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A Common Straight Emergency Power System Scenario y

Commercial Utility Power Emergency Generators Transfer Switchgear UPS System

Network Computer Loads UPS Batteries

Generator Paralleling g Control Switchgear

Air conditioning, Lighting, Mechanical, Building Loads, etc.

Normal Operation
Commercial Utility Power Emergency Generators Transfer Switchgear UPS System

Network Computer Loads UPS Batteries Cooling & Lighting


To Computers T C t

Generator Paralleling g Control Switchgear

Air conditioning, Lighting, Mechanical Loads, etc.

Utility Bus Goes Black When Power First Fails


Commercial Utility Power Emergency Generators Transfer Switchgear UPS System

UPS Batteries

Network UPS System Computer p Immediately Loads Assumes Computer Loads

Generator Paralleling g Control Switchgear

Air conditioning, Lighting, Mechanical Loads, etc. Generators Then Feed When Utility Power y Building Loads Through is Restored Switchgear and Transfer Switches

System Automatically Returns to Normal Operation


Commercial Utility Power Emergency Generators Transfer Switchgear UPS System

Network Computer Loads UPS Batteries Cooling & Lighting


To Computers T C t

Generator Paralleling g Control Switchgear

Air conditioning, Lighting, Mechanical Loads, etc.

AUTOMATIC TRANSFER SWITCHES

Definition:
An Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS) is a, high speed switching device designed to safely transfer electrical loads from a power source to an alternate power source upon reduction or loss of voltage & to retransfer to the original source when power is restored.

ATS APPLICATIONS

Where does an ATS fit into a Building Distribution System?

Unloaded Engine Load is fed Utility is engine shuts is y by Utility down y emergency g Restored cool returned power system down toperiod normal operation

Lost

Simple OneOne-line, of ATS Transferring Between Utility & Generator

MAJOR COMPONENTS OF AN AUTOMATIC TRANSFER S U O C S SWITCH C

1. Switching Section

2. Voltage Sensing & Control Section

3. PLC Control

In an over center, (spring loaded design). The mechanisms which drive the contacts utilize a spring assisted motor operated concept. This design provides for a quick-break, quick-make operation, with full arc quickquickinterruption, interruption under maximum voltage and amperage amperage.

O e Ce e Over Center Spring Mechanism

Initial Point of Contact

A Critical Component: Transfer Contacts

Russelectric 2000 ampere rated movable finger contact assembly

Transfer Switch Controls... T f S it h C t l

Any PLC Controller should operate with an industry standard open architecture communication protocol for Windows compatible, high speed serial communications via multi-drop multiconnection, fiber optic, or wireless to other controllers and/or to a master terminal. terminal

System settings should be performed locally, through a menu driven touch screen or remotely to master terminal/s remotely, terminal/s.

The Microprocessor (PLC) Controller is designed specifically to be the central operating system for Transfer Switches and will communicate with any open architecture protocol device. hit t t ld i It is integrated into the hard i d i it Opto h d wired circuitry. O t OptoIsolators carry signals between PLC logic and traditional electroelectromechanical controls.

FEATURES COMMON TO ALL RUSSELECTRIC TRANSFER SWITCHES

UL LISTED through 4000 amperes for 2, 3, and 4 pole configurations Simple unidirectional motor operator High-Speed transfer mechanism Rapid arc quenching Safe manual operator provides same instantaneous contact opening and contact closing speed as electrical operator (on all open transition transfer switches) Positive mechanical and electrical interlocking (on all open transition transfer switches) 100% Continuous duty rated (6x for motor inrush) The Industrys Highest 3-Cycle Close and Withstand Ratings Open type (switchboard construction available) Open

Lets discuss 4 pole (switched neutral designs)

Fully Rated Switched Neutral:

Normal Source Neutral Breaks

L
Emergency Makes

Before Vs E Overlapping Neutral (One Line of Neutral Bus. or, 4th pole)

(Same construction and withstand rating as the main power poles)

Overlapping Neutral
(Other Approach) Normal Source Neutral

L
Emergency Source g y Neutral

Before

Breaks B k

Makes

N N N
(One Line of Neutral Bus or, 4th pole)

Switching inductive loads...

Dual Motor Operated Transfer Switch

Motor #1 drives the normal source contacts open


The load source is disconnected for an adjustable period to allow regenerative power to decay

M1 M2

L L

Motor #2 then drives th th d i the emergency source contacts closed

Transfer Switches with Bypass Isolation Overview

Bypass Isolation Switches yp

Definition:
A manually operated device used in conjunction with a transfer switch y p j to provide a means of directly connecting load conductors to a power source and of disconnecting the transfer switch.

Standards
The Applicable Standards are:

ANSI UL IEEE NEMA

Application: pp

RTB(D) - Load Break Design: Where a bypass isolation switch is required and simplicity of operation is critical during an emergency condition

Lets Talk Conceptually About Load Break & No Load Break Load Bypass Switches yp

ATS ATS ATS ATS ATS ATS

RTB(D) - L d Load Break design (Break-Before(Break-BeforeMake Bypass) M k B )

RTB(D) - Load Break design Load Break (Break-Before(Break-BeforeContacts Make Bypass)


NORM NORM NORM NORM NORM

ISOLATE ISOLATE ISOLATE ISOLATE ISOLATE ISOLATE

AUTO AUTO AUTO AUTO AUTO BPE BPN BPN AUTO BPE BPN BPE BPN BPE BPN BPE BPN BPE

Load Momentarily Disconnected


BPN BPN BPN BPN BPN BPN BPE BPE BPE BPE BPE

LOAD LOAD LOAD LOAD LOAD LOAD

NORMAL NORMAL NORMAL NORMAL NORMAL

LOAD BYPASSED TO NORMAL

Bypass If the transfer Emergency Handle switch Power portion Switch is bypassed & Available Can Bypassed in no rack back isolated to Should Normal matter what position normal and the to thenormal power return ATS is in. Source l Emergency fails an engine switch can EMERGENCY EMERGENCY start signal will EMERGENCY EMERGENCY still EMERGENCY initiate... be EMERGENCY

racked in

Benefits of the Load Break Bypass Design

Power can be maintained to load during ATS failure Provides a means of bypassing the ATS for maintenance No elaborate system of electrical solenoids electrical solenoids, interlocks or mechanical interlocks Fast, Simple and Easy Operation

Benefits of the No Load Break Bypass Design

Power can be maintained to load during ATS failure Provides a means of bypassing the ATS for maintenance without load interruption

Operation (Load Break Bypass Switch) p ( yp )

1. Observe - that the source is available 2. Slide - the handle over to the desired/available source 3. Pull - the bypass handle down 4. 4 Pull - isolating handle to isolate ATS

1. Observe - that the source is available

2. Slide - the handle over to the desired/available source and 3 P ll - th b d 3. Pull the bypass h dl d handle down

4. Pull - isolating handle to isolate ATS

Rack-out - Remove ATS if desired

If Normal Source is lost while Isolated or Racked out - Engine start signal will automatically be given. When Emergency source is available, bypass to Emergency

Slide Bypass Handle over to Emergency

Pull Down Bypass Handle to Emergency

Important Construction Features p

1212-gauge steel enclosure Plenty of cable bending space No aluminum bus or components Bus connections - Belleville type compression washers SelfSelf-aligning ATS draw-out drawMaintain Engine Start on Bypass to Emergency

Russelectric ATS Ratings, R l ti R ti 3-Cycle Close and Withstand

100 - 400 Ampere 600 - 800 Ampere

42,000 Amps 65,000 Amps

1000 - 1200 Ampere 85 000 Amps 85,000 1600 - 4000 Ampere 100,000 Amps

Additional Power Monitoring ( pg g (Upgrade) )

AC P Power M it Monitor
Transducer Section Protective Relay Section

Current Transformers T f

AC Power Monitor

Power Monitoring cont. g

AC Power Monitor

Transducer Section
+True RMS voltage measurement of each phase of both the normal and emergency sources +Frequency of both sources +True RMS current of each phase +Power factor relative to either voltage source +Phase sequence of each source +True and reactive power consumption

AC P Power M it Monitor

Protective Relay Section


+Undervoltage and underfrequency sensing of each source +Overvoltage and overfrequency sensing of each source +Phase reversal protection of each source +Voltage differential protection of each source +Synchronizing check between the normal and emergency sources

Power Monitoring cont.

Power M it i P Monitoring Historical Data


Logs the last 100 events g No more codes

Serial Communications

Power Monitoring & Control Screen

ModBus Communications
Amps Amps Amps

A B C

403 A 411 A 409 A

Amperes
Emergency g y Voltage Normal Voltage o tage
KW, Kvar, KVA, PF

Emer A - B 480 v Emer B - C 480 v Emer C - A 480 v Emer Freq


KWatts Norm Emer 480 A 07/04/02 B 403 Date Amps A -5.400 Av Norm Emer KVars B 12:15:38 C 411 Time Amps B -11.76480Av 12.82 Norm Emer 480 C -Closed Av A 409 TSE KVA Amps Norm Freq C 0.42 Emer PF Event #100

Norm A - B 480 v Norm B - C 480 v Norm C - A 480 v Norm Freq

KWatts KVars KVA PF

5.400 11.76 12.82 0.42

Date Time TSE

07/04/02 12:15:38 Closed

Event #100

First Status Screen

Historical Data
Logs the last 100 events In English; No more codes

ATS Control Screens, Ethernet, Fiber Optic or Web Based Main Screen

Example: Normal Real Time Trend (Shown flat-lining) flat-

Power Monitoring cont.

Power M it i P Monitoring Historical Data Serial Communications


Plugs directly into Microprocessor

Generator Control Switchgear

Types of Systems
Emergency S E Systems P k Shave Peak Sh Utility Parallel Cogeneration g Prime Power Systems

Types T pes of Operational Modes

Open Transition Closed Transition

Open Transition Mode

An open transition mode of operation is a method of transferring a load between two sources with an interruption of power during the transfer.

Load Control
Load priority - The load priority scheme in an emergency system is based upon the number of engine generators. i t Load shed - Failure of an engine generator causes the lowest priority level load to be shed. Load shed bypass - Manually override the load shed control so that a previously shed load can be re-added reeven though the emergency system does not have all of the engine generators available. available Load Demand - The number of engine generators required to be on line is based upon the bus kW kW.

Closed Transition Mode

A closed transition mode of operation is a method of either: 1) Transferring a facilitys load between the utility and generator or 2) operating a generator in continuous parallel with the utility service, without an interruption of service.

Why Would A Facility Prefer a C osed Transition y ou d ac y e e Closed a s o Mode of Operation?

Desire not to interrupt loads during transfers back to the utility after a power outage Participation in a Utility sponsored load reduction program

Advantages of a Switchgear Controlled Closed Transition Mode of Operation


Active phase lock synchronization of generator to the utility Gradual transfer of load between utility and generator eliminating unwanted system transients Utility involvement and approval Protection of each source from the other while paralleled

2 Common Classes of Switchgear Manufactured


Low Voltage Switchgear 600 VAC and below Medium Voltage S itchgear Medi m Switchgear 5 kV, 15 kV and 27 kV Equipment Should be Manufactured to the following Standards: ANSI, NEMA, UL All Equipment Should be listed and labeled in UL under the Manufacturers name

Low Voltage Switchgear g g


Metal enclosed construction Two UL Standards apply: 891 1558 Bus sizes: 1000 through 10,000 amperes Two bus bracing ratings: 100 kA 200 kA

UL 891

UL 1558

4000A Rated Bus - UL 891 Switchgear Bus Construction Built To UL Std. 891 Less Robust Construction Rated (but not tested) For 65,000 AIC Short Circuit Withstand

4000A Rated Bus - UL 1558 UL 1558 Switchgear Construction Built To UL Std. 1558 The Most Robust In Terms Of Bus Work, Bracing, Insulation, And Short Circuit Withstand Rated & Tested For 200,000 AIC Short Circuit Withstand

UL 891

UL 1558

4000A Rated Bus - UL 891

4000A Rated Bus - UL 1558

More on Construction - Metal Enclosed


Voltages up to 600 VAC Insulated main bus not required Insulated bus joints not required Circuit breakers can either be fixed mounted or draw-out drawDraw-out breakers can have Drawexposed cradle stationary p y contacts when the breaker element is removed PTs are fixed mounted in main bus compartment

Medium V lt M di Voltage S it h Switchgear


Metal l d M t l - clad construction t ti UL Standard for Metal-Clad Metalswitchgear over 600 VAC DLAH Standard for Metal Clad Swgr., Swgr over 600 Volts Bus sizes: 1000, 2000 & 3000 amperes Bus braced for 1000 MVA

More on Construction - Metal Clad


Voltages above 600 VAC Insulated main bus Insulated bus joints Circuit breakers must be draw-out drawCircuit breakers must h Ci it b k t have shutters t h tt to barrier cradle stationary contacts when the breaker element is removed PTs required to be draw-out with automatic drawdisconnect means or fixed mounted in an isolated compartment accessible only after power removed

More on Construction - Metal Clad

More on Construction - Metal Clad

More on Construction - Metal Clad

Critical Facilities and Built in Redundancy

Does Your Back-up System Have a Back-up System? BackBack-

Important Questions & Considerations


Cost, in terms of life safety or financial loss, as the result of a catastrophic power , y , p p failure. In the case of healthcare, you may be thinking: One can never put a price on life and One limb

Or in the case of protecting data, you may be thinking: The cost of an outage would far exceed that of any price differential in emergency equipment, or maybe even the cost of an entire system

UpUp-front cost of Original Equipment is a Major Consideration

When considering the criticality of protecting facilities from power outages, its prudent to be aware of the differences in design philosophies between the various manufacturers of emergency power equipment.

Depending on the facility, a power control system which provides full manual back-up to insure a means backfor controlling the system in the event of complete PLC failure my be a wise choice.

Digital Control

Manual Controls

Let us consider the importance of redundant Digital Control

Dual Redundant PLCs, running in tandem (Hot Back-up) BackWith Separate and Distributed I/O Rack in the Master Cubicle

Why is Full Manual Back-up important? Back- important?...

In complex and critical applications, where you may someday be reduced to relying on pure manual control as a result of a major failure, you really need an isolated, hardwired fully independent means to be able to perform all functions manually. Its vital to be able to: Be in a quiet area, away from engine noise to calmly navigate your system through a crisis period. Be able to control engines Start them, get them synchronized and paralleled to the Emergency Bus Perform Load Shed, load add functions Be able to control the system as it relates to the Utility side of the infrastructure Utility paralleling, metering, tie breaker control, etc.

Please be aware that: Some manufacturers offer packages with no means of hardwired manual back-up back-up.

Some offer full manual back-up, but only outside of their standard package. backSome offer semi manual back-up, where some functions and controls are hardwired, with metering backremaining digital (virtual).

Typical Control Package


Navigation Screen System Oneline System Legend ATS Oneline Transfer Controls Transfer Control Help E i S t i t and St t Engine Setpoints d Status Engine Setpoints and Status Help Engine Metering Generator Demand Generator Demand Help Load Control Setpoints Load Control Setpoints Help Load Priorities Load Priorities Help System Information Programmed Alarms g

SCADA

SYSTEM CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION

Consider any Existing Site Criteria y g Before Developing the SCADA System

An active o e-line for sys e s u a o ac e one e o system simulation oneand/or control.

To follow are Various SCADA examples

System One-Li S t One-Line O Fully Customizable to your Preference, Line Weights Weights, Colors & Graphics From Simple...

To C T Complex l

Or M O More Complex! C l !

Example E l

Example E l

Example E l

Not All SCADA is the Same, so Our Designs g Meet all Requirements. q

Active Alarm Legend

Active alarms show RealReal-time High Priority Situations that need to be Rectified Immediately

Alarm & E Al Event Hi t t History

Event History Configurable Log File stored on computer hard drive for 365 days, very useful for problem diagnostics diagnostics.

Setpoints Pop-up Screen PopPassword Protected

Setpoints are Adjustable Timers Give Actual Values Write Back to PLC

Historical Trending

Trending Files Also Stored St d on Hard H d Drive for Later Review R i 24 hour Load Demand Trending

Display Priority Screen

Communications Screen 1

Communications Screen 2

Switchgear Elevation

Control Room Elevation

Critical Distribution Elevation

Substation Elevation

UPS Elevation #1

Controls Zoom In #1

Controls are password protected and display or control plant status and operations.

Real Time Functionality

Web View for Remote Access & Operation of Plant -Password ProtectedProtected(Web Access Suite Voyager )
tm