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Chapter I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Introduction The concepts of community and health together provide the foundation for understanding community health. The term community refers to a collection of people who interact with one another and whose common interests or characteristics form the basis for a sense of unity or belonging. It can be a society of people holding common rights and privileges, sharing common interests, or living under the same laws and regulations. The function of any community includes its members collective sense of belonging and their shared identity, values, norms, communication, and common interests and concerns (Anderson & McFarlane, 2004). The view of community health is the meeting of collective needs by identifying problems and managing interactions within the community itself and between the community and the larger society. Thus, community health programs are provided to help meet these needs. Community Health Nursing represents a systematic process of delivering nursing care to improve the health of an entire community. Although this may deliver care to individuals and groups, it is primarily responsible for the health of the population as a whole, with special

emphasis on identification of high-risk aggregates. Community Health Nursing practice synthesizes nursing theory and public health science and places priority on prevention, protection, and promotion (Zotti et al, 1996). Community experiences provide the opportunity for students to learn patient care that they may never see within an institution. Outside of the traditional health care settings, the students may see nurses practicing with greater autonomy in a variety of roles. These also provide students with opportunities to explore their practice values and ethical decision making. According to Yoder (1997), this kind of exposure to a wide variety of clients in a number of different living situations helps the students develop a more holistic view of nursing making them learn to be adaptable and flexible. In line with this, the College of Nursing of Notre Dame of Dadiangas University included in their curriculum the Community Health Nursing Program. As fourth year nursing students, the Fadz Peak Trekkers had their community exposure at Purok Balakayo, Barangay Olympog, General Santos City. Through empowerment, teaching, and delivery of care, the community people will be able to attain optimum level of health and functioning which is considered to be the ultimate goal of Community Health Nursing. Nurses need broad-based knowledge about families to provide optimum health care. To address the community, family should be

considered as the unit of care, so as to have a much broader perspective for approaching individual health care needs. In attempt to meet these needs, the families themselves must identify their concerns and problems. With the aid of the exposure and the peoples motivation to participate and improve, achieving the goals will become easier. Fadz Peak Trekkers aim to provide quality and efficient community health services for the people, knowing their health care needs as they advocate health promotion and education strategies towards better wellbeing among the people as well as to motivate, inspire, and facilitate the total development of the student nurses towards becoming responsible, culture-sensitive, and community-oriented individuals. Statement of the Problem The goal of community health nursing is to aid the community and families to cope with the health problems and threats in such a way that it will maximize their potentials for high-level wellness, as well as to enhance community participation in finding means of resolving these identified problems and threats. This study focuses on the community diagnosis of Purok Balakayo, Barangay Olympog, General Santos City. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What is the General Community Profile of Purok Balakayo, Barangay Olympog, General Santos City? 1.1 Community History 1.2 Community Leadership and Organization 3

1.3 Government Organizations and its Programs and Services 1.4 Non-Government Organizations and its Programs and Services 1.5 Peoples Perception, Participation and Benefits from the Programs of these Agencies 1.6 Nature of Leadership of each Organization 1.7 Leadership Style and Process 2. What is the Physical and Geographical Data of the Community? 2.1 Land Area and Boundary 2.2 Settlement and Road Pattern 2.3 Land use 2.4 Climate 2.5 Topography and Terrain 2.6 Physical Resources 2.7 The People 3. What is the General Household Data of the Community? 3.1 Age 3.2 Gender 3.3 Household Members 3.4 Civil Status 3.5 Religion 3.6 Educational Attainment 4. What is the Economic Data of the Community?

4.1 Occupation 4.2 Main Source of Income 4.3 Other Sources of Income 4.4 Estimated Monthly Income 4.5 Housing Ownership 4.6 Type of Housing 4.7 Land Ownership 4.8 Type of Land 4.9 Appliances 4.10 Gadgets 4.11 Animal Raising 4.12 Transportation 5. What is the Medical Profile of the Community? 5.1 Immediate Source of Medical Care (Institution) 5.2 Immediate Source of Medical Care (Personnel) 5.3 Nutritional Status 5.4 Pregnancy Status 5.5 Lactation 5.6 Deworming 5.7 Family Planning 5.8 Family Planning Methods 5.9 Water Supply 5.10 Source of Drinking Water

5.11 Water Container Used 5.12 Toilet Ownership 5.13 Toilet Facilities 5.14 Drainage System 5.15 Garbage Disposal 5.16 Garbage Container Used 5.17 Recycling 6. What are the Lifestyle, and Life Events present in the Community? 6.1 Alcohol Drinking 6.2 Cigarette Smoking 6.3 Common Illnesses 6.4 Common Manifestations 6.5 Cause of Death Significance of the Study The goal and concern of Community Organizing Participatory Action Research is to help the families in the community to cope with the health problems and threats in such a way that it will maximize their potentials for higher level of wellness. This study aims to provide a clear understanding about the different needs of the people in the community and how these needs are to be achieved with the collaboration and group efforts of all the health care providers, people of the community, and other support systems. Specifically, this study is significant to the following group of persons and entities: 6

Nursing Students. This study will provide information regarding the general community profile and the physical and geographical data, which illustrates the present situation of the community. By knowing this, they will be able to facilitate the progress of the community, thus, being effective community health nurses. College of Nursing. With the information to be provided by the researchers through this study, the College of Nursing can be able to develop measures on how to improve the education of the nursing students, which will aid them on developing into competitive nurses in the future. NDDU Administration. The Notre Dame of Dadiangas University Administration will collaborate, together with the College of Nursing, in molding competitive future nurses. Thus, with this information, they can be able to provide the nursing students with adequate resources and facilities that will sustain their educational needs. They may also have an overview of the current health status of the community which is under this study and for the institution to take part in the community outreach programs and uphold the virtues of St. Marcellin Champagnat and become a communityoriented institution. Barangay and Purok Officials. This study will inform them of the current status and well-being of the community, especially in their delivery of government services. With this, they may be able to acquire ideas of

the proper attitude and ways to be more effective and efficient in their services. Purok Balakayo, the Community itself. Based on the results of the study, problems are identified one by one and as it will mobilize the people in the community, improvement in the weaker aspects of it will greatly benefit the families and other residents since they are the primary recipients of the services to be recommended by the researchers. Thus, the enhancement of these features would allow the community to take a step closer toward the ultimate goal. It will also help them act on their problems through people empowerment and maximize the resources available that are present in the community. The Philippines. This study is of particular significance not only because the community belongs to it but also to give relevant data and information that will help Philippines progress as people will have ideas of the different needs by the people and eventually will do their part in reaching out. Health Care Professionals. This study is significant for it will serve as an addition to their pool of knowledge regarding community health, the roles they may undertake in order to intervene with the different health problems as well as to provide them insights about the actual conditions by which the communities are actually under and not only being limited ideal concepts of community health.

Rural Health Units and Barangay Health Stations. This will serve as a tool for the evaluation of the health status within the area of their responsibility as well as to identify primary health needs of the people. Since they are the first line of health, they may refer the community to the different inter-linkages or various organizations involved to meet their health needs. The City Health Office. This will serve as baseline data in determining what measures to take up to improve the Health Care Delivery System in Purok Balakayo, Barangay Olympog, General Santos City since it will evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the health programs they have implemented in the locality. It will also provide them the recent vital statistics of the community so that the strategies will be implemented for further improvement. The Department of Health (DOH). Data gathered provides baseline information essential in evaluating the goal of this agency. Thus, they can provide assistance to the local health units in strengthening and improving the aspects that weaken efficient health care delivery to all. LGUs and NGOs. They will also be of significance since they have the capacity to help by creating and implementing necessary programs and services which will be useful for the improvement of the community. Researchers. By the nature of their work, they have the opportunity and responsibility for the evaluation of the health status of people and

groups and relating them to practice. Thus, they will be able to coordinate with other members of the health team government and non-government organizations in achieving the aims of public health services within the community. Future Researchers. The data gathered will be of great use to them since it will be a comparison study and this will be a basis for their study. Thus, it would be more accessible to implement these groups programs and recommendations. Scope and Delimitation This study was delimited to the community history, community leadership and organization, government organizations and its programs and services, non-government organizations and its programs and services, peoples perception, participation and benefits from the programs of these agencies, nature of leadership of each organization, leadership style and process. This study is also delimited into identifying the vital statistics of Purok Balakayo, Barangay Olympog such as its physical and geographical data, general household data, economic data, medical history, cultural patterns and common cultural beliefs and health practices and community services and facilities. The respondents of the study are exclusively the official residents of Purok Balakayo, Barangay Olympog, ages 18-60 years old, regardless of sex, civil status and educational attainment. The data gathered were taken from the third

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quarter of the year starting on the first week of September up to the third week of the same month, year 2011. The type of data is quantitative and qualitative data. The

instruments used by the researchers in data gathering were the Barangay Health Profile as well as the Household Data Form for the assessment of the entire community. The activities that are to be implemented will only be limited within the range of budget provided including solicitations and the contingency fund from the groups weekly dues as well as existing availability of resources at hand, the activities will encompass the community of Purok Balakayo. These activities will be based on the identified problems existing in the community as determined by the student nurses with the participation of the people in the community. Definition of Terms For better understanding of this community diagnosis, the following terms being used were defined to help readers to easily comprehend with the terms. Age. This refers to the length of time that one has been alive. In this study, the growth and development is associated with the developmental tasks. Animal Raising. This refers to the act of looking after or tending animals as domestic pets or as source and agricultural product itself.

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Appliances. This refers to any electrical device or machine that is used for specific purposes in the home. Availability of Health Center Staff. This refers to being available, especially of being easily accessible or obtainable of the services rendered by the health professionals in health centers. Availability of Herbs and Medicinal Plants. This refers to the condition of being available, especially of being easily accessible or obtainable of herbs with medicinal properties and therapeutic effects. Availability of Local Health Resources. This refers to the condition of being available, especially of being easily accessible or obtainable of culturally acceptable health resources such as hilots and herbolarios. Availability of Medicine Clinical Supplies. this refers to the condition of being available, especially of being easily accessible or obtainable of medicines and medical equipment and supplies needed in rendering health services. Average Monthly Income. This refers to the typical amount of money or gain resulting from goods or services produced by family members, usually measured monthly. Barangay Olympog. This refers to the 19th official barangay of General Santos City where Purok Balakayo belongs.

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Barangay Health Profile. This refers to a questionnaire used to assess the community divided into different aspects revealing the status of communitys health. Civil Status. This refers to a state of being single, married, widowed or being independent. Community. This refers to a group of people sharing common geographic boundaries and/or common values and interests. In this study, the community of Purok Balakayo, Barangay Olympog was chosen for the community health nursing. Community Health Nursing. This refers to a response to the health needs of the people. It is the utilization of the nursing process in the care of the different levels of clientele, individuals, families, population groups and communities. Community History. This refers to a verbal or written chronological account of past events of a period or in the life or development of a people, an institution, or a place. Death. The ending of all vital functions or systems. Deworming Status. This refers to the state of being free from any form of intestinal parasitism. Drainage System. This refers to a physical network or system of pipes, canals or channels that carries water or sewage away from a place. Drug Addiction. A state of physiological and psychological dependence on a potentially harmful drug.

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Economic Status. This refers to the financial condition of an organization, industry or of the community. Operationally, it pertains to the community peoples condition in terms of their sources of income and how they were able to divide and allocate this according to their needs. Educational Attainment. This refers to a persons achievement or accomplishment in terms of the level and degree of formal education. Expenditures. This refers to an amount of money spent, as a whole or on a particular thing. Family Planning. This refers to all the decisions an individual or couple make about having children. These decisions usually include if and when to have children, how many children to have, and how they are spaced. Family Planning Method. This refers to the way of carrying out decisions regarding family planning, making use of the natural or synthetic methods. Garbage Disposal. This refers to the process of throwing away or getting rid of waste products biodegradable or non-biodegradable. Garbage-Container Used. This refers to receptacles used in storing or throwing away waste. Gender. This refers to the biologic status of a person, either male or female.

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Government Organization. This refers to a group directed by the government, created to perform a specified purpose a years and identified by shared interests. Hilot. This refers to the local health provider sought for help by the people because of its accessibility and low cost. It provides relief for various diseases with the use of commonly found herbs the community. Households. This refers to a domestic unit consisting of members of the family living together. Operationally, it refers to the family living in one house. Housing Ownership. This refers to the legal right of possessing permanent shelter for human habitation. Illness. A disease or sickness of indisposition. Immediate Source of Medical Care (Person). This refers to the accessibility and distance of the source of medical care relating to the medical health personnel. Immediate Source of Medical Care (Venue). This refers to the accessibility and distance of the source of medical care relating to the medical facility. Immunization Status. This refers to a state of being immune from immunizable diseases by means of immunization. Lactation. This refers to a stage following pregnancy where a mother, via the mammary glands is able to produce milk for the infant feeding.

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Land Boundary. This refers to a demarcation line between two neighboring areas, Barangay or Purok. Operationally, it refers to the border line that separates Purok Balakayo from other puroks within Barangay Olympog, General Santos City. Land Ownership. This refers to the legal right of possessing a portion of ground utilized for settlement, agriculture or industry. Land Use. This refers to the utilization of an area, domain, or realm that is notable for settlement or industry. Leadership Style. This refers to the manner or technique of guiding, directing, influencing subordinates to meet a common goal. Leading Cause of Morbidity. This refers to the primary reason for incidents of nonfatal cases of diseases in the total population at risk during a specified point of time. Main Source of Income. This refers to the principal basis of money or other gain resulting from goods or services produced. Method of Referral System. This refers to the manner of carrying out recommendations or facilities for easier access for services and information. Morbidity. This refers to the presence of illness or disease. In this study, it is an indicator of the presence of a disease experienced by the people of Purok Balakayo of Barangay Olympog. Mortality. This refers to the number of deaths that occur at a specific time, in a specific group. In this study, it shows the number of deaths that

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has occurred within Purok Balakayo of Barangay Olympog within a specified period of time. Nature of Leadership. This refers to the disposition and the intrinsic or essential character of guiding, directing or influencing. Non-government organization. This refers to a private group organized to perform a specified purpose and identified by shared interests. Non-health related rituals and their schedules. This refers to the performance of a religion, set of customs, professions, or established habit that does not relate to the persons state of health. Nutritional Status. This refers to the state of nourishment or a state of being nourished. Occupation. This refers to the work and jobs by which somebody earns a living. People. This refers to a community, ethnic group or nationality. People Perception. This refers to the people process of acquiring knowledge about ones self and the surrounding environment, which results in a personal definition of the world in which the individual resides as well as the meaning assigned to specific situations. Personality Disturbance. This refers to a disorder in attitude or behavior that makes it difficult for somebody to get along with other people or

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to succeed at work or in social situations but that does not involve loss of touch with reality. This may occur as an addiction or vices. Religion. This refers to peoples beliefs and opinions concerning the existence, nature, and worship of God, a god, or gods, and divine involvement in the universe and human life. Rituals that have bearing to health and health practices. This refers to the performance of a religion, set of customs, professions, or established habit that have great impact on the performers well being. Sanitation Facilities, Practices and Problems. This refers to the carrying out of a habit, the difficult situations, and the resources of people involved in the total cleanliness and hygiene. Settlement and Road Pattern. This refers to a place that has recently been populated with permanent residents made accessible long surfaced routes broad enough for humans and for vehicles to be driven on it. Source of Drinking Water. This refers to the origin where water is obtained for varied use. Toilet Facilities. This refers to the fixture for disposing of bodily waste: a bowl-shaped fixture with a waste drain and a flushing device connected to a water supply, used for defecating and urinating. Toilet Ownership. This refers to owning a toilet facility.

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Topography and Terrain. This refers to a layout of natural and artificial features on the surface of the earth, and the science of their detailed, graphic representations on maps and charts. In this study it refers to the lie of the land, or the physiogeographic of land in terms of elevation, slope and orientation. Transportation. This refers to a facility consisting of the means and equipment necessary for the movement of passengers and goods. In this study, it is identified as free or rented. Type of Housing. This refers to the kind or sort of shelter, categorized according to the type of material used. Type of Land. This refers to the kind of ground utilized for a settlement of a specific family. Water Container. This refers to receptacles used in storing water and is classified whether it has cover or not.

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