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A particle is in equilibrium provided it is at rest if originally at rest or has a constant velocity if originally in motion.Most often, however,the term equilibrium or ,more specifically, static equilibrium is use to describe an object at rest.To maintain equilibrium,it is necessary to satisfied Newtons first law of motion,which requires the resultant force acting on a partical to be equal to zero.This condition may be stated mathematically as F=0 Where F is the vector sum of all the forces acting on the particle. (3-1)

Not only is Eq. 3-1 a necessary comdition for equilibrium, it is also is a sufficient condition.This follow from Newtons second law, which can be written as F = ma.Since the force system satisfies Eq. 3-1 then ma = 0 , and there for the particles acceleration a=0. Consequently the particle indeed moves with constant velocity or remains at rest.


1. Ring 2. Cable 3. Engine


Coplanar force equilibrium problems for a partical can be solved using the following procedure. Free-Body Diagram Establish the ,y axes in any suitable orientation. Label all the known and unknown force magnitudes and direction on the diagrams. The sense of a force having an unknown magnitude can be assumed. All forces on AFBD will be concurrent.

Equation of Equilibrium Apply the equation of equilibrium Fx = 0 and Fy=0. Components are positive if they are directed along a positive axis,and negative if they are directed along a negative axis. If more than two unknown exist and the problem involves a spring, apply F=ks to relate the spring forcen to the deformation s of the spring. If the solution yields a negative results, this indicates the sense of the force is the reverse of the shown on the free-body diagram.


Determine the tension in cables AB and AD for equilibrium of the 250 kilogram engine. Solution Free-Body Diagram. To solve this problem, we will investigate the equilibrium of the ring at A because this particles is subjected to the force of boths cables AB and AD. First , however , not that the engine has a weight (250 kg) (9.81 m/s )= 2.452 kN which is supported by cable CA. Therefore, thera are three concurrent forces acting on the ring. The forces T and TD have unknown magnitudes but known directions, and cable AC exerts a downward force A equal to 2.452 kN.

Equation of Equilibrium. The two unknown magitudes TB and TD can be obtained from the two scalar equation of equilibrium, Fx=0 and Fy=0. To apply these equation, the x,y axes are establishes on the free body diagram and TB must be resolved into its x and y components, Thus ,


The accuracy of these results, of course, depends on the accuracy of the data, i.e, measurements of goemetry and loads. For most enginerring work involving the problem such as this, the data as measured to three significant figures would be sufficients. Also, that here we have neglected the weights of the cables, a reasonable assumption since there would be small compparison wiyh the weight of the engine.