Human Resource Management


Human Resource Management is essential in all sectors and this project deals with human resources in general and in the banking sector. Before discussing Human Resources in the banking sector it is essential to understand the basic concept of human resources as well as that of management. The term human resources is variously defined in political economy and economics, where it was traditionally called labor, one of three factors of production. Its use within corporations continues to define common conceptions of the term. Modern analysis emphasizes that human beings are not predictable commodity "resources" with definitions totally controlled by contract, but are creative and social beings that make contributions beyond "labor" to a society and to civilization. The broad term human capital has evolved to contain the complexity of this term, and in macro-economics the term "firm-specific human capital" has evolved to represent the original meaning of term "human resources".


Human Resource Management


Human Resource Management or Personnel management is the activity of managing personnel, usually employees. In any organization, managing personnel is the process of making sure the employees (not the customers) are as productive as they can be. This can include hiring, firing, or transferring people to/from jobs they can do most productively. This subject is a major at many universities, or a minor in the business school. It is also known as personnel administration, which is functionally an equivalent term.


Human Resource Management

A business unit needs employees to look after different activities. This is called manpower or human resource. Such human resource needs to be developed fully so that it will make positive contribution for the progress and prosperity of a business unit. For this systematic development and management of human resources is necessary. Human Resource Management (HRM) deals with: (a) Training (b) Self-development (c) Promotions (d) Performance appraisal of manpower recruited in an organization. HRM is an organized learning experience aimed at matching the organizational need for career growth and development. It is a process involving series of learning activities designed to acquire desired level of competence among employees. HRM is a continuous process and it needs money. Such investment creates a team of efficient, skilled and trained manpower which brings success and stability to a business unit. HRM programmes offer long term benefits to an organization.


Human Resource Management

(1) Upgrading Manpower:
HRM is basically concerned with the upgrading of manpower working in an organization. This leads to improvement in the individual performance of an employee and also corresponding improvement in the organizational performance.

(2) Stress on Training:
HRM includes various schemes arranged for providing education, guidance, training and opportunities to learn and develop employees of all categories and working in different departments. There is an integrated use of sub-systems (training, career developments, organizational development) in the HRM programme.

(3) Attention to learning and career development:
Learning, self-development, career development and possible through HRM programme.These are the core areas of HRM. Career development is possible through joining training courses, reading books and periodicals. Learning and career development raise the capacity of employees to work at highest levels. They are given higher positions with monetary benefits.

(4) Organizational Development:
HRM includes organizational development, which includes effective communication within the organization, coordination of different activities, elimination of conflicts of different types and creation of orderly atmosphere in the whole organization.


on the job and off the job training programmes are introduced from time-to-time. Team spirit facilitates orderly growth of the organization in the right direction. For this. (6) Huge spending by Management: All companies invest huge money on HRM activities but such expenditure is absolutely essential for survival in the present competitive business world. HRM programmes create matured.Human Resource Management (5) Team Spirit : HRM is basically for developing team spirit in the whole organization. Training and guidance are given on different aspects of business management to enable managers to deal with complex managerial problems and challenges. (8) Continuous Activity: HRM is rightly treated as a continuous activity due to new developments taking place regularly in the business world. departments and levels of management are properly integrated. It is multi-disciplinary in character. (7) Termination of Employment: Termination is an unpleasant part of any manager’s job. Employees occasionally must be terminated for breaking rules of failing to perform adequately. skilled and efficient manpower. For this. NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: 5 . (9) Wide Scope: The scope of HRM programmes is very vast. which is a valuable asset of a business unit.

skilled and matured manpower required by an enterprise for the present and future period. All this is possible through HRM. An enterprise can face market competition only by improving quality. HRM programme are needed in order to absorb technological changes taking place with speed. will not be possible unless training is provided to the manpower. (5) To satisfy the demand of self-development of employees: HRM is needed to meet the needs of employees in regard to selfdevelopment and career development aspirations. Even the vacancies at higher levels can be filled in internally due to HRM programme as they provide training and opportunities of self-development to employees working at lower levels. training 6 . introduction of new technology.Human Resource Management (1) To create stable labour force: HRM programme are needed in order to create stable. automation. etc. efficient. computers. This avoids managerial obsolescence. (3) To develop strength for survival: HRM programme are necessary for survival in the present competitive marketing environment. (4) To face challenges of technological changes: Technological changes are taking place rapidly in every area of business. In fact. Employees demand. (2) To update the quality of manpower: HRM activities are needed for updating the quality of manpower as per the growing and changing needs of an enterprise. reducing costs and avoiding wastages.

for their self-development. career guidance. refresher courses. (7) To facilitate expansion and diversification: HRM activities are needed to meet the manpower requirements resulting from expansion and diversification programme undertaken at the enterprise level. (6) To meet future manpower needs: HRM is needed to meet the future manpower needs of the organization. Competent juniors must take their positions. SCOPE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: (1) Training: 7 . promotions and transfers.Human Resource Management facilities. It provides skilled manpower for this purpose. Executives. Attention should be given to HRM much before the introduction of expansion programme. HRM programme are needed to fulfill self-development and career development of employees. etc. supervisors leave the job or retire due to age factor. HRM is needed in order to keep ready a team of competent managers as a second line of defence. managers. (8) To utilize production capacity fully: HRM is needed in order to use the available production capacity to the optimum level.

(5) Employees welfare: 8 . (4) Career planning and development: Under HRM employees should be given guidance for their self-development and career development. It is useful for proper placement and career development of employees. This develops skills and capacity to work at higher levels and positions.Human Resource Management Training is an essential element of HRM. They should be motivated for self-development. (2) Performance Appraisal: Performance appraisal is an important area of HRM. Superiors are supposed to provide information and guidance to their juniors in this regard. An employee is told about his strengths and weaknesses and assistance is given to remove weaknesses and make the plus points more strong. (3) Potential Appraisal: It relates to the study of capabilities of employees. The purpose of performance appraisal is to study critically the performance of an employee and to guide him to improve his performance. This technique is useful for building a team of capable employees and is also used for their self-development. which can be used fruitfully along with the expansion and diversification of activities of the company. which is useful to the organization in the long run. The opportunities likely to develop in the organization should be brought to their notice. Potential appraisal of employees is useful for developing their special qualities. It is useful for self-development and career development. Potential appraisal is possible by the superior with the help of different methods. Training is possible by different methods. Career development is an integral part of HRM.

Human Resource Management Employees welfare is within the scope of HRM. attractive pay. Employees welfare include the provision of medical and recreation facilities. turnover. A forward looking policy on employee benefits like job security. Reward is an appreciation of good work. (7) Organizational development: HRM aims at providing conflict-free operations throughout the organization. higher salary or higher status. subsidized canteen. low productivity or industrial disputes. free transport and medical insurance. (6) Rewards and incentives: HRM includes provision of rewards and incentives to employees to encourage them to learn. It also keeps plans ready to deal with problems like absenteeism. Such facilities support training and other measures introduced for HRM. skills and experiences which will be useful in the near future. Welfare facilities are useful for creating efficient and satisfied labour force. Rewards and incentives motivate employees and raise their morale. participative management and monetary and non-monetary rewards will go a long way in improving the quality of work life helps employees to strike an identity with the organization. (9) Human resource information system: 9 . to grow and to develop new qualities. It may be in the form of promotion. Such facilities raise the morale of employees. (8) Quality of work life: Quality of work life depends on sound relations between employers and employees.

It facilitates quick decision making in regard to HRM. 10 . Every organization has to introduce such system for ready reference to HRM matters. Updating of such information is also essential.Human Resource Management Such system acts as an information bank and facilities human resource planning and development in a proper manner.

The linkage of its financial and human resource modules through one database is the most important distinction to the individually and proprietary developed predecessors. Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS). evaluation. Efficient and effective management of the "Human Capital" Pool (HCP) has become an increasingly imperative and complex activity to all HR professionals. HR executives rely on internal or external IT professionals to develop and maintain their Human Resource Management Systems (HRMS). capabilities and limited technical resources. HR Technology or also called HR modules. On the whole. from personal histories.Human Resource Management HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: Human Resource Management Systems (HRMS. Before the "client-server" 11 . most organizations have formalized selection. skills. the HR function is still to a large degree administrative and common to all organizations. data. experiences to payroll records. which makes this software application both rigid and flexible. and payroll processes. these ERP systems have their origin on software that integrates information from different applications into one universal database. whereas the planning and programming of data processing systems evolved into standardized routines and packages of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. EHRMS). To varying degrees. Due to complexity in programming. shape an intersection in between human resource management and information technology. organizations began to electronically automate many of these processes by introducing innovative HRMS/HCM technology. The HR function consists of tracking innumerable data points on each employee. capabilities. To reduce the manual workload of these administrative activities. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field. The HR function's reality : All in all.

The time and labour management module: applies new technology and methods (time collection devices) to cost effectively gather and evaluate employee time/work information. and generating periodic pay cheques and employee tax reports. 2) time and labour management 4) HR management. These client-server HRMS are characteristically developed around four principal areas of HR functionalities: 1) "payroll". 3) benefits administration and The payroll model: automates the pay process by gathering data on employee time and attendance. This module is a key ingredient to establish organizational cost accounting capabilities. these internally developed HRMS were limited to medium to large organizations being able to afford internal IT capabilities. The advent of client-server HRMS authorized HR executives for the first time to take responsibility and ownership of their systems. as well as labour distribution capabilities and data analysis features. calculating various deductions and taxes. The benefit administration model: permits HR professionals to easily administer and track employee participation in benefits programs ranging from 12 .Human Resource Management architecture evolved in the late 1980s. Data is generally fed from the human resources and time keeping modules to calculate automatic deposit and manual cheque writing capabilities. The payroll module sends accounting information to the general ledger for posting subsequent to a pay cycle. Sophisticated HCM systems can set up accounts payable transactions from employee deduction or produce garnishment cheques. In consequence of the high capital investment necessary to purchase or program proprietary software. The most advanced modules provide broad flexibility in data collection methods. every single HR automation process came largely in form of mainframe computers that could handle large amounts of data transactions.

Costly and time consuming HR administrative tasks. 13 . While using the internet or corporate intranet as a communication and workflow vehicle. enrolment in training classes (employee side) and to instruct a personnel action. 3) benefit administration and 4) HR management. insurance policy. The HR management module: is a component covering all other HR aspects from application to retirement. notify employers and provide position management and position control. HRMS/HCM technology replaces the four core HR activities by streamlining them electronically. authorize access to information for employees (manager's side) are being individually handled and permit to reduce HR transaction time. compensation planning records and other related activities. HR professionals can spend fewer resources in managing administrative HR activities and can apply freed time and resources to concentrate on strategic HR issues. leading to HR and organizational effectiveness. Through employee or manager self-service (ESS or MSS). HR activities shift away from paper based processes to using self-service functionalities that benefit employees. which lead to business innovation. Consequently. managers and HR professionals alike. 2) time and labour management.Human Resource Management healthcare provider. benefits enrolment. leading to greater HR and organizational efficiency. personnel data change. such as travel reimbursement. capabilities and skills management. and pension plan to profit sharing or stock option plans. Typically. the HRMS/HCM technology can convert these into web-based HRMS components of the ERP system and permit to reduce transaction costs. selection. Leading edge systems provide the ability to "read" applications and enter relevant data to applicable database fields. training and development. The system records basic demographic and address data. 1) payroll.

The banking sector has grown from a few institutions primarily involved in deposit acceptance and trade finance into a complex multi player markets where large number of commercial banks. Corporate goals are translated into viable realities and profits only with human element who play their due role in achieving the desired results. Although the idea is new for many local businesses where entrepreneurs are at the beginning of the learning curve yet in reality the theme is getting support from the organized entrepreneurs. Now the head of HRM is an important member of the senior teams of any thriving business. The banking has become a complex activity within the financial market linked directly and indirectly with an over-all national growth and its impact as an integral part of regional segment of a global banking environment. it has grown into an important activity. Almost every bank and financial institution is involved in various functions in a day's job and thus requires a highly effective team and appropriate manpower to run the show. financial institutions and specialized banks are operating with various products and activities. comprising mostly the multi-national companies was practicing the same. With the growing realization of proper HRM in the corporate sector. Thus even the high automation would require proper man behind the machine to 14 .Human Resource Management HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN BANKING: Human resource management (HRM) has long been overlooked in the corporate sector in the country where a small section.

The range may require reasonably educated security guards on the one end and a highly educated and trained professional as head of corporate finance at the other. This has further highlighted the need for proper deployment of man-power to run banks efficiently. HRM banks like other institutions have been handling this sensitive activity through respective personnel departments. Recruitment was a routine function and was done in a mechanical way to hire people with specific educational background irrespective of their real value to the institution. Personnel departments were primarily engaged in approval of leaves. handling of staff loans. etc. With liberalization of activities within the banking sector. Like many other organized sectors. for example. pieces of furniture. calculators.Human Resource Management make things happen. conducting disciplinary enquiries and termination from service.g. For many years. equipment and appliances. issuance of show cause. This means human resources were managed like other physical assets e. Success stories of large banking companies have been evident of the fact that HRM 15 . banking requires multi layer manpower for its various requirements of professionals and support staff. banking has turned itself into a more market-based business where banks have expanded their reach more to customers' door steps in a big way making banking more practical. more emphasis on consumer and house finance and personal loans. This idea has been realized by top managements in progressive banks.

on the other they think of their long run goals and objectives. Human brain has its own peculiar chemistry. The work forces constituting all levels of employees are constantly thinking in many dimensions. 16 . By no means. On the one hand it is the assigned duty and task they are to perform and for which they are paid by their employer. Managing this educated. their brains can be controlled to think beyond the current situation of employment. Its strong sensory and decision-making capacity has to be greatly emphasized by the employers.Human Resource Management is quite different from management of physical assets. skillful and trustworthy work force is not an easy job.

As Indian Banking starts grapping with issues of globalization. 17 . Wherever the HRM the functions and practices are aligned with overall corporate strategies. information.Human Resource Management ROLE: HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN BANKS Human Resources Management is concerned with people. profit and size. HRM did not have a direct role in business development but was more concerned with centralized recruitment of staff and providing them across the country. were driven by grades and seniority. business goals are meet and sustained. They have in addition responsibility towards the shareholders and need to proactively grapple with many issues. The business mix and the focus have shifted. It is concerned with building an infrastructure that impacts employees. performance. Technology has changed the layout of the workplace. Wherever HR develops professional with appropriate competencies it becomes the driver of the business by partnering the development process. It would be interesting to study the role of HRM in the Indian Banking. Unlike the past when the balance sheets were not transparent and regulation was not calibrated. HRM of banking should be no different from the rest of the business. today. The personnel policies. bank management is more directly responsible for decisions. practices. Success of the bank is measured in terms of the market share. successful HRM attaches great value to people and creates an organization which is both competitive and compassionate. adoption of new technology and growth HRM becomes critical and could be the major growth driver. Job rotation has been a major plan of developing expertise. be it salary or promotion or transfer. Indian Banking is the happening place witnessing exciting days. The management canvass has become vast and challenging. customers and other stake holders. Similarly. work and life.

Given this.Human Resource Management However. ensure that the banks perform very well and play a vital role in the transformation of banks into global leaders. Role of Hum an Resources m anagem ent 47 14 17 14 8 HR Provides advice and counsel to business HR Actively participates & provides resources HR is aware of Business Transformations HR business transformation effort Others 18 . but technology alone cannot drive business development efforts. the demand on HRM for making available professional to perform new jobs and new locations is endless. Actually it is only the human resources that can use the technology efficiently. as banking is fundamentally a matter of banker customer relationship. it is evident that technology can expedite and improve delivery of banking services.

Banking jobs being apparently lucrative for for some time and then leave for better prospects. 19 . This has been facilitated by specialized hiring agencies who may take up the job of hiring in case of large number of vacancies. tougher is the search. Identifying the right stuff followed by negotiation is the element which makes the job tough for the employer. Others are those who are keenly picked-up. Ones who are outstanding professionals with high job hopping attitude . Management trainees are a growing popular phenomenon where freshly qualified business graduates are engaged by banks and a certain percentage of these well equipped professionals stay back within the organization to grow into the footsteps of senior managers. Banks are keenly interested to fill up two types of breads of professionals. trained and are some how retained to be developed as future management within the bank.these are those who come in .Human Resource Management CHALLENGES FACED BY THE BANKING INDUSTRY IN TERMS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: (1) Effective work force: A time-consuming and hectic job is to hunt the right talent. Higher the professional value of the vacancy. Its just sitting by the river and waiting for the right fish to catch. attract a large number of candidates against advertised vacancies in media creating a large data base management problem.

The situation is not the same anymore.Human Resource Management (2) Right people: The most difficult agenda of HRM across the banking sector is to retain the right people. pension. Thanks to the car 20 . Banks have traditionally followed pay scales with predetermined increments. There are examples to this. gratuity. bonuses and time-based fringe benefits like car and house advance. An increment of Rs500-800 per annum is no more a source of attraction for a professional anymore. A bank in a normal course invests time and money to hire and train the appropriate work force for its own operations. etc. (3) Compensation: How much to pay to the right employee and how much to the outstanding performer. A basic pay with traditional formulas of linkage with medical and other facilities has no soothing effect today. A promise of future growth. This ready-made force is often identified and subsequently picked-up on better terms by others. A waiting period of 3-4 years in each cadre haunts the incumbents who strongly believe in immediate compensation. Sudden growth of retail banking and other services has put pressure on HR mangers in banks to engage more professionals within shorter span of time thereby attracting manpower in other banks on attractive packages has made the job market very competing. learning culture and corporate loyalty is out of dictionary and does not mean anything to this energetic and competent performer today. salary slabs.

An administrative deviation from any of these results in lowered job satisfaction. (5) Morale boosting: What has long been overlooked is the morale boosting of the employees by the organizations. (4) Job satisfaction: Everybody in the bank wants to work in the preferential department. A freshly hired professional requires a brand new car or car loan on resuming office quite contrary to his previous breed of bankers who would wait for the job seniority to qualify for a car loan.Human Resource Management financing modalities car is no more a fantasy item any more. city of his own choice and boss of his liking. preferential location. Smart banks have realized this need and have taken steps to keep their work force motivated through proper encouragement like man of the month awards. repeat get21 . Human beings even if satisfied of material well being need to be appraised and encouraged constantly. What the HR manger cannot afford is the dissatisfied employee who not only disrupts the smooth working himself but also spreads the negativity to others by his de-motivated attitude. Although hiring is normally based on regional requirement matching the area of activity with that of employee's nativity yet other elements like appointment in the department of choice and preference makes the job of HR manager quite challenging.

Challenges for HR in days to come 20 15 12 10 17 12 7 7 Cross training of staff for use in different Measuring effectiveness Developing basic IT skills Forecasting Requirements Availability of leadership across Building Leadership Fostering a Learning culture Knowledge Management 22 . sports events. dinners. reunions. etc.Human Resource Management togethers. This is the way employees create a feeling of belongingness. conferences. company sponsored travel.

Indeed the concept of job rotation is contrary to the development of specialist skills. HRM effectiveness could also be studied with reference to its role in staffing of each department / unit. finalizing pay and related aspects. the department will have a say in the matter and work hand in glove with the line departments. and capacity to make staff changes that drives business changes are the corner stones of HR strategy. planning for the long term needs term needs of the bank.Human Resource Management EFFECTIVENESS OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT : Posting right person for the right job. in these organization. retaining talents. the line department and HRD is involved in the head hunting. It is clear that the HR departments feel that they are effectives when it is a question of ability to post staff with appropriate skills and capabilities for the jobs. Invariably. Some of the banks have also started offering market related pay. 23 . Also these departments have enough room / flexibilities with regard to their ability to make changes in staffing pattern / position based on changes in business conditions. HR functionaries have indicated that jobs are becoming specialists in nature.specific training. Undoubtedly this has been a successful model as it has thrown up a large number of very efficient leaders in the sector. In an effective organization. the candidates were given a induction training and job. dovetailing employee preference in the deployment process. There are campus recruitments and sporadic instances of specialists being inducted at higher levels. On selection. This seems to be in vogue in private sector and foreign banks. The selection process was through advertisement for a large number of posts.

D = ability to make changes in the staffing pattern / position based on changes in business conditions. THE EXPECTATION FROM HUMAN RESOURCE 24 . B = Identify Long Term trends in the supply and demand for staff and plan accordingly. C = Incorporate employee preferences in the deployment.Human Resource Management H R M effectiveness Effective Not Effective 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 A B C D A = Posting of staff with appropriate skills and capabilities.

Human Resource Management MANAGEMENT: (1) (2) (3) (4) There is an urgent need of inducting marketing people at different levels. Customer relationship management has come to centre stage and calls for specialist people. There is a simultaneous need to balance the demand of IT savvy youngsters joining the organization who ask for high salaries. who. There is a need for well trained officers to deal with high net worth individuals where continuity and close knowledge of customer is important. 25 . on account of age profile is not comfortable working in an IT environment. In the circumstances an important task at hand is training the staff member. HRM should also take immediate steps to improve productivity. People with specialists skills such as risk management and channel management are needed in hurry.

was the guest lecturer at the round table of HR managers in the banking sector. Adaptation of world standards to domestic conditions and local culture. Tucakovic presented his experience in managing human resources in the 5-star hotel.Human Resource Management AN EXTRACT FROM A LECTURE ORGANIZED BY THE ACADEMY OF BANKING AND FINANCE : Following is an extract from a lecture given by Milos Tucakovic who is the Head of the Personnel and Training Division at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Belgrade. pointed out that the specific advantage of his hotel’s forming part of a world chain of luxury hotels provides an opportunity for exchanging first-rate trainers and the simple option of professional training abroad. 51 percent owned by the famous Pritzker family and 49 percent owned by domestic shareholders. HR Manager. Milos Tucakovic. the Head of the Personnel and Training Division at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Belgrade. Human resources management. raised some new questions for banking sector’s HR division managers who displayed interest in evaluating other managers’ experiences and possibly applying them in their future work. Mr. This lecture was held in NBS and it was organized by the Academy of Banking and Finance. to HR division managers from Serbia’s commercial banks and the central bank. Milos Tucakovic. work. presented from the viewpoint of top-level international hotel industry. The management of the Hyatt Regency Belgrade Hotel tends to recruit its management personnel from the ranks of its own employees whose characteristics. Aside from 26 . main corporate culture values and personnel quality standards required in this prestigious hotel were only some of the issues addressed by Milos Tucakovic in his lecture. held in NBS and organized by Academy of Banking and Finance. performance and professional training demonstrate that they are ready to accept new challenges.

“Main characteristics required in all employees are energy. the hotel also offers “Hyattrack”. hygiene and general work safety standards. develop their staff. The high level of services and business practice for which the Hyatt chain of hotels is recognizable worldwide is also maintained by means of the “Mystery Guest Audit” institution. hence. organize work. which practically means the unannounced visit by a “phantom” guest. whose identity and time of coming is not known. to make decisions. provision of first-rate services. 27 . complaint resolution. as this visitor is called in the Hyatt. the program of independent development of managers requiring the candidate to exercise self-initiative. have the ability to solve problems and be acquainted with the company procedures. intended for facilitating the performance of specific tasks. collegiality and punctuality. team spirit. The management and the owners of the Hyatt Regency Belgrade Hotel believe that training is a type of employee benefit. managers are required to have the following skills: ability to implement changes. This guest. is a person from the company who conducts an unannounced check of compliance with standards. telephone communication skills. honesty. all employees attend a compulsory training programme in the course of which they become acquainted with the company and the hotel.” Milos Tucakovic pointed out. communicativeness. to plan and view things in the long-term. be acquainted with the market and the business environment. to motivate others. selling skills. it was interesting to learn about the characteristics required and developed in its personnel. Since the Hyatt Regency Belgrade was one of the first companies in this region to invest in personnel selection and training in the modern sense. adaptability. commitment to clients/accuracy in work.Human Resource Management divisional training. in addition to various forms of training. In addition to the foregoing.

there are always two employee recognition lists: one encompassing front-office personnel. but with a view to providing an equal opportunity for all employees. 28 .Human Resource Management It should also be noted that commendations by guests are taken into account when evaluating employees. and the other one including back-office personnel whose work is also crucial for the proper functioning of the system. who are in direct contact with guests.

Besides satisfaction of eventually meeting their colleagues from other banks. The HR Managers were welcomed by Mr. Rautenberg explained that the training to be offered to commercial banks would primarily insist on the English language as the language of banking. commercial banks and the Association of Serbian Banks. as well as mortgages and insurance business. but also the most desirable ways of parting with employees who failed to meet the expectations or had 29 . Senior Adviser in the NBS.Human Resource Management The First Roundtable of Commercial Banks’ HR Managers The newly founded “Academy of Banking and Finance” has organized the first in the series of planned round tables for HR managers working in the banking industry. and would also facilitate daily work for the managers taking care of the employees in the banking and finance industry. communication skills and specific banking knowledge. Wolfgang Rautenberg. interdependencies between the central bank and commercial banks. i.e. Mr. and Aleksandara Lujic and Jasmina Milosevic from the NBS. relations with international institutions and modern banking systems. on adequate computer literacy. special attention would be devoted to retail. HR managers also expressed interest in exchange of experience. would particularly assist in creating a joint strategy for the development of human resources in this field. The other topics of their concern included the most reliable headhunting criteria. The meeting took place in the NBS Villa in Topcider on 16 September with representatives of 28 commercial banks. Rautenberg said that the Academy. corporate and investment banking. as a joint venture of the National Bank. The topics to be focused on within banking education would comprise basics of international banking and finance. choice of new professionals for the bank. in the manner of organizing human resources and in education of employees in the banking industry. They also stressed the need to find out more about evaluating staff performance. efforts and availabilities and about motivation and stimulation systems in business environment. Mr. In addition.

Human Resource Management to be made redundant. The need for general managers to increase their awareness of the significance of HR operations and investments in human capital was singled out as a vital aspect of the education. Rautenberg also emphasized the importance of training for managers. “It is up to you to change the image of the HR sector into what it really is – and that is much more than just administration. especially with respect to managing people and organizations. Mr. together with acquiring international presentation skills. as it is often mistakenly thought” Mr. Wolfgang Rautenberg underlined in his address to the commercial banks’ HR managers. 30 .

attended by representatives of commercial banks.Human Resource Management The Second Roundtable of Commercial Banks’ HR Managers The second roundtable of banking sector human resources managers. Nebojsa Janicijevic. place and role of the human resources management function within banks. use and develop personnel with a view to realizing the objectives of the organization. gave a presentation on “Contemporary Human Resources Management”. Professor at the Faculty of Economics. as well as to prevent the reduction of work to a mere administering of working relations and transferring responsibility to the organizational unit. was held today by the Academy of Banking and Finance in the NBS Villa in Topcider. “To manage human resources means to systematically attract. 31 .” Professor Janicijevic pointed out in the course of the roundtable discussion. Professor Janicijevic pointed out that a basic precondition for an efficient human resources management in banks is to correct the misconceptions of bank’s management. underestimating the significance of human resources. stressing the importance of training managers in contemporary management in this field. discussing the importance. the participants in the roundtable emphasized that the fundamental problem they face in their organizations on a daily basis is how to retain young qualified personnel. In this sense. organization. In the course of the discussion.

The limited. 32 . both from people wanting to be mentors and also from hopeful mentorees. Westpac's mentoring was born out of a need." Many satisfying outcomes of the pilot program have been observed. The breakfast. There was an overwhelming response to circulation of a mentoring booklet and invitation. Westpac encountered some unwillingness on the part of some mentors to attend training. and also a mid-point follow-up workshop with both mentors and mentorees. Bio-data sheets were issued and participants took part in mentoring skills workshops. 6 females) and 14 mentorees (6 males. Although the Westpac culture generally exhibits little gender bias.WESTPAC BANKING CORPORATION. On-going verbal and written guidance was offered by the project manager and coordinator. Projects & Diversity Department. two weeks later. mid-point and project conclusion) were also used.Human Resource Management ARTICLE ON CASE STUDY. expressed at focus groups of managers and executive managers. Initial career progression indications are positive with a rise noted in the number of internal job applications by participants. Westpac's program was feedback-intensive. Their attitude seemed to be. Human Resource Manager of Westpac's Policy. and their comments and input acted upon. 8 females). Mentoring relationships which cross functional areas have assisted in breaking down barriers. ARTICLE WRITTEN BY SANDRA O’NEILL. provided opportunities for checking reactions and progress. These workshops were augmented. The pilot included 18 mentors (12 males. Every effort was made to stay in telephone contact with all participants. but they were given assurances they would be considered for involvement in such a program when it goes company-wide. and this will need to be tracked over time. Three sets of evaluation questionnaires (at six weeks.that's why I'm a mentor. "I already have communication skills . to examine career progression and to retain high potential people resources (particularly for female staff) within the company. by a "get acquainted" breakfast. a case study of the pilot mentoring program in the Westpac Banking Corporation was presented by Niki Kesoglou. At the July meeting of the Making Mentoring Connections Network. trial nature of the pilot meant that some people had to be turned away. it was agreed that the program helped improve the visibility of women in this particular workplace.

Retail banks sell 65 to 80 percent of their new products to 33 . The methods differ. In those cases. depending on the bank management's mindset toward the purpose of the software and its valued place in the new business or service delivery processes. Vendors have become very effective in making this case. but sales and marketing management develop it. The challenge has been to accomplish straight-through processing in order to eliminate potential errors and work duplication. Most banks do not have an integrated technology solution. Often in isolation. For example. Human Resources will drive the incentive system. Branch administration may decide on the document preparation system. Banks have opted to design the technology implementation process around meeting the customers' needs and limiting the work effort required. the "owners" of an element of the process make the system choices for the pieces of technology they require. Technology vendors prefer to install their software in the easiest and most operationally effective way possible. technology is not often applied to simple processes that could reduce errors. Further.Human Resource Management TECHNOLOGY: Banks are taking a variety of approaches in implementing technology to make improvements in retail delivery. Some banks are convinced that the software developers have had to consider the effectiveness issues in their design. cost and time. Individual system owners most often do not want to complicate the decision to acquire and install "their system" by including total integration of all data requirements in the process resulting in largely disconnected technological environments. and see little value in starting with process redesign. the loan accounting system is often in the hands of loan operations and the credit division usually makes the credit system decisions. the technology decision starts with a traditional approach to define business requirements leading to software selection and then implementation. The contact management system and the CRM are often the purview of marketing.

and better quality of data elements. asset size. and type of organization. to date. the new business process should allow the existing core systems to populate the appropriate customer data whenever a customer opens a new product or service. The study examined top-tier performers by line of business. lower cost. without noting any significance related to performance and system use. Independent surveys conducted by the Robert E. The conclusion is that performance is more highly correlated to the process design and integration of data systems. The few banks that are integrated have lower time to close. 34 . The trend in technology is straight-through processing or electronic integration of all the required data elements and support systems. An interesting discovery from the most recent Nolan Efficiency Ratio Benchmarking Study (analysis completed july 2003) reveals that there is no correlation between a particular software system and higher retail performance. Nolan Company reveal that many banks have this objective. This advantage will certainly impact the amount of work that a CSR (Customer Service Representative) is able to complete on a comparative basis. Keeping this in full view. but.Human Resource Management existing customers. very few have accomplished the connectivity in an efficient or effective manner.

a directional view is required. Transaction effectiveness is a significant factor. They conclude that this work is not cost beneficial. but other conditions can directly influence transaction performance. The audit department often imposed security into the processing steps without regard to timeliness and the service impact on customers.Human Resource Management TELLER EFFECTIVENESS: Industry data is best used as directional information. In these banks. Top-tier performing banks examined the value of each element of transaction processing and found that the work expended in triple counting and backing added 20 percent or more to the transaction time. five 10s. Although banks need these statistics to look at teller performance. Backing referred to writing the exact currencies transferred on the back of the slip to potentially simplify the balancing process later in the day (for example. Each bank places differing process and security time burdens on the teller position. In the 1980s. 00). including triple counting the cash back to customers. the importance was on transaction accuracy. not as a true measure of what individual banks need to achieve to realize high performance. The following statistics from the 2003 Nolan Efficiency Ratio Benchmarking Study show the range of teller performance from high-performing banks to average performers. The data demonstrates that high-performing banks handle 13 percent more transactions per month than average banks. including balancing. Teller effectiveness is an area where banks have gone through cycles over the past 20 years. 35 . Those banks designed their transactions to include redundant steps to help measure and track the balancing process. ten 20s. two 5s and five Is = $265. the operational focus was on security factors. Many banks fired tellers for being out of balance. and a practice called "backing" deposit slips and/or withdrawal slips. The relative cost per transaction is 35 percent higher in the average banks than the high-performing banks.

In these cases. but. ranging from the mid teens in some banks to over 100 percent in others. They train individual transactions in a uniform and controlled way and then. The teller turnover rate is generally lower in a down economy. Some banks institute a three-week formal training process where tellers learn about the bank's commitment to customers and how it supports the bank's strategy. A drive-up teller will usually 36 . the sales referral policies and requirements. Wide variances exist in the time and effort banks put into teller training. The cost of effective training appears high on the surface. the trainer will influence the procedure with their individual biases and not necessarily the bank's standard practices. One of the reasons is that teller opportunities to perform are not equal. assign them a branch teller monitor to assist in getting started. the actual teller performance. Not many banks are equipped to measure the actual teller performance or even relative performance within a branch or from branch to branch.Human Resource Management Teller performance variables can include: the impact on training. when management considers that more tellers interact with customers daily than any other position in the bank. communications. the customer base being serviced. The annualized teller turnover rate is typically one of the highest areas in a bank. the opportunity to perform at a high rate related to staffing and scheduling. and. Recruiting appropriate personnel from the branch location often helps in keeping tellers with the bank longer. The national average is 33 to 35 percent. Some banks provide no formal training but have tellers work with a "teller trainer" in the branch to learn the policies. in week four. the use of part-time tellers and teller pools that can support multiple branches due to illnesses and vacations. procedures and systems. Effective training can cut errors and help to ensure that the speed of processing is elevated through a confident and competent staff. Banks that seem to have lower rates of turnover often have practices in place to reward high performance. it follows that service and transaction training is essential to high performance. the teller turnover rate.

High turnover branches will have lower real performance due to more tellers who are in a learning curve. The learning curve for tellers is typically three months. GMT. Hundreds of teller staffing and scheduling models are available in the marketplace. The flexibility of the model used is only one element in staffing and scheduling success. the bank would need sophisticated modeling to calculate customer arrivals during the tellers' working hours along with customers in line to determine teller opportunity. that can lead to lower 37 . all three have the modeling capabilities and report generation necessary to be effective with a diverse set of branch locations. it typically comes down to effective staffing and scheduling. but currently there are three that have the features necessary to model both teller and CSR positions effectively. university. Within the branch. shopping mall. The teller position is a "customer demand" work environment and while management sometimes uses fill-in work to help the utilization. Banks must factor in tailored work standards and develop scenarios that reflect the conditions of each branch location as close as possible to reality. the teller at the head of the queue will service every customer in slow periods. where a teller at either end of the teller line will not have as many opportunities. rural. and Exometrics all have the required queuing models and the flexibility to place staffing and scheduling in the hands of retail management. Banks must account for all of these differences. physical location of bank checks and encoding equipment.Human Resource Management handle more transactions per hour due to handling two customers at a time and a limit on transaction types. To analyze real teller performance. Differences in work are attributable to a varying mix of transaction types due to customer base. and potential use of cash dispensers in some locations. and with a bank turnover rate of 35 percent. possibly differing cashing limits for tellers due to experience or branch characteristics. etc. Some banks tailor standards to location-type such as urban. The standards and the work measured must accurately reflect the branch conditions as believed by branch management and then used to develop schedules. Demos. as well as differences due to the actual performance of standard work.

Teller incentives are largely weighted on paying for closed referrals over and above any measure for service and productivity. deployment of staff through scheduling and staffing. which may also slow down the transaction processing and resultant service levels. The factors that prevent banks from performing at the higher level relate to process efficiency. Many banks have trained their teller staff in how and what to refer with an expected volume of two closed referrals per day. policy. Banks can adjust the staffing model for effective service in locations with high turnover until the time that problem is resolved. not the software. 38 .Human Resource Management performance in selected branches. In low-volume locations. The incentive system should not penalize them or it will force even higher turnover. This decision places the teller in a position where they cannot perform on the same level as a teller in a branch where customer demand is high and relatively constant.5 and 2. Line of business performance is determined by how people. Incentive systems can direct tellers to concentrate on referrals. The reported results from the recent Nolan Efficiency Ratio Benchmarking Study show that top-performing banks' branch personnel are processing 13 percent more transactions per month than the average banks and are supporting 39 percent more deposit accounts. Management may decide to utilize three full-time tellers to allow for coverage during peaks and deliver service properly. Often a branch requires the equivalent of between 1. process and technology are deployed. it is very difficult to evaluate the performance of tellers since management must staff to volume and allow for breaks and coverage. This shift in many institutions has contributed to difficulty in making any comparisons.5 tellers per hour in remote locations. Staff modeling is a dynamic process and the tools used should be dynamic as well. In the past six years. retail banking has experienced a significant shift to transform practices to primarily a sales orientation. True performance is difficult to measure without a tool to properly balance the customer demand to the service staff hours. and the connectivity of software.

Banks have wide differences 39 .Human Resource Management CSR EFFECTIVENESS There are a variety of issues that impact the performance of Customer Service Representatives (CSRs) in the current environment.

Average performing banks. and administration. branch support. Other banks will view the CSRs as part of the retail branch sales and service team. and will deploy their time to sales and service first with a component of teller support in their mix of responsibilities. and 19 percent on administration and other. The primary activities we see CSRs handling are sales/new business. Some banks will establish an objective for outside sales asking CSRs to have involvement in community functions in the sales effort. while other banks see marketing as having a primary role in driving potential customers into the branch. service. 8 percent on customer problem resolution. the key is to establish the branch objectives in line with the bank's strategic direction. Independent studies conducted by the Robert E. Performance is a function of how banks manage and structure time. Nolan Company show that high-performing banks have a work distribution of 55 percent on sales and account opening. COMPARISON BETWEEN HIGH-PERFORMING BANKS AND AVERAGE PERFORMERS. Some will limit the activities of the "platform staff" to strictly new business and support service. 18 percent on fee and non-fee services. 40 . In any event. This is where the significance of work process has the greatest impact. A factor influencing this difference in performance is that average performing bank CSRs spend more time opening individual accounts and therefore open fewer accounts per month than the time allows. see their CSRs spending more time in problem resolution (25 percent) and less time (30 percent) in actual sales and account opening. on the other hand.Human Resource Management in deployment.

Not every bank has experienced the same success in terms of this change translating directly to the bottom line.35 percent. The following is from the 2003 Nolan Efficiency Ratio Benchmarking Study retail branch data. CSRs have had their offerings expand to include insurance. we see the new non-time deposit account balances as a percentage of total non-time deposit balances was 14 percent in top-tier banks versus 20 percent on average. high-performing banks open only 25 percent of new deposits to the total deposit account balances with their efforts as opposed to 32 percent for the average bank. or the CSR could have sold the account 41 . What are the underlying factors that might support this outcome? They are likely the focus on new business in average performing banks versus the focus on net new business in high-performing banks. an increase of 9. When we further dissect the information. High performing banks put on 152 new accounts per employee versus the average bank's 139 new accounts. Many banks base incentives on the first sale. The emphasis on developing a sales culture has made a dramatic impact on many banks. These measures support the conclusion that the high performing banks do not need to open as much in new deposit balances since they retain their existing deposits better than the average banks. In some cases. not the need. When banks examine the incentives that are paid to CSRs there are a couple of telling characteristics to look for. meaning banks are paying for every new account regardless of how it was sold.Human Resource Management When we examine the details of high-performing banks versus average performers. It can be difficult to train CSRs in the relative benefits of each vehicle and often the weight of the incentive to the product drives them. we discover additional detail on what drives branch performance. it has literally transformed the retail banks from "order takers" to "business development" engines. investment and select deposit products. Looking deeper into the data. The customer could have been inclined to set up the account prior to walking into the branch.

the data may help banks to determine which customers have a product. Deployment is as much a part of the success of the tools as it is with any technology. In this way. Today over 400 CRM models are on the market. Banks that see a gap in their product offering often rush to put together a campaign before understanding the potential customer acceptance and impact on existing work processes. Often this happens 42 . Applying science and analytics to the data suggests that the most pertinent information will lead to selling new products to existing customers. and the tools are more affordable with greater applications. but unless they understand why the customer has that product. A second element to consider is what the bank is strategically trying to achieve-net new business. Segmentation of the market is significant since it is not so much a measure of the actual effort as where the effort is extended. booked new business is the only criteria. The reason may be due to the specific product offering which may not convert to an interest in other product offerings. banks may prevent the attrition of their customer base. The development of excellent market data has greatly assisted the banks who understand where to place their sales and service emphasis. they may miss a targeted marketing opportunity. For example. Often the marketing teams concentrate on a specific use and not on developing market intelligence. This analysis also applies to the possible loss of customers. Not every bank or branch location has the same potential for growth in their marketplace. not what it has achieved in terms of net bottom line. In many of the campaigns and programs. Successful banks establish both branch and individual sales thresholds before incentives are earned. The subliminal message is that servicing existing customers is not as important to achieving individual or bank goals leading to service time spent on difficulties booking new business correctly and not primarily servicing existing customers.Human Resource Management based on its features. so they should model each location on its individual characteristics and opportunity for growth.

When the loan is approved. A significant portion of CSR effectiveness is in the details of the process. It is common to find that the input form or screen for credit differs from the loan application. there is a separate input form or screen for document preparation. processes are not structured to take advantage of that information in an automated way. loan and deposit account needs with an entirely separate input form and screen. Often banks profess to have their process integrated. thus requiring a separate input. it requires multiple inputs of the same information. After the loan is approved. The work processes are as significant to the overall time success as any factor in the performance equation. This is an example of short-term application with a potentially long-term strategic tool. Every step in the process may be thought of as employing technology. but without integration. For instance. In many cases. and this is where the sales service face is presented to the customer and potential customer base. a separate incentive form or screen may need to be completed. The staffing and scheduling element has as much to do with success in CSR effectiveness as with teller effectiveness. separate boarding documents get the loan booked on the accounting system. and see that they have the right tools and products to be successful. but ironically. but rather have a series of largely manual steps. As mentioned earlier. 43 . Unfortunately. Many new business processes are burdened at the point of the CSR. they take an application for a retail loan and submit it for credit approval.Human Resource Management with HELOC campaigns and the CSRs cannot meet customer service expectations. Lastly. Banks should utilize the proper information to determine how many CSRs are deployed. the CSR needs to prepare a separate document to show that they have properly completed an assessment of the customer's full investment. with too many unconnected information inputs. it is common that 65 percent to 80 percent of new sales are due to existing customers. very little science has been applied to the CSR position in banks.

It is seen that the recruitment process in the banking industry is changing. 44 .Human Resource Management CONCLUSION: Already there are indicators that the above issues have started weighing with the HRM. Apparently future recruitment will be clearly driven by the number of persons needs at different levels.

talents will be recruited locally and nurtured. In such a situation packet should be market driven and adequate. in addition to IT. Finance and other specializations and good level of banking knowledge.Human Resource Management The routine skills and functions will be to a large extend outsourced and banking will be more to recruit a large number of person with different qualifications. Those who like the challenges and salary will apply for the jobs in different locations.ready. There is a need for an active dialogue with the academic institutions such that candidates are job. Banks will also used to the word attrition and learn to manage this aspect. INTERVIEW ANALYSIS For better understanding of this project I have were visited I met VEERASHAIVA CO-OPERATIVE BANK LTD. On the contrary. As more and more new skills are wanted by the banking sector. training could be outsourced and blended with learning. it is hoped that the ever expanding IT inventions could be more effectively used in reaching training across the geography rather than run huge in house infrastructures. Continuity and responsibility towards customer could be more if people are recruited for different geographical locations. Finally. It is also hopped that the market will offer ready to use candidates who have. Retail. post them across geography. Another thing that will change is policy of transferring people across the country. train them and nurture them internally. 45 .

Kharkar (Manager). The Questions was asked by me and reply were given by the Manager Mr. 3.Kharkar which was as follows: 1. 5. 2. Do you list you vacancies on websites or give advertisement in newspaper? Ans: We give advertisement in newspaper. It is a routine exercise. I asked in certain set of questions to know his views and thought on this segments here I have tried to share with you all his experience that he share with me.N. What changes do you make periodically to upgrade your Human Resource Management? Ans: We periodically review our system and upgrade them.S.Human Resource Management Mr.N.S. 46 . What are the challenges faced by your HRM department? Ans: The challenges of the HR department are that the employees should achieve internal goals and target of the bank. What aspects do you consider while recruiting the employees? Ans: We consider aspects like Education Background of employees their computer literacy and aptitude for banking work. Is it very costly or expensive? Ans: NO. 4. We have performance appraisal for the employees and after every six months we give performance appraisal to our employees to achieve the goal and expectations of the bank and also to know the strength and weakness of the employees.

8. Human resource concept should be their in every bank but HRM department is not necessary.Human Resource Management 6. What do you do to solve the problems of the employees? Ans: Our institution is Human approach . It helps to improve the skills of the employees. 9. 7. 10. ANNEXURES 47 . 11.Lenient problems of each and every employee is studied. Do you give training to each and every employee? Ans: Yes. All employees should know everything. What steps are to smooth functioning of your HRM department? Ans: We upgrade our systems continuously for the smooth functioning and we take periodical suggestions from the customers and accordingly we make changes. How many employees do you have in your HR department? Ans: 21 Employees. Rotational training is given to all employees so that no one is dependent on other. Is it important for every bank or a firm to have a human resource management department? Ans: According to me. Genuine problems of the employees are considered only and solved accordingly so that employee should not be under depression and they should be satisfied. Does Human Resource Management help to improve the skills of the employees? Ans: Yes.

Human Resource Management BIBLOGRAPHY WEBSITES: 48 . www.Human Resource Management MAZAGINE: .wikipedia. www. QUEST ON HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 49 .

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