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**Rational Numbers between Two Rational Numbers
**

Rational number is a number that is expressed in the form p/q, where p and q are Integers and q not equal to zero. There are infinitely many Rational Numbers between any two Rational Numbers.

**Properties of Ratioanl Numbers
**

Closure Properties Of Rational Numbers

If a and b are any two rational numbers and a + b = c, then c will always be a rational number. If a and b are any two rational numbers and a − b = c, then c will always be a rational number If a and b are any two rational numbers, then a × b = c, then c will always be a rational number Rational numbers are not closed under division since division of a rational number by zero is not defined. Thus

• •

Rational numbers are closed under addition, subtraction and multiplication. Rational numbers are not closed under division.

**Commutative And Associative Properties Of Rational Numbers
**

If a and b are any two rational numbers, then a + b = b + a If a, b, and c are any three rational numbers, then a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c If a, b and c are any three rational numbers, then (i) a × b = b × a (commutative property) (ii) a × (b × c) = (a × b) × c (associative property)

Thus

• • •

Rational numbers are commutative under addition and multiplication. Rational numbers are not commutative under subtraction and division. Rational numbers are associative under addition and multiplication.

•

Rational numbers are not associative under subtraction and division.

**Distributive Property For Rational Numbers
**

If x, y and z are any three rational numbers, then x ×(y + z) = (x ×y) + (x ×z) If x, y, and z are any three rational numbers, then x× (y – z) = (x×y) – (x×z)

**Additive and Multiplicative Inverse of Rational Numbers
**

Additive inverse and multiplicative inverse are defined as: If the sum of two rational numbers is 0, then the two rational numbers are said to be additive inverse or negative of each other”. If the multiplication of two numbers gives the result as 1, then the two numbers are called reciprocal or multiplicative inverse of each other”.

Solved Questions

Example 1: Fill in the blanks using commutative and associative properties of rational numbers.

i. ii. iii. iv. Solution: i. Rational numbers are commutative under addition.

ii.

Rational numbers are commutative under multiplication.

iii.

Rational numbers are associative under addition.

iv.

Rational numbers are associative under multiplication.

Example 2: Find the value of the following expressions using properties of rational numbers.

i. ii. Solution:

i.

ii.

Example 3: Fill in the blanks.

i. ii. iii. Solution:

i.

(By property of multiplicative identity)

ii.

(By property of additive identity)

iii.

(By property of multiplicative identity)

Example 4: Find the value of the following expression using appropriate properties.

Solution:

[By commutative property for addition]

[By commutative property for multiplication]

[By distributive property of multiplication over addition]

Example 5: Solve the following expression.

Solution:

[By commutative property for addition]

[By distributive property of multiplication over subtraction]

Example 1: Find the multiplicative inverse of the following rational numbers.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv) (v) 0.5 Solution:

(i) The multiplicative inverse of

is

.

(ii) The multiplicative inverse of

is

.

(iii) The multiplicative inverse of

is

.

(iv)

Thus, the multiplicative inverse of

is

.

(v) Thus, the multiplicative inverse of 0.5 is 2. Example 2: Write the additive inverse of the following rational numbers.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv) Solution:

(i) The additive inverse of

is

.

(ii) The additive inverse of

is

.

(iii)

Thus, the additive inverse of

is

.

(iv)

Thus, the additive inverse of

is

.

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