Jaduguda, Bhatin, Turmadih (Turamdih), Banduhurang, Bagjata and Narwapahar Jharkhand, India Main commodities: U REE
The Jaduguda, Bhatin, Turmadih (Turamdih), Banduhurang, Bagjata and Narwapahar (Naroapahar) uranium mines are distributed over an interval of ~100 km along the generally NWSEtrending curvilinear Singhbhum shear zone in Jharkhand state, in the vicinity of the city of Jamshedpur in northeastern India. The copper deposits of the Mosaboni Copper Belt are located within this same interval, with uranium being recovered from the copper tailings from some of these mines. The Singhbhum shear zone, which is over 160 km long and 1 to 10 km wide, marks the boundary between the Archaean Singhbhum cratonic nucleus to the south and the Proterozoic fold belt to the north. The Singhbhum craton is an Archaean granitegreenstone terrain comprising: (i) extensive, composite granite tonalite batholiths known as Singhbhum granite complex and (ii) the metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the Iron Ore Group (that include banded iron formations hosting major iron ore deposits), and associated mafic sills and dykes. Several Proterozoic volcanosedimentary basins also overlie the cratonic nucleus, including the Dhanjori Group immediately to the southwest of the Singhbhum shear zone in the vicinity of the copper and uranium mineralised sections of the structure. The Proterozoic rocks of the adjoining North Singhbhum Fold Belt, immediately to the north of the shear zone, are predominantly composed of siliciclastic rocks of the Singhbhum Group and Proterozoic volcanosedimentary rocks of the generally eastwesttrending Dalma volcanic belt. The Singhbhum shear zone cuts across the rocks of the Archaean Iron Ore and Singhbhum Group, and the Proterozoic Dhanjori Group. The metamorphosed/sheared rocks within the shear zone comprise chlorite, biotite, sericite, kyanitequartzite or kyanitesericite schists, metaconglomerate, tourmalinite, and 'soda granite' or feldspathic schist. A characteristic example of the Singhbhum group of uranium deposits, Bagjata, is located 25 km SE of Jaduguda, within the shear zone, close to the boundary between the Singhbhum Group and the southeastern fringe of the Dhanjori Group. The host assemblage includes quartzites and metavolcanic rocks of the Dhanjori Group, feldspathic schist ('soda granite'), garnetiferous muscovite schist, and kyanitebearing quartzite or kyanitesericite schist and brecciated quartzalbitebiotite rock. The metavolcanics are represented by chlorite and amphibole schists with minor epidote and apatite, and albiteoligoclase porphyroblasts adjacent to contacts with feldspathic schist. The feldspathic schist comprises quartz and albite with varying amounts of biotite, chlorite, and muscovite, with common accessory epidote, tourmaline and apatite. The muscovite schist is predominantly composed of quartz and muscovite with garnet porphyroblasts, while the kyanitequartzite and kyanitesericite/muscovite schist occurs as bands and/or pockets, generally along the northnortheastern boundary of the shear zone. Uranium and copperbearing minerals in the Bagjata uranium deposit are mostly restricted to the chlorite and biotite schists, although lowgrade uranium mineralisation is also found in the garnetiferous muscovite sericite schist. Uraninite is the main uranium ore mineral, along with some TiU complexes (brannerite) and unidentified U silicates. The REE bearing minerals include monazite, epidoteallanite and unidentified REE oxides and/or carbonates. Although allanite occurs both in biotite schist and chlorite schist, the former is the main host to allanite. The PbPb dating of uraninite and sulphide provides ages of ~1.6 to 1.5 and ~1.77 Ga respectively, although multiple events of hydrothermal fluid flux and mineral growth are evident, with the earliest REE possibly having been introduced at 1.88 Ga, with a late REE rimming on preexisting epidoteallanite at ~1 Ga.
At Jaduguda, there are two prominent, parallel ore lenses within sheared Proterozoic sediments of the Singhbhum shear zone, the Footwall and Hangingwall Lodes. These lodes both dip at ~40° NE, extend to downdip for >880 m, and are separated by a 100 m wide barren zone. The Footwall lode, which is the better mineralised, extends over a NWSE oriented length of ~600 m, while the Hangingwall Lode has a strike length of ~250 m. The Bhatin mine is located ~4 km NW of Jaduguda, separated by a major northsouth strikeslip fault which offsets the Singhbhum shear zone. Ore occurs within a 2 to 10 m thick lens that dips at 35° in a similar setting to that at Jaduguda. The Narwapahar mine is located 12 km NW of Jaduguda. Several ore lenses extending over a strike length of ~2.1 km are known, with uranium minerals occurring as discrete grains within chloritequartz schist associated with magnetite. These lenses are have thicknesses of 2.5 to 20 m and dip at 30 to 40°. The Turamdih deposit is 12 km NW of Narwapahar. A number of erratically distributed lenses occur within feldspathicchlorite schists containing discrete uraninite grains. The Banduhurang deposit represents the western extension of the Turamdih ore lenses and has been developed as a large open pit, unlike all of the others which are underground operations Estimated 'reserves' within this group of deposits (Pal et al., 2011) amounts to ~215 Mt of ore containing 66 000 tonnes of recoverable U3O8. This would suggest an average grade of ~0.3 kg/t U3O8. The highest grades of 0.67 kg/t U3O8 are from the Jadaguda deposit, with 80% of the reserve being at grades of 0.15 to 0.49 kg/t U3O8. Approximately 27% of the low grade reserve (0.15 to 0.2 kg/t U3O8 is recoverable from the tailings of the Mosaboni, Surda, Rakha and Tamapahar copper mines.
Indian Rare Earths Limited
The Department of Atomic Energy's (DAE) public sector endeavor, Indian Rare Earth Limited (IREL), is engaged in the mining and processing of mineral sands containing titanium, zirconium, thorium, and other elements. IREL was incorporated in 1950 under the joint ownership of Travancore and the Government of India. In 1963, the entire company was nationalized under the DAE. IREL's three mineral sand separation plants at Manvalkurichi (Tamil Nadu), Chavara (Kerala), and OSCOMChhatrapur (Orissa) produce "industrial metals, namely ilmenite, rutile, monazite, zircon, sillimanite, and garnet." These industrial metals are further processed yielding elements used in the nuclear fuel cycle. Zircon is processed into zirconium for India's nuclear program, eventually used as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors. Ilmenite and rutile both yield titanium, while monazite contains thorium and cerium. IREL also manufactures other rare earth products such as rare earth chloride and thorium hydroxide. A value addition plant at the OSCOM site produces synthetic rutile, and the Microzir Plant at Chavara produces fine zircon powder used in the ceramic industry. At IREL's Manavalakurichi Plant, "zircon is chemically treated to zircon frit which is supplied to the Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad for further processing."
At the Alwaye facility, the Rare Earths plant produces earth chlorides, while the Rare Earths Division (RED) of IREL processes monazite for the separation of thorium concentrate among others. Following the monazite separation process, some of the thorium concentrate produced by RED is sent to the Thorium Plant of OSCOM for production of mantle grade thorium nitrate. Thorium Hydroxide, which can be used as fuel for a future generation of thorium nuclear reactors, is also produced by IREL Thorium; it can be irradiated to form U233, a fissile material almost as good as plutonium. Almost 100,000Mt of thorium is present in the monaziterich sands of Kerala state, which the Rare Earths Plant in Alwaye converts into thorium cake. A "PRYNCE Plant" was established by RED at Alwaye for the production of "very pure neodymium oxide for making industrial magnets." • On August 18, 1950, Indian Rare Earths Limited(IREL) was incorporated as a private limited company jointly owned by the Government of India and Government of Travancore, Cochin with the primary intention of taking up commercial scale processing of monazite sand at its first unit namely Rare Earths Division(RED), Aluva, Kerala for the recovery of thorium. * After becoming a full fledged Central Government Undertaking in 1963 under the administrative control of Department of Atomic Energy(DAE), IREL took over a number of private companies engaged in mining and separation of beach sand minerals in southern part of the country and established two more Divisions one at Chavara, Kerala and the other at Manavalakurichi(MK), Tamil Nadu. * After a gap of about 20 years, IREL commissioned its largest Division called Orissa Sand Complex(OSCOM) at Chatrapur, Orissa. Today IREL operates these four units with Corporate Office in Mumbai and produces/sells six heavy minerals namely ilmenite, rutile, zircon, monazite, sillimanite and garnet as well as various value added products. IREL is making profit since 199798 with its sales turnover reaching a peak exceeding Rs. 3600 million in 200607, with export component of above Rs. 1000 million.
Unit Profile CHAVARA MINERAL DIVISION: Shri V GOPALAKRISHNA PRASAD, Head (Chavra ) Tel. No: +91 476 268 0701 05 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Located 10 Km north of Kollam, 85 Km from Thiruvananthapuram capital of Kerala and 135 Km by road from Kochi is
perhaps blessed with the best mineral sand deposit of the country.The plant operates on a mining area containing as high as 40% heavy minerals and extending over a length of 23 Km in the belt of Neendakara and Kayamkulam. The deposit is quite rich with respect to ilmenite, rutile and zircon and the mineralilmenite happens to be of weathered variety analyzing 60% TiO2. The present annual production capacity of Chavara unit engaged in dry as well as wet (dredging/ upgradation) mining and mineral separation stands at 1,54,000t of ilmenite, 9,500t of rutile, 14,000t of zircon and 7,000t of sillimanite. In addition the plant has facilities for annual production of ground zircon called zirflor (45 micron) and microzir (13 micron) of the order of 6,000t and 500t respectively.
MANAVALAKURICHI (MK) MINERAL DIVISION: A K Mohapatra, Head & General Manager Tel. No: +91 4651 237 255 57 Email: email@example.com , firstname.lastname@example.org
Plant is situated 25 Kms north of Kanyakumari (Cape Comorin), the southern most tip of the Indian subcontinent. All weather major seaport Tuticorin and the nearest airport at Thiruvananthapuram are equidistant, about 65 kms from the plant site. Nagercoil at a distance of about 18 kms from the plant, is the closest major Railway station. MK plant annually produces about 90,000t ilmenite of 55%. TiO2 grade, 3500t rutile and 10,000t zircon in addition to 3000t monazite and 10,000t garnet based primarily on beach washing supplied by fishermen of surrounding five villages. IREL has also mining lease of mineral rich areas wherein raw sand can be made available in large quantities through dredging operation. In addition to mining and minerals separation, the unit has a chemical plant to add value to zircon in the form of zircon frit and other zirconium based chemicals in limited quantities.
ORISSA SANDS COMPLEX (OSCOM): Shri D Mohanty, Head OSCOM Tel. No: +91 6811 257 890 95 Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
OSCOM was commissioned at a place called Chatrapur about 150 Kms from the Capital of Orissa Bhubaneswar and about 320 Km from all weather seaportVisakhapatanam to exploit the huge placer deposit across a mining area of 24.64sq.km. to produce 2,20,000 ton ilmenite having 50% TiO2 content and associated minerals like rutile, zircon, sillimanite, garnet, etc. The facility was quite unique in the sense that for the first time IREL ventured into dredging and concentration operationat OSCOM. It is quite efficietly engaged in dredging of the raw sand, it's upgradation, drying and finally separation plant. Ilmenite is primarily exported to customers engaged in production of slag and sulphatable TiO2 pigment.A Thorium plant is in operation since 1992 at OSCOM to produce 240 ton per annum mantle grade Thorium Nitrate.
RARE EARTHS DIVISION (RED) Aluva: Shri FRANCY VERGHESE , Head RED Tel. No: +91 484 254 5062 65 Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Unlike the three units of IREL as described earlier, RED is an exclusively value adding chemical plant wherein the mineral monazite produced by MK, is chemically treated to separate thorium as hydroxide upgrade and rare earths in its composite chloride form. It is located on the banks of river Periyar at a distance of 12 Km by road from Kochi. This plant was made operational way back in 1952 to take on processing of 1400t of monazite every year. However over the years, the capacity of the plant was gradually augmented to treat about 3600t of monazite. Elaborate solvent extraction and ion exchange facilities were built up to produce individual R.E. oxides, like oxides of Ce, Nd, Pr and La in adequate purities. Today RED has built up large stock pile of impure thorium hydroxide upgrade associated with rare earths and unreacted materials. Henceforth, RED proposes to treat this hydroxide upgrade rather than fresh monazite to convert thorium into pure oxalate and rare earth as two major fractions namely Ce oxide and Ce oxide free rare earth chloride.
Indian Rare Earth Research Centre (IRERC): Shri P P Mohapatra, Head (Corporate Research and Safety) Tel. No: +91 474 2742739 4
Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Corporate Research Centre is located at Kollam, Kerala and carries out research in the field of value added products from beach sand minerals, undertakes consultancy projects on mineral separation and flow sheet development, carrying out mineral analysis and caters to the needs of internal and external customers. It is engaged in various R&D activities such as processing of Monazite by alternate route, processing of nano rare earth materials and other value addition on minerals with the ultimate objective of commercialization. Research centre also coordinates the research activities of RED, Aluva and Technical Services Division at OSCOM, Chatrapur, Orissa. This Research Centre was earlier known as Mineral Research and Development Centre since 1991 and later renamed as Indian Rare Earths Research Centre from July 2003. This Centre is also certified with ISO 9001. With the objective of promoting Industrial scale R&D that would be beneficial to its overall program in terms of nuclear and related materials, Indian Rare Earths Limited Technology Development Council (IRELTDC) was constituted in 2006 by the Secretary, DAE with members from BARC, IGCAR, CSIR and other leading Institutions. The Chairperson of this Council is the Scientific Advisor to Director, BARC and CoChairperson is the CMD of IREL. The Head, IRERC is its Member Secretary. The Research Centre is equipped with various equipments and instruments like magnetic, gravity, electrostatic separators, floatation cells, grinding mills, vacuum filters, mixer settlers, ion exchange columns, particle size analyzer, XRD/XRF, thermal analyzer, ICP atomic absorption spectrometers, UV spectrometers, petrological microscopes, etc. for various analytical and research purposes. The annual safety audit of all the operating units is carried out every year with the objective of improving the overall safety standards and increasing the safety awareness among the employees. The Audit Committee, consisting of External experts, Heads of safety from all the units and the Head of the Corporate Safety, recommends for the CMD’s Shield in various categories; Safety, Housekeeping, Environment & Energy
Research & Development Facility
In the context of changing technologies on the areas of mineral processing and product development and the neverending face for technological supremacy in the global scenario, the need for providing infrastructure support for research and development and maintain a high level of productivity without sacrificing on standards of safety and employee welfare is very relevant. R & D centres of IREL are located at Mineral Research and Development Centre(MRDC), Kollam, Technical Service Division(TSD), OSCOM, Chatrapur and Rare Earths Division (RED), Aluva. MRDC undertakes constancy projects on mineral separation i.e. sand beneficiation, etc., along with mineral separation investigation to improve yield and products. The facilities include various magnetic, gravity, hydraulic and electrostatic separators, floatation cells, grinding mills, vacuum filters, microscopes and analytical instruments i.e.ICP, UV spectrometer, etc. TSD, OSCOM is equipped with analytical instruments i.e. X-ray diffractrometer, thermal analyser, atomic absorption spectrometer, UV spectrometers, particle size analysers, etc. for study and development of processes for manufacturing synthetic rutile, stabilised and partially stabilised zirconia, gem grade zirconia, etc. RED, Aluva develops solvent extraction and ion exchange-based processes for presentation of pure rare earth chemicals.
Mining & Minerals
Mining of raw beach sand containing the six heavy minerals and separation of the later in adequate purities happen to be the common activity of all the three Mineral Division namely Chavara, MK and OSCOM. As per as mining practice is concerned, they do differ from one division to other. For example at MK, all the raw sand required to operate the plant at its full capacity is collected by the fisherman of surrounding villages from near by beaches and supplied to the unit at a cost. At Chavara also beach washing is available but not in adequate quantity to meet the full requirement of the plant. The unit therefore adopt wet mining operation involving use of Dredge and Wet Concentrator(DWC) to exploit the inland deposits away from the beaches. For example Chavara operate two DWC s of about 100 t/hr capacities to generate sand feed analyzing about 85% heavy mineral concentration. The mineral free sand coming out of the concentrator is pumped back to the pond for the operation of DWC. In the case of OSCOM, the entire mining operations involves dredging of the mineral deposits on much larger scale (500 t/hr) augmented by smaller sized (~100) supplementary.
The heavy mineral rich sand feed either in the form of beach washings or dredge concentrate is subjected to final concentration in a facility provided with a host of spirals to enrich the feed with 97-98% heavy minerals. Such upgraded material is next dried in a fluid bed drier to take on the separation of individual minerals/ores by taking advantage of the difference in their electrical, magnetic properties as well as specific gravity. Strategic Value Addition Recovery from thorium value Chemical processing of monazite to separate the contained thorium value (~8% ThO2) in the form of thorium hydroxide concentrate happen to be the most fundamental value addition activity of the company carried out for last 50 years or so. In the recent time thorium is separated as its pure oxalate form. A part of it is taken to OSCOM for its further processing by solvent extraction to produce about 150-200 TPA of its thorium nitrate for its mantle application. A small part of the purified thorium nitrate is covered to nuclear grade thorium oxide powder to meet the requirement of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) for developing thorium based fuel for our nuclear reactors. Recovery of Uranium value. Recovery of Uranium value. In recent time IREL has got engaged through its Rare Earths Division, in activity involving recovery of uranium value present in Indian monazite in the form of Nuclear grade ammonium diuranate (ADU) to supplement the indigenous supply scenario for uranium as required in the Indian Nuclear Power programme. In addition to monazite, RED has developed facilities for recovering uranium value from other secondary resource as well. Non Strategic Value Addition The first non-strategic value addition activities of IREL in tonnage quantities was concerned with production of composite rare earth chloride, oxide and fluoride to start and later separation of 99.9% pure oxide of individual rare earths like Ce, La, Nd and Pr by multi-stage solvent extraction and fractional precipitation techniques. Oxides of these metal in higher purities are also prepared by RED in kilo gramme quantities using ion exchange technology. Besides chemical processing of monazite both zircon and ilmenite were found worth value addition from commercial angle. A dry grindin mill working on the principal of self attrition was commissioned by Chavara in the year 1970 to grind the as separation zircon sand to about 4.5m size(called zirflour) for its application in the ceramic industries. Much later a wet mill with silica as grinding media was commissioned at Chavara to introduced yet another value added material called micro-zir having mesh size in the range of 1 to 3 mm finding specialized application as opacifier. In addition to such physical value addition, the MK unit had set up a small chemical plant to produce zircon frit, zirconium chloride etc. The plant, however, is limited in size and meant primarily for making supply of zircon firt to Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hydrabad. In yet another effort on value addition to zircon, a pilot plant(capacity-3.5 TPA) was set up OSCOM to produce a whole range of zirconia stabilized with CaO, MgO and rare earths. The most talked about value addition activity of IREL is setting up of a Chemical plant at OSCOM consisting of a Synthetic Rutile Production unit an Acid Regeneration Unit. The SR ficility is equipped with two roasters, two calciners, sixteen digestors for carrying out reduction of ilmenite, leaching of reduced ilmenite with concentrated hydrocloric acid. The leached liquor is treated in the AR unit to regenerate 20% grade HCl for its recycle and reject iron as fine iron oxide powder. The SR unit was stopped in 1997 as it was not financially viable. The company now intends to use the roasters and calciners for the production of partially value added materials like reduced and metallized ilmenite. BROWN ILMENITE(LEUCOXENE) CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (TYPICAL) TiO2 SiO2 ZrO2 % 79.3 % 2.2 % 0.25 %
FeO Fe2O3 ILMENITE 'MK' GRADE GUARANTEED : TiO2 TYPICAL : TiO2 Fe2O3 FeO Al2O3 Cr2O3 V2O5 MgO P2O5 SiO2 Rare Earths U Th SIEVE ANALYSIS: MESH(TYLER SCR.) 40 50 70 100 140 200 SPECIFIC : 4.45 -4.54 GRAVITY BULK : 2,600 - 2,850 DENSITY Kg/m3 HARDNES : 5..5 - 6.0 S (MOH's)
1.3 % 12.10 %
55.00% (Min) 55.50% 20.30% 19.45% 1.00% 0.07% 0.10% 0.90% 0.09% 1.50% 0.12% 12 ppm 190 ppm
SIEVE OPENING MICRONS 420 300 212 150 105 75
CUM.WEIGHT % RETAINED 0.0 - 2.0 3.0 - 7.0 20.0 - 50.0 62.0 - 82.0 96.0 - 99.0 98.0 - 100.0
ILMENITE 'OR' GRADE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS : GUARANTEED : TiO2 Th U
50.25%(Min) 75 ppm (Max) 10 ppm (Max)
TYPICAL : TiO2 FeO Fe2O3 Al2O3 SiO2 Cr2O3 MnO P2O5 V2O5 CaO MgO Th U SIEVE ANALYSIS: MESH(TYLER SCR.) 35 48 65 100 150 170 200 -200
50.50% 34.04% 12.43% 0.45% 0.71% 0.048% 0.51% 0.022% 0.23% 0.04% 0.64% 43 ppm < 6 ppm
SIEVE OPENINGCUM.WEIGHT MICRONS RETAINED 425 Nil 300 1.7 212 19.7 150 34.3 106 34.5 90 5.4 75 3.7 -75 0.7
SPECIFIC GRAVITY BULK DENSITY HARDNESS (MOH's) ILMENITE 'Q' GRADE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS : GUARANTEED : TiO2 58.00% (Min) TYPICAL : TiO2 Fe2O3 FeO Al2O3 MnO Cr2O3
: 4.54 : 2,600 - 2,850 Kg/m3 : 5..5 - 6.0
60.10% 26.30% 10.50% 0.70% 0.40% 0.13%
V2O5 MgO P2O5 ZrO2 SiO2 Rare Earths U Th SIEVE ANALYSIS: MESH(TYLER SCR.) 35 48 65 100 150 200 -200
0.15% 0.40% 0.14% 0.20% 0.75% Trace 10 ppm 160 ppm
SIEVE OPENING MICRONS 425 300 212 150 106 75 -75
CUM.WEIGHT % RETAINED Nil 0.80 - 2.00 3.50 - 6.50 50.00 - 65.00 90.00 - 96.50 98.50 - 99.50 0.50 - 1.00
SPECIFIC 4.45 GRAVITY 4.54 : 2,600 BULK 2,630 DENSITY: Kg/m
GARNET 'MK' GRADE (NORMAL) TYPICAL MINERALOGICAL ANALYSIS: Ilmenite 1.0% - 2.5% Garnet 97.3 % - 98.9 % Mineral purity 97.0 % (Min) of garnet Quartz 0.1 - 0.3 % Non-magnetic other than0.4% - 0.7 % quartz TYPICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: SiO2 40.0% Al2O3 21.0 % FeO Fe2O3 TiO2 26.0 % 2.9 % 1.0 %
MnO CaO MgO P2O5 SIEVE ANALYSIS: MESH(ASTM SCR.) 35 48 65 100 150
0.5 % 0.9 % 6.8 % 0.03 %
SIEVE MICRONS 425 300 212 150 106
OPENING CUM. % RETAINED 0.0 - 5.0 10.0 - 30.0 74.0 - 90.0 94.0 - 99.0 99.5 - 100
SPECIFI C : 4.1 BULK DENSITY GRAVIT Y GARNET 'OR' GRADE GUARANTEED: Garnet TYPICAL MINERALOGICAL ANALYSIS: Garnet Ilmenite Monazite Rutile Zircon Sillimanite Quartz Others TYPICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: Al2O3 FeO Fe2O3 SiO2 TiO2 CaO MgO Cr2O3 SIEVE ANALYSIS: SIEVE OPENING
: 2,200 - 2,300 Kg/m3
93.5 % Min.
94.0% 2.3 % 0.3 % 0.2 % 0.2 % 0.4 % 0.2% 2.4 %
19.8 % 27.9 % 3.5 % 36.3 % 1.3 % 2.8 % 6.8 % 0.02%
CUM.WEIGHT RETAINED 2.8
-300 -212 -150 -106 -90
+212 +150 +106 +90 +75 -75 4.11 gm/cc 2,255 Kg/M3 6.5 to 7.5
17.1 40.5 32.7 2.2 4.0 0.7
SPECIFIC GRAVITY : BULK DENSITY : HARDNESS (MOH's) :
MONAZITE 'MK' GRADE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: GUARANTEED: REO TYPICAL (%): Total Oxide (REO+ThO2) ThO2 P2O5 Acid insoluble TYPICAL RARE (INGREDIENTS): CeO2/REO La2O3/REO Nd2O3/REO Pr6O11/REO Sm2O3/REO Gd2O3 /REO Others/REO SIEVE ANALYSIS: Mesh(Tyler Scr.) 48 65 SIEVE MICRONS 300 212 OPENINGCUM.WEIGHT RETAINED 0.0 - 1.0 8.0 -18.0 % EARTHS
66.2 % 9.2 % 29.2% 4.0% COMPOSITION 48.5 % 22.5% 18.5 % 5.6 % 2.7 % 1.2 % 1.0 %
100 150 200 SPECIFIC GRAVITY BULK DENSITY : 5.22 : 3,200 - 3,300 Kg/m3
150 106 75
35.0 -57.0 93.0 -95.0 94.0 -100
RUTILE 'MK' GRADE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: GUARANTEED: TiO2 TYPICAL (%): TiO2 Fe2O3 P2O5 ZrO2 SiO2 U Th SIEVE ANALYSIS: Mesh(Tyler Scr.) 48 65 100 150 200 SPECIFIC GRAVITY BULK DENSITY HARDNESS (Moh's) RUTILE 'OR' GRADE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: GUARANTEED: TiO2 TYPICAL (%): TiO2 SiO2 ZrO2 : 4.18 - 4.25 : 2,500 - 2,800 Kg/m3 : 6.0 - 6.5 SIEVE MICRONS 300 212 150 106 75 OPENINGCUM.WEIGHT RETAINED 0.0 - 1.5 14.0 -29.0 50.0 -66.0 95.5 -98.5 99.0 -100.0 %
94.40% 1.90% 0.05% 1.80% 1.80% 66 ppm 94 ppm
94.50% 0.90% 0.90%
Fe2O3 P2O5 SIEVE ANALYSIS: Mesh(Tyler Scr.) 35 48 65 100 150 170 200 -200 SILLIMANITE 'OR' GRADE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: GUARANTEED: Al2O3 TYPICAL (%): Al2O3 SiO2 ZrO2 TiO2 Fe2O3 SIEVE ANALYSIS: Mesh(Tyler Scr.) 35 48 65 100 150 170 200 -200 ZIRCON SAND 'MK' GRADE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: GUARANTEED: ZrO2(+HfO2) 65.00 % (Min) TYPICAL (%): ZrO2(+HfO2) 65.80 % SiO2 32.50 %
SIEVE MICRONS 425 300 212 150 106 90 75 -75
OPENINGCUM.WEIGHT RETAINED Nil 1.2 16.7 47.8 30.7 1.5 2.0 0.1
56.60% 38.00% 2.20% 0.25% 0.40%
SIEVE MICRONS 425 300 212 150 106 90 75 -75
OPENINGCUM.WEIGHT RETAINED Nil 0.7 11.3 55.8 29.6 0.9 1.5 0.2
TiO2 Fe2O3 Al2O3 SIEVE ANALYSIS: Mesh(Tyler Scr.) 48 65 100 150 200
0.25 % 0.10 % 1.20 %
SIEVE OPENING MICRONS 300 212 150 106 75
CUM.WEIGHT % RETAINED 1.0 - 5.0 7.0 -34.0 33.0 -63.0 90.0 -97.5 97.0 -100.0
SPECIFIC : 4.6 GRAVITY 4.7 : 2,80 0 BULK 3,000 DENSITY Kg/m
HARDNES : 7.5 S (Moh's) CERIUM HYDRATE (DRY) Rare Earths Oxide(TREO) CeO2 CeO2/TREO Cr Mn Co Ni Cu Zn Pb Fe CERIUM OXIDE (CeO2) Molecular weight Colour and appearance Melting Point Solubility : 172.13 : Light yellow powder : About 2600oC : Insoluble in water. Soluble in HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4 > 80% > 68% > 85% < 25 ppm <50 ppm <25 ppm <25 ppm <25 ppm <25 ppm <50 ppm <0.1 %
PRODUCT ILMENITE RUTILE ZIRCON SAND ZIRCON FLOUR MICROZIR(1.2 micron) SILLIMANITE GARNET MONAZITE COMPOSITE RE CHLORIDE COMPOSIT RE FLOUORIDE LANTHANUM OXIDE LANTHANUM METAL CERIUM OXIDE Pr OXIDE Nd OXIDE Nd METAL Sm METAL Eu Oxide Gd OXIDE Tb METAL Dy METAL YTTRIUM OXIDE THORIUM NITRATE THORIUM OXIDE TRI-SODIUM PHOSPHATE
USES Manufacturing of TiO2 pigment, synthetic rutile and titanium slag. Fluxes for welding electrode. Ceramics, refractories and foundries. (-325 Tyler Mesh) Ceramics and foundries. Opacifier in ceramics. Refractories. Abrasive for sand blasting, water jet cutting and glass polishing. Raw material for production of Rare Earth compounds. Catalyst, Paint Driers, Basic raw material for Misch metal which used as lighter frint & additives to iron steel. Cinema are carbon, Flux for welding rods Speciality lens in camera, Heating element (as LaCrO3), Semi conductors, Phophors NiMh batteries Auto exhaust catalyst, Optical glasses, TV polishing powder, Glass decolouriser, Paint driers, High temperature paints/insulations Cerium pigment, Glass colouring Special glass making, Laser Nd-Fe-B Permanent magnet Sm-Co Permanent magnet Phosphors, Medical diagnostics system Thermal Stabilizer of glass, Burnable poison in nuclear reactor Magntostrictive material, Photomagnetic Disc Permanent magnet, Magnetic Refrigeration. Basic material for phosphor, Stabilizer for artificial diamond, High temperature nozzles, Oxygen sensor Gas mantles Starters of fluorescent tubes. Detergents and as general purpose cleaning agent.