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Noun Verb Adverb Adjective Adjunct (grammar) Conjunct Disjunct (linguistics) Noun adjunct Active voice 1 5 9 12 17 23 25 27 28

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The cat sat on the mat. Please hand in your assignments by the end of the week. Cleanliness is next to Godliness. Winston Churchill was a Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Please complete this assignment with black or blue pen only, and keep your eyes on your own paper. A noun can co-occur with an article or an attributive adjective. Verbs and adjectives can't. In the following, an asterisk (*) in front of an example means that this example is ungrammatical. 1. the name (name is a noun: can co-occur with a definite article the.) 2. *the baptise (baptise is a verb: cannot co-occur with a definite article.) 3. constant circulation (circulation is a noun: can co-occur with the attributive adjective constant.) 4. *constant circulate (circulate is a verb: cannot co-occur with the attributive adjective constant.) 5. a fright (fright is a noun: can co-occur with the indefinite article a.) 6. *an afraid (afraid is an adjective: cannot co-occur with the article a.) 7. terrible fright (The noun fright can co-occur with the adjective terrible.) 8. *terrible afraid (The adjective afraid cannot co-occur with the adjective terrible.)

Put simply, a noun is a word used to indicate a person, thing, place or idea. In traditional grammar, the noun is one of the parts of speech. In linguistics, a noun is a member of a large, open lexical category whose members can occur as the main word in the subject of a clause, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.[1] Lexical categories are defined in terms of the ways in which their members combine with other kinds of expressions. The syntactic rules for nouns differ from language to language. In English, nouns may be defined as those words which can occur with articles and attributive adjectives and can function as the head of a noun phrase.

Noun comes from the Latin nmen "name",[2] a translation of Ancient Greek noma.[3] Word classes like nouns were first described by Pini in the Sanskrit language and by Ancient Greek grammarians, and were defined by the grammatical forms that they take. In Greek and Sanskrit, for example, nouns are categorized by gender and inflected for case and number. Because nouns and adjectives share these three categories, Dionysius Thrax does not clearly distinguish between the two, and uses the term noma "name" for both, although some of the words that he describes as paraggn (pl. paragg) "derived"[4] are adjectives.[5]

Different definitions of nouns

The semantic definition of nouns as referring to a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality, quantity, or idea, etc., has been criticized by contemporary linguists as being uninformative.[6] Expressions of natural language have properties at different levels. They have formal properties, like what kinds of morphological prefixes or suffixes they take and what kinds of other expressions they combine with; but they also have semantic properties, i.e. properties pertaining to their meaning. The definition of a noun at the outset of this article is thus a formal, traditional grammatical definition. That definition, for the most part, is considered uncontroversial and furnishes the means for users of certain languages to effectively distinguish most nouns from non-nouns. However, it has the disadvantage that it does not apply to nouns in all languages. For example in Russian, there are no definite articles, so one cannot define nouns as words that are modified by definite articles. There have also been several attempts to define nouns in terms of their semantic properties. Many of these are controversial, but some are discussed below.


Predicates with identity criteria

The British logician Peter Thomas Geach proposed a more subtle semantic definition of nouns.[7] He noticed that adverbs like "same" can modify nouns, but no other kinds of parts of speech, like verbs or adjectives. Not only that, but there also do not seem to be any other expressions with similar meaning that can modify verbs and adjectives. Consider the following examples. grammatical: John and Bill participated in the same fight. ungrammatical: *John and Bill samely fought. There is no English adverb samely. In some other languages, like Czech, however there are adverbs corresponding to samely. Hence, in Czech, the translation of the last sentence would be fine; however, it would mean that John and Bill fought in the same way: not that they participated in the same fight. Geach proposed that we could explain this, if nouns denote logical predicates with identity criteria. An identity criterion would allow us to conclude, for example, that person x at time 1 is the same person as person y at time 2. Different nouns can have different identity criteria. A well known example of this is due to Gupta:[8] National Airlines transported 2 million passengers in 1979. National Airlines transported (at least) 2 million persons in 1979. Given that, in general, all passengers are persons, the last sentence above ought to follow logically from the first one. But it doesn't. It is easy to imagine, for example, that on average, every person who travelled with National Airlines in 1979, travelled with them twice. In that case, one would say that the airline transported 2 million passengers but only 1 million persons. Thus, the way that we count passengers isn't necessarily the same as the way that we count persons. Put somewhat differently: At two different times, you may correspond to two distinct passengers, even though you are one and the same person. For a precise definition of identity criteria, see Gupta.[8]

Prototypically referential expressions

Another semantic definition of nouns is that they are prototypically referential.[9] Recently, Mark Baker[10] has proposed that Geach's definition of nouns in terms of identity criteria allows us to explain the characteristic properties of nouns. He argues that nouns can co-occur with (in-)definite articles and numerals, and are prototypically referential because they are all and only those parts of speech that provide identity criteria. Baker's proposals are quite new, and linguists are still evaluating them.

Classification of nouns in English

Proper nouns and common nouns
A proper noun or proper name is a noun representing unique entities (such as Earth, India, Jupiter, Harry, or BMW), as distinguished from common nouns which describe a class of entities (such as city, planet, person or car).[11]

Agent nouns
Agent nouns are usually common nouns (although they may be proper nouns, such as in titles or adopted surnames) that take the form of a subject (typically a person) performing an action (verb). Examples in English are maker (from to make), teacher (from to teach), and actor and actress (from to act).


Countable and uncountable nouns

Count nouns are common nouns that can take a plural, can combine with numerals or quantifiers (e.g., one, two, several, every, most), and can take an indefinite article (a or an). Examples of count nouns are chair, nose, and occasion. Mass nouns (or non-count nouns) differ from count nouns in precisely that respect: they can't take plural or combine with number words or quantifiers. Examples from English include laughter, cutlery, helium, and furniture. For example, it is not possible to refer to a furniture or three furnitures. This is true even though the pieces of furniture comprising furniture could be counted. Thus the distinction between mass and count nouns should not be made in terms of what sorts of things the nouns refer to, but rather in terms of how the nouns present these entities.[12][13]

Collective nouns
Collective nouns are nouns that refer to groups consisting of more than one individual or entity, even when they are inflected for the singular. Examples include committee, herd, and school (of fish). These nouns have slightly different grammatical properties than other nouns. For example, the noun phrases that they head can serve as the subject of a collective predicate, even when they are inflected for.

Concrete nouns and abstract nouns

Further information: physical bodyandabstract object Concrete nouns refer to physical entities that can, in principle at least, be observed by at least one of the senses (for instance, chair, apple, Janet or atom). Abstract nouns, on the other hand, refer to abstract objects; that is, ideas or concepts (such as justice or hatred). While this distinction is sometimes exclusive, some nouns have multiple senses, including both concrete and abstract ones; consider, for example, the noun art, which usually refers to a concept (e.g., Art is an important element of human culture) but which can refer to a specific artwork in certain contexts (e.g., I put my daughter's art up on the fridge). Some abstract nouns developed etymologically by figurative extension from literal roots. These include drawback, fraction, holdout, and uptake. Similarly, some nouns have both abstract and concrete senses, with the latter having developed by figurative extension from the former. These include view, filter, structure, and key. In English, many abstract nouns are formed by adding noun-forming suffixes (-ness, -ity, -ion) to adjectives or verbs. Examples are happiness (from the adjective happy), circulation (from the verb circulate) and serenity (from the adjective serene).

Noun phrases
A noun phrase is a phrase based on a noun, pronoun, or other noun-like word (nominal) optionally accompanied by modifiers such as adjectives.

Nouns and noun phrases can typically be replaced by pronouns, such as he, it, which, and those, in order to avoid repetition or explicit identification, or for other reasons. For example, in the sentence Janet thought that he was weird, the word he is a pronoun standing in place of the name of the person in question. The English word one can replace parts of noun phrases, and it sometimes stands in for a noun. An example is given below: John's car is newer than the one that Bill has. But one can also stand in for bigger sub parts of a noun phrase. For example, in the following example, one can stand in for new car. This new car is cheaper than that one.


Substantive as a word for noun

Starting with old Latin grammars, many European languages use some form of the word substantive as the basic term for noun (for example, Spanish sustantivo, "noun"). Nouns in the dictionaries of such languages are demarked by the abbreviation s. or sb. instead of n, which may be used for proper nouns instead. This corresponds to those grammars in which nouns and adjectives phase into each other in more areas than, for example, the English term predicate adjective entails. In French and Spanish, for example, adjectives frequently act as nouns referring to people who have the characteristics of the adjective. The most common metalanguage to name this concept is nominalization. An example in English is: This legislation will have the most impact on the poor. Similarly, an adjective can also be used for a whole group or organization of people: The Socialist International. Hence, these words are substantives that are usually adjectives in English. The word nominal also overlaps in meaning and usage with noun'23' and adjective.

[1] Loos, Eugene E., et al. 2003. Glossary of linguistic terms: What is a noun? (http:/ / www. sil. org/ linguistics/ GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/ WhatIsANoun. htm) [2] nmen (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0059:entry=nomen). Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project. [3] [[Category:Articles containing Ancient Greek language text (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0057:entry=o/ noma)]]. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A GreekEnglish Lexicon at Perseus Project [4] [[Category:Articles containing Ancient Greek language text (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0057:entry=paragwgo/ s)]]in Liddell and Scott [5] Dionysius Thrax. (http:/ / www. hs-augsburg. de/ ~harsch/ graeca/ Chronologia/ S_ante02/ DionysiosThrax/ dio_tech. html) (Art of Grammar), section (10b): (On the noun). Bibliotheca Augustana.

, , , , , , . There are seven types of derived [nouns]: patronymic, possessive, comparative, superlative, diminutive, derived from a noun, [and] verbal.
[6] [7] [8] [9] Jackendoff, Ray. 2002. Foundations of language: brain, meaning, grammar, evolution. Oxford University Press. Page 124. Geach, Peter. 1962. Reference and Generality. Cornell University Press. Gupta, Anil. 1980, The logic of common nouns. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Croft, William. 1993. "A noun is a noun is a noun - or is it? Some reflections on the universality of semantics". Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, ed. Joshua S. Guenter, Barbara A. Kaiser and Cheryl C. Zoll, 369-80. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society. [10] Baker, Mark. 2003, Lexical Categories: verbs, nouns, and adjectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [11] Lester, Mark; Larry Beason (2005). The McGraw-Hill Handbook of English Grammar and Usage. McGraw-Hill. p.4. ISBN0-07-144133-6. [12] Krifka, Manfred. 1989. "Nominal Reference, Temporal Constitution and Quantification in Event Semantics". In R. Bartsch, J. van Benthem, P. von Emde Boas (eds.), Semantics and Contextual Expression, Dordrecht: Foris Publication. [13] Borer, Hagit. 2005. In Name Only. Structuring Sense, Volume I. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Laycock, Henry (2005). " Mass nouns, Count nouns and Non-count nouns ( Mass nouns Count nouns Non-count nouns.pdf)", Draft version of entry in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics Oxford: Elsevier.

External links
Nouns - Singular and Plural Agreement ( aspx) ESL Guide to Countable and Uncountable Nouns ( g_cucount.htm) Nouns (


I washed the car yesterday. The dog ate my homework. John studies English and French.

A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand). In the usual description of English, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive. In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood and voice. A verb may also agree with the person, gender, and/or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object. In many languages, verbs have a present tense, to indicate that an action is being carried out; a past tense, to indicate that an action has been done; and a future tense, to indicate that an action will be done.

In languages where the verb is inflected, it often agrees with its primary argument (the subject) in person, number and/or gender. With the exception of the verb to be, English shows distinctive agreement only in the third person singular, present tense form of verbs, which is marked by adding "-s" (Iwalk, hewalks) or "-es" (he fishes). The rest of the persons are not distinguished in the verb (Iwalk, youwalk, theywalk, etc.). Latin and the Romance languages inflect verbs for tenseaspectmood and they agree in person and number (but not in gender, as for example in Polish) with the subject. Japanese, like many languages with SOV word order, inflects verbs for tense/mood/aspect as well as other categories such as negation, but shows absolutely no agreement with the subject - it is a strictly dependent-marking language. On the other hand, Basque, Georgian, and some other languages, have polypersonal agreement: the verb agrees with the subject, the direct object and even the secondary object if present, a greater degree of head-marking than is found in most European languages.


The number of arguments that a verb takes is called its valency or valence. Verbs can be classified according to their valency: Avalent (valency = 0): the verb has neither a subject nor an object. Zero valency does not occur in English; in some languages such as Mandarin Chinese, weather verbs like snow(s) take no subject or object. Intransitive (valency = 1, monovalent): the verb only has a subject. For example: "he runs", "it falls". Transitive (valency = 2, divalent): the verb has a subject and a direct object. For example: "she eats fish", "we hunt nothing". Ditransitive (valency = 3, trivalent): the verb has a subject, a direct object, and an indirect object. For example: "He gives her a flower." Weather verbs are often impersonal (subjectless, or avalent) in null-subject languages like Spanish, where the verb llueve means "It rains". In English, they require a dummy pronoun, and therefore formally have a valency of 1. Intransitive and transitive verbs are the most common, but the impersonal and objective verbs are somewhat different from the norm. In the objective the verb takes an object but no subject; the nonreferent subject in some uses may be marked in the verb by an incorporated dummy pronoun similar to that used with the English weather verbs. Impersonal verbs in null subject languages take neither subject nor object, as is true of other verbs, but again the verb may show incorporated dummy pronouns despite the lack of subject and object phrases. Tlingit lacks a ditransitive, so the indirect object is described by a separate, extraposed clause. English verbs are often flexible with regard to valency. A transitive verb can often drop its object and become intransitive; or an intransitive verb can take an object and become transitive. For example, the verb move has no grammatical object in he moves (though in this case, the subject itself may be an implied object, also expressible explicitly as in he moves himself); but in he moves the car, the subject and object are distinct and the verb has a different valency. In many languages other than English, such valency changes are not possible; the verb must instead be inflected in order to change the valency.


Tense, aspect, and modality

Depending on the language, verbs may express grammatical tense, aspect, or modality. Grammatical tense[1][2][3] is the use of auxiliary verbs or inflections to convey whether the action or state is before, simultaneous with, or after some reference point. The reference point could be the time of utterance, in which case the verb expresses absolute tense, or it could be a past, present, or future time of reference previously established in the sentence, in which case the verb expresses relative tense. Aspect[2][4] expresses how the action or state occurs through time. Important examples include: perfective aspect, in which the action is viewed in its entirety though completion (as in "I saw the car") imperfective aspect, in which the action is viewed as ongoing; in some languages a verb could express imperfective aspect more narrowly as: habitual aspect, in which the action occurs repeatedly (as in "I used to go there every day"), or continuous aspect, in which the action occurs without pause; continuous aspect can be further subdivided into stative aspect, in which the situation is a fixed, unevolving state (as in "I know French"), and progressive aspect, in which the situation continuously evolves (as in "I am running") perfect, which combines elements of both aspect and tense, and in which both a prior event and the state resulting from it are expressed (as in "I have studied well")

A single-word verb in Spanish contains information about time (past, present, future), person and number. The process of grammatically modifying a verb to express this information is called conjugation.

Aspect can either be lexical, in which case the aspect is embedded in the verb's meaning (as in "the sun shines", where "shines" is lexically stative); or it can be grammatically expressed, as in "I am running". Modality[5] expresses the speaker's attitude toward the action or state given by the verb, especially with regard to degree of necessity, obligation, or permission ("You must go", "You should go", "You may go"), determination or willingness ("I will do this no matter what"), degree of probability ("It must be raining by now", "It may be raining", "It might be raining"), or ability ("I can speak French"). All languages can express modality with adverbs, but some also use verbal forms as in the given examples. If the verbal expression of modality involves the use of an auxiliary verb, that auxiliary is called a modal verb. If the verbal expression of modality involves inflection, we have the special case of mood; moods include the indicative (as in "I am there"), the subjunctive (as in "I wish I were there"), and the imperative ("Be there!").


The voice[6] of a verb expresses whether the subject of the verb is performing the action of the verb or whether the action is being performed on the subject. The two most common voices are the active voice (as in "I saw the car") and the passive voice (as in "The car was seen by me" or simply "The car was seen"). Most languages have a number of verbal nouns that describe the action of the verb. In the Indo-European languages, verbal adjectives are generally called participles. English has an active participle, also called a present participle; and a passive participle, also called a past participle. The active participle of break is breaking, and the passive participle is broken. Other languages have attributive verb forms with tense and aspect. This is especially common among verb-final languages, where attributive verb phrases act as relative clauses.

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Comrie, Bernard, Tense, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1985. sten Dahl, Tense and Aspect Systems, Blackwell, 1985. Fleischman, Suzanne, The Future in Thought and Action, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1982. Comrie, Bernard, Aspect, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1976. Palmer, F. R., Mood and Modality, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001. Klaiman, M. H., Grammatical Voice (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics), Cambridge Univ. Press, 1991.

Gideon Goldenberg, "On Verbal Structure and the Hebrew Verb", in: idem, Studies in Semitic Linguistics, Jerusalem: Magnes Press 1998, pp.148196 [English translation; originally published in Hebrew in 1985].

External links ( Verbs and verb conjugation in many languages. ( English Verb Conjugation. Italian Verbs Coniugator and Analyzer ( Conjugation and Analysis of Regular and Irregular Verbs, and also of Neologisms, like googlare for to google. El verbo en espaol ( Downloadable handbook to learn the Spanish verb paradigm in an easy ruled-based method. It also supplies the guidelines to know whenever a Spanish verb is regular or irregular



I found the film incredibly dull. The meeting went well and the directors were extremely happy with the outcome! Crabs are known for walking sideways. Only members are allowed to enter. I often have eggs for breakfast. However, I shall not eat fried eggs again.

An adverb is a word that changes or qualifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, other adverb, clause, sentence or any other word or phrase, except that it does not include the adjectives and determiners that directly modify nouns. Adverbs are traditionally regarded as one of the parts of speech, although the wide variety of the functions performed by words classed as adverbs means that it is hard to treat them as a single uniform category. Adverbs typically answer questions such as how?, in what way?, when?, where?, and to what extent?. This function is called the adverbial function, and is realized not just by single words (i.e., adverbs) but by adverbial phrases and adverbial clauses.

Uses of adverbs
Adverbs are words like slowly, yesterday, now, soon, and suddenly. An adverb usually modifies a verb or a verb phrase. It provides information about the manner, place, time, frequency, certainty, or other circumstances of the activity denoted by the verb or verb phrase. She walked slowly. (Here the adverb slowly shows the manner in which she walked.) The kids are playing together. (Here the adverb together provides information about how the kids are playing.) Adverbs can also modify adjectives and other adverbs. You are quite right. (Here the adverb quite modifies the adjective right.) She spoke quite loudly. (Here the adverb quite modifies another adverb loudly.) In English, adverbs of manner (answering the question how?) are often formed by adding -ly to adjectives. Other languages often have similar methods for deriving adverbs from adjectives (French, for example, uses the suffix -ment), or else use the same form for both adjectives and adverbs. Some examples are listed under Adverbs in specific languages below. Where the meaning permits, adverbs may undergo comparison, taking comparative and superlative forms. In English this is usually done by adding more and most before the adverb (more slowly, most slowly), although there are a few adverbs that take inflected forms, such as well, for which better and best and used. For more information about the use of adverbs in English, see English grammar: Adverbs. For use in other languages, see Adverbs in specific languages below, and the articles on individual languages and their grammars.



Adverbs as a "catch-all" category

Adverbs are considered a part of speech in traditional English grammar and are still included as a part of speech in grammar taught in schools and used in dictionaries. However, modern grammarians recognize that words traditionally grouped together as adverbs serve a number of different functions. Some would go so far as to call adverbs a "catch-all" category that includes all words that do not belong to one of the other parts of speech. A more logical approach to dividing words into classes relies on recognizing which words can be used in a certain context. For example, a noun is a word that can be inserted in the following template to form a grammatical sentence: The _____ is red. (For example, "The hat is red".) When this approach is taken, it is seen that adverbs fall into a number of different categories. For example, some adverbs can be used to modify an entire sentence, whereas others cannot. Even when a sentential adverb has other functions, the meaning is often not the same. For example, in the sentences She gave birth naturally and Naturally, she gave birth, the word naturally has different meanings. Naturally as a sentential adverb means something like "of course" and as a verb-modifying adverb means "in a natural manner". This "naturally" distinction demonstrates that the class of sentential adverbs is a closed class (there is resistance to adding new words to the class), whereas the class of adverbs that modify verbs isn't. Words like very and particularly afford another useful example. We can say Perry is very fast, but not Perry very won the race. These words can modify adjectives but not verbs. On the other hand, there are words like here and there that cannot modify adjectives. We can say The sock looks good there but not It is a there beautiful sock. The fact that many adverbs can be used in more than one of these functions can confuse this issue, and it may seem like splitting hairs to say that a single adverb is really two or more words that serve different functions. However, this distinction can be useful, especially considering adverbs like naturally that have different meanings in their different functions. Huddleston distinguishes between a word and a lexicogrammatical-word.[1] Not is an interesting case. Grammarians have a difficult time categorizing it, and it probably belongs in its own class[2][3]

Adverbs in specific languages

Listed below are some of the principles for formation and use of adverbs in certain languages. For more information, see the articles on individual languages and their grammars. In English adverbs can be formed from most adjectives with the ending -ly, and there are also many independent adverbs. For detailed information, see English grammar: Adverbs. In Dutch adverbs have the basic form of their corresponding adjectives and are not inflected (except for comparison in which case they are inflected like adjectives, too). In German the term Adverb is differently defined than in the English language. German adverbs form a group of not inflectable words (except for comparison in which in rare cases some are inflected like adjectives, too). An English adverb, which is derived from an adjective, is arranged in the German language under the adjectives with adverbial use in the sentence. The others are also called adverbs in the German language. In Scandinavian languages, adverbs are typically derived from adjectives by adding the suffix '-t', which makes it identical to the adjective's neuter form. Scandinavian adjectives, like English ones, are inflected in terms of comparison by adding '-ere'/'-are' (comparative) or '-est'/'-ast' (superlative). In inflected forms of adjectives the '-t' is absent. Periphrastic comparison is also possible. In Romance languages many adverbs are formed from adjectives (often the feminine form) by adding '-mente' (Portuguese, Spanish, Galician, Italian) or '-ment' (French, Catalan) (from Latin mens, mentis: mind, intelligence). Other adverbs are single forms which are invariable.

Adverb In the Romanian language, the vast majority of adverbs are simply the masculine singular form of the corresponding adjective one notable exception being bine ("well") / bun ("good"). However, there are some Romanian adverbs that are built from certain masculine singular nouns using the suffix "-ete", such as the following ones: bie-ete (boyishly), tiner-ete (youthfully), brbt-ete (manly), fr-ete (brotherly), etc. Interlingua also forms adverbs by adding '-mente' to the adjective. If an adjective ends in c, the adverbial ending is '-amente'. A few short, invariable adverbs, such as ben, "well", and mal, "badly", are available and widely used. In Esperanto, adverbs are not formed from adjectives but are made by adding '-e' directly to the word root. Thus, from bon are derived bone, "well", and 'bona', 'good'. See also: special Esperanto adverbs. In Hungarian adverbs are formed from adjectives of any degree through the suffixes -ul/l and -an/en depending on the adjective. E.g. szp (beautiful) -> szpen (beautifully) or the comparative szebb (more beautiful) -> szebben (more beautifully) Modern Standard Arabic forms adverbs by adding the indefinite accusative ending '-an' to the root. For example, kathiir-, "many", becomes kathiiran "much". However, Arabic often avoids adverbs by using a cognate accusative plus an adjective. Austronesian languages appear to form comparative adverbs by repeating the root (as in WikiWiki), similarly to the plural noun. Japanese forms adverbs from verbal adjectives by adding /ku/ () to the stem (e.g. haya- "rapid" hayai "quick/early", hayakatta "was quick", hayaku "quickly") and from nominal adjectives by placing /ni/ () after the adjective instead of the copula /na/ () or /no/ () (e.g. rippa "splendid", rippa ni "splendidly"). These derivations are quite productive but there are a few adjectives from which adverbs may not be derived. In Gaelic, an adverbial form is made by preceding the adjective with the preposition go (Irish) or gu (Scottish Gaelic), meaning 'until'. In Modern Greek, an adverb is most commonly made by adding the endings <-> and/or <-> to the root of an adjective. Often, the adverbs formed from a common root using each of these endings have slightly different meanings. So, <> (<tleios>, meaning "perfect" and "complete") yields <> (<tleia>, "perfectly") and <> (<teleos>, "completely"). Not all adjectives can be transformed into adverbs by using both endings. <> (<grgoros>, "rapid") becomes <> (<grgora>, "rapidly"), but not normally *<> (*<grigros>). When the <-> ending is used to transform an adjective whose tonal accent is on the third syllable from the end, such as <> (<epsimos>, "official"), the corresponding adjective is accented on the second syllable from the end; compare <> (<epsima>) and <> (<epismos>), which both mean "officially". There are also other endings with particular and restricted use as <->, <->, <->, etc. For example, <> (<atimorit>, "with impunity") and <> (<asyzitit>, "indisputably"); <> (<autolexe> "word for word") and <> (<autostigme>, "in no time"); <> [<anglist> "in English (language)"] and <> (<papagalist>, "by rote"); etc. In Latvian, an adverb is formed from an adjective, by changing the masculine or feminine adjective endings -s and -a to -i. "Labs", meaning "good", becomes "labi" for "well". Latvian adverbs have a particular use in expressions meaning "to speak" or "to understand" a language. Rather than use the noun meaning "Latvian/English/Russian", the adverb formed form these words is used. "Es runju latviski/angliski/krieviski" means "I speak Latvian/English/Russian", or very literally "I speak Latvianly/Englishly/Russianly". When a noun is required, the expression used means literally "language of the Latvians/English/Russians", "latvieu/angu/krievu valoda". In Ukrainian, and analogously in Russian and some other Slavic languages, an adverb is formed by removing the adjectival suffices "-" "-" or "-" from an adjective, and replacing them with the adverbial "-". For example, "", "", and "" (fast, nice, tasty) become "", "", and "" (quickly, nicely, tastefully). As well, note that adverbs are mostly placed before the verbs they modify: " ." (A good son sings nicely/well). Although, there is no specific word order in East Slavic languages.


Adverb In Korean, adverbs are formed by replacing of the dictionary form of a verb with . So, (easy) becomes (easily). In Turkish, the same word usually serves as adjective and adverb: iyi bir kz ("a good girl"), iyi anlamak ("to understand well). In Chinese, adverbs end in the word " ", the English equivalent of "-ly".


[1] Huddleston, Rodney (1988). English grammar: an outline. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.7. doi:10.2277/0521311527. ISBN0-521-32311-8. [2] Cinque, Guglielmo. 1999. Adverbs and functional headsa cross linguistic perspective. Oxford: Oxford University press. [3] Haegeman, Liliane. 1995. The syntax of negation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ernst, Thomas. 2002. The syntax of adjuncts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Jackendoff, Ray. 1972. Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar. MIT Press,

External links
The Online Dictionary of Language Terminology (


That's an interesting idea. (attributive) That idea is interesting. (predicative) Tell me something interesting. (postpositive) The good, the bad, and the ugly. (substantive)

In grammar, an adjective is a 'describing' word; the main syntactic role of which, is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.[1] Adjectives are one of the traditional eight English parts of speech, although linguists today distinguish adjectives from words such as determiners that formerly, were considered to be adjectives. In this paragraph, "traditional" is an adjective, and in the preceding paragraph, "main" is.

Most, but not all, languages have adjectives. Those that do not, typically use words of another part of speech, often verbs, to serve the same semantic function; for example, such a language might have a verb that means "to be big", and would use as attributive verb construction analogous to "big-being house" to express what English expresses as "big house". Even in languages that do have adjectives, one language's adjective might not be another's; for example, whereas English uses "to be hungry" (hungry being an adjective), Dutch and French use "honger hebben" and "avoir faim," respectively (literally "to have hunger", hunger being a noun), and whereas Hebrew uses the adjective "" (zaqq, roughly "in need of"), English uses the verb "to need". Adjectives form an open class of words in most languages that have them; that is, it is relatively common for new adjectives to be formed via such processes as derivation. Bantu languages are well known for having only a small closed class of adjectives, however, and new adjectives are not easily derived. Igbo has an extremely limited number,

Adjective just eight: mnukwu 'big', nta 'small'; ojii 'dark', ocha 'light'; ohuru(ofuru) 'new', ochie 'old'; oma 'good', and ojoo 'bad'.[2] Similarly, native Japanese adjectives (i-adjectives) are a closed class (as are native verbs), although nouns (which are open class) may be used in the genitive and there is the separate class of adjectival nouns (na-adjectives), which is also open, and functions similarly to noun adjuncts in English.


Adjectives and adverbs

Many languages, including English, distinguish between adjectives, which qualify nouns and pronouns, and adverbs, which modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Not all languages have exactly this distinction and many languages, including English, have words that can function as both. For example, in English fast is an adjective in "a fast car" (where it qualifies the noun car), but an adverb in "he drove fast" (where it modifies the verb drove).

Linguists today distinguish determiners from adjectives, considering them to be two separate parts of speech (or lexical categories), but formerly determiners were considered to be adjectives in some of their uses. In English dictionaries, which typically still do not treat determiners as their own part of speech, determiners are often recognizable by being listed both as adjectives and as pronouns. Determiners are words that are neither nouns nor pronouns, yet reference a thing already in context. Determiners generally do this by indicating definiteness (as in a vs. the), quantity (as in one vs. some vs. many), or another such property.

Types of use
A given occurrence of an adjective can generally be classified into one of four kinds of uses: 1. Attributive adjectives are part of the noun phrase headed by the noun they modify; for example, happy is an attributive adjective in "happy people". In some languages, attributive adjectives precede their nouns; in others, they follow their nouns; and in yet others, it depends on the adjective, or on the exact relationship of the adjective to the noun. In English, attributive adjectives usually precede their nouns in simple phrases, but often follow their nouns when the adjective is modified or qualified by a phrase acting as an adverb. For example: "I saw three happy kids", and "I saw three kids happy enough to jump up and down with glee." See also Postpositive adjective. 2. Predicative adjectives are linked via a copula or other linking mechanism to the noun or pronoun they modify; for example, happy is a predicate adjective in "they are happy" and in "that made me happy." (See also: Predicative expression, Subject complement.) 3. Absolute adjectives do not belong to a larger construction (aside from a larger adjective phrase), and typically modify either the subject of a sentence or whatever noun or pronoun they are closest to; for example, happy is an absolute adjective in "The boy, happy with his lollipop, did not look where he was going." 4. Nominal adjectives act almost as nouns. One way this can happen is if a noun is elided and an attributive adjective is left behind. In the sentence, "I read two books to them; he preferred the sad book, but she preferred the happy", happy is a nominal adjective, short for "happy one" or "happy book". Another way this can happen is in phrases like "out with the old, in with the new", where "the old" means, "that which is old" or "all that is old", and similarly with "the new". In such cases, the adjective functions either as a mass noun (as in the preceding example) or as a plural count noun, as in "The meek shall inherit the Earth", where "the meek" means "those who are meek" or "all who are meek".



Adjectival phrases
An adjective acts as the head of an adjectival phrase. In the simplest case, an adjectival phrase consists solely of the adjective; more complex adjectival phrases may contain one or more adverbs modifying the adjective ("very strong"), or one or more complements (such as "worth several dollars", "full of toys", or "eager to please"). In English, attributive adjectival phrases that include complements typically follow their subject ("an evildoer devoid of redeeming qualities").

Other noun modifiers

In many languages, including English, it is possible for nouns to modify other nouns. Unlike adjectives, nouns acting as modifiers (called attributive nouns or noun adjuncts) are not predicative; a beautiful park is beautiful, but a car park is not "car". In plain English, the modifier often indicates origin ("Virginia reel"), purpose ("work clothes"), or semantic patient ("man eater"), however, it may generally indicate almost any semantic relationship. It is also common for adjectives to be derived from nouns, as in boyish, birdlike, behavioral, famous, manly, angelic, and so on. Many languages have special verbal forms called participles that can act as noun modifiers. In many languages, including English, participles are historically adjectives, and have retained most of their original function as such. English examples of this include relieved (the past participle of the verb relieve, used as an adjective in sentences such as "I am so relieved to see you"), spoken (as in "the spoken word"), and going (the present participle of the verb go, used as an adjective in sentences such as "Ten dollars per hour is the going rate"). Other constructs that often modify nouns include prepositional phrases (as in "a rebel without a cause"), relative clauses (as in "the man who wasn't there"), other adjective clauses (as in "the bookstore where he worked"), and infinitive phrases (as in "a cake to die for"). In relation, many nouns take complements such as content clauses (as in "the idea that I would do that"); these are not commonly considered modifiers, however.

Adjective order
In many languages, attributive adjectives usually occur in a specific order. In general, the adjective order in English is: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. quantity or number quality or opinion size age shape color proper adjective (often nationality, other place of origin, or material) purpose or qualifier

So, in English, adjectives pertaining to size precede adjectives pertaining to age ("little old", not "old little"), which in turn generally precede adjectives pertaining to color ("old white", not "white old"). So, we would say "A nice (opinion) little (size) old (age) white (color) brick (material) house." This order may be more rigid in some languages than others; in some, like Spanish, it may only be a default (unmarked) word order, with other orders being permissible. Due partially to borrowings from French, English has some adjectives that follow the noun as postmodifiers, called postpositive adjectives, such as time immemorial. Adjectives may even change meaning depending on whether they precede or follow, as in proper: They live in a proper town (a real town, not a village) vs. They live in the town

Adjective proper (in the town itself, not in the suburbs). All adjectives can follow nouns in certain constructions, such as tell me something new.


Comparison of adjectives
In many languages, adjectives can be compared. In English, for example, we can say that a car is big, that it is bigger than another is, or that it is the biggest car of all. Not all adjectives lend themselves to comparison, however; for example, the English adjective extinct is not considered comparable, in that it does not make sense to describe one species as "more extinct" than another. However, even most non-comparable English adjectives are still sometimes compared; for example, one might say that a language about which nothing is known is "more extinct" than a well-documented language with surviving literature but no speakers. This is not a comparison of the degree of intensity of the adjective, but rather the degree to which the object fits the adjective's definition. Comparable adjectives are also known as "gradable" adjectives, because they tend to allow grading adverbs such as very, rather, and so on. Among languages that allow adjectives to be compared in this way, different approaches are used. Indeed, even within English, two different approaches are used: the suffixes -er and -est, and the words more and most. (In English, the general tendency is for shorter adjectives and adjectives from Anglo-Saxon to use -er and -est, and for longer adjectives and adjectives from French, Latin, Greek, and other languages to use more and most.) By either approach, English adjectives therefore have positive forms (big), comparative forms (bigger), and superlative forms (biggest). However, many other languages do not distinguish comparative from superlative forms.

Attributive adjectives, and other noun modifiers, may be used either restrictively (helping to identify the noun's referent, hence "restricting" its reference) or non-restrictively (helping to describe an already-identified noun). For example: "He was a lazy sort, who would avoid a difficult task and fill his working hours with easy ones." "difficult" is restrictive - it tells us which tasks he avoids, distinguishing these from the easy ones: "Only those tasks that are difficult". "She had the job of sorting out the mess left by her predecessor, and she performed this difficult task with great acumen." "difficult" is non-restrictive - we already know which task it was, but the adjective describes it more fully: "The aforementioned task, which (by the way) is difficult" In some languages, such as Spanish, restrictiveness is consistently marked; for example, in Spanish la tarea difcil means "the difficult task" in the sense of "the task that is difficult" (restrictive), whereas la difcil tarea means "the difficult task" in the sense of "the task, which is difficult" (non-restrictive). In English, restrictiveness is not marked on adjectives, but is marked on relative clauses (the difference between "the man who recognized me was there" and "the man, who recognized me, was there" being one of restrictiveness).



In some languages, adjectives alter their form to reflect the gender, case and number of the noun that they describe. This is called agreement or concord. Usually it takes the form of inflections at the end of the word, as in Latin:
puella bona (good girl, feminine)

puellam bonam (good girl, feminine accusative/object case) puer bonus pueri boni (good boy, masculine) (good boys, masculine plural)

In the Celtic languages, however, initial consonant lenition marks the adjective with a feminine noun, as in Irish:
buachaill maith (good boy, masculine) girseach mhaith (good girl, feminine)

Often a distinction is made here between attributive and predicative usage. Whereas English is an example of a language in which adjectives never agree and French of a language in which they always agree, in German they agree only when used attributively, and in Hungarian only when used predicatively.
The good () boys. The boys are good (). Les bons garons. Les garons sont bons.

Die braven Jungen. Die Jungen sind brav (). A j () fik. A fik jk.

[1] "Adjectives" (http:/ / grammar. ccc. commnet. edu/ grammar/ adjectives. htm). Capital Community College Foundation. Capital Community College Foundation. . Retrieved 20 March 2012. [2] JR Payne, 1990, "Language Universals and Language Types", in Collinge, ed., An Encyclopedia of Language

Dixon, R. M. W. (1977). "Where have all the adjectives gone?". Studies in Language 1: 1980. doi:10.1075/sl.1.1.04dix. Dixon, R. M. W.; R. E. Asher (Editor) (1993). The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (1st ed.). Pergamon Press Inc. pp.2935. ISBN0-08-035943-4. Dixon, R. M. W. (1999). Adjectives. In K. Brown & T. Miller (Eds.), Concise encyclopedia of grammatical categories (pp.18). Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-043164-X. Warren, Beatrice. (1984). Classifying adjectives. Gothenburg studies in English (No. 56). Gteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. ISBN 91-7346-133-4. Wierzbicka, Anna (1986). "What's in a noun? (or: How do nouns differ in meaning from adjectives?)". Studies in Language 10 (2): 353389. doi:10.1075/sl.10.2.05wie.



External links
Adjectives and Adverbs ( Adjective article on HyperGrammar ( html) Pratheep Raveendrabathan - List of Adjectives ( Adjectives at the Internet Guide to Grammar and Writing ( adjectives.htm) Adjectives - The Qualifiers that Add Emphasis to Your Words ( languages/articles/22197.aspx)

Adjunct (grammar)
In linguistics, an adjunct is an optional, or structurally dispensable, part of a sentence, clause, or phrase that, when removed, will not affect the remainder of the sentence except to discard from it some auxiliary information.[1] A more detailed definition of the adjunct emphasizes its attribute as a modifying form, word, or phrase that depends on another form, word, or phrase, being an element of clause structure with adverbial function.[2] An adjunct is NOT an argument (nor is it a predicative expression), and an argument is NOT an adjunct. The argument-adjunct distinction is central in most theories of syntax and semantics. The terminology used to denote arguments and adjuncts can vary depending on the theory at hand. Some dependency grammars, for instance, employ the term "circonstant" (instead of "adjunct"), following Tesnire (1959). The area of grammar that explores the nature of predicates, their arguments, and adjuncts is called valency theory. Predicates have a valence; they determine the number and type of arguments that can or must appear in their environment. The valence of predicates is also investigated in terms of subcategorization.

Take the sentence John killed Bill in Central Park on Sunday as an example: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. John is the subject argument. killed is the predicate. Bill is the object argument. in Central Park is the first adjunct. on Sunday is the second adjunct.[3]

An adverbial adjunct is a sentence element that often establishes the circumstances in which the action or state expressed by the verb takes place. The following sentence uses adjuncts of time and place: Yesterday, Lorna saw the dog in the garden. Notice that this example is ambiguous between whether the adjunct in the garden modifies the verb saw (in which case it is Lorna who saw the dog while she was in the garden) or the noun phrase the dog (in which case it is the dog who is in the garden). The definition can be extended to include adjuncts that modify nouns or other parts of speech (see noun adjunct).

Adjunct (grammar)


Forms and domains

An adjunct can be a single word, a phrase, or an entire clause.[4] Single word She will leave tomorrow. Phrase She will leave in the morning. Clause She will leave after she has had breakfast. Most discussions of adjuncts focus on adverbial adjuncts, that is, on adjuncts that modify verbs, verb phrases, or entire clauses like the adjuncts in the three examples just given. Adjuncts can appear in other domains, however, that is, they can modify most categories. Thus one can have ad-nominal adjuncts, ad-adjectival adjuncts, ad-adverb adjuncts, etc. the discussion before the game - before the game is an ad-nominal adjunct. very happy - very is an ad-adjectival adjunct. too loudly - too is an ad-adverb adjunct. Adjuncts are always constituents. Each of the adjuncts in the examples throughout this article is a constituent.

Semantic function
Adjuncts can be categorized in terms of the functional meaning that they contribute the phrase, clause, or sentence in which they appear. The following list of the semantic functions is by no means exhaustive, but it does include most of the semantic functions of adjuncts identified in the literature on adjuncts:[5] Causal - Causal adjuncts establish the reason for, or purpose of, an action or state. The ladder collapsed because it was old. (reason) She went out to buy some bread. (purpose) Concessive - Concessive adjuncts establish contrary circumstances. Lorna went out although it was raining. Conditional - Conditional adjuncts establish the condition in which an action occurs or state holds. I would go to Paris, if I had the money. Consecutive - Consecutive adjuncts establish an effect or result. It rained so hard that the streets flooded. Instrumental - Instrumental adjuncts establish the instrument used to accomplish an action. Mr. Bibby wrote the letter with a pencil. Locative - Locative adjuncts establish where, to where, or from where a state or action happened or existed. She sat on the table. (locative) Measure - Measure adjuncts establish the measure of the action, state, or quality that they modify I am completely finished. That is mostly true. We want to stay in part.

Adjunct (grammar) Modal - Modal adjuncts establish the extent to which the speaker views the action or state as (im)probable. They probably left. In any case, we didn't do it. That is perhaps possible. Modicative - Modicative adjuncts establish how the action happened or the state existed. He ran with difficulty. (manner) He stood in silence. (state) He helped me with my homework. (limiting) Temporal - Temporal adjuncts establish when, how long, or how frequent the action or state happened or existed. He arrived yesterday. (time point) He stayed for two weeks. (duration) She drinks in that bar every day. (frequency)


Distinguishing between predicative expressions, arguments, and adjuncts

Omission diagnostic
The distinction between arguments and adjuncts and predicates is central to most theories of syntax and grammar. Predicates take arguments and they permit (certain) adjuncts.[6] The arguments of a predicate are necessary to complete the meaning of the predicate.[7] The adjuncts of a predicate, in contrast, provide auxiliary information about the core predicate-argument meaning, which means they are not necessary to complete the meaning of the predicate. Adjuncts and arguments can be identified using various diagnostics. The omission diagnostic, for instance, helps identify many arguments and thus indirectly many adjuncts as well. If a given constituent cannot be omitted from a sentence, clause, or phrase without resulting in an unacceptable expression, that constituent is NOT an adjunct, e.g. a. Fred certainly knows. b. Fred knows. - certainly may be an adjunct (and it is). a. He stayed after class. b. He stayed. - after class may be an adjunct (and it is). a. She trimmed the bushes. b. *She trimmed. - the bushes is NOT an adjunct. a. Jim stopped. b. *Stopped. - Jim is NOT an adjunct.

Adjunct (grammar)


Other diagnostics
Further diagnostics used to distinguish between arguments and adjuncts include multiplicity, distance from head, and the ability to coordinate. A head can have multiple adjuncts but only one object argument (=complement): a. John ate the pizza. - the pizza is an object argument (=complement). b. *John ate the pizza the hamburger. the pizza and the hamburger would both be object arguments (=complements). c. John ate the pizza with a fork. - with a fork is an adjunct. d. John ate the pizza with a fork on Tuesday. - with a fork and on Tuesday are both adjuncts. Object arguments are typically closer to their head than adjuncts: a. the collection of figurines (complement) in the dining room (adjunct) b. *the collection in the dining room (adjunct) of figurines (complement) Adjuncts can be coordinated with other adjuncts, but not with arguments: a. *John ate the pizza and with a fork. b. John ate with a fork and with a spoon.

Optional arguments vs. adjuncts

The distinction between arguments and adjuncts is much less clear than the simple omission diagnostic (and the other diagnostics) suggests. Most accounts of the argument vs. adjunct distinction acknowledge a further division. One distinguishes between obligatory and optional arguments. Optional arguments pattern like adjuncts when just the omission diagnostic is employed, e.g. a. Fred ate a hamburger. b. Fred ate. - a hamburger is NOT an obligatory argument, but it could be (and it is) an optional argument. a. Sam helped us. b. Sam helped - us is NOT an obligatory argument, but it could be (and it is) an optional argument. The existence of optional arguments blurs the line between arguments and adjuncts considerably. Further diagnostics (beyond the omission diagnostic and the others mentioned above) must be employed to distinguish between adjuncts and optional arguments. One such diagnostic is the relative clause test. The test constituent is moved from the matrix clause to a subordinate relative clause containing which occurred/happened. If the result is unacceptable, the test constituent is probably NOT an adjunct: a. Fred ate a hamburger. b. Fred ate. - a hamburger is not an obligatory argument. c. *Fred ate, which occurred a hamburger. argument. a hamburger is not an adjunct, which means it must be an optional

a. Sam helped us. b. Sam helped. - us is not an obligatory argument. c. *Sam helped, which occurred us. - us is not an adjunct, which means it must be an optional argument. The particular merit of the relative clause test is its ability to distinguish between many argument and adjunct PPs, e.g. a. We are working on the problem. b. We are working. c. *We are working, which is occurring on the problem. - on the problem is an optional argument. a. They spoke to the class.

Adjunct (grammar) b. They spoke. c. *They spoke, which occurred to the class. - to the class is an optional argument. The reliability of the relative clause diagnostic is actually limited. For instance, it incorrectly suggests that many modal and manner adjuncts are arguments. This fact bears witness to the difficulty of providing an absolute diagnostic for the distinctions currently being examined. Despite the difficulties, most theories of syntax and grammar distinguish on the one hand between arguments and adjuncts and on the other hand between optional arguments and adjuncts, and they grant a central position to these divisions in the overarching theory.


Predicates vs. adjuncts

Many phrases have the outward appearance of an adjunct but are in fact (part of) a predicate instead. The confusion occurs often with copular verbs, in particular with a form of be, e.g. It is under the bush. The party is at seven o'clock. The PPs in these sentences are NOT adjuncts, nor are they arguments. The preposition in each case is, rather, part of the main predicate. The matrix predicate in the first sentence is is under; this predicate takes the two arguments It and the bush. Similarly, the matrix predicate in the second sentence is is at; this predicate takes the two arguments The party and seven o'clock. Distinguishing between predicates, arguments, and adjuncts becomes particularly difficult when secondary predicates are involved, for instance with resultative predicates, e.g. That made him tired. The resultative adjective tired can be viewed as an argument of the matrix predicate made. But it is also definitely a predicate over him. Such examples illustrate that distinguishing predicates, arguments, and adjuncts can become difficult and there are many cases where a given expression functions in more ways than one.

The following overview is a breakdown of the current divisions:

This overview acknowledges three types of entities: predicates, arguments, and adjuncts, whereby arguments are further divided into obligatory and optional ones.

Representing adjuncts
Many theories of syntax and grammar employ trees to represent the structure of sentences. Various conventions are used to distinguish between arguments and adjuncts in these trees. In phrase structure grammars, many adjuncts are distinguished from arguments insofar as the adjuncts of a head predicate will appear higher in the structure than the object argument(s) of that predicate. The adjunct is adjoined to a projection of the head predicate above and to the right of the object argument, e.g.

Adjunct (grammar)


The object argument each time is identified insofar as it is a sister of V that appears to the right of V, and the adjunct status of the adverb early and the PP before class is seen in the higher position to the right of and above the object argument. Other adjuncts, in contrast, are assumed to adjoin to a position that is between the subject argument and the head predicate or above and to the left of the subject argument, e.g.

The subject is identified as an argument insofar as it appears as a sister and to the left of V(P). The modal adverb certainly is shown as an adjunct insofar as it adjoins to an intermediate projection of V or to a projection of S. In X-bar theory, adjuncts are represented as elements that are sisters to X' levels and daughters of X' level [X' adjunct [X'...]]. Theories that assume sentence structure to be less layered than the analyses just given sometimes employ a special convention to distinguish adjuncts from arguments. Some dependency grammars, for instance, use an arrow dependency edge to mark adjuncts,[8] e.g.

The arrow dependency edge points away from the adjunct toward the governor of the adjunct. The arrows identify six adjuncts: Yesterday, probably, many times, very, very long, and that you like. The standard, non-arrow dependency edges identify Bill, Susan, that very long story that you like, etc. as arguments (of one of the predicates

Adjunct (grammar) in the sentence).


[1] [2] [3] [4] See Lyons (1968). adjunct (http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ adjunct) See Lyons (1968). Briggs, Thomas Henry; Isabel McKinney, Florence Vane Skeffington (1921). "DISTINGUISHING PHRASE AND CLAUSE ADJUNCTS" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ZlUXAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA116#v=onepage& q& f=false). Junior high school English, Book 2. Boston, MA, USA: Ginn and company. pp.116. . For similar inventories of adjunct functions, see Payne (2006:298). Concerning the distinction between arguments and adjuncts, see Payne (2006:297). See Payne (2006:107ff.). See Eroms (2000) and Osborne and Gro (2012).

[5] [6] [7] [8]

Eroms, H.-W. 2000. Syntax der deutschen Sprache. Berlin: de Gruyter. Carnie, A. 2010. Constituent Structure. Oxford: Oxford U.P. Lyons J. 1968. Introduction to theoretical linguistics. London: Cambridge U.P. Osborne, T. and T. Gro 2012. Constructions are catenae: Construction Grammar meets dependency grammar. Cognitive Linguistics 23, 1, 163-214. Payne, T. 2006. Exploring language structure: A student's guide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Tesnire, L. 1959. lemnts de syntaxe structurale. Paris: Klincksieck.

In linguistics, the term conjunct has three distinct uses: A conjunct is an adjunct that adds information to the sentence that is not considered part of the propositional content (or at least not essential) but which connects the sentence with previous parts of the discourse. Rare though this may be, conjuncts may also connect to the following parts of the discourse. It was raining. Therefore, we didnt go swimming. It was sunny. However, we stayed inside. You are such a dork. Still, I love you from the bottom of my heart. A coordination structure connects two words, phrases or clauses together, usually with the help of a coordinating conjunction: [Gretchen and her daughter] bought [motor oil, spark plugs, and dynamite]. Take two of these and call me in the morning. A verb form, for example the conjunct verb endings of Old Irish or the conjunct mood (sometimes called the subjunctive mood) of the Algonquian languages. This article discusses the first kind of conjunct.



The semantic functions of conjuncts

English conjuncts often have the following functions Listing (indicating that what follows is a list of propositions) To begin with, I have to tell you that I'm most displeased with your performance in the show. I also think you did a bad job painting the house. You're a lousy cook. You smell. Your hat is ... etc. Enumerative (indicating items on a list of propositions) First, we have to buy bread. Second, we need to take the car to the garage. Third, we have to call your dentist and make an appointment. Additive (indicating that the content of the sentence is in addition to the preceding one) He has no money. In addition, he has no means of getting any. Summative (summing up, or concluding, on the preceding sentence(s)) A is B. A is C. To sum up, A is several things. Appositive (rephrasing the preceding sentence) The French love music. In other words, music is appreciated in France. Resultative/inferential (indicating that the content of the sentence is a result of the events expressed in the preceding sentence) Miss Gold lost her job. She, therefore, had no money. Antithetic (indicating that the content of the sentence is in contrast to the content of the preceding sentence) It is said that water flows up hill. On the contrary, it flows downhill Concessive (indicating that the content of the sentence "exists" despite the content in the preceding sentence) It is very cold. I went for my morning walk, however. Temporal (indicating temporal relation between the content of the sentence and the preceding sentence) I had lunch. Meanwhile, my wife had her hair cut.

Disjunct (linguistics)


Disjunct (linguistics)
In linguistics, a disjunct is a type of adverbial adjunct that expresses information that is not considered essential to the sentence it appears in, but which is considered to be the speaker's or writer's attitude towards, or descriptive statement of, the propositional content of the sentence, "expressing, for example, the speaker's degree of truthfulness or his manner of speaking."[1] A specific type of disjunct is the sentence adverb (or sentence adverbial), which modifies a sentence, or a clause within a sentence, to convey the mood, attitude or sentiments of the speaker, rather than an adverb modifying a verb, an adjective or another adverb within a sentence. More generally, the term disjunct can be used to refer to any sentence element that is not fully integrated into the clausal structure of the sentence. Such elements usually appear peripherally (at the beginning or end of the sentence) and are set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma (in writing) and a pause (in speech).

Here are some examples (note: the disjuncts that follow are 'sentence adverbs'): Honestly, I didn't do it. (Meaning "I'm honest when I say I didn't do it" rather than "I didn't do it in an honest way.") Fortunately for you, I have it right here. In my opinion, the green one is better. Frankly, this whole paragraph needs work. Interestingly, the comment made for a great topic of its own. Luckily, the amount of sugar the recipe called for was in stock in the pantry. Clearly, the mail did not come today due to it being a national holiday. Unfortunately, by the time she reached the bus stop, the bus had already left. Sometimes, the same word or phrase can be interpreted either as a disjunct or as a simple adjunct: They seriously worked in an underground diamond mine run by Barbara. Disjunct meaning: I'm serious when I say that they worked in an underground diamond mine ... Adjunct meaning: They worked with seriousness... An example of a sentence adverb modifying a sentence is: Unfortunately, when I got to the supermarket it had run out of the vegetable I like. An example of a sentence adverb modifying a clause within a sentence is: I liked the red car in the forecourt, but unfortunately, when I got to the dealer it was already sold. "Unfortunately" thus communicates the regret or disappointment the speaker experiences and so manifests as a sentence adverb the sentiments of the speaker. "Unfortunately," however, is only one of many sentence adverbs that can modify a speaker's attitude. Others include "mercifully," "gratefully," "oddly," "admittedly," etc.[2]

Disjunct (linguistics)


"Hopefully" is an example of a word whose use as a disjunct ("it is hoped") is sometimes controversial.

(Most / More) importantly

This commonly used sentence adverbial phrase has been decried by some grammarians. Examples of its use, from the OED, are: 1941 Jrnl. Royal Aeronaut. Soc. 45 309 Just as importantly, the chart is of extreme value in forming any decisions as to the desirability of modifyingthe track. 1962 H. R. Williamson Day Shakespeare Died viii. 88 More importantly, Shakespeare, though using Holinshed as his main source, occasionally used Hall as the direct source of various passages. 1969 Nature 1 Nov. 477/1 Most importantly, when the particles of the pair are brought together, they annihilate. Writers have claimed that the preferable phrase should be "more (or most) important". For instance, Brians writes: When speakers are trying to impress audiences with their rhetoric, they often seem to feel that the extra syllable in importantly lends weight to their remarks: and more importantly, I have an abiding love for the American people. However, these pompous speakers are wrong. It is rarely correct to use this form of the phrase because it is seldom adverbial in intention. Say more important instead. The same applies to most importantly; it should be most important.[3] However, Merriam-Webster write: American commentators seem to object to the adverb and recommend the adjective. and, after discussion, conclude You can then use either the adjective or the adverb; both are defensible grammatically and both are in respectable use.[4]

[1] Brinton, Laurel J. and Brinton, Donna,The Linguistic Structure of Modern English John Benjamins Publishing Company, 29 Jul 2010, p. 219. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=Q3uY9Ie0jWgC& pg=PA219& dq=disjunct+ adverb& hl=en& sa=X& ei=kT8TT-D-EoH28QPxn4zPCA& ved=0CFsQ6AEwBg#) [2] McArthur, Tom. The Oxford Companion to the English Language, pp. 16-17. Oxford University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-19-214183-X. [3] Brians, P. Common Errors in English Usage: The Book (2nd Edition, November, 2008) [4] Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster's dictionary of English usage, p.530

Noun adjunct


Noun adjunct
In grammar, a noun adjunct or attributive noun or noun premodifier is a noun that modifies another noun and is optional meaning that it can be removed without changing the grammar of the sentence; it is a noun functioning as an adjective. For example, in the phrase "chicken soup" the noun adjunct "chicken" modifies the noun "soup". It is irrelevant whether the resulting compound noun is spelled in one or two parts. "Field" is a noun adjunct in both "field player" and "fieldhouse".[1]

Related concepts
Adjectival noun is a term that was formerly synonymous with noun adjunct but is now usually used to mean an adjective used as a noun (i.e., the opposite process, as in "the Irish," meaning "Irish people"). Japanese adjectival nouns behave similarly to English noun adjunctions.

Noun adjuncts were traditionally mostly singular (e.g., "trouser press") except when there were lexical restrictions (e.g., "arms race"), but there is a recent trend towards more use of plural ones, especially in UK English. Many of these can also be and/or were originally interpreted and spelled as plural possessives (e.g., "chemicals' agency", "writers' conference", "Rangers' hockey game"),[2] but they are now often written without the apostrophe, although this is criticised by some authorities.[3] Fowler's Modern English Usage states in the section "POSSESSIVE PUZZLES": "6. Five years' imprisonment, Three weeks' holiday, etc. Years and weeks may be treated as possessives and given an apostrophe or as adjectival nouns without one. The former is perhaps better, as to conform to what is inevitable in the singular a year's imprisonment, a fortnight's holiday."

External links
LinguaLinks page on noun adjuncts [4] Noun adjuncts in the Columbia Guide to Standard American English [5] Possessives and attributives, Chicago Manual of Style Online [6] Word FAQs - What is the difference between an attributive noun and an adjective? [7]

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] (http:/ / www. bartleby. com/ 68/ 41/ 4141. html) (http:/ / www. chicagomanualofstyle. org/ CMS_FAQ/ PossessivesandAttributives/ PossessivesandAttributives07. html) (http:/ / grammar. ccc. commnet. edu/ GRAMMAR/ compounds. htm) http:/ / www. sil. org/ linguistics/ GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/ WhatIsANounAdjunct. htm http:/ / www. bartleby. com/ 68/ 41/ 4141. html http:/ / www. chicagomanualofstyle. org/ CMS_FAQ/ PossessivesandAttributives/ PossessivesandAttributives_questions01. html http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ help/ faq/ language/ d26. html

Active voice


Active voice
Active voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages. It is the unmarked voice for clauses featuring a transitive verb in nominativeaccusative languages, including English and most other Indo-European languages. Active voice is used in a clause whose subject expresses the agent of the main verb. That is, the subject does the action designated by the verb.[1] A sentence whose agent is marked as grammatical subject is called an active sentence. In contrast, a sentence in which the subject has the role of patient or theme is called a passive sentence, and its verb is expressed in passive voice. Many languages have both an active and a passive voice; this allows for greater flexibility in sentence construction, as either the semantic agent or patient may take the syntactic role of subject.[2]

In the following examples the active and passive voice are illustrated with pairs of sentences using the same transitive verb.
Language English French Japanese German Active voice The hunter saw the deer. Brackett a crit ce livre. (Brackett wrote this book.) (A dog bit [someone].) Der Hund biss den Postboten. (The dog bit the postman.) Passive voice The deer was seen by the hunter. Ce livre a t crit par Brackett. (This book was written by Brackett.) (By a dog [I] was bitten.) Der Postbote wurde vom Hund gebissen. (The postman was bitten by the dog.)

[1] O'Grady, William, John Archibald, Mark Aronoff, and Janie Rees-Miller (eds.) (2001). Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction Fourth edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's. ISBN 0-312-24738-9 [2] Saeed, John (1997). Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-20035-5

Article Sources and Contributors


Article Sources and Contributors

Noun Source: Contributors:, 16@r, 2D, Abderitestatos, Acroterion, Action potential, Adambro, AdiJapan, AdjustShift, AgentPeppermint, Ahoerstemeier, Airfrog, Aitias, Alansohn, Andre Engels, Andreas Toth, Andres, Andrew Maiman, Andrew c, Andrewc71, Andy85719, Andycjp, Angie Y., Angusmclellan, Ani td, Another Matt, Anthony Appleyard, Anturiaethwr, Anypodetos, Arbor, Archimedianmen, ArchonMagnus, Art LaPella, Arthena, Ashanda, Asyndeton, Avono, B0bbyd0le, B9 hummingbird hovering, Baileyquarter, Barek, Basilwhite, Benjimaden10, Bentogoa, Betterusername, Big Moira, Big Smooth, Bjenks, Bkell, Bkonrad, Blanchardb, Bleakcomb, Bobo192, Bobthebuilder1x, Bongwarrior, Bookcat, Brandon5485, Brett, CALR, CWenger, Cadr, Caltas, Calypso, Camw, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanisRufus, CapitalR, CardinalDan, Carinemily, CatherineMunro, Caufman, Cenarium, Chadgofmaine, Chaos5023, Chase me ladies, I'm the Cavalry, ChessPlayer, Chkno, Christian List, ChronoKinetic, Chuck Sirloin, Ciaccona, CityOfSilver, Clancy2000, Cleroth, Click23, Coffee, ColonialMx, Cometstyles, Courcelles, Crashdoom, Crzrussian, Cuttamudda12, Cuvy, Cwoyte, D0762, Damian Yerrick, DandanxD, Daniel Brockman, DanielCD, Dantheman531, DarkAudit, Darth Panda, David, Davidm617617, Davidwbulger, DeadEyeArrow, Delldot, DennisDaniels, DerHexer, Discospinster, Dogposter, DopefishJustin, Doremtzwr, Dreadstar, Dysepsion, Dysprosia, E0steven, Ecvesta, Eeekster, Egmontaz, El aprendelenguas, Elipongo, Elkman, Entropy, Enviroboy, Epbr123, Eric-Wester, Erutuon, Estoy Aqu, Euniana, Euryalus, EvelinaB, Everard Proudfoot, Everyking, Excirial, FDuffy, Facts707, Fama Clamosa, Fastily, Favonian, Feinoha, Fieldday-sunday, FilipeS, Flembles, Flockmeal, Foobaz, FreplySpang, Freshgavin, Galoubet, Garzo, Gatemansgc, Gbnogkfs, Ged UK, Gilliam, Ginsengbomb, Gjd001, Gogo Dodo, Gonzonoir, Grafen, Granitethighs, GreenGourd, Greswik, Gurch, Guy M, Hairy Dude, HalfShadow, Hapax, Harold Philby, Hcobb, Henry laycock, Henry-bond-comedy, Heracles31, Hiddenhearts, Hippasus, Hippietrail, HorsePunchKid, Ianblair23, IceLogic, Ilkali, Inferno, Lord of Penguins, Invertzoo, Iridescent, IronGargoyle, IvanLanin, J. Spencer, J. W. Love, J.delanoy, J27325, JForget, JMadeleine, JRamlow, Jan eissfeldt, Jaycee93, Jdmalouff, JeffHembey, Jeltz, Jerryseinfeld, Jerzy, JetLover, Jmlk17, Jobnikon, Joesathug, JohnFromPinckney, Johnleemk, Jomsborg, Jorend, Joselugo, Josh3580, Jusdafax, Kalamkaar, Kameejl, Katalaveno, Khalid Mahmood, Killiondude, Kingnixon, Kingpin13, Kitkatkaty1214, Kku, Knownot, KoshVorlon, Kvng, Kzollman, LAX, Lakefall, Lausey, LeaveSleaves, LedgendGamer, Leonardo2505, Lethe, Leuko, Libcub, Lmfaooooo, Lofty, Loonymonkey, LtNOWIS, Lucyin, Luna Santin, M, MER-C, MONGO, MPF, Mackerm, Mairi, Mais oui!, Manop, Marek69, Mark Dingemanse, Martin451, Matdrodes, Maxim, Mayooranathan, Mbeke2, McSly, Mclay1, Megaman en m, Meneth, Merlion444, Merope, Meske, Mfulvio, Micahp23, Michael Hardy, Michael Keenan, Michaelalanward, Mikael Hggstrm, Mike Klaassen, Milkbreath, Miquonranger03, Mkatsrule, Moogwrench, Moondyne, MrDolomite, MrSomeone, Mrdapalak, Mrdice, Mushin, Mya888, NCbaybee159, Nagy, Nasz, Natster59, Nausea, NawlinWiki, Neelix, Nehrams2020, Neither, Neptune5000, Neverquick, Nightscream, Niteowlneils, Nohat, Northumbrian, NuclearWarfare, Numbo3, Oda Mari, Omicronpersei8, P.B. Pilhet, PL290, Pathoschild, Patrol110, Pax:Vobiscum, Peterdjones, Pgk, Phantomsteve, Philip Trueman, Pi, Pigsonthewing, Pinethicket, Pingveno, PizzaMargherita, Planetary Chaos Redux, Prashanthns, Promethean, Provider uk, Quercus solaris, QuiteUnusual, Qwyrxian, R'n'B, Radon210, Raymondwinn, Red Act, RedSox2008, Reject 666 6, Rex Germanus, RexNL, Rich Farmbrough, Rickterp, Rjwilmsi, Robert Foley, Robinoke, Rocastelo, Rockpickle85, Rogper, Rootbeer, Roscelese, Rosenkreuz, Roux, Rror, Ruakh, Ruhrjung, Runner5k, Rursus, RxS, S, S0me l0ser, SOS48, ST47, Sabbut, Saebjorn, Sakibou, Salvio giuliano, Samw, Sandgem Addict, Sannse, Savh, Scohoust, Sean Whitton, Sean William, Shawn in Montreal, Skagedal, Sligocki, Sluzzelin, Snigbrook, Sobolewski, Solberger0127, Sole Soul, SonicAD, Spencer, Spiffy sperry, Springnuts, Squidley, Srose, Staffwaterboy, Steipe, Stemonitis, StradivariusTV, Surfie007, Synchronism, T.J.V., THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, Ta bu shi da yu, Tarosan, Taylor111, Taywebcheer, Tbone55, Teles, Thamere, Thatguyflint, The Anome, The Thing That Should Not Be, TheMandarin, Thecheesykid, Thefarmanimals, Thegreatuserawesome, Thejerm, TheoClarke, ThirdParty, Thorwald, Three-quarter-ten, Tide rolls, Toby Bartels, Tom harrison, Tommy2010, Tony Fox, Tuspm, Ulric1313, Ummit, Useight, Utcursch, Vagary, Velho, Vicki Rosenzweig, Victor Yus, Vipinhari, Viridae, Visviva, Wafaashohdy, Ward3001, Wavelength, Wendyana, Werdan7, WereSpielChequers, West.andrew.g, Wi-king, Wik, Wiki alf, Willking1979, Willtron, Wimt, Wizardist, Wooddoo-eng, Woodstone, Woohookitty, XRK, Xact, Xgrimreapahx, Yerpo, Yidisheryid, Yyy, Zaharous, Zeman, Zerida, Zfr, Zoe, Zundark, Zyxw, Zzuuzz, var Arnfjr Bjarmason, le flottante, J, , 1037 anonymous edits Verb Source: Contributors:, 28421u2232nfenfcenc, 666LUCIFER999, A. 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V. Palmen, Karmosin, Kirachinmoku, Klausmetzger, KnowledgeOfSelf, Konatopgun, Kruusamgi, Kurieeto, Kwamikagami, L Kensington, Law, Lazulilasher, LeaveSleaves, Lights, LizardJr8, LjL, LuYiSi, Lucyin, MBisanz, MPerel, Mac, Maddie!, Makeemlighter, Manticore, Marek69, Marialberto Mensa, Mario777Zelda, Matt Deres, MattKitty, MattieTK, Mayooranathan, McSly, Mellorenzo, Melongrower, Merlion444, Meske, Miaow Miaow, Michael Devore, Mikeo, Misarxist, MonoAV, Montchav, Mooncow, Moonriddengirl, Mr Stephen, MrOllie, Mtking, Murderbike, Mycroft7, Mygerardromance, N-Man, NGPriest, Nathanael 00, NawlinWiki, Neither, NellieBly, Nihiltres, Nimic86, Ninjaman79, Nneonneo, NoisyJinx, Ntennis, NuclearWarfare, Octahedron80, OlEnglish, Omicronpersei8, Pablo-flores, Party, Paul August, Pawyilee, Pepper, Peteturtle, Pevernagie, Pgdudda, Pharaoh of the Wizards, PhnomPencil, Picus viridis, Pinkadelica, Pne, Poli, Possum, Prashanthns, Princess nee2010, Puchiko, Puffin, Qwyrxian, Qxz, RadioFan, RainbowOfLight, Readopedia, ResearchRave, ReyBrujo, Rich Farmbrough, Richard0612, Rjanag, Rockneo, Romperlevis, Roux, Ruakh, RunOrDie, S19991002, Sam Hocevar, Samtar, Sarahj2107, SchfiftyThree, Schumi555, Seraphim, Serg!o, Sergeant Ledge, Shadowjams, Shell Kinney, Siebrand, Sionus, Sjorford, Sleddog116, Smalljim, SmileToday, Solitude, Some jerk on the Internet, Songblast, Sopher99, South Bay, Special-T, SpeedyGonsales, Spencer, SteelSoul, Stefan, Stephenb, Susokukan47, Svartkell, Swcardinals3, SylvieHorse, T-borg, Tarosan, Tay0004, Taylor111, Tcncv, Teethymax, The Red, The Thing That Should Not Be, The Wiki ghost, Tide rolls, Timothy Neilen, Tobias Kuhn, Tom sherwin, Toytoy, Trusilver, TucsonDavid, Tyler, Tyros1972, Vacuum, Vary, Velho, Veron, Vidkun, Visuelya, Vivio Testarossa, Wally, Warmtoast, Washburnmav, Wavehunter, Wavelength, Wendyana, Widefox, WillMak050389, Willking1979, Woohookitty, WookieInHeat, XJamRastafire, Yamaguchi , Yaxu, Yhever, Yidisheryid, Yunshui, Yupik, YvonneM, Yyy, Zad68, ZanderSchubert, Zerida, Zien3, Zzuuzz, , 707 anonymous edits Adverb Source: Contributors:,, 5 albert square, 6Sixx, 7, 90 Auto, A. 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