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Imagine Foundations Public Charter Schools Earth Science
FOSS Module In grade seven, students investigate sedimentary rocks and fossils in FOSS Earth History Content Readers Delta Science Readers Earth Processes Core Knowledge Content Maryland State Curriculum
B. Earth History 1. Explain how sedimentary rock is formed periodically, embedding plant and animal remains and leaving a record of the sequence in which the plants and animals appeared and disappeared. a. Explain how sedimentary rock buried deep enough may be reformed by pressure and heat and these reformed rock layers may be forced up again (uplift) to become land surface and even mountains. b. Cite evidence to confirm that thousands of layers of sedimentary rock reveal the long history of the changing surface of the Earth c. Explain why some fossils found in the top layers of sedimentary rock are older then those found beneath in lower layers. • Folding • Breaking • Uplift • Faulting • Tilting 2. Recognize and explain that fossils found in layers of sedimentary rock provide evidence of changing life forms. a. Recognize how different types of fossils are formed, such as petrified remains, imprints, molds and casts. b. Recognize and explain that the fossil record of plants and animals describes changes in life forms over time.
Delta Science Readers Astronomy
D. Astronomy 1. Identify and describe the components of the universe. a. Recognize that a galaxy contains billions of stars that cannot be distinguished by the unaided eye because of their great distance from Earth, and that there are billions of galaxies. b. Identify that our solar system is a component of the Milky Way Galaxy. c. Identify and describe the various types of galaxies d. Identify and describe the type, size, and scale, of the
Milky Way Galaxy. 2. Identify and explain celestial phenomena using the regular and predictable motion of objects in the solar system. a. Identify and describe the relationships among the period of revolution of a planet, the length of its solar year, and its distance from the sun. b. Identify and explain the relationship between the rotation of a planet or moon on its axis and the length of the solar day for that celestial object. c. Identify and explain the cause of the phases of the moon. d. Describe how lunar and solar eclipses occur. e. Identify and describe how the shape and location of the orbits of asteroids and comets affect their periods of revolution. 3. Recognize and explain the effects of the tilt of Earth’s axis. a. Recognize and describe that Earth's axis is tilted about 23º from vertical with respect to the plane of its orbit and points in the same direction during the year. b. Recognize and describe that as Earth orbits the sun, the tilt of Earth's axis causes • Changes in the angle of the sun in the sky during the year • Seasonal differences in the northern and southern latitudes c. Recognize and describe how the tilt of Earth's axis affects the climate in Maryland. 4. Recognize and explain how the force of gravity causes the tides. a. Identify and describe the cause of high and low tides.
FOSS Solar Energy (grade six)
Delta Science Reader Weather Forecasting
E. Interactions of Hydrosphere and Atmosphere 1. Cite evidence to explain the relationship between the hydrosphere and atmosphere. a. Describe the composition of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. b. Recognize and describe the water cycle as the distribution and circulation of Earth’s water through the glaciers, surface water, groundwater, oceans, and atmosphere.
c. Identify and describe how the temperature and
precipitation in a geographic area are affected by surface features and changes in atmospheric and ocean content. • Relative location of mountains • Volcanic eruptions • Proximity (closeness) to large bodies of water • Heat energy of ocean currents 2. Recognize and describe the various factors that affect climate. a. Identify and describe how the temperature and precipitation of an area are affected by surface and ocean features. • Relative location of mountains • Proximity (closeness) to large bodies of water • Warm and cold ocean currents b. Recognize and describe the global effects of volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases, and El Nino. 3. Identify and describe the atmospheric and hydrospheric conditions related to weather systems. a. Identify and describe weather patterns associated with high and low pressure systems and the four frontal systems using appropriate data displays including weather maps. b. Identify and describe the atmospheric and hydrospheric conditions associated with the formation and development of hurricanes, tornadoes, and thunderstorms. c. Identify and describe how various tools are used to collect weather data and forecast weather conditions. • Barometer • Thermometer • Anemometer • Psychrometer
FOSS Module FOSS Populations
Content Readers Delta Science Readers
Life Science Core Knowledge Content
Maryland State Curriculum
and Ecosystems (grade seven)
DNA From Genes to Proteins
1. Recognize and describe that evolutionary change in species over time occurs as a result of natural variation in organisms and environmental changes. a. Recognize and describe that gradual (climatic) and sudden (floods and fires) changes in environmental conditions affect the survival of organisms and populations. b. Recognize that adaptations may include variations in structures, behaviors, or physiology, such as spiny leaves on a cactus, birdcalls, and antibiotic resistant bacteria. c. Recognize and describe that adaptation and speciation involve the selection of natural variations in a population. d. Recognize and describe that extinction occurs when the adaptive traits of a population do not support its survival. e. Recognize that evolution accounts for the diversity of species. V. Chemistry of Food and Respiration • Energy for most life on earth comes from the sun, typically from sun, to plants, to animals, back to plants. • Living cells get most of their energy through chemical reactions. All living cells make and use carbohydrates (carbon and water), the simplest of these being sugars. All living cells make and use proteins, often very complex compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and many other elements. Making these compounds involves chemical reactions which need water, and take place in and between cells, across cell walls. The reactions also need catalysts called “enzymes.” Many cells also make fats, which store energy and food. • Energy in plants: photosynthesis Plants do not need to eat other living things for energy. Main nutrients of plants: the chemical elements nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen (some from soil or the sea, others from the air) Photosynthesis, using chlorophyll, converts these elements into more plant cells and stored food using energy from sunlight.
FOSS Food and Nutrition FOSS Living Systems (grade five)
Delta Science Reader Plants in Our World
Leafy plants mainly get their oxygen dissolved in water from their roots, and their carbon mainly from the gas CO2. Plant photosynthesis uses up CO2 and releases oxygen. • Energy in animals: respiration Animal chemical reactions do the opposite of plants— they use up oxygen and release CO2. In animals the chief process is not photosynthesis but respiration, that is, the creation of new compounds through oxidation. Animals cannot make carbohydrates, proteins, and fats from elements. They must eat these organic compounds from plants or other animals, and create them through respiration. Respiration uses oxygen and releases CO2, creating an interdependence and balance between plant and animal life. • Human nutrition and respiration Humans are omnivores and can eat both plant and animal food. Human respiration, through breathing, gets oxygen to the cells through the lungs and the blood. The importance of hemoglobin in the blood • Human health While many other animals can make their own vitamins, humans must get them from outside. A balanced diet: the food pyramid for humans (review); identification of the food groups in terms of fats, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and trace elements
FOSS Module FOSS Chemical Interactions (grade seven)
Content Readers Delta Science Reader Matter and Change (grade seven)
Chemistry Core Knowledge Content
Maryland State Curriculum
A. Structure of Matter 1. Provide evidence to explain how compounds are produced. ( No electron transfer) a. Describe how elements form compounds and molecules. b. Investigate and describe what happens to the properties of elements when they react chemically with other elements. c. Based on data from investigations and research compare the properties of compounds with those of
the elements from which they are made. B. Conservation of Matter 1. Provide evidence to support the fact that the idea of atoms explains conservation of matter. a. Use appropriate tools to gather data and provide evidence that equal volumes of different substances usually have different masses. b. Cite evidence from investigations that the total mass of a system remains the same throughout a chemical reaction because the number of atoms of each element remains the same. c. Give reasons to justify the statement, “If the number of atoms stays the same no matter how the same atoms are rearranged, then their total mass stays the same.” C. States of Matter 1. Describe how the motion of atoms and molecules in solids, liquids, and gases changes as heat energy is increased or decreased. a. Based on data from investigations and video technology, describe and give reasons for what happens to a sample of matter when heat energy is added to it (most substances expand). b. Describe what the temperature of a solid, or a liquid, or a gas reveals about the motion of its atoms and molecules. c. Formulate an explanation for the different characterisctics and behaviors of solids, liquids, and gases using an analysis of the data gathered on the motion and arrangement of atoms and molecules. D. Physical and Chemical Changes 1. Compare compounds and mixtures based on data from investigations and research. a. Cite evidence from investigations to explain how the components of mixtures can be separated. b. Use evidence from data gathered to explain why the components of compounds cannot be separated using physical properties. c. Analyze the results of research completed to develop a comparison of compounds and mixtures. 2. Cite evidence and give examples of chemical properties of
substances. a. Based on data from investigations and research, identify and describe chemical properties of common substances. • Reacts with oxygen (rusting/tarnishing and burning) • Reacts with acids (dissolves metal) • Reacts with bases (forms soap) b. Use information gathered from investigations using indicators and the pH scale to classify materials as acidic, basic, or neutral. 3. Provide evidence to support the fact that common substances have the ability to change into new substances. a. Investigate and describe the occurrence of chemical reactions using the following evidence: • Color change • Formation of a precipitate or gas • Release of heat or light b. Use evidence from observations to identify and describe factors that influence reaction rates. • Change in temperature • Acidity c. Identify the reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction given a symbolic equation, a word equation, or a description of the reaction. d. Provide data from investigations to support the fact that energy is transformed during chemical reactions. e. Provide examples to explain the difference between a physical change and a chemical change.
FOSS Module FOSS Force and Motion Content Readers Delta Science Reader Newton’s Toy Box Core Knowledge Content
I. Physics A. MOTION • Velocity and speed The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position in a particular direction. Speed is the magnitude of velocity expressed in distance covered per unit of time. Changes in velocity can involve changes in speed or direction or both.
Maryland State Curriculum
A. Mechanics 1. Develop an explanation of motion using the relationships among time, distance, velocity, and acceleration. a. Observe, describe, and compare the motions of objects using position, speed, velocity, and the direction. b. Based on data given or collected, graph and calculate average speed using distance and time. c. Compare accelerated and constant motions using time, distance, and velocity.
• Average speed = total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed Formula: Speed = Distance/Time (S = D/T) Familiar units for measuring speed: miles or kilometers per hour B. FORCES • The concept of force: force as a push or pull on an object Examples of familiar forces (such as gravity, magnetic force) A force has both direction and magnitude. Measuring force: expressed in units of mass, pounds in English system, newtons in metric system • Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity. If an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the effect is the net effect of all forces. The motion of an object does not change if all the forces on it are in balance, having net effect of zero. The motion of an object changes in speed or direction if the forces on it are unbalanced, having net effect other than zero. To achieve a given change in the motion D. WORK
Describe and calculate acceleration using change in the speed and time.
2. Identify and relate formal ideas (Newton’s Laws) about the interaction of force and motion to real world experiences. a. Investigate and explain the interaction of force and motion that causes objects that are at rest to move. b. Demonstrate and explain, through a variety of examples, that moving objects will stay in motion at the same speed and in the same direction unless acted on by an unbalanced force. c. Investigate and collect data from multiple trials, about the motion that explain the motion that results when the same force acts on objects of different mass; and when different amounts of force act on objects of the same mass. d. Based on data collected and organized, explain qualitatively the relationship between net force applied to an object and its mass for a given acceleration. e. Calculate the net force given the mass and acceleration. 3. Recognize and explain that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object. a. Explain the difference between mass and weight. • Mass is a measure of inertia • Weight is a measure of the force of gravity. b. Describe the relationship between the gravitational force and the masses of the attracting objects. c. Describe the relationship between the gravitational force and the distance between the attracting objects. d. Recognize and cite examples showing that mass remains the same in all locations while weight may vary with a change in location (weight on Earth compared to weight on moon). e. Recognize that gravity is the force that holds planets, moons, and satellites in their orbits. 4. Recognize and explain that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather it changes form or is transferred through the action of forces. a. Observe and describe the relationship between the
In physics, work is a relation between force and distance: work is done when force is exerted over a distance. Equation: Work equals Force x Distance (W = F x D) Common units for measuring work: foot-pounds (in English system), joules (in metric system; 1 joule = 1 newton of force x 1 meter of distance) E. ENERGY • In physics, energy is defined as the ability to do work. • Energy as distinguished from work To have energy, a thing does not have to move. Work is the transfer of energy. • Two main types of energy: kinetic and potential Some types of potential energy: gravitational, chemical, elastic, electromagnetic Some types of kinetic energy: moving objects, heat, sound and other waves • Energy is conserved in a system.
Delta Science Reader Astronomy Earth, Moon, and Sun
F. POWER • In physics, power is a relation between work and time: a measure of work done (or energy expended) and the time it takes to do it. Equation: Power equals Work divided by Time (P = W/T), or Power = Energy/Time Common units of measuring power: foot-pounds per second, horsepower (in English system); watts, kilowatts (in metric system)
distance an object is moved by a force and the change in its potential energy or kinetic energy, such as in a slingshot, in mechanical toys, the position of an object and its potential energy. b. Identify the relationship between the amount of energy transferred (work) to the product of the applied force and the distance moved in the direction of that force. c. Identify and describe that simple machines (levers and inclined planes) may reduce the amount of effort required to do work. • Calculate input and output work using force and distance • Demonstrate that input work is always greater than output work
FOSS Variables (grade six)
FOSS Solar Energy (grade six) FOSS Levers and Pulleys (grade six)
C. DENSITY AND BUOYANCY • When immersed in a fluid (i.e. liquid or gas), all objects experience a buoyant force. The buoyant force on an object is an upward (countergravity) force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. Density = mass per unit volume Relation between mass and weight (equal masses at same location have equal weights) • How to calculate density of regular and irregular solids from measurements of mass and volume The experiment of Archimedes • How to predict whether an object will float or sink B. Thermodynamics 1. Describe and cite evidence that heat can be transferred by conduction, convection and radiation. a. Based on observable phenomena, identify and describe examples of heat being transferred through conduction and through convection. b. Based on observable phenomena, identify examples to illustrate that radiation does not require matter to transfer heat energy. c. Research and identify the types of insulators that best reduce heat loss through conduction, convection, or radiation. 2. Identify and explain that heat energy is a product of the conversion of one form of energy to another. a. Identify and describe the various forms of energy that
are transformed in order for systems (living and nonliving) to operate. • Chemical - Flashlight battery-Light • Mechanical – Pulleys-Motion • Solar/Radiant - Solar calculator • Chemical - Plant cells Explain that some heat energy is always lost from a system during energy transformations.
FOSS Electronics In grade four, students investigate circuits in FOSS Magnetism and Electricity
Delta Science Reader, Electrical Connections
II. Electricity and Magnetism A. ELECTRICITY • Basic terms and concepts (review from grade 4): Electricity is the charge of electrons in a conductor. Opposite charges attract, like charges repel. Conductors and insulators Open and closed circuits Short circuit: sudden surge of amperage due to the reduction of resistance in a circuit; protection from short circuits is achieved by fuses and circuit breakers Electrical safety • Electricity as the charge of electrons Electrons carry negative charge; protons carry positive charge Conductors: materials like metals that easily give up electrons Insulators: materials like glass that do not easily give up electrons • Static electricity A static charge (excess or deficiency) creates an electric field. Electric energy can be stored in capacitors (typically two metal plates, one charged positive and one charged negative, separated by an insulating barrier). Capacitor discharges can release fatal levels of energy. Grounding drains an excess or makes up a deficiency of electrons, because the earth is a huge reservoir of electrons. Your body is a ground when you get a shock of static electricity. Lightning is a grounding of static electricity from clouds. • Flowing electricity Electric potential is measured in volts. Electric flow or current is measured in amperes: 1 ampere = flow of 1 coulomb of charge per second (1 coulomb = the charge of 6.25 billion billion
Delta Science Module Lenses and Mirrors
Delta Science Reader Color and Light
electrons). The total power of an electric flow over time is measured in watts. Watts = amps x volts; amps = watts/volts; volts = watts/amps. B. MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY • Earth’s magnetism Earth’s magnetism is believed to be caused by movements of charged atoms in the molten interior of the planet. Navigation by magnetic compass is made possible because the earth is a magnet with north and south magnetic poles. • Connection between electricity and magnetism Example: move a magnet back and forth in front of wire connected to a meter, and electricity flows in the wire. The reverse: electric current flowing through a wire exerts magnetic attraction. Spinning electrons in an atom create a magnetic field around the atom. Unlike magnetic poles attract, like magnetic poles repel. Practical applications of the connection between electricity and magnetism, for example: An electric generator creates alternating current by turning a magnet and a coil of wire in relation to each other; an electric motor works on the reverse principle. A step-up transformer sends alternating current through a smaller coil of wire with just a few turns next to a larger coil with many turns. This induces a higher voltage in the larger coil. A step-down transformer does the reverse, sending current through the larger coil and creating a lower voltage in the smaller one. III. Electromagnetic Radiation and Light • Waves and electromagnetic radiation Most waves, such as sound and water waves, transfer energy through matter, but light belongs to a special kind of radiation that can transfer energy through empty space. • The electromagnetic spectrum From long waves, to radio waves, to light waves, to xrays, to gamma rays Called “electromagnetic” because the radiation is created by an oscillating electric field which creates an oscillating magnetic field at right angles to it, which in turn creates an oscillating electric field at
Delta Science Content Reader Sound Energy
right angles, and so on, with both fields perpendicular to each other and the direction the wave is moving. The light spectrum: from infrared (longest) to red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet (shortest) Speed in a vacuum of all electromagnetic waves including light: 300,000 km per second, or 186,000 miles per second; a universal constant, called c • Refraction and reflection Refraction: the slowing down of light in glass causes it to bend, which enables lenses to work for television, photography, and astronomy How Isaac Newton used the refraction of a prism to discover that white light was made up of rays of different energies (or colors) Reflection: concave and convex reflectors; focal point IV. Sound Waves • General properties of waves Waves transfer energy by oscillation without transferring matter; matter disturbed by a wave returns to its original place. Wave properties: wavelength, frequency, speed, crest, trough, amplitude Two kinds of waves: transverse (for example, light) and longitudinal (for example, sound) Common features of both kinds of waves: Speed and frequency of wave determine wavelength. Wave interference occurs in both light and sound. Doppler effect occurs in both light and sound. • Sound waves: longitudinal, compression waves, made by vibrating matter, for example, strings, wood, air While light and radio waves can travel through a vacuum, sound waves cannot. Sound waves need a medium through which to travel. Speed Sound goes faster through denser mediums, that is, faster through solids and liquids than through air (gases). At room temperature, sound travels through air at about 340 meters per second (1,130 feet per second). Speed of sound = Mach number Supersonic booms; breaking the sound barrier Frequency Frequency of sound waves measured in “cycles per second” or Hertz (Hz)
Audible frequencies roughly between 20 and 20,000 Hz The higher the frequency, the higher the subjective “pitch” Amplitude Amplitude or loudness is measured in decibels (dB). Very loud sounds can impair hearing or cause deafness. Resonance, for example, the sound board of a piano, or plates of a violin
FOSS Module FOSS Populations and Ecosystems (grade seven)
Environmental Core Knowledge Content
Maryland State Curriculum
B. Environmental Issues 1. Recognize and explain how human activities can accelerate or magnify many naturally occurring changes. a. Based on data from research identify and describe how natural processes change the environment. • Cyclic climate change • Sedimentation in watersheds • Population cycles • Extinction b. Identify and describe how human activities produce changes in natural processes: • Climate change • Loss of habitat due to construction • Hunting and fishing • Introduction of nonnative species • Cycling of matter
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