattern that is under the leadership of the Party committee, the government taking the responsibility with cooperation from other organizations and with participation of the public. Service should be accompanied with administration and administration should reflect service. Socialist harmonious society is both a society full of vigor and a society of unity and harmony. We must stimulate the energy of society to its full, promote the harmony of relationship between political parties, ethnic groups, religions, stratums and compatriots at home and abroad, consolidate the great unity of people of various ethnic groups and consolidate the great unity of Chinese both at home and abroad. The plenum made the deployment for building a harmonious socialist society for present time and future: Construction of social cause should be strengthened through adhering to coordinated development; new socialist countryside construction should be earnestly pushed forward; the general strategy of regional development should be implemented; active employment policies should be carried out; education should be topped the agenda of development; health care services should be enhanced; development of cultural cause and cultural industries should be speed up; environmental protection and pollution control should be strengthened; institutional construction should be enhanced and social equality and justice should be safeguarded. The system of safeguarding democratic rights, the legal system and judicial system and mechanism, as well as systems of public finance, income distribution and social security should be improved. Harmonious culture should be built. Ethnic foundation for social harmony should be consolidated. Socialist core value system should be upheld. Socialist concept of honor and disgrace should be fostered. Active and healthy ideological atmosphere should be built. A movement of creating harmonious society should be widely launched.

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(V) COLLECTION OF EXPERT COMMENTS ON THE COMMUNIQUE
In the true spirit of let hundred flowers bloom and hundred schools contend and HAI NA BEI CHUAN, YU YONG NAI DA (hundred rivers flow into a sea, it can only be big if it can contain), the CPC recently held a Symposium to widely solicits advice on building harmonious society. Following are comments from experts collected from the XINHUA website on the Communique as translated by the author. The complete text of the Communique is attached as an Appendix. B. Building socialistic harmony society is not only strategic thinking but also innovative theory. Innovative theory once mastered by people will bring conceptual revolution and it will turn into tremendous physical strength. Innovative concept needs to be guided. Healthy, uplifting and appropriate society development concept once formed, can set a firm foundation for the building of a socialistic harmonious society. Following the developmental implementation and innovative theory, there will be great change of the Chinese Communist governance concept and the people’s value concept, moral concept, family concept and societal developmental concept. Especially under socialism with Chinese characteristics the new innovative concepts of “human based, democratic governance, justice and righteous, and harmony culture” are deeply entering people’s hearts. This is bringing a great positive face change for the government and the society. Our society is growing robustly and our people’s vitality is shinning through. According to scholars attending the Symposium, the new innovative concepts have following four directions: PEOPLE BASED CONCEPT: people based is the core of Scientific Development Concept. It is the highest value criteria for harmonious socialism construction. In 3,10,2004 President pointed out “Adhering to people base is to realize the goal of all around people development. It is development based on the ultimate benefit of people. Promote development, incessantly satisfy people’s increasing demand for material culture. Protect people’s economic, political and cultural rights. Let the results of development benefit all people’. Adhering to people base requires that the party’s and government’s theory, paths, directions and policies must all for people and everything depends on people. Between people and society there must be respect, understanding, concern and mutual cooperation. JUSTICE CONCEPT: President Hu Jintao in 2,19,2005 put justice and righteous as one of the six requirements of harmonious socialist society. Scholars pointed out placing justice in a more pronounced position is the Parties requirement for setting Party for the public and implementing policy for the people. This is also the realistic requirement for building harmonious socialistic society. HONOR AND SHAME CONCEPT: People’s view towards honor and shame is the important content of the moral value judgment. 2,19,2005 President Hu Jintao pointed out “ Asociety is harmonious or not, a country can sustain stability or not in an important way depend on the moral quality of all members of the society. Without good moral examples, without common ideals it is not possible to realize social harmony. Scholars collectively think that on March,2006 President Hu Jintao established 8 honor and 8 shame as the main content of the socialism honor and shame concept. Under the conditions of socialistic market economy this concept is used as criteria to measure the right or wrong of behavior, decide on value directions, make moral selections, supplies basic examples. This is the moral foundation for people based and scientific development society. 34

HARMONY CULTURE CONCEPT: Scholars collectively summed up that harmony culture inherited and propagates Chinese nations HE HE (harmony and together) culture’s superior tradition. This cultural heritage is harmony society’s major characteristic and is harmony society’s soul and bonding force. For detail teachings of the essence of Chinese ancient harmony culture please later sections. To build harmonious society focus on people and people, people and society and people and nature relations; promote the spirit of harmony, direct people to use harmony philosophy for understanding, use harmony attitude to treat problems. Use harmony solutions to treat contradictions and use harmony thinking to guide all behavior. The author is confident that harmony heritage is the spirit of China. By rediscovering ancient harmony culture, China is rediscovering itself as explained in Chinese ancient culture teaching sections. ACTIVATE SOCIETY VITALITY, INCREASE UNITY AND HARMONY: Scholars believe the move from here on will activate society vitality, promote political parties, peoples, religions, different stratum and overseas Chinese harmony. The plenum meeting solidifies the unity of all national minorities and mainland and overseas Chinese. Innovation is the soul of national advancement and is also an important element of Harmony Society. The plenum insists on respect for labor, knowledge and talent. To activate the societal vitality is to “promote people’s creative spirit, realize people are the creator of history”.

(VI) COLLECTION OF MEDIA REVIEWS OF THE HARMONY COMMUNIQUE
Simply put the Harmony Communique summarizes that Socialism with Chinese characteristics as Socialism with Harmony. This simple conceptualization of Socialism with Chinese characteristics was first advanced by the author in his research papers submitted to the NABE 2007 Conference on Oct. 1st, 2006. His submitted papers are titled: “Chinese Harmony and American Democracy in 21st Century” and “Chinese Harmony Culture Old and New, Promise for a less Confrontational World?” On the road to build this Socialism with Chinese characteristics the government with exert all effort to build a society that “ all society members exercise all their efforts, receive what they need and live in harmony” and it is a harmonious socialistic society that is based on “democratic governance, justice and righteous, trustworthiness and friendliness, filled with vitality, stable and orderly and man and nature in harmony”. Following are listed media comments immediately following the announcement of the Harmony Communique translated by the author: Hong Kong Wen Wei Pao: The new leaders of China having absorbed the essence of Chinese ancient (harmony) culture linked closely China’s development with human race development into connected domestic and foreign policies. These reflect the essence of building an all around well off society, and express the Chinese cultural renaissance national desire to promote trust and harmony among all nations. These also show that China is raising high the banner of peace, development and cooperation. China is also working hard to establish its image for a Harmony World. Hong Kong Da Kun Pao: It is mentioned for the first time that Socialism with Harmony belongs to Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. Besides building “rich and democratic culture”, harmony is included as a goal of building a modern socialistic society. Harmony Society is the 35

new leaders’ realization of people based government theory. Domestically to build a harmony society is to maintain a sustainable ever developing China. To build a Harmony World will set a good international environment stage for China’ s external advance. Hong Kong Commerce Daily: The plenum is an important milestone of the National Renaissance. Following the all around launching of building socialistic harmony society, China’s development and reform will herald a brand new period and enter a new world. Macau Daily: Emphasize building of harmony society is a wise choice by the Chinese government. China is facing new challenges to solve the balances created by the rapid economic progress. Whether Chinese government can resolve the conflicts directly affects the advance or retreat and rise or fall of the reform and open up program. The CPC is leading the nation to build a well off society. By speeding up the modernization of socialist system, China will have made more significant contribution to the world.

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(VII) CENTURY CHINESE HARMONY PERSPECTIVE

The modern Chinese harmony movement began 2002 from the CPC’s Scientific Development Concept to build an ever developing, sustainable and stable socialistic China with prosperity, democracy, vitality, equity and harmony with nature. As demonstrated in my previous paper “Chinese Harmony and American Democracy in 21st Century”, the philosophy of harmony for over 2500 years is the essence of Chinese ancient teaching and the spirit of the Chinese soul. For continuity of dissertation, following Sections from the previous paper are attached in Appendix A: DOMINANT PHILOSOPHY OF ANCIENT CHINA, HARMONY AS TAUGHT BY LAOTZE AND CONFUCIUS, THE ULTIMATE PRINCIPLE OF HARMONY, EAST AND WEST CULTURAL TEMPERAMENT DIFFERENCE and TABLE OF CONTENTS. This spirit of harmony permeates Chinese thinking, strongly influenced how Chinese behave and live for most of its glorious two thousand five hundred years of history after Laotze. During the last 150 years under the onslaught of Western Imperialism, materialism and ideology, China lost touch with its heritage. Today China rediscovered its ancient harmony heritage. In doing so China rediscovered itself. This is not unlike Europe’s rediscovery of ancient Greek democracy. It is not surprising that teachings of Laotze and Confucius have tremendous impact on Asian cultures for two thousand years. Not only because of the inherent universal order maintaining and satisfaction fulfilling values of harmony, it also suited the Asian agriculture society of the time. Nomadic conquering culture was never a main stream culture of China. At times the rise of the Nomadic cultures of Xiong Nu, Mongolian and Manchu conquered or occupied China, invariably the invaders were civilized or absorbed by the superior Chinese harmony culture. One of the most fulfilling pleasures of Chinese traditional life is to visit Hangzhou and Suzhou lakes and gardens. The sceneries there are considered as paradise on earth. There is a saying in China “there is heaven above, below there is Suzhou and Hangzhou”. Western gardens can be spectacular with perfectly trimmed bushes and lawns. Suzhou and Hangzhou are famous for beautiful gardens with harmonious blending by nature and man. The famous Westlake in Hangzhou is a large man made lake and natural scenery maintained in perfect harmonious beauty 36

through out the centuries by successive poet administrators. It draws the most admirations as a must visit site for lovers, artists and tourists alike. It was also a favorite poetic retreat for Chairman Mao during his retiring years. Even in today’s rapidly changing China, due to reform and opening up, one is still constantly being reminded of its ancient harmony heritage in landscapes, architectures, paintings and calligraphy, family tradition, way of doing things and way of life. The art of Feng Shui in its application is actually an attempt at harmonizing with nature in ones daily surrounding, be it home, work place or ceremony. Asians are more reticent in work place or classroom because of innate attempts at some kind of harmony of the situation. Chinese writing or calligraphy as an art form strives for aesthetic not purely from static symmetry but from dynamic harmony of many variations. If one studies Chinese calligraphy one immediately discovers that the art form is unlimited. Often a dynamic harmony for the total composition can be achieved through style of strokes, different ways to write the same words, the use of spaces, the length of each vertical lines, the size of different words, the thickness and strength of the strokes, the way the strokes dances and the arrangement of the words etc, etc. The artistic licenses are unlimited and creativeness to present dynamic balance unrestricted. The comparable situations at dynamic harmony in Western culture are the master creations of symphonic music. However, Chinese traditional calligraphy as an art form in displaying dynamic harmony is much widely participated and has a much longer tradition. It is a very important aspect of Chinese traditional life. Chinese ancient music for the most part however, is man’s own harmonizing with nature and is an individual healing process for the body and soul. As such, Chinese music is not intended as an entertaining art and not in the same category as Western music. Perhaps, a similar explanation can be made about Western calligraphy. Calligraphy in Western culture is intended for the most part as design art rather than a way of life and enjoyment. Fortunately for China, the current generation of leaders, including President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao are still very much in touch with traditional Chinese cultures as well as modern scientific and political theories. Most of them still have the Chinese ancient harmony spirit in their blood. It is hard to imagine any Chinese who are brought up in a traditional Chinese family on Chinese history and classic novels not be empowered by this Chinese virtue. Because this harmony spirit is omnipresent in ancient Chinese culture as detailed in the attached sections in Appendix A. The rediscovering of Chinese harmony tradition is natural following the formulation of the Scientific Concept of Development by the Chinese government. As commented by previously cited media commentary, the Sixth Plenum heralds in the mile stone of beginning of China’s new harmony age and the Renaissance of Chinese cultural and scientific awakening. A nation can only be revitalized when it finds its own cultural roots and with unified national energy finds its own unique creativity and confidence. The present 57 years young China after turns and twists and dedicated incessant efforts, find its calling in building Harmony Society. Socialism with Chinese characteristics will truly be Socialism with Chinese Harmony. In working on its own national harmony, China will bring harmony to the world. This undertaking of building a new harmonious China will be an arduous task befits the CPC’s Long March tradition. Perhaps only the CPC have the experience, wisdom, organization, ability and dedication to bring on and lead the Chinese people in this monumental and timely mission. Before we have any expectation for a Harmony World resulting from the dynamics of China’s new harmony movement let us recap the important themes developed through out this and author’s previous papers on harmony. These themes are important because they empower the Chinese harmony movement and they are from the unique and innovative perspectives of a bicultural Chinese scientist who worked for 50 years in the U.S. and still very much Chinese at heart. 37

The three major human cultural movements from the perspective of harmony are Middle Eastern religions, European democracy and Chinese harmony. Harmony also contains democracy as conflict resolution between government and its citizens. Religious conflicts were prominently known to happen through out human history. More notable ones are the 10 year Christian Crusade to conquer the Moslem world and today President Bush elevated the conflict between Islam and the U.S. as the greatest ideological struggle against the extreme Islam terrorists in the 21st century. Laotze’s harmony concepts originated from natural science observations. It also postulates the existence of invisible energy and the gentle envelops the harsh or soft overcomes the hard. The dynamic balance of Ying and Yang is in constant influx. Ying contains part of Yang and Yang contains part of Ying. Harmony balances developmental movement, moderates differences, put order into chaos and unifying diversity. It is unity in diversity. As discussed in Appendix A, Laotze’s instructions of harmony was rooted in observation of the origin of the universe and natural science. His philosophy of human activity harmonizing with nature was all embracing, including the practice of FENG SHUI (living with nature), physical science, agriculture and Chinese ancient medical practice. This led to the belief that human biological system, society, and nations are constantly in an influx of ever changing contending forces. Harmony is achieved when the contending forces come to a balance or mutual acceptance under the total system. All systems are constantly shifting, complex and seldom just black and white. This concept of harmony is just as fitting in today’s complex world and society as it was during the time of Laotze. Harmony is more suited for resolution of world conflicts because it renounces the use of force and assumes unity in diversity. Democracy today is more directly connected with American power to subdue different independent multi-national thinking and maintain the overwhelming dominance of the U.S. media and U.S. military power. Harmony is being rediscovered by China and growing with vitality anew. American democracy, law and order development followed the European enlightenment tradition. Counting from American independence it has a history of only 230 years. Chinese harmony has a tradition of 2500 years counting after the period of Spring and Autumn and the Warring States. Current events indicate harmony is gaining ground over American democracy. Chinese harmony old and new both are comprehensive system engineering programs with high moral contents to stabilize and bring harmony to the society. It carries the inherent Chinese wisdom of long historical perspective and extensive tradition of living under the teachings of Chinese ancient harmony. For 57 years ever since the founding of the new Peoples Republic of China, America has interfered in China’s domestic affairs by incessantly harassing China with American ideologies. With the advent of China’s new Harmony Age China will develop its own socialism with Chinese characteristics. Only by doing so China can finally stand up. Chinese harmony will rise above America democracy as more appropriate development solution for the diverse cultures of the world. In the 21st Century leading movements to build World Harmony China will gain the moral high ground. Judging from current world conflicts, U.S. transfer of democracy by force only exasperated World Harmony. China in discovering harmony rediscovered its own roots. As shown in Appendix A, Confucius teaching includes the whole social system of man with himself, men between men, men and society and relations between countries. This includes harmony between government and its citizens, which means democracy is part of harmony system analysis as explained in Appendix A. In keeping with Chinese harmony philosophy, democracy is achieved through self discipline, high moral value, social order rather than strict law 38

and penal system. Rediscovering harmony heralds the age of new Chinese Renaissance and will impart innovative spirit and vitality to the Chinese nation. In working for its own harmony society China will also bring harmony influence to the world. The reality of the world is multicultural, with different development ideologies and each country with different historical perspective and at various stages of development. The world will be more harmonious when mutual development and winwin development is emphasized with equity and justice. Mutual development is accepting diverse development modes. Different world concepts coexist in harmony is the wave of the future. Chinese harmony movement is beneficial to the world. Overseas Chinese as a bridge for cultural exchange can be positive models. Especially in the U.S. the dominant U.S. media largely blocks out important positive development in China because of remnant Cold War mentality. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is truly Chinese Socialism with Harmony. Perhaps only the CPC have the experience, wisdom, organization, ability and dedication to bring up and lead the Chinese people in this monumental and timely mission in the spirit of the Long March. In China today foreign policy is an extension of domestic policy and at the same time serving domestic policy. Hu Jintao, President of China, pointed out, China must “Closely connect our development with the progress of mankind. Develop our self through maintaining world peace and at the same time through our own development to promote world peace”. Chinese government has officially stated the central ideas of Harmony China and Harmony World as: China wants to build a harmony society of “democracy and rule of law, justice and righteousness, trustworthiness and friendliness, full of vitality, stable and orderly, a society of man and nature in harmony”. A Harmony World envisioned by China is “adherence to multilateralism, realize mutual security, adherence to mutually beneficial cooperation, working with the 5 Principles of Coexistence, realize mutual prosperity, adherence to the spirit of tolerance and building a Harmony World together”.

(VIII) WORLD HARMONY, A LESS CONFRONTATIONAL WORLD?
The world today is in disharmony. Trade and international politics are inequitable, heavily biased towards the developed countries. Citizens of some poor and developing countries are leading destitute lives with no foreseeable opportunities to improve. Yet the common desires for the world are peace and development. Major threats to today’s world harmony are: cultural distrust, extremist movements, use of force to expand democracy ideology. To bring sense to this confrontational world, cold war mentality must be significantly reduced, power politics must be recognized as counter productive to conflict resolution. Placing blame rather than direct negotiations to reduce distrust are widely practiced as national policies. These policies are supported by the most powerful government and media in the world. China in developing its own Socialistic Harmony Society can contribute to the Harmony World. It is China’s ideal, and it is deeply rooted in China’s culture. To put it plainly, after all 39

our discussions through out this paper, China’s venerable wisdom is harmony and historical prospective. The desire to help build a Harmony World is in China’s ancient believes (the concept of SHI JIE DA TONG is an old Confucius concept also “all men are brothers”). By working with world harmony it will also help China’s own harmony development. To build harmony in the world we need to adhere to international laws and regulations to peacefully adjust for equitable benefits. More attention must be paid to the 5 principle of peaceful coexistence. The reality of the world is multicultural, with different development ideologies and each country with different historical perspective and at various stages of development. There is no backward country, only countries at different stages of development. Between any two countries each has its complementary advantages for mutual development. The world will be more harmonious when mutual development and win-win development is emphasized with equity and justice. Mutual development is accepting diverse development modes. Different development concepts coexist in harmony is the wave of the future. Again Confucius said, gentlemen can disagree and have harmony, little people can agree and still do not have harmony (JUN ZI HE ER BU TONG, XIAO REN TONG ER BU HE). This is the new concept of unity in diversity. Harmony World will surely come.

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APPENDIX A
DOMINANT PHILOSOPHY OF ANCIENT CHINA

In the following, PIN YIN will be used along with English equivalent explanation for important Chinese terms so that readers of Chinese can relate to the original Chinese characters. This is necessary because the need to retain the power and flavor of ancient Chinese writing. Also PIN YIN has become the supplementary language for Chinese minorities and foreigners who learn Chinese. The best reference for Chinese history and ancient Chinese teachings is ZHONG GUO TONG SE by Fan Wenlan. This is an eight volume compilation of Chinese history and culture from ancient times to MIN GUO. This was a major undertaking of its kind. It took the author a lifetime. Most was compiled between 1940 and 1950, a very difficult period for China. This is a source book for this paper, but other reference on LAOTZE and Confucius are readily available by Googling these classic texts on Internet. All quotations of Confucius teachings are from SHI SHU WU JING (the four classics and the five scripture). The four Confucius classics are LUN YU, ZHONG YONG, DA SUE, MENCIUS. Throughout China’s long history as an ancient culture, unlike the Middle East, it did not produce a religion of world importance, and unlike the West it did not produce a comprehensive home grown democracy system to resolve conflicts between the ruler and the ruled. China obviously, however, had notions of religion and democracy, when Confucius admonished his followers to respect God but keep a distance, and Mencius advocated good government and put citizens above the rulers. Instead, through considerable debate and evolution, China settled on the philosophies of CHUNG YUN, HE XIE (moderation, harmony) and hierarchy social structures. Family and social order were promoted by emphasizing SAN GANG WU CHANG, REN, YI , LI , ZHI, XIN (the three important relations in the order of: ruler and the ruled, father and children, husband and wife and five basic societal moral values) and LUN LI DAO DE (family and moral values). More explanations of these ancient Chinese harmony and related ancient teachings will be followed in the next section. This system of profuse teaching was drilled into students from Day One and all through a scholar’s life. Youngsters’ first standard reading text was SAN TZE JING (a simple rhyme of Confucius teaching). To be recited by students word for word (my children still cut their teeth on Chinese characters, and Chinese words with this text during 1990’s in Taiwan). The moderation and harmony philosophy reinforced by morals and values as a social system was very different from the Western democracy concepts of citizen rights and duties enforced by law and order. Ancient China did practice laws, but sparsely, when compared to the comprehensive European laws and the complex and voluminous US case study system. The strength of US modern culture lies in the implementation of Government and law practices, and not merely in its democratic ideology. The ideal of democracy, as harmony between government, society and citizens, is universally accepted by today world. It will take time for the developing countries to grow their own appropriate democratic system in their own soil. Harmony as seen from ancient Chinese philosophy, included the practices of acceptance, tolerance, mutual respect, equality and patience, but not the use of heavy penal correction. China, as a huge ancient country, was divided into many kingdoms as Europe is today. It was united two thousand years ago under Qin Shi Huang Di (Qin the first Emperor). Under the ancient system, as explained above, a loose unity existed in China for two thousand years, despite repeated invasion by the Xiong Nu, Jing, Mongols and Manchu. Its resilient culture survived intact until it was severely challenged by the Western expansionism and industrial revolution at the end of Manchu Dynasty. Today the challenge to Chinese Culture from the 41

West is in the form of Western Democratic ideology. Prior to Qin Dynasty, during Warring States period, major philosophies were fighting it out. This led to BAI HUA CHI FAN, BAI JIA CHI MING (let hundred flowers bloom, hundred schools contend). In the end, LAOTZE and Confucius triumphed. This all happened before the time of Christ. Without disrespect to God and nature, the prolific creation of religion and philosophies in the Middle East, South Asia to Confucius. From the previous discussions one may characterize the three major world approaches of basic societal harmony and order as: Eastern origin religion order, Western Democracy and law, and Chinese moral values combined with hierarchy society order. In reality, in any society the three approaches are combined with various changing importance in practice. For the complex modern society of today the importance of law and order is on the rise. In some societies challenged by Western democracy and materialism, religious fundamentalism is also on the rise in opposition to Western influence. But societal harmony for the future as global interactions expands, is perhaps best served by an appropriate balance of the three approaches. This development will call for more genuine exchange and dialogue between world cultures. For the past two centuries the cultural flow has predominantly from West to East. The wisdom of five thousand years of ancient Chinese culture of harmony and moral values had provided long term stability and survival, cannot be easily dismissed.

HARMONY AS TAUGHT BY LAOTZE AND CONFUCIUS
As a start harmony was taught by the sages as the practices of acceptance, tolerance, mutual respect, equality and patience. This is HAI NA BEI CHUAN, YU YONG NAI DA (a society that accepts and contains outside contribution will grow. The essence of the implementation process, according to Confucius is XIU SHEN QI JIA ZI GUO PING TIEN XIA (discipline oneself, harmony at home, order in the country before extending peace to the world). As we proceed, all following concepts of harmony were from LAOTZE, Confucius and Confucius’ students’ teachings. All original quotations will be quoted here in PINYIN for those who know Chinese characters. In time PINYIN could be come a complementary Chinese language for non native speakers of Chinese. LAOTZE teachings are primarily from DAO DE JING or DAO YUEN JING, attributed to him. There were no records of students of LAOTZE although Confucius supposedly had sought advice from LAOTZE. According to LAOTZE, the universe was created from YING or negative (dark) energy. From this infinite negative or dark energy all matter and galaxies were created. This includes the earth and the solar system. A brief history of the origin of universe according to Qin Nanji’s interpretation of LAOTZE’S DAO YUEN JING, explains the relation between LAOTZE and modern quantum physics (to be published). From the YING comes the Yang. YING and YANG for a harmonious society and world normally exist in balance as beautifully represented in the Daoist circle sign. The YANG and Ying entwine in the Daoist circle in perfect harmony and beauty. In a three dimensional world the Daoist circle is a sphere with the YING enclosing both the YING and YANG on the outside surface. LAOTZE always emphasized that YING embraces YANG, the soft ultimately overcomes the hard when harmony is not achieved. His philosophy renounced war and advocated balance, harmony and peace.

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As mentioned above LAOTZE preached HE HE (harmony and togetherness) as in HE HE ER XEN (two immortals of harmony and togetherness) and TIEN REN HE YI (heaven and men unity). China throughout history was predominantly an agricultural society. LAOTZE’s philosophy of harmony with heaven and nature was well accepted by the Chinese. The idea of YING YANG balance also became the guiding philosophy of traditional Chinese medicine. After the Qin and Han dynasties the philosophy of HE HE was widely applied. It penetrated all schools of thoughts and all subsequent historical periods. It became gradually accepted and agreed upon as the cultural spirit of the Chinese thought. Throughout two millennia of Chinese culture, Confucius and his students continued to exert a strong influence on Chinese thinking. Even when conflict and contradiction of ideas were unavoidable, the philosophy of harmony and ZHONG YUN TZE DAO (the Way of the Golden Mean) continued to advise moderation and avoidance of extreme. Challenged by Western cultural and military advances during the last two centuries, China’s traditional thinking was shaken to the core. Today, under reform and opening up, Chinese society is undergoing profound changes on many fronts. In the shifting social structure, promulgation of many new laws is taking place to change to more responsive governance by incorporating US and Western ideas and experience. In its search for a model society appropriate to the Chinese nation, there have been continuing discussions and debates. Faced with today’s global ideology and religious conflicts, unilateralism, and extreme unequal parity of rich and poor between North and South, the harmony philosophy is rediscovered in China. Like fresh air the ancient teachings of LAOTZE and Confucius are coming back, China is rediscovering itself. The Chinese are again quoting ancient harmony teachings. We hear phrases such as LI TZE YONG, HE WEI GUI (in applying courtesy, harmony is most important), JUN ZI HE ER BU TONG, XIAO REN TONG ER BU HE (gentlemen can have harmony and disagree, little people can agree and still does not have harmony). In the recent Chinese media we have begun to see discussion of ideas such as HE XIE SHE HUI (Harmony society) and HE XIE SHI JIE (harmony world).

EAST AND WEST CULTURAL TEMPERAMENT DIFFERENCE
The outward expression of LAOTZE’s and Confucius’ influence on Far Eastern culture can easily be seen as a result of HE and LI (harmony and ceremony). Their operas are more formalistic such as KUNQU and KABUKI performances. There are numerous daily life rituals such as tea ceremonies and flower arrangements besides large scale or formal ceremonies as in many societies. Their gardens are often a blend of natural and man made. In China, the beauty of Suzhou and Hangzhou gardens earned the recognition of Paradise on earth. The most acclaimed beautiful scenery is Westlake in Hangzhou. It is a large landscape with a man made lake improved over centuries by poets and officials. It is a classic example of a work of art as a blend of nature and man. Typical examples of Western gardens are strikingly beautiful for their manicured lawns and plants. Societal order is maintained by simple order and moral values rather than a comprehensive system of laws. From time immemorial, advancement in Chinese society was more through education and civil service examinations. The Chinese invented the civil service system. Competition by physical strength was looked down upon. Most competitive sports on the other hand were invented by the West. 43

As a whole the East Asian culture is more reserved, less prompt to challenge nature. Hence, the industrial revolution was more likely to occur in the West. On today’s information highway, material incentives and western cultural influence massed assaults on Chinese traditional values and way of life. As a result, teachings of tolerance, acceptance, patience and human relation hierarchy order are in decline. However, the historical fact that East Asian culture had the longest uninterrupted survival testifies to its resilience and adaptability. In its recent soul searching to rediscover a new China, harmony as a way to solve a broad range of conflicts is resurfacing. The strength of US society lies in its stable government and system of laws. This started from the European Enlightenment movement and continued for the last 230 years since independence. This is a relative short period for national development by any standard. The reasons for US stability are many fold. It lies outside the scope of the present dissertation. Suffice to say the key reasons are; economic prosperity, absence of major world wars fought within US territory and acceptance of the form of government and system of laws by the population in general. From the perspective of the history of the rise and fall of past empires, US complacency and resistance to change are clear. Its government system is unable to keep up with the world economic change and its system of laws is getting cumbersome. Its government system and ideology is not the answer-all for the vast differences that exist among the multitude of developing nations. Each nation is seeking its own form of harmony between the government and its citizens. To expand its worldwide influence the US government, media and American think tanks assert that America is democratic and thus is transparent. The American viewpoint persists to exert that in this conflicting world, the US is not capable of using violent force and that its organized military aggression is not the use of violence. All violence was and will be started by nations that do not agree with us. Despite the fact this line of logic does not deceive any person of reason outside of this country. As long as US citizens love and buy it out of patriotism, they accept it as good logic and good policy. There is no argument needed for any serious student of politics to understand that the US government is transparent only when it wants to be. The massive US military and its preparation for war are always shrouded in the utmost secrecy in the name of security. Any declassification is after-the-fact, of little interest, and easily forgotten by its citizens. The only people remembered are the victims that suffered terribly by the devastating wars. That is why the US can launch one war after the other and continue to have the support of its citizens. After the Second World War U.S. prestige was at the highest. Today world opinion towards the US is at its lowest by surveys around the world. Yet citizens of the US continue to feel that we are the most peace loving nation in the world thanks to the US government and media omission and propaganda. Today conflicts against extremism are prolific in the world. These span difference between religions, ideologies, cultures, forms of government or simply distrust. The extremes of the privileged and the under privileged, the rich and the poor, the powerful and the powerless the North and the South, the developed and the developing nations have reached alarming proportions. The philosophy of harmony encompassing patience, acceptance, tolerance, equality and mutual support, as presented in the previous section, must be broadly accepted to prevent major catastrophes breaking out in all corners of the world. Major nations together with United Nations must stand up and take the necessary creative actions to minimize these occurrences.

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Domestically the US, after his assassination, praised Martin Luther King and endorsed his passive civil rights movement to resolve black and white racial conflicts. This showed a great deal of wisdom by the US government and the public. Yet in international conflicts US loudly proclaimed preemptive strikes to countries who do not agree with us. Democracy, as the only tool for conflict resolution, is very limited and does not comprise a core approach. The complexity of the multi national conflicts requires comprehensive system engineering studies of creative harmony solutions. First, we must abandon unilateralism. This will allow consorted multinational studies to come up with indigenous and appropriate solutions to suit the diverse conditions that exist among nations. The reality of nations as we see in today’s world is in total lack of international democracy and equality.

THE ULTIMATE PRINCIPLE OF HARMONY
The ultimate principle of Chinese ancient harmony, as expounded by LAOTZE in DAO DE JING, is the balance of YING and YANG but ultimately YING envelopes YANG and is beautifully illustrated in the Daoist circle sign of life. In our three dimensional world the Daoist circular sign actually is a sphere with the outside covered by a dark shell as explained before. In Section Forty Two of LAOTZE DAO DE JING it states that DAO SHENG YI, YI SHENG ER, ER SHENG SAN, SAN SHENG WAN WU. WAN WU FU YING ER BAO YANG, ZHENG CHI YI WEI HE. In Qin Nanji’s publication.“ Brief History of the Universe’s Origin”, this sentence is interpreted as Negative energy created proton, proton created neutron and meson, that in turn created DNA, together all life and matter were created in the universe. This interpretation by Qin Nanji remains to be tested and discussed for its validity. It is by no means an accepted scientific conclusion. The second sentence in above quoted DAO DE JING however, clearly stated that all matters carry YING but YING carries Yang, and when filled with CHI harmony is produced. The common interpretation of this is the ultimate Daoist harmony principle repeated through out DAO DE JING. YING and YANG when charged with CHI, result in harmony. But ultimately YING triumphs over YANG by containing Yang. HAI NA BEI CHUAN, YU YON NAI DA (The sea accepts hundreds rivers, it can only be big if it contains).

This general theme of YING over YANG runs through DAO DE JING and is supported by TAI JI CHUAN practices (the ultimate martial arts). To name a few illustrations from DAO DE JING ; soft overcomes the hard like dripping water eventually bores a hole in the hardest rock, water flows over and immerses that blocks it, water extinguishes fire. At the beginning the whole universe is in total darkness, war and confrontation is to be avoided, moderation eventually overcomes aggression. In today’s conflicting world our model of democracy cannot be forced on other nations of different culture and at different developing stages. Democracy works best by softly and patiently winning over the hearts and minds of people. Countering extremism by extremism is bound to lead to ultimate destruction of both sides. War does not solve confrontations, but moderation (negotiation) can resolve conflicts. Soft power ( ideals and economics) eventually will overcome military power. The best way to resolve conflicts is to bring harmony to the confronting parties. This can start by understanding the causes of conflicts 45

through mutual respect, trust, tolerance and acceptance. The world will progress for all mankind till eternity when harmony is universally accepted. The world of harmony shall surely come. A ten thousand miles journey begins with the first step. Let us end for now by repeating what was quoted before. JUN ZI HE ER BU TONG, XIAO REN TONG ER BU HE for an interpretation different from the translation in previous section, I will say gentlemen place harmony above all other political ideology, let us look forward to unity in diversity and live in harmony. Today’s China is in disharmony. The current modernizing and opening and reform has created a degree of regional prosperity. With the impact of materialism and lower moral values there are conflicts due to disparity of wealth and privilege and difference of the new and the old. In the traumatic changes that are required for modernizing there is extreme thinking in China that forgets the old teachings. To the degree that there are Chinese who feel loss and passively admit cultural inadequacy, under the incessant and massive criticism of by U.S. media. Fortunately, the current government, to deal with the multitude of contradictions, comes up with the Concept of Scientific Development for modernization. This began in 2002. By now it is widely discussed and covered by the media. However, the major stroke of luck is this scientific development concept brought China back in touch with the forefathers teaching of harmony. Harmony as a way of life is in the Chinese genes and is the essence of Chinese ancient teaching. On the current path China will transition through the current adjustment and reach a modern society with Chinese characteristics. This may very well be a socialistic society with harmony. Its development remains to be seen. In the process China’s harmony development can only bring harmony to the rest of the world. The ultimate patience of harmony will work its way. The often used phrase Socialist Society with Chinese Characteristics is ultimately the Socialist Society with Chinese Harmony.

© Copyright: 2006, Francis C.W. Fung. All rights reserved. Violations will be prosecuted

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APPENDIX B
Communique of the Sixth Plenum of the 16th CPC Central Committee Following is the translation of the full text of the Communique of the Sixth Plenum of the 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC), which was passed Wednesday in Beijing. The Sixth Plenum of the 16th CPC Central Committee was held in Beijing from Oct. 8 to 11, 2006. Present at the plenum were 195 members and 152 alternate members of the CPC Central Committee. Members of the Standing Committee of the CPC Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and leading officials of relevant departments also attended the meeting as nonvoting delegates. The plenum was presided over by the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee. Hu Jintao, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, delivered an important speech at the plenum. The plenum listened to and discussed the working report delivered by Hu Jintao , who was entrusted by the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, and adopted the "resolutions of the CPC Central Committee on major issues regarding the building of a harmonious socialist society". Wu Bangguo made an explanatory speech on the draft resolutions to the plenum. The plenum fully recognized the work of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee since the Fifth Plenum of the 16th CPC Central Committee. The plenum unanimously agreed that the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee has firmly followed the guidance of the Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of the "Three Represents", thoroughly implemented the guidelines of the 16th CPC National Congress and the Third, Fourth and Fifth plenums of the 16th CPC Central Committee and comprehensively implemented the scientific concept of development. The plenum agreed that the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, uniting and leading the whole Party and Chinese people of all ethnic groups, firmly focused on development, the most important task for the Party to govern and construct the country. The plenum agreed that the Political Bureau exerted efforts to speed up reform and opening up, improve the nation's capability of scientific and technological innovation and push the adjustment of economic structures and the transformation of economic growth mode to push for the relatively rapid and stable economic development. It agreed that new achievements have been made in the socialist economic, political, cultural and social construction, the Party's governance capability and advanced nature have been strengthened, and new progress has been achieved in the socialist cause of Chinese characteristics. The plenum fully analyzed the current situation and tasks and discussed the key issues of building a harmonious socialist society. The plenum unanimously agreed that social harmony is the intrinsic nature of the socialism with Chinese characteristics and an important guarantee of the country's prosperity, the nation's rejuvenation and the people's happiness. The building of a harmonious socialist society is an important strategic task, which was put forward by the CPC under the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of the "Three Represents" and with full implementation of the scientific 47

concept of development. The task was brought forward on the basis of the overall plan of the socialist cause with Chinese characteristics and the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society. To build a harmonious socialist society was the intrinsic demand of constructing a socialist modernized country which is prosperous, strong, democratic, civilized and harmonious. It also embodied the common aspiration of the whole Party and people of all ethnic groups. The plenum pointed out that social harmony is one of the targets that the CPC will make unremitting efforts to hit. Since the founding of New China, the CPC has made arduous efforts to promote social harmony and has made important achievements with both positive and bitter experiences. Since the Third Plenum of the 11th CPC Central Committee, the CPC has been firmly committed to the reform and opening up drive and socialist construction, actively bolstered the comprehensive progress of economic and social development and made tireless efforts to promote social harmony. Since the 16th CPC National Congress, with deepening understanding of social harmony, the CPC has made clear the status of building a harmonious socialist society in the overall plan of the socialist cause with Chinese characteristics and made a series of decisions and deployments to strive for new achievements in the building of a harmonious society. After long-term endeavors, a favorable condition for building a harmonious socialist society has been formed. The plenum said the CPC should take opportunities and face challenges in the new century and lead Chinese people to push forward the great socialist cause with Chinese characteristics. It said the Party must continue to focus on economic development and put the building of the harmonious socialist society to a more prominent place. Value system should be upheld. Socialist concept of honor and disgrace should be established. Civilized public morality should be fostered. Active and healthy ideological atmosphere should be The plenum believed that currently the Chinese society is harmonious in general. However, there exist many contradictions and problems, which affect social harmony. Human society has been developing and progressing amid movements of all kinds of conflicts. The building of the harmonious socialist society is a consistent process, during which social conflicts are resolved. We must always remain sober minded, be vigilant in peace time, thoroughly understand the feature of the country in the current phase of development, study and analyze the contradictions and problems and their origins in a scientific way, be more active to face up to the conflicts and solve them, and try utmost efforts to increase harmonious factors and reduce disharmonious factors to consistently boost social harmony. The plenum requested all Party members continue to emancipate the mind, seek truth from facts, keep pace with the times, be realistic, consciously act according to rules, be based on the current situation while keeping eyes on the future, do what our strength allows and exert every effort to continuously advance the building of the harmonious socialist society. The plenum requested all Party members contribute to the building of the socialist harmonious society, which should be regarded as a long-term historical task that runs through the whole process of the socialist cause with Chinese characteristics and a vital realistic task for comprehensively building a moderately prosperous society. The plenum stressed that the harmonious socialist society we are going to build is a harmonious society built and shared by all Chinese people along the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics and under the leadership of the CPC. We must adhere to the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of "Three Represents", adhere to the Party's basic line, basic program and basic experience, adhere 48

to the guidance of scientific concept of development in overall economic and social development, follow the overall requirement of building a democratic society under the rule of law, a society based on equity and justice, an honest and caring society, a society full of vigor and a stable and orderly society in which humans live in harmony with nature, strive to develop social services, promote social equity and justice, foster a culture of harmony, improve public administration, enhance creativity of the society, pursue the road of common prosperity, and push forward coordinated development of social construction, economic construction, political construction and cultural construction with the emphasis on solving issues people care about most and issues that concern their most immediate and most realistic interests. The plenum puts forward the main objectives and tasks for building a harmonious socialist society by 2020, which are as follows: the socialist democratic and legal system is further improved; the fundamental principle of administering the country according to law is implemented in an all-around way; people's rights and interests enjoy concrete respect and guarantee; widening of gap between urban and rural development and development between different regions is gradually reversed; a reasonable and orderly income distribution pattern takes shape in general; wealth of households increase universally and people lead more affluent lives; employment rate is relatively high and a social security system covering both urban and rural residents is established in general; basic public service system is further improved and the government attains relatively big improvements in administrative and service levels; the ideological and moral qualities, scientific and cultural qualities and health qualities of the whole nation are improved markedly and further progress is made in fostering a sound moral atmosphere and harmonious interpersonal relationship; creativity of the whole society is enhanced markedly and an innovation-based country is established in general; public administration system is further improved and social order is in good condition; efficiency of utilization of resources is enhanced markedly and visible improvement in ecological environment is achieved; the objective of building a moderately prosperous society of a higher level and in an all-around way to benefit the Chinese people of more than 1 billion is realized and striving to attain a situation in which all people do their best according to their abilities, everyone is provided for and people live together in harmony. The plenum stressed that the following principles must be followed in building a harmonious socialist society: adhering to putting people first; adhering to development in a scientific way; adhering to reform and opening up; adhering to democracy and the rule of law; adhering to properly handling the relationships between reform, development and stability; and adhering to participation of the whole society under the leadership of the Party. The plenum pointed out that development is the prerequisite of social harmony. We must adhere to solving problems on the road ahead through promoting development and make great efforts to develop social productive forces and constantly consolidate the material base for social harmony. Meanwhile, we must put more attention to developing social services and push forward economic and social development in a coordinated way. Social equity and justice is a basic condition of social harmony, while a sound system provides the fundamental guarantee to social equity and justice. We must accelerate construction of the system that plays an important role in ensuring social equity and justice to guarantee people's rights and interests in political, economic, cultural and social fields and guide our citizens to exercise their rights and fulfill their obligations according to law. Nurturing a culture of harmony is an important task of building a harmonious socialist society, while socialist core value system is the essential element of the culture of harmony. We must adhere to the guiding role of Marxism in ideological fields, firmly 49

control the development direction of socialist advanced culture, advocate harmony concepts and nurture the spirit of harmony to further foster common ideals and beliefs for the whole society and solidify the ideological and moral base for the whole Party and people of various ethnic groups to work hard in unison. Enhancing public administration and maintaining social stability is a prerequisite of building a harmonious socialist society. We must innovate the public administration system, integrate public administration resources, improve the level of public administration, improve the public administration pattern that is under the leadership of the Party committee, the government taking the responsibility with cooperation from other organizations and with participation of the public. Service should be accompanied with administration and administration should reflect service. Socialist harmonious society is both a society full of vigor and a society of unity and harmony. We must stimulate the energy of society to its full, promote the harmony of relationship between political parties, ethnic groups, religions, stratums and compatriots at home and abroad, consolidate the great unity of people of various ethnic groups and consolidate the great unity of Chinese both at home and abroad. The plenum made the deployment for building a harmonious socialist society for present time and future: Construction of social cause should be strengthened through adhering to coordinated development; new socialist countryside construction should be earnestly pushed forward; the general strategy of regional development should be implemented; active employment policies should be carried out; education should be topped the agenda of development; health care services should be enhanced; development of cultural cause and cultural industries should be speed up; environmental protection and pollution control should be strengthened; institutional construction should be enhanced and social equality and justice should be safeguarded. The system of safeguarding democratic rights, the legal system and judicial system and mechanism, as well as systems of public finance, income distribution and social security should be improved. Harmonious culture should be built. Ethnic foundation for social harmony should be consolidated. Socialist core built. A movement of creating harmonious society should be widely launched. Social administration should be improved and good public order should be maintained. Serviceoriented government should be established, community construction should be pushed forward and social organizations should be healthily developed. Interests of various sides should be coordinated in an overall manner. Emergency response system and overall management of public order should be improved. National security and national defense work must be strengthened. Social vigor should be stimulated and social unity and harmony be enhanced. People's creative spirit should be brought into play and the broadest patriotic united front be consolidated. The long-term prosperity and stability of Hong Kong and Macao should be maintained, the great cause of national reunification should be pushed forward and the peaceful development road be adhered to. The plenum stressed that to build a harmonious socialist society, the CPC's role as the core leadership must be brought into full play. The principles -- the Party is built for the public and exercises the power for the people -- must be adhered to. CPC's efforts in improving governance capacity and maintaining advanced nature are the political guarantee for the construction of a harmonious socialist society. Leadership and cadres at various levels should improve their capability of leading people to construct a harmonious socialist society. Party committees at various levels should put the construction of a harmonious socialist society at a prominent position and make efforts in judging direction, stipulating policies, pooling strengths and power, 50

fostering favorable environment and shouldering the leadership accountability for the construction of a harmonious socialist society. Democratic centralism should be adhered to and improved. Efforts should be made in improving inner-Party democracy, increasing transparency of Party affairs, strictly regulating the inner-Party life, strictly enforcing the Party's discipline, promoting the party's unity. Inner-Party harmony will promote social harmony. Party committees at various levels should build the scientific leadership and work system of high-efficiency, clearly classify responsibilities, provide coordinated instruction, sharpen political sensitivity, strengthen investigation and research into major issues of social construction for the effectiveness of their policies and properly handling prominent contradictions and issues that affect social harmony in their localities. The work should be intensified in the grass-roots, the characteristics of the Party's work concerning the masses should be earnestly studied, and great effort should be made on the work concerning the masses. Party committees at various levels should always maintain flesh-and-blood relations with the masses and train a large number of professionals who are good at dealing with social issues. Party committees at various levels should toughen the internal discipline and strengthen studying of the Party Constitution, laws and disciplines. Party members and cadres should strengthen ideological and moral cultivation. The anti-corruption mechanism should be improved and the supervision over the leading cadres and organizations should be intensified. The fight against corruption and the construction of a clean and honest Party should be fortified. Sound ethos within the Party should be introduced to foster healthy ethos among the general public and government officials, so as to create harmonious relations between the Party and the masses. The plenum reviewed and passed a resolution on the convening of the 17th National Congress of the CPC, which is to be held in second half of 2007. The national congress, to be held at a crucial period of China's economic and social development, will be of vital importance for the Party to unite and lead all the Chinese people in building a moderately prosperous society and accelerating the nation's socialist modernization drive. The plenum called on the whole Party to rally closely around the CPC Central Committee with comrade Hu Jintao as the General Secretary; to hold high the banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory and the Important Thought of "Three Represents" and further implement the scientific concept of development; to blaze new trails, unite and lead all Chinese people to build a prosperous, strong, democratic, civilized and harmonious socialist modern nation.

People's Daily Online --- http://english.people.com.cn/

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GLOSSSARY OF PIN YIN TERMS AND CHINESE CHARACTERS
LI TZE YONG, HE WEI GUI 禮之用,和為貴 JUN ZI HE ER BU TONG, XIAO REN TONG ER BU HE 君子和而不同,小人同而不和 ZHONG GUO TONG SE 中國通史 SHI SHU WU JING 四書五經 LUN YU, ZHONG YONG, DA SUE, MENCIUS 論語,中庸,大學,孟子 SAN GANG WU CHANG, REN, YI, LI, ZHI, XIN 三綱五常,仁,義,禮,智,信 LUN LI DAO DE 論理道德 SAN TZE JING 三字經 CHUNG YUN 中庸 HE XIE 和諧 BAI HUA CHI FAN, BAI JIA CHI MING 百花齊放,百家齊鳴 DAO DE JING 道德經 DAO YUEN JING 道原經 YING YANG 陰陽 XIU SHEN QI JIA ZI GUO PING TIEN XIA 修身,齊家,治國,平天下 HE HE ER XEN 和合二仙 TIEN REN HE YI 天人合一 ZHONG YUN TZE DAO 中庸之道 HE XIE SHE HUI 和諧社會 HE XIE SHI JIE 和諧世界 KUNQU 昆曲 52

WUHAN 武漢 JUN BU REN CHEN BU YI 君不仁臣不義 MIN WEI BEN 民為本 CHEN WEI ZHONG, JUN WEI QIN 臣為重,君為輕 DER REN XIN ZHE DE TIEN XIA SHI REN XIN SHE SHI TIEN XIA 得人心者得天下,失人心者失天下 WA DI WEI LAO 畫地為牢 LU NBU SHI WEI, YEBU BI HU 路不拾遺,夜不閉戶 FEN JIAN 封建 DAO SHENG YI, YI SHENG ER, ER SHENG SAN, SAN SHENG WAN WU. WAN WU FU YING ER BAO YANG, ZHENG YI WEI HE 道生一,一生二,二生三,三生萬物。 萬物負陰而抱陽。沖氣以為和。 FENG SHUI 風水 HAI NA BEI CHUAN, YU YON NAI DA 海納百川,有容乃大 TAI JI CHUAN 太極拳

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Chinese harmony and American democracy in 21st century –Part I (Published by Xinhuanet) www.chinaview.cn 2006-11-01 14:18:02
BEIJING, Nov. 2 (Xinhuanet)-- Following is an excerpt of a paper by Francis C. W. Fung, PH. D.

In his paper, Fung said, as the ancient world culture with the longest uninterrupted historical record, the richness of China's teachings of harmony as a dominant philosophy is unparalleled. But, he noted, "China is going through dramatic changes in adjusting to the conflicts of the new and the old. "To address the multitude of domestic and international conflicts," he said, China has promoted the ancient teachings of harmony and has achieved much in its great efforts of building a Harmonious Society and Harmonious World. From the perspective of harmony, Fung examined three major movements of human civilization: religion, democracy and harmony. "As the world is in great disharmony with religion conflicts, international inequity, and the disparity between North and South," Fung stressed, "we must look beyond religion and democracy to harmony." Then after comparing with religion and democracy, Fung asked, "Will harmony bring a more moderate future world?" His answer is yes. Finally Fung stressed that democracy -- American style -- is challenged by Chinese harmony as the leading global philosophy in the 21st century, because harmony is a basic human longing. Fung concluded his paper "Teaching harmony in U.S. is paramount." Only corrections of language errors, typo changes and editing are made, but the viewpoints are all Fung's. From time immemorial humans had to cope with nature, the need of shelter and the fear of nature's extreme furor. This fear was as natural as nature itself and a solution was paramount from the outset. Obvious approaches to addressing this issue were: acceptance of life, submission to the will of God to placate nature, harmonizing with nature, and persevering as best as one could. These approaches were combined, at times, for expediency. As civilization progressed, and local and global societies became more complex and conflicting issues prolific, more harmony solutions were needed. As far as one can ascertain the major world religions practiced today originated from the mystic East and can be narrowed to Central Asia along the silk-road including India and the middle East. There seems to be continuity in development from the earliest religion to the latest. The following is a short introduction of origin of modern religion as mankind's effort to harmonize with nature. One might surmise that organized religions are human's group effort to harmonize with nature by submitting to the will of God. There are reasons perhaps to accept the 55

speculation that certain cultures may be more spiritual from a religious view point, although some cultures have defined spirituality from a moral value view point. All religions offer the faithful harmony to nature and God and peace of mind. Democracy grew out of the Age of Enlightenment in Europe (1600 to 1789), a movement to resolve the conflicts between the ruler and the ruled in France and England. Its philosophy was against superstition, encouraging development of science, and against easy acceptance of authority. Two leading philosophers of the time were the Frenchman, Rousseau, and the Englishman, John Lock The United States of America, formerly a colony of England, defeated the occupier and declared Independence on 1776 during the Age of Enlightenment. The early new citizens being immigrants of Europe, were quick to adopt the ideas of liberty, fraternity and democracy. As a result, the drafters of the U.S. constitution and Bill of Rights that guaranteed citizen rights were heavily influenced by Rousseau and John Lock. Many elements of the present day U.S. government including theory, structure and policy were penned by Thomas Jefferson, an original signer of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights. The documents spelled out the rights and duties of the citizen, majority rule and the separation of powers. These harmonizing concepts were a great influence on today's governments. The drafting of a constitution for new governments is today a standard fare. The leaders of the U.S. government then and still now are mostly aristocrats or elites of the society. From the very beginning there were two opposing forces, the powerful at one end and the masses at the other, which see-saw through out the entire relatively short U.S. history. Although American citizens have more freedom of choice in life in relation to other societies of today, true democracy of equality and mass representation on important issues remains elusive. Today the U.S. media is owned by a few big businesses, and is easily influenced by the government and big business. In foreign policy especially, media self censorship is prevalent and political correctness is the name of the game. Despite freedom of press and freedom of speech, U.S. citizens are not fully aware of real world opinion towards the U.S.. U.S. foreign policy is again controlled by minority elite supporting the government. In its eagerness to export democracy as an ideology supported by the U.S. military, media and elite, U.S. approaches can be inflexible and doctrinaire. Often democracy is touted as transparent and peaceful. Attempts to export the democracy model between government and citizens in this case have the opposite effect of causing world disharmony. This is seen in the U.S. unilateral Iraq war that has exasperated U.S. population and the world. All wars of aggression of modern times were launched with high sounding goals necessary for the morale of the invading forces.

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Chinese harmony and American democracy in 21st century –Part II (Published by Xinhuanet) www.chinaview.cn 2006-11-01 14:18:02

Throughout China's long history as an ancient culture, unlike the Middle East, it did not produce a religion of world importance, and unlike the West it did not produce a comprehensive home grown democracy system to resolve conflicts between the ruler and the ruled. China obviously, however, had notions of religion and democracy, when Confucius admonished his followers to respect God but keep a distance, and Mencius advocated good government and put citizens above the rulers. Instead, through considerable debate and evolution, China settled on the philosophies of CHUNG YUN, HE XIE (moderation, harmony) and hierarchy social structures. Family and social order were promoted by emphasizing SAN GANG WU CHANG, REN, YI , LI , ZHI, XIN (the three important relations in the order of: ruler and the ruled, father and children, husband and wife and five basic societal moral values) and LUN LI DAO DE (family and moral values). This system of profuse teaching was drilled into students from Day One and all through a scholar's life. Youngsters' first standard reading text was SAN TZE JING (a simple rhyme of Confucius teaching). The moderation and harmony philosophy reinforced by morals and values as a social system was very different from the Western democracy concepts of citizen rights and duties enforced by law and order. Ancient China did practice laws, but sparsely, when compared to the comprehensive European laws and the complex and voluminous U.S. case study system. The strength of U.S. modern culture lies in the implementation of Government and law practices, and not merely in its democratic ideology. The ideal of democracy, as harmony between government, society and citizens, is universally accepted by today world. It will take time for the developing countries to grow their own appropriate democratic system in their own soil. Harmony as seen from ancient Chinese philosophy, included the practices of acceptance, tolerance, mutual respect, equality and patience, but not the use of heavy penal correction. From the previous discussions one may characterize the three major world approaches of basic societal harmony and order as: Eastern origin religion order, Western Democracy and law, and Chinese moral values combined with hierarchy society order. But societal harmony for the future as global interactions expands, is perhaps best served by an appropriate balance of the three approaches. This development will call for more genuine exchange and dialogue between world cultures. For the past two centuries the cultural flow has predominantly from West to East. The wisdom of five thousand years of ancient Chinese culture of harmony and moral values had provided long term stability and survival, cannot be easily dismissed. As a start harmony was taught by the sages as the practices of acceptance, tolerance, mutual respect, equality and patience. The essence of the implementation process, according to 57

Confucius is discipline oneself, harmony at home, order in the country before extending peace to the world. According to LAOTZE, the universe was created from YING or negative (dark) energy. From this infinite negative or dark energy all matter and galaxies were created. This includes the earth and the solar system. The YANG and Ying entwine in the Daoist circle in perfect harmony and beauty. In a three dimensional world the Daoist circle is a sphere with the YING enclosing both the YING and YANG on the outside surface. LAOTZE always emphasized that YING embraces YANG, the soft ultimately overcomes the hard when harmony is not achieved. His philosophy renounced war and advocated balance, harmony and peace. LAOTZE's philosophy of harmony with heaven and nature was well accepted by the Chinese. The idea of YING YANG balance also became the guiding philosophy of traditional Chinese medicine. After the Qin and Han dynasties the philosophy of HE HE was widely applied. It penetrated all schools of thoughts and all subsequent historical periods. It became gradually accepted and agreed upon as the cultural spirit of the Chinese thought. Throughout two millennia of Chinese culture, Confucius and his students continued to exert a strong influence on Chinese thinking. Even when conflict and contradiction of ideas were unavoidable, the philosophy of harmony and ZHONG YUN TZE DAO (the Way of the Golden Mean) continued to advise moderation and avoidance of extreme. Challenged by Western cultural and military advances during the last two centuries, China's traditional thinking was shaken to the core. Today, under reform and opening up, Chinese society is undergoing profound changes on many fronts. In the shifting social structure, promulgation of many new laws is taking place to change to more responsive governance by incorporating U.S. and Western ideas and experience. In its search for a model society appropriate to the Chinese nation, there have been continuing discussions and debates. Faced with today's global ideology and religious conflicts, unilateralism, and extreme unequal parity of rich and poor between North and South, the harmony philosophy is rediscovered in China. Like fresh air the ancient teachings of LAOTZE and Confucius are coming back, China is rediscovering itself. The Chinese are again quoting ancient harmony teachings. In the recent Chinese media we have begun to see discussion of ideas such as HE XIE SHE HUI (Harmony society) and HE XIE SHI JIE (harmony world). The outward _expression of LAOTZE's and Confucius' influence on Far Eastern culture can easily be seen as a result of HE and LI (harmony and ceremony). From time immemorial, advancement in Chinese society was more through education and civil service examinations. The Chinese invented the civil service system. Competition by physical strength was looked down upon. Most competitive sports on the other hand were invented by the West.

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As a whole the East Asian culture is more reserved, less prompt to challenge nature. Hence, the industrial revolution was more likely to occur in the West. On today's information highway, material incentives and western cultural influence massed assaults on Chinese traditional values and way of life. As a result, teachings of tolerance, acceptance, patience and human relation hierarchy order are in decline. However, the historical fact that East Asian culture had the longest uninterrupted survival testifies to its resilience and adaptability. In its recent soul searching to rediscover a new China, harmony as a way to solve a broad range of conflicts is resurfacing. The strength of U.S. society lies in its stable government and system of laws. This started from the European Enlightenment movement and continued for the last 230 years since independence. This is a relative short period for national development by any standard. Suffice to say the key reasons are; economic prosperity, absence of major world wars fought within U.S. territory and acceptance of the form of government and system of laws by the population in general. From the perspective of the history of the rise and fall of past empires, U.S. complacency and resistance to change are clear. Its government system is unable to keep up with the world economic change and its system of laws is getting cumbersome. Its government system and ideology is not the answer-all for the vast differences that exist among the multitude of developing nations. Each nation is seeking its own form of harmony between the government and its citizens. To expand its worldwide influence the U.S. government, media and American think tanks assert that America is democratic and thus is transparent. The American viewpoint persists to exert that in this conflicting world, the U.S. is not capable of using violent force and that its organized military aggression is not the use of violence. All violence was and will be started by nations that do not agree with us. Despite the fact this line of logic does not deceive any person of reason outside of this country. As long as U.S. citizens love and buy it out of patriotism, they accept it as good logic and good policy. There is no argument needed for any serious student of politics to understand that the U.S. government is transparent only when it wants to be. The massive U.S. military and its preparation for war are always shrouded in the utmost secrecy in the name of security. Any declassification is after-the-fact, of little interest, and easily forgotten by its citizens. The only people remembered are the victims that suffered terribly by the devastating wars. That is why the U.S. can launch one war after the other and continue to have the support of its citizens. After the Second World War U.S. prestige was at the highest. Today world opinion towards the U.S. is at its lowest by surveys around the world. Yet citizens of the U.S. continue to feel that we are the most peace loving nation in the world thanks to the U.S. government and media omission and propaganda." Today conflicts against extremism are prolific in the world. These span difference between religions, ideologies, cultures, forms of government or simply distrust. The extremes of the privileged and the under privileged, the rich and the poor, the powerful and the powerless the North and the South, the developed and the developing nations have reached alarming proportions. The philosophy of harmony encompassing patience, acceptance, tolerance, equality and mutual support, as presented in the previous section, must be broadly accepted to prevent major catastrophes breaking out in all corners of the world. Major nations together with United Nations must stand up and take the necessary creative actions to minimize these occurrences. 59

Democracy, as the only tool for conflict resolution, is very limited and does not comprise a core approach. The complexity of the multi national conflicts requires comprehensive system engineering studies of creative harmony solutions. "First, we must abandon unilateralism. This will allow consorted multinational studies to come up with indigenous and appropriate solutions to suit the diverse conditions that exist among nations. The reality of nations as we see in today's world is in total lack of international democracy and equality. Democracy grew out of the 17th century Enlightenment movement as a resolution of the conflicts between the ruler and the ruled. But the movement as a tradition had inspired many national revolutions. The notable ones for this discussion were the French revolution, American independence war and the Chinese 1911 revolution extending to the 1949 revolution led by Mao Zedong. However, three hundred years is very short for human history. Through out Chinese history every 300 years or so peasants would rise up to overthrow the emperor. However, the ancient philosophies of harmony and moderation were always able to restore stability, prosperity and a loosely united empire. Chinese harmony and American democracy in 21st century- Part III (Published by Xinhuanet) www.chinaview.cn 2006-11-01 14:18:02

The resilience of the Chinese nation lies in its deep rooted harmony philosophies coupled with prosperity at the beginning of each successful dynasty. This typically goes on in every 300 years or so for two millennium. China, after two hundred years of Western and Japanese humiliation and invasion, had lost its direction for a while. Today with relative prosperity returning, demands for harmony as a way to resolve conflicts in a complex modern society return in force. This is how China rediscovered itself from the roots of its ancient culture. The Chinese feudal society was not an absolute civil order that was unalterable. The idea that opposing forces are constantly struggling for balance, lay the foundation for change. If the ruler is not kind and loving, the ruled can rise up to defy his order. This was always true as demonstrated by the over thrown of decadent dynasties by peasant revolutions. Basic democratic ideals were also formed during that time. This is what China calls today MIN WEI BEN, people based ideals. The teaching of MIN WEI BEN means the ruled is more important than the ruler in good government, or a good government should put its people above the ruler. This REN BEN (people based) ideal have reined for two thousand years and is again being revived. The idea of anti corruption and anti dictatorial government is innate in China as well as in many other cultures. Simply put as in a Confucius saying, DE REN XIN ZHE DE TIEN HSIA, SHI REN XIN SHE SHI TIEN HSIA (the ruler who lost people's hearts lost his empire, the ruler who won people's hearts won the empire). This is the basis of a society centered on teaching of moral values and virtue. Moral and values standard were high. Emphasis was placed on self correction rather than on penal correction. During the times of Confucius the society was in harmony. It was said during that time, lost are found, doors are not closed at night. This was the Chinese concept of government by moral value, societal order and harmony. 60

Democracy as a movement for the most part is universally accepted in the world today. One needs only to look at how many new countries or changing countries are calling themselves democracies. However, the U.S. has its own definition. This mostly means that countries agreeing with the U.S. are democracies. Democracy as a system of government needs to take hold and grow in the fertile soil of developing countries and countries evolving from their old cultures. This ideal of anti corruption and anti dictatorship is changing traditional order by reform. Harmony advises renunciation of force. In time democracy will grow and wrought its fruits in the global modern environment. It is important to point out for those who did not grew up during the cold war era, the U.S. media divided the world into the free world and the communist world. This explains why the U.S. government and media have a tendency to call countries that challenge us as plotting to take away our freedom. This is highlighted by President Bush's repeated use of the word freedom in his 2004 and 2006 September 11, 2006 addresses. Now the idea of freedom is also not an unknown concept. Many societies have abandoned enslavement and it is against universal laws. The Chinese abandoned slavery as early as the period of Spring and Autumn, more than two thousand years ago. The country transitioned from slave state of Eastern Zhou to FENJIAN (Feudal society) after the Warring State period. Those violated it when found are put in jails in all civilized societies. International equality has yet to be recognized by the U.S.. For many weak and poor nations in the world, struggling for equal economic and political equality is a must for their survival. This is a vast subject that must be discussed in the resolution of conflicts under the broad concept of a harmonious world. Democracy in conflict resolution is a well honed management system engineering study for the U.S. since its independence. The ancient harmony philosophies had worked well for keeping Eastern Asia stable for two thousand years. It is being rediscovered by China because of the prolific of conflicts in the world between the old and new, rich and poor, powerful and the powerless, due to its own reform and opening up. It will be logical for China to combine the U.S. experience in engineering Democracy into its government system and to revitalize the ancient concept of harmony. It will require exchange and cooperation between the East and West to harmonize this great undertaking. Societal needs for East and West are similar; however there are great differences in approaches and logical thinking. The concept of time and perspective on history also requires a great deal of harmonizing. The West and Far East together have the technology and the ready financial resources to bring the necessary actions together to make a beginning. President Hu Jintao of China during his speech at Yale University April 21st, 2006 sounded out the ideas of harmony and harmony world and invited discussions and cooperation with the U.S.. If the interest is high, continuing system engineering studies for conflict resolution can be supported by interested scholars from East and West. A task of this world magnitude, needless to say, must be inclusive. The ultimate principle of Chinese ancient principles, as expounded by LAOTZE in DAO DE JING, is the balance of YING and YANG but ultimately YING envelopes YANG and is beautifully illustrated in the Daoist circle sign of life. 61

In today's conflicting world our model of democracy cannot be forced on other nations of different culture and at different developing stages. Democracy works best by softly and patiently winning over the hearts and minds of people. Countering extremism by extremism is bound to lead to ultimate destruction of both sides. War does not solve confrontations, but moderation (negotiation) can resolve conflicts. Soft power (ideals and economics) eventually will overcome military power. The best way to resolve conflicts is to bring harmony to the confronting parties. This can start by understanding the causes of conflicts through mutual respect, trust, tolerance and acceptance. The world will progress for all mankind till eternity when harmony is universally accepted. The world of harmony shall surely come. Today's China is in disharmony. The current modernizing and opening and reform has created a degree of regional prosperity. With the impact of materialism and lower moral values there are conflicts due to disparity of wealth and privilege and difference of the new and the old. In the traumatic changes that are required for modernizing there is extreme thinking in China that forgets the old teachings. To the degree that there are Chinese who feel loss and passively admit cultural inadequacy, under the incessant and massive criticism by U.S. media. Fortunately, the current government, in order to deal with the multitude of contradictions, come up with the concept of scientific development for modernization. This began in 2002. By now it is widely discussed and covered by the media. However, the major stroke of luck is this scientific development concept brought China back in touch with the forefathers teaching of harmony. Harmony as a way of life is in the Chinese genes and is the essence of Chinese ancient teaching. On the current path China will transition through the current adjustment and reach a modern society with Chinese characteristics. This may very well be a socialistic society with harmony. Its development remains to be seen. In the process China's harmony development can only bring harmony to the rest of the world. The ultimate patience of harmony will work its way. The often used phrase Socialist Society with Chinese Characteristics is ultimately The Socialist Society with Chinese Harmony. (Dr. Fung originally came from Shanghai, China at age 16 by way of Hong Kong to study at Brown University during the 1950's. He also attended Johns Hopkins University and University of Notre Dame culminating in a Ph. D. degree with major in aerospace engineering. His early career during the 1970's included university teaching, aerospace industries (Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory) and ten years at National Institute of Technology (in energy conservation and fire safety research). During the 1980's he returned to China by the invitation of Chinese Academic of Science to lecture at the Academy and Jiao Tong University in the fields of energy conservation. It was during this period he founded Finance and Technology Associates, a premier business consulting firm specialized in international technology transfer and commercialization. Among the U.S. companies he represented included Cooper Rolls (a joint venture between Cooper industries and Rolls Royce), Combustion Engineering and MTI. Dr. Fung taught Multi-national Corporations and Joint Ventures in the International School of Business of San Francisco State University. By the recommendation of the SFSU Confucius Institute, he has submitted two research papers for publication to NABE 2007, Feb conference. The theme of the conference is "One Nation: Many Languages and Cultures in a Changing World". The two papers submitted are titled: 62

"Chinese Harmony and American Democracy in 21st Century" and Chinese Harmony Culture Old and New, Promise for a Less Confrontational World?") Chinese harmony renaissance: Can world ignore it? Published by Xinhuanet www.chinaview.cn 2006-11-02 16:01:01 by Francis C.W. Fung, Ph.D.
BEIJING, Nov. 2 (Xinhuanet)-- Following is an abridged version of two papers by Francis C.W. Fung, Ph.D. The papers are titled "Chinese Harmony and American Democracy in 21st Century" and "Chinese Harmony Culture Old and New, Promise for a Less Confrontational World?"

(I) CHINA'S HARMONY RENAISSANCE: CAN AMERICA IGNORE IT? On Oct. 8, 2006, at its Central Committee meeting, the Communist Party of China launched the national campaign to build a harmonious society. The resulting Harmony Communiqu谷is a system engineering blue print to guide China on its path of rejuvenation. It will be an arduous and long undertaking to build a harmonious socialist society in modern China, no less challenging to the CPC as the revolutionary "Long March" of Chinese history. Oct. 8, 2006 will be remembered as the most important milestone of China's Harmony Renaissance. By rediscovering harmony culture, China is rediscovering its own rich ancient cultural harmony traditions. It is of similar in importance to Europe's Renaissance after the rediscovery of ancient Greek culture. China's harmony development will herald a brand new period of vitality and national spirit as the country enters a new period of sustainable development. By developing its own harmony society, China becomes the standard bearer of a harmony world. Harmony, as taught by Chinese ancients, embraces ideas of democracy as a way of conflict resolution between the ruler and the ruled. China has practiced harmony as a way of life since Laotze and Confucius for at least 2500 years. In contrast, American Democracy is only 230 years old, developing after Independence, and borrowing from the traditions of European Enlightenment. As China's Harmony Socialism wins gradual international recognition, it will provide an alternative model to American-style Democracy as the leading 21st century governance system. To keep its position as the most influential political and cultural leading country of the world America cannot afford to overlook the 21st century Chinese Harmony Society and Harmony World development herald by China's Harmony Renaissance. The consequence could be the isolation and unwitting fall of the greatest military and economic empire of our time through its inability to keep up with the pace of world harmony consensus. The mightiest American military power cannot dictate world order any longer, as is exemplified by the Iraqi War, and the Iran and North Korea nuclear confrontations. The overwhelming desires of developing countries for common development are closing the curtains on the world of international power politics. The world will be caught up in the surging tide of common development and harmony conversion. The Harmony World of unity in diversity of world cultures and governance systems will surely come. Harmony will give China a place on the world stage to express its ancient heritage and the moral high ground to challenge the U.S. leadership in international relations. For over fifty years 63

America interfered in China's domestic affairs in the name of democracy. Now harmony contains democracy ideals also as conflict resolution government and its citizens. The table will be turned between the West and China during the 21st century. Since the Opium War, over 150 years ago, China finally is able to raise its head and stand up against the West. By doing so, China will have the unity and vitality to continue its sustainable reform and opening up to a new era. (II) CHINA'S HARMONY RENAISSANCE, HOW IT ALL BEGAN? The Central Committee meeting was a major meeting to discuss major policy decisions to launch a national campaign to build a harmonious society. [1] In terms of its impact on the future Chinese society and the future world, policies announced during this meeting will have a longer lasting effect than China's recent policies of reform and opening up. These policies, initiated under the guidance of Deng Xiaoping, led to profound benefits for China and the world, but the nation is ready for the next step in its process of transformation. By comparison, the Oct. 8 meeting provided the needed national spirit of harmony which continues on the success of the Scientific Concept of Development. This new spirit is built on the essence of ancient Chinese teachings of harmony which remains unparalleled for its richness in the world. Due to the rapid expansion of economic and industrial activities, China, over the past twenty some years, has developed from an egalitarian society to a society of unbalanced wealth distribution, and from a self-sufficient society to one, like other developed nations, that depends heavily on outside energy and other material resources. The Scientific Development Concept was thus conceived by the Chinese leaders to provide a blueprint for a long term sustainable development. In time, this blueprint is expanded to include also all old and new conflicts in China's grand modernization. Harmony being China's dominant philosophy for 2500 years it is no surprise, despite the onslaught of Western culture for the last two hundred years, China rediscovered its ancient heritage. This is not unlike the return of harmony philosophy to the golden Han dynasty after the Spring and Autumn Warring States period. In the fertile soil of Chinese harmony garden after Chinese leaders called for Harmony Society development, ideas of harmony spread like wild fire. Creative ideas of Harmony Society from government officials, intellectuals, think tanks, academicians and the general public is currently sweeping through the country. We may once again witness a major New Harmony movement excelling the ancient teachings of ancient harmony that has guided China for the last 2500 years. A true period of let hundred flowers bloom and hundred schools content may be in the making surpassing the Spring and Autumn period debates in scope and magnitude. This time the Chinese culture may take a leap into the future World of Harmony. (III) THE COMING OF THE HARMONY WORLD In today's world of extreme disparity among nations, need for international economic and political change is driven by: the widening gap in stages of development, the increase of injustice in world order, and the growth of clashes between civilizations. As seen in the recent unilateral Iraq War, the crisis in Sudan, and the nuclear confrontation with North Korea and Iran, the world is hastening towards confrontation.

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Written in Chinese characters, the term, "crisis" is composed of the opposing elements, "danger" and "opportunity." In Chinese harmony belief, the opposition of Ying and the Yang, or the strong and the gentle, are in constant contest. When Ying and Yang are in balance, harmony is reached, as is illustrated by the Daoist double fish circle of life.When viewed as a globe the Ying envelops the Yang as the outside shell. Laotze's philosophy of renunciation of force is also reflected in forming Chinese words. The word "martial" in Chinese means "stop the use of weapons." The word "war" in Chinese means "imbalance of weaponry." When country specific harmony societies grow in their own fertile soil with distinctive cultural characteristics, World Harmony will surely spread. Each society will have its own appropriate harmony theory and practices reflecting the wide differences in states of development, needs and culture. For harmony to take root, basic needs must be met, and the society must be equitable, social order must work smoothly, cultural values must have sustaining power, and the mobility of different stratum in society should be assured. Indices such as Happiness, Harmony, Environment, Rural and Urban must be customized according to each country's will and development. Great debates are happening today in China over whether Socialism with Chinese characteristics become Socialism with Chinese harmony. In the last couple of years China has extended the philosophy of Harmony to the practice of international relations, from Harmony Society to Harmony Region and Harmony World. In doing so, China, as one of the world's ancient civilized nations, is expressing to the world its choice and determination to travel the road of peace and development. Harmony as the core of Chinese traditional cultural belief, reflects the concepts of appropriate and properly balanced relationships between man and man, man and nature, man and society and harmony among nations. In fact Harmony Society and Harmony World are manifestations of ancient Chinese cultural values. Western cultures, in contrast to the East, tend to emphasize conflict rather than harmony, personal, national, and world affairs in terms of good and evil, right and wrong. God must triumph over the Devil, good over the bad, and the individual struggles to conquer sin and redeem his soul. Armies fight with the conviction that God is on their side, and leaders, like George Bush, call upon believers to support them in righteous wars. The powerful U.S. media, adhering to the same tenants, does not report contrasting views. Thus, Western nations, most notably the United States today, justify aggression through their own self righteousness, convincing themselves that they are duty bound to change or eliminate hostile countries that do not adhere to Western principles. Rather than accepting differences they attempt to destroy differences to achieve uniformity in international political ideology. In such an atmosphere, international relations become power politics, with the assumption that new democracies that arise will be fashioned in the mold of American and Western European systems. In China today foreign policy is an extension of domestic policy and, at the same time, serves domestic policy. Hu Jintao, President of China, pointed out, China must "Closely connect our development with the progress of mankind. Develop our self through maintaining world peace and at the same time through our own development to promote world peace." The Chinese government has officially stated the central ideas of Harmony China and Harmony World as: China wants to build a harmony society of "democracy and rule of law, justice and righteousness, trustworthiness and friendliness, full of vitality, stable and orderly, a society of 65

man and nature in harmony." A Harmony World envisioned by China is "adherence to multilateralism, realization of mutual security, adherence to mutually beneficial cooperation, realization of mutual prosperity, adherence to the spirit of tolerance and building a Harmony World together." President Hu Jintao, on April 22, 2005, when attending the Asian African Summit meeting, suggested that "promoting friendship among different cultures, equal dialogue, develop common prosperity and together build a harmony world." This was the first time the concept of Harmony World appeared on the world stage. Two months later on July 1, 2005, President Hu Jintao visited Moscow. Harmony World was written into the China-Russia world order joint . communiqu谷 For the first time World Harmony was recognized as common policy belief between two major countries. This marks the new World Harmony concept's gradual entrance into the vision of a world society. Chinese leaders thoughts on World Harmony were quickly deepening, for two months later, on September 15, 2005, President Hu Jintao gave a speech at the United Nation General Assembly in which he detailed the deep contents of World Harmony. Participants of the meeting gave the speech a resounding response, and world media also gave the speech heightened notice and positive evaluation. It is generally considered that China as a major responsible country is transmitting to the world its longing for peaceful world development. The speech also served to relate China's message to build a peaceful, prosperous and Harmony World together with the rest of the world. Harmonious and cooperative China stands ready to work for sustainable and long lasting peace and mutual prosperity with the rest of the world. (IV) CHINESE HARMONY AS SYSTEM ENGINEERING BLUE PRINT China's cultural contribution to the world is the harmony philosophy just as Europe and America are the breeding grounds for democracy. China for most of its 5000 years of recorded culture was an agricultural society, in contrast to Europeans, most of whom were descendants from pastoral nomads. As a continuing ancient culture China was firmly rooted to cultivating the land handed down through the generations. This dependency on agriculture led to an inclination to harmonize with nature rather than to challenge nature. The order of nature is harmony with Ying and Yang in dynamic balance as taught by Laotze. As a result harmony philosophy grew in the fertile land of this Middle Kingdom until it was challenged by Western democracy as late as the 1900's. Chinese ancient culture, rich in harmony teaching begun 2500 years ago by Laotze and Confucius, was preserved and handed down with continuing refinement until modern times. Laotze's instructions of harmony were rooted in observation of the origin of the universe and natural science. His philosophy of human activity harmonizing with nature was all embracing, including the practice of FENG SHUI (living with nature), physical science, agriculture and Chinese ancient medical practice. Chinese medical practice is holistic, based on the belief that biological systems must maintain internal balance to be healthy. The goal of treatment is to restore the balance of opposing forces in this total system. This led to the belief that human biological systems, society, and nations are constantly in an influx of ever changing contending forces. Harmony is achieved when the contending forces come to a balance or mutual acceptance under a certain set of conditions. All systems are constantly shifting, complex, and seldom just black and white (or in western terms, good or bad). This concept of harmony is just as fitting in today's complex world and society as it was during the time of Laotze. 66

Confucius' teaching comprises social systems including: man with himself, man between men, man and society and relations between groups and countries. This includes harmony between government and its citizens, which means that democracy is part of harmony system analysis. In keeping with Chinese harmony philosophy, balance is achieved through self discipline, high moral value, social order rather than strict law and penal system. The use of physical force is to be avoided, and employed only as a last resort. Harmony Society discussions in today's China under the present leadership are returning to the old roots of system analysis and ever changing balance of major forces in a changing world. This is based on the very nature of Chinese peoples' longing for harmony and the ancient teaching of tolerance, acceptance and equity. Both Laotze and Confucius teachings were comprehensive system engineering analyses of Harmony for ancient China, and the Communique is a system analysis of Socialism with Chinese characteristics for today's China. (V) THE ULTIMATE PRINCIPLE OF HARMONY The ultimate principle of Chinese ancient principles, as expounded by LAOTZE in DAO DE JING, is the balance of YING and YANG but ultimately YING envelopes YANG and is beautifully illustrated in the Daoist circle sign of life. However it is known observation today that dark energy represents over eighty percent of the universe and visible matter is the smaller remaining part. This general theme of YING over YANG runs through DAO DE JING. To name a few images from DAO DE JING; soft overcomes the hard like dripping water eventually bores a hole in the hardest rock, water flows over and immerses that blocks it. Water representing Ying can both float and sink a boat. Harmony represents soft power to resolve conflicts as opposed to warfare which represents hard power. In today's conflicting world one model of democracy cannot be forced on other nations of different cultures and at different developing stages. Democracy works best by softly and patiently winning over the hearts and minds of people. Countering extremism by extremism is bound to lead to ultimate destruction of both sides. The best way to resolve conflicts is to bring harmony to the confronting parties. This can start by understanding the differences in cultural understandings and causes of conflicts through mutual respect, trust, tolerance and acceptance. Confucius said "JUN ZI HE ER BU TONG, XIAO REN TONG ER BU HE" which means that gentlemen place harmony above ideological differences, and petty people fight for ideology differences. "HAI NAI BEI CHUAN, YU YONG NAI DA"( The sea takes in hundreds of rivers, it can be big only if it contains). World harmony will surely come.
Editor: Pan Letian

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Francis C.W. Fung, Ph.D.
PUBLICATIONS—PARTIAL LIST
“Sink Flow in a Strong Magnetic Field”, Physics of Fluids, June, 1962, Sponsored by Navy Project SQUID “Dynamic Response of Partially Filled Containers in a Weightless Environment”, Proceedings of Weightless Phenomena, Sponsored by Lockheed Aircraft and the U.S. Air Force, 1965, NASA funded research. “Vanishing Plate in a Blasius Flow”, Proceedings of IUTAM, Unsteady Boundary Layer Conference, 1971, US Air Force sponsored research. “Corridor Fires, Energy and Radiation Models”, National Bureau of Standards Technical Note, Washington, D.C., 1973 “Evaluation of a Pressurized Stairwell Smoke Control System for a Twelve Story Apartment Building”, National Bureau of Standards Interagency Report 77-277, Washington, D.C., June, 1973 “A computer Program for the Thermal Analysis of the Fire Endurance of Construction Walls”, National Bureau of Standards Interagency Report 77-1260, May, 1977 “A Plan to Achieve National Energy Independence”, Energy User News, November 26, 1979 “A National Strategy for District Heating,invited paper for Department of Energy, 1980, coauthored with Louis H. Denis of Aerophysics Company. “Demonstration Project for Iccomizer Heat Recovery”, 1981, a $150,000 research grant from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Department of Energy submitted as manager of Energy Department, Aeorphysics Company. “The Promising Future of Stirling Engines in China”, International Conference on Stirling Engines, June 21-24, 1984, Shanghai, China. Sponsored by the Chinese Society of Marine Engineering and Chinese Society of Engineering Thermophysics. “China’s New Scientific Development Concept—A scientific Analysis”, 2004. “Business Plan for Executive MBA Training in China”, April 2004, Joint proposal with California State University Sacramento and John Del Favero. “How to Develop Innovative Thinking in the Business World.” 2006 lectures developed as Founder of Global Interactive Network Exchange Inc(GINEI) “Chinese harmony and American democracy in 21st century”, PartI, Part II and Part III excerpts, Xinhuanet Opinion, www.chinaview.cn Nov. 1st,2006. “Chinese harmony renaissance:Can world ignore it”, Xinhuanet Overseas Opinion, www.chinaview.cn Nov. 2nd, 2006. “Chinese harmony culture old and new, Promise for a less confrontational world?”and “Chinese harmony and American democracy in 21st century” submitted to NABE 2007 conference “One nation: many languages and cultures in a changing world”. “Explain China to the world through harmony renaissance” and “ Harmony ideal, China’s contribution to world civilization”, Foreign affairs paper under editorial review.

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