VIII beogradska gimnazija Maturski rad

The origin and use of tea
"Ecstasy is a glass full of tea and a piece of sugar in the mouth." Aleksandr Pushkin

Učenica: Ivana Marković

Mentor: Danijela Serafijanović

školska 2005/2006 godina

Content:

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The Legendary Origins Of Tea…………………………………………………………..2 The Chinese Influence………………………………………………….............................2 The Japanese Influence..............................................................................................2 Europe Learns Of Tea……………………………………………………………………….3 Tea Comes To Europe………………………………………………………………………4 Tea Comes To America………………………………………………………………….….4 Tea Arrives In England……………………………………………………………………...5 The John Company…………………………………………………………………….…….5 Afternoon Tea In England………………………………………………………………….6 Tea Cuisine………………………………………………………………………………...…….6 Coffee Houses………………………………………………………………………………….6 Tea Gardens………………………………………………………………………….………….7 Russian Tea Tradition……………………………………………………………………….7 Tea And America…………………………………………………………………………..….8 Tea And The American Revolution………………………………………………….…8 The Boston Tea Party………………………………………………………….…………….9 The Trade Continued In The Orient……………………………………………………9 The Opium Wars………………………………………………………………………….….10 America Enters The Tea Trade……………………………………………………...…11 Global Tea Plantations Develop, Picking Tea……………………………...……11 Tea Inventions In America: Iced Tea And Teabags………………………...…12 Tea Rooms And Tea Dances………………………………….……………………..…12 Afternoon Tea Today In The USA………………………………………………….…12 Tea Types……………………………………………………………………………………….13 Trade Teas……………………………………………………………………………..……….14 Tea Taster’s Glossary……………………………………………………………….…….15 The History And Design Of Teapots ……………………………………………..…16 Teapots : One Possible Historical Overview………………………………….…16 The Teapot As A European Invention………………………………………………17 Common Types And Styles Of Teapots……………………………………………17 Reference ………………………………………………………………………………….......20

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The Legendary Origins of Tea The story of tea began in ancient China over 5. that many mythologists believe it may relate closely to the actual events. As a result. Because of this early association. he rebelled against the discipline of priestly training which had made him a skilled observer. However. he and the court stopped to rest. Patronized by the Emperor himself. as a young man. now lost in ancient history. tea in Japan has always been associated with Zen 3 . the Ch'a Ching. he retired for five years into seclusion. but he felt his life lacked meaning. As a scientist. The Japanese Influence The first tea seeds were brought to Japan by Buddhist priest Yeisei. (This myth maintains such a practical narrative. his work clearly showed the Zen Buddhist philosophy to which he was exposed as a child. This amazing man was orphaned as a child and raised by scholarly Buddhist monks in one of China's finest monasteries. One summer day while visiting a distant region of his realm. an early emperor was a skilled ruler. And so.000 years ago. the Emperor was interested in the new liquid. Dried leaves from the near by bush fell into the boiling water. who had seen the value of tea in China in enhancing religious mediation. according to legend.) The Chinese Influence Tea consumption spread throughout the Chinese culture reaching into every aspect of the society. Drawing from his vast memory of observed events and places. he is known as the "Father of Tea" in Japan. It was this form of tea service that Zen Buddhist missionaries would later introduce to imperial Japan. In accordance with his ruling. in mid-life. and a brown liquid was infused into the water. tea was created. and found it very refreshing.D. The vast definitive nature of his work. creative scientist and patron of the arts. His far-sighted edicts required. In 800 A. that all drinking water should be boiled as a hygienic precaution. Finally. the servants began to boil water for the court to drink. His fame as a performer increased with each year. projected him into near sainthood within his own lifetime. Shen Nung. among other things. According to legend. Lu Yu wrote the first definitive book on tea. drank some. he codified the various methods of tea cultivation and preparation in ancient China.

signifies no more than the making and serving of a cup of tea. The supremely important matter is that the act should be performed in the most perfect. Europe Learns of Tea While tea was at this high level of development in both Japan and China. most graceful. but were unclear as to its service format or appearance.. Murata Shuko (1422-1502)-the student of Ikkyu and very influential in re-introducing the Tea ceremony into Japanese society. As more and more people became involved in the excitement surrounding tea. The tea ceremony became corrupted. Tea was elevated to an art form resulting in the creation of the Japanese Tea Ceremony ("Cha-no-yu" or "the hot water for tea"). Ikkyu (1394-1481)-a prince who became a priest and was successful in guiding the nobles away from their corruption of the tea ceremony. armor. "Tea Tournaments" were held among the wealthy where nobles competed among each other for rich prizes in naming various tea blends. A brilliant general. buttered. He wrote from personal observation. Tea received almost instant imperial sponsorship and spread rapidly from the royal court and monasteries to the other sections of Japanese society. 2. 3. began to specialize in the presentation of the tea ceremony. (One reference suggests the leaves be boiled. and warlords paused for tea before battles. that tea was viewed as the ultimate gift. largely used intact today.yet the whole of this art.Buddhism. one of the few foreigners ever to be granted Japanese citizenship during this era. A special form of architecture (chaseki) developed for "tea houses". of expression prompted the creation of supportive arts and services. Such a purity of form. salted. and eaten!) The first European to personally encounter tea and write about it was the Portuguese Jesuit Father Jasper de Cruz in 1560. The cultural/artistic hostesses of Japan. and jewelry was totally alien to the original Zen attitude of the ceremony. It was as a missionary on that first commercial mission that Father de Cruz had tasted tea four years before. poet. "The Tea ceremony requires years of training and practice to graduate in art. Rewarding winners with gifts of silk. who became Japan's greatest patron of the "art of tea". based on the duplication of the simplicity of a forest cottage. There were three great Zen priests that restored tea to its original place in Japanese society: 1. information concerning this then unknown beverage began to filter back to Europe. the purity of the original Zen concept was lost. strategist. The best description of this complex art form was probably written by the Irish-Greek journalist-historian Lafcadio Hearn. most charming manner possible". as to its detail. had been successful in gaining the first right of trade with China. 4 . Earlier caravan leaders had mentioned it. and artist this unique leader facilitated the final and complete integration of tea into the pattern of Japanese life.. Rikyo was successful in influencing the Shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi. with her technologically advanced navy. boisterous and highly embellished. So complete was this acceptance. Portugal. Sen-no Rikkyu (1521-1591)-priest who set the rigid standards for the ceremony. most polite. the Geishi.

according to the New York City-based Tea Council of the U. the Marquise de Seven makes the first mention in 1680 of adding milk to tea. Peter Stuyvesant brought the first tea to America to the colonists in the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam (later re-named New York by the English). chocolate. During World War II. During the same period. 1 percent oolong. Nearly 95 percent of all tea consumed in America is black. Dutch inns provided the first restaurant service of tea. the Hague. As the craze for things oriental swept Europe. Throughout this period France and Holland led Europe in the use of tea. the English found that the small settlement consumed more tea at that time then all of England put together. and the Baltic countries. Elizabeth I had more years to live. Slowly. the major sources of green tea--China and Japan--were cut off from the United States. the public largely ignored the scholarly debate and continued to enjoy their new beverage though the controversy lasted from 1635 to roughly 1657. As the consumption of tea increased dramatically in Dutch society. Known as "tea heretics". the price fell as the volume of sale expanded..) Tea Comes to Europe When tea finally arrived in Europe. The independent Dutchman would then prepare tea for himself and his friends outside in the tavern's garden. The social critic Marie de Rabutin-Chantal. Tea Comes to America By 1650 the Dutch were actively involved in trade throughout the Western world. Because of the success of the Dutch navy in the Pacific. 5 . and then Dutch ships transported it to France. tea became part of the way of life. 4 percent is green. and 1 percent flavored. Tavern owners would furnish guests with a portable tea set complete with a heating unit. This was due in part to the high cost of the tea (over $100 per pound) which immediately made it the domain of the wealthy. by 1675 it was available in common food shops throughout Holland. Settlers here were confirmed tea drinkers.S. American proclivity for drinking black tea over green or oolong may have been influenced by events in history. And indeed. on acquiring the colony. Holland. Holland. being replaced by a stronger preference for wine. tea became very fashionable in the Dutch capital. Initially available to the public in pharmacies along with such rare and new spices as ginger and sugar. Tea remained popular in France for only about fifty years.The Portuguese developed a trade route by which they shipped their tea to Lisbon. Americans came out of the war drinking nearly 99 percent black tea. which produces black tea. the amount of black and green tea Americans drank was split fairly evenly--each accounting for about 40 percent of the market--with oolong constituting the rest. however. entered into full Pacific trade in her own right. (At that time Holland was politically affiliated with Portugal. doctors and university authorities argued back and forth as to the negative and/or positive benefits of tea.A. When this alliance was altered in 1602. and Rembrandt was only six years old. as the amount of tea imported increased. Sixty years ago and more. leaving Americans with tea almost exclusively from British-controlled India. and exotic coffees. with her excellent navy.

As in Holland. Charles himself had grown up in the Dutch capital.This was due in part to the unsteady ascension to the throne of the Stuarts and the Cromwellian Civil War. * Form foreign alliances.The first samples of tea reached England between 1652 and 1654. * Raise arms and build forts. the John Company had a base of operations. * Conclude peace. The John Company The John Company was granted the unbelievably wide monopoly of all trade east of the Cape of Good Hope and west of Cape Horn. * Coin money. the two rulers brought this foreign tea tradition to England with them. * Pass laws. while in exile. As a result. When the monarchy was re-established. it was the nobility that provided the necessary stamp of approval and so insured its acceptance. both he and his Portuguese bride were confirmed tea drinkers. most powerful monopoly to ever exist in the world. And 6 . King Charles II had married. When Catherine de Braganza married Charles she brought as part of her dowry the territories of Tangier and Bombay.Tea quickly proved popular enough to replace ale (a sort of beer) as the national drink of England. * Try and punish law breakers. the Portuguese Infanta Catherine de Braganza (1662). Its powers were almost without limit and included among others the right to: * Legally acquire territory and govern it. Suddenly. As early as 1600 Elizabeth I had founded the John company for the purpose of promoting Asian trade. It was the single largest. * Declare war.Tea Arrives in England Great Britain was the last of the three great sea-faring nations to break into the Chinese and East Indian trade routes.

A common pattern of service soon merged. They were the forerunner of the English gentlemen's private club. Appealing to Parliament for relief. bread and beef. some authors. sending cards to her friends asking them to join her for "tea and a walking the fields. the Duchess continued it when she returned to London. massive meal at the end of the day. As a result. and engage in conversation with the sharpest wits of the day. and. The menu centered around small cakes. leading to later global difficulties for the British crown. a copy of the newspaper. the Duchess of Bedford (1788-1861) experienced a "sinking feeling" in the late afternoon. Their re-drafted charts gave the new East India Company a complete and total trade monopoly on all commerce in China and India. The first pot was warmed by the hostess from a second pot (usually silver) that was kept heated over a small flame. Prior to the introduction of tea into Britain." (London at that time still contained large open meadows within the city. the English had two main mealsbreakfast and dinner. Dinner was a long. but they were so named because coffee arrived in England some years before tea. the newer East India Company floundered against such competition. Exclusively for men. At the same time. of course. Breakfast was ale.000 pounds in 1699 to an annual average of 240. Tea was drunk by all levels of society. shrimp or fish pates. tea. Adopting the European tea service format. It was no wonder that Anna. This summer practice proved so popular. The various houses specialized in selected areas of interest. peas. mashed potatoes. they were called "Penny Universities" because for a penny any man could obtain a pot of tea. bread and butter sandwiches. The first pot of tea was made in the kitchen and carried to the lady of the house who waited with her invited guests. Tea Cuisine Tea cuisine quickly expanded in range to quickly include wafer thin crustless sandwiches. surrounded by fine porcelain from China. The emphasis was on presentation and conversation. One such beverage house was owned by Edward Lloyd and was favored by shipowners.its power was based on the importation of tea. the price of tea was kept artificially high. others the military. toasted breads with jams.000 pounds by 1708. and of course. she invited friends to join her for an additional afternoon meal at five o'clock in her rooms at Belvoir Castle. It was the major meal of the middle and lower classes and consisted of mostly full dinner items such as roast beef. "High" Tea or "Meat Tea" was the main or "High" meal of the day. and regional British pastries such as scones (Scottish) and crumpets (English). the decision was made to merge the John Company and the East India Company (1773).) The practice of inviting friends to come for tea in the afternoon was quickly picked up by other social hostesses. tea. Tea importation rose from 40. assorted sweets. At this time two distinct forms of tea services evolved: "High" and "Low". 7 . the main purpose of the visiting being conversation. Food and tea was then passed among the guests. Coffee Houses Tea was the major beverage served in the coffee houses. some serving attorneys. "Low" Tea (served in the low part of the afternoon) was served in aristocratic homes of the wealthy and featured gourmet tidbits rather than solid meals. Afternoon Tea in England Tea mania swept across England as it had earlier spread throughout France and Holland.

locked wooden boxes were placed on the tables throughout the Garden. The trip was 11. gambling. bowling greens. it could run all day and serve up to forty cups of tea at a time. guests sipped their tea from glasses in silver holders.000 miles long and took over sixteen months to complete. As the gardens were public. The average caravan consisted of 200 to 300 camels. Tea was ideally suited to Russian life: hearty. or fireworks at night. the English developed the idea of Tea Gardens. cutting across lines of class and birth.merchants and marine insurers. and sustaining. Again showing the Asian influence in the Russian culture. Placed in the center of the Russian home. 8 . hidden arbors. later Lady Hamilton. By 1689 the Trade Treaty of Newchinsk established a common border between Russia and China. Hence. Tipping as a response to proper service developed in the Tea Gardens of England. The Russians have always favored strong tea highly sweetened with sugar.Women were permitted to enter a mixed. allowing caravans to then cross back and forth freely. and tea was spreading throughout Russian society. Although the Revolution intervened in the flow of the Russian society. warm." which stood for the sentence "To Insure Prompt Service". That simple shop was the origin of Lloyd's. honey. but such measures proved so unpopular they were always quickly revoked.I. Inscribed on each were the letters "T. As a result of such factors. The Russian interest in tea began as early as 1618 when the Chinese embassy in Moscow presented several chests of tea to Czar Alexis. flowered walks. the worldwide insurance firm. met the great love of his life. concerts.P. the overland caravans were abandoned. public gathering for the first time without social criticism. the custom of tipping servers was created. who defeated Napoleon by sea. the price had dropped some. British society mixed here freely for the first time. By the time Catherine the Great died (1796). If a guest wished the waiter to hurry (and so insure the tea arrived hot from the often distant kitchen) he dropped a coin into the box on being seated "to insure prompt service". Here ladies and gentlemen took their tea out of doors surrounded by entertainment such as orchestras. Tea Gardens Experiencing the Dutch "tavern garden teas". Russian Tea Tradition Imperial Russia was attempting to engage China and Japan in trade at the same time as the East Indian Company. Attempts to close the coffee houses were made throughout the eighteenth century because of the free speech they encouraged. It was at just such a Tea Garden that Lord Nelson. Small.S. the journey was not easy. The samovar. is a combination of bubbling hot water heater and tea pot. very similar to Turkish coffee cups. adopted from the Tibetan "hot pot". Emma. or jam. Still. With the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railroad in 1900. the cost of tea was initially prohibitive and available only to the wealthy.

They imposed a higher tax on newspapers (which they considered far too outspoken in America). By 1720 tea was a generally accepted staple of trade between the Colony and the Mother country. The directors of the then John Company (to merge later with the East India Company) fumed as they saw their profits diminish and they pressured Parliament to take action. The new Lord of the Treasury. tavern licenses (too much free speech there). It was the feeling of Parliament that as a result. New. Lord North. Throughout the colonies. Tea and America It was not until 1670 that English colonists in Boston became aware of tea. a factor England was to base a major political decision on later. As tea was heavily taxed. as a response to this pressure. Tea Gardens were first opened in New York City. In plotting this strategy.tea remained a staple throughout. The most famous of these "tea springs" was at Roosevelt and Chatham (later Park Row Street). granted to the new Company permission to sell directly to the colonists. the war had been fought for their benefit. and docking papers.) The colonists rebelled and openly purchased imported tea. largely Dutch in origin. England was counting on the well known passion among American women for tea to force consumption. which the city fathers now equipped with pumps to facilitate the "tea craze". marriage licenses. Among these was. by-passing the colonial merchants and pocketing the difference. already aware of tea as a former Dutch colony. It was not long in coming. It was especially a favorite of colonial women. New York. and Philadelphia. After all. Tea (along with vodka) is the national drink of the Russians today. Tea trade was centered in Boston. legal documents. even at this early date. heavier taxes were leveled by Parliament for such rebellion. By 1773 the John Company merged with the East India Company for structural stability and pleaded with the Crown for assistance. The John company. already in deep financial trouble saw its profits fall even further. in June 1767. future centers of American rebellion. (Townshend died three months later of a fever never to know his tax measures helped create a free nation. contraband tea was smuggled into the colonies by the independent minded American merchants from ports far away and adopted herbal teas from the Indians. Tea and the American Revolution England had recently completed the French and Indian War. to free the colony from French influence and stabilize trade. it was not unreasonable that the colonists shoulder the majority of the cost. the tea tax that was to become the watershed of America's desire for freedom. The new Gardens were centered around the natural springs. Charles Townshend presented the first tax measures which today are known by his name. It was a major miscalculation. The colonists rebelled against taxes imposed upon them without their consent and which were so repressive. women pledged publicly at meetings and in newspapers not to drink English sold tea until their free 9 . and it was not publicly available for sale until twenty years later. fought. from England's point of view.

developing its own language known as "Pidgin English". In retaliation. ORIGINAL TEA LEAVES. The Opium Wars 10 . and Indian words all pronounced in Chinese. the language was composed of English. There the trading of tea had become a way of life. Portuguese. dressed as Indians (remember the original justification for taxation had been the expense of the French and Indian War) threw hundreds of pounds of tea into the harbor: The Boston Tea Party. "Chow" (from the Indian word for food cargo)-slang for food. So dominant was the tea culture within the English speaking cultures that many of these words came to hold a permanent place in English language. Indeed. steeped in Boston Harbor after being dumped overboard during the Boston Tea Party of December 16th. The colonial leaders met and revolution was declared.rights (and those of their merchant husbands) were restored. The Boston Tea Party By December 16 events had deteriorated enough that the men of Boston. the word "Pidgin" is a corrupted form of the Chinese word for "do business". "Mandarin" (from the Portuguese "mandar" meaning to order) . 1773 The Trade Continued in the Orient Though concerned over developments in America. England had had enough. and collected on the shores of Dorchester Neck on the morning of December 17. "Cash" (from the Portuguese "caixa" meaning case or money box)-the currency of tea transactions. Created solely to facilitate commerce. English tea interests still centered on the product's source-the Orient. "Caddy" (from the Chinese word for one pound weight)-the standard tea trade container.the court official empowered by the emperor to trade tea. the port of Boston was closed and the city occupied by royal troops. Such leading citizens as Samuel Adams and John Hancock took part.

But disorder in the Chinese culture and foreign military might prevented it. Because of its addictive nature. The Opium Wars broke out with the English ready to go to war for free trade (their right to sell opium). To take such large amounts of money physically out of England would have financially collapsed the country and been impossible to transport safely half way around the world. the demand for the drug would be lifelong. T. H. Stephen Girard of 11 . insuring an unending market. but so was the currency. America Enters the Tea Trade The first three American millionaires. Chinese emperors tried to maintain the forced distance between the Chinese people and the "devils". Perkins of Boston. Large sums of money were spent on tea. In India they could grow the inexpensive crop of opium and use it as a means of exchange. the John Company saw a solution. With plantations in newly occupied India. By 1842 England had gained enough military advantages to enable her to sell opium in China undisturbed until 1908.Not only was language a problem.

however. The orphanage founded by him still perpetuates his good name. America began direct trade with China soon after the Revolution was over in 1789. various experiments in growing tea in India were attempted. the technology was perfected. Stephen Girard of Philadelphia was known as the "gentle tea merchant". ruining many younger sons of noble families. the English tea plantations in India and other parts of Asia flourished. He required a minimum profit on each venture of 50% and often made 100%. The new American ships established sailing records that still stand for speed and distance. who spoke fluent Chinese. was able to sneak into mainland China the first year after the Opium War. He obtained some of the closely guarded tea seeds and made notes on tea cultivation.Philadelphia. John Jacob Astor began his tea trading in 1800. It is to their everlasting credit that none of these men ever paid for tea with opium. His critical loans to the young (and still weak) American government enabled the nation to re-arm for the War of 1812. Many of these failed due to bad soil selection and incorrect planting techniques. This forced the English navy to update their fleet. America was able to break the English tea monopoly because its ships were faster and America paid in gold. The Chinese trust in him as a gentleman of his word enabled him to conduct enormous transactions half way around the world without a single written contract. fortunes made and lost. heavier English "tea wagons" that had until then dominated the trade. His word and his handshake was enough so great was his honor in the eyes of the Chinese. a fact America would have to address in the War of 1812. after years of trial and error. Thomas Perkins was from one of Boston's oldest sailing families. faster clipper ships outsailed the slower. all made their fortunes in the China trade. With support from the Crown. America's newer. Through each failure. and John Jacob Astor of New York. Global Tea Plantations Develop Picking Tea The Scottish botanist/adventurer Robert Fortune. Finally. The great English tea marketing companies were founded and production mechanized as the world industrialized in the late 1880's. Tea Inventions in America: Iced Tea and Teabags 12 .

Fine hotels throughout the United States are re-establishing or planning for the first time afternoon tea services. One such merchant was Richard Blechynden. he carefully wrapped each sample delivered to restaurants for their consideration. Louis World's Fair. no one was interested.America stabilized her government. Originally. He recognized a natural marketing opportunity when he realized the restaurants were brewing the samples "in the bags" to avoid the mess of tea leaves in the kitchens. Afternoon Tea Today in the USA Tea is more popular than ever in America today. By 1904 the United States was ready for the world to see her development at the St. As a tea merchant. Tea Rooms and Tea Dances Beginning in the late 1880's in both America and England. By 1910 hotels began to host afternoon tea dances as dance craze after dance craze swept the United States and England. he had planned to give away free samples of hot tea to fair visitors. there is a re-awakening of interest in tea as many Americans seek a more positive. strengthened her economy. It was (along with the Egyptian fan dancer) the hit of the Fair. But when a heat wave hit. Served in the late afternoon. Trade exhibitors from around the world brought their products to America's first World's Fair. he dumped a load of ice into the brewed tea and served the first "iced tea". (Indeed. To save his investment of time and travel. the editor of Vogue once fired a large number of female secretarial workers for "wasting their time at tea dances"). and expanded her borders and interests. healthy lifestyle. Currently. Many of these tea services became the hallmark of the elegance of the hotel. Often considered wasteful by older people they provided a place for the new "working girl" to meet men in a city. fine hotels began to offer tea service in tea rooms and tea courts. far from home and family. such as the tea services at the Ritz (Boston) and the Plaza (New York). a tea plantation owner. Thomas Sullivan of New York developed the concept of "bagged tea". Tea Types 13 . Four years later. Victorian ladies (and their gentlemen friends) could meet for tea and conversation.

It should 14 . fruits like orange peel. Herbal infusions are packaged like tea. Tea is harvested after each flush . Trade Teas English Breakfast The prototype of this most popular of all teas was developed over a hundred years ago by the Scottish Tea Master Drysdale in EdInburgh. The main chemical substances in tea are essential oils. and White. and how the tea is processed. soil conditions. partially oxidized. White tea is the least processed. and where the tea is grown. Some of the popular black teas include English Breakfast. Green. Oolong tea.All tea comes from the "Camellia sinensis". It has a more delicate taste and is pale green / golden in color. barks like cinnamon. Assam is named after the Assam region in India. It is a blend of fine black teas. tea comes from one bush. The top two leaves and bud are hand plucked and then processed into any of the four types of tea. It became popular in England due to the craze Queen Victoria created for things Scottish (the summer home of Victoria and Albert was the Highland castle of Balmoral). determines the flavor characteristics of the tea. caffeine. ambercolored brew. Tea shops in London. When cultivated for harvest the tea bushes are kept to a height of about three feet. and Keemun is named after the Keemun region of China. White tea is not oxidized or rolled. and the polyphenols account for the much publicized antioxidant and anti-disease properties. Oolong is a cross between black and green tea in color and taste. Oolong. Black tea is withered. often including some Keemun tea. fully oxidized and dried. but simply withered and dried by steaming. flowers like chamomile and hibiscus. an evergreen shrub that may grow up to 60 feet in the wild. which are Black. Like wine. and dried. There are over 3000 varieties of tea each with its own specific characteristics. however. and enjoyed like tea. The essential oils give us the aroma of the tea. however the herbs do not come from the camellia sinensis bush and therefore are not teas. popular in China. Just as Bordeaux wine is named after the Bordeaux region in France. infused like tea. Herbal infusions are made of grasses like lemongrass. Tea is not to be confused with herbal infusions. Black tea yields a hearty. The naming and growing of teas has many similarities to wine. and many other botanicals. Green tea skips the oxidizing step. the climate. A very rare tea from China. changed the name and marketed it as "English Breakfast Tea". Many tea authorities suggest that the Keemun tea blended with milk creates a bouquet that reminds people of "toast hot from the oven" and maybe the original source for the name. and polyphenols (mistakenly known by many people as tannins). is withered. It is simply withered and then dried. It was marketed simply as "Breakfast Tea". and Darjeeling. the caffeine stimulates the central nervous system.the sprouting of the top two leaves and bud.

as it cools the tea too quickly). Originally grown in the Fukien province of China. Cream is too heavy for tea and belongs with coffee. A cross 15 . Russian are fond of very sweet tea. though he was prime minister of England under Wiliam IV. is served with tea. Tea legends say the blend was given to him by a Chinese Mandarin seeking to influence trade relations. (Milk would "bury" the very qualities that make it unique. Reserved for afternoon use. but modern tea drinkers seem to prefer it at breakfast and with elegant afternoon tea fare. The third and lowest in quality was sent to the English. In fact. Because the trade route was dangerous and supplies unsteady. it is served with lots of sugar (loose is considered correct here-sugar cubes are an English matter) and milk (milk. Usually it is blended from an Assam tea base. Like the Irish. Today. It is served with milk and sugar. (One never serves lemon to a guest if they request milk-the lemon is never used. it is traditionally offered to guests plain.) It may also be used to brew iced tea. The milk is always served at room temperature. selling a blend rather then a single tea form. The second best was sent directly to Ireland. Irish Breakfast The Irish have always been great tea drinkers. produce a unique full bodied but light flavor with a subtly lingering aroma reminiscent of Muscatel. Because of its full taste. it was first imported to England in 1869 by John Dodd. the highest grade Oolongs (Formosa Oolongs) are grown in Taiwan. One might take a lemon with it. Irish Breakfast because of its robust flavor is usually drunk only in the morning (except for the Irish who drink it all day). the Irish believed there were only three types of tea fit to drink. never cream. is better remembered for the tea named after him. Caravan This excellent tea was created in imperial Russia from the teas brought overland by camel from Asia. if the Darjeeling were of the highest grade. the Russian favored this tea all day long. of course. The mountain altitude and gentle misting rains of the region. A smoky tea with a hint of sweetness to it. there is a common tea saying among the Irish that a "proper cup of tea" should be "strong enough for a mouse to trot on. it is served plain and is the second most popular tea in the world today. It is generally a blend of black teas and bergamot oil. Russian tea merchants blended the varying incoming tea cargoes. It would curdle the milk. Black Teas And Oolong Darjeeling Refers to tea grown in this mountain area of India." Along the same line.be offered with milk or lemon. Lemons studded with cloves may also be offered correctly. Earl Grey Earl Grey (1764-1845) was an actual person who. never cold. but never milk.) Oolong The elegant tea is sometimes known as the "champagne of teas". It was usually a combination of China and India black teas. The first and best of quality was in China with the Chinese. and they drink their tea brewed very strong. often adding honey and jam to their national beverage.

Because of its subtle and complex nature. medium. strength. lemon. or full. it is considered the "burgundy of teas". Here are some of the terms used when tasting teas: • • Aroma: The odor of the tea liquor.between green and black teas. Body: The tactile sensation of weight and substance of the liquor experienced in the mouth. This creates the "puckery" sensation along the side of the taster's tongue. It is a mellow tea that will stand alone as well as support sugar and/or milk. Green Teas Makes up only ten percent of the world's produced tea. A complex aroma is often described as a bouquet. Once harvested. Its name. Green tea is not generally part of the afternoon tea tradition as appropriate to hotel use. as opposed to empty. also called the nose or fragrance. white tea is not oxidized or rolled. are similar to terms that are used when tasting wines. White Teas White tea is a very rare. • • • 16 . Astringency: The sensation of astringency is caused by a reaction between polyphenols (tannins) and the protein in saliva. With such clarity. Tea Taster's Glossary Tea tasting is an art form. May be described as thin. it is fermented to achieve a delicious fruity taste that makes milk. Full: Describes a liquor possessing color. Many of the terms used to describe certain characteristics of a tea. Muscatel: Describes a characteristic reminiscent of grapes. Also describes an exceptional characteristic found in the liquors of the finest Second Flush Darjeelings. White tea requires an experienced palate already initiated into the exquisite. and sugar unthinkable. This tea has a very mellow taste and a hint of sweetness. is an art form. probably comes from the very pale color of its liquor. lemon should not be offered as the combined tastes are too tart. it is perfect for afternoon use with such tea fare as cucumber sandwiches and madelaines. expensive connoisseurs tea that is mainly produced in China in Fukien (Fujian) Province. a literal translation from the Chinese. substance and roundness. subtle flavors of green and oolong teas. The Japanese tea ceremony (in which green tea is used). China Teas Keemun Is the most famous of China's black teas. Because of its "wine-like" quality. but simply withered and dried by steaming.

foreshadowing the future design of the majority of teapots produced in Europe. straight. an account of Ishing (Yixing) teapots. author of Yang-Hsien ming hu hsi. Unsure what its purpose was. Thin/weak: Describes tea liquor lacking thickness and strength. Other scholars have discounted this history and say that the Chinese. the potters at Ishing. recognized the growing demand for such items as teapots and began importation in larger numbers. viewed as failures due to the poor quality of clay and workmanship.(Indeed. Such teapots favored domestic forms such as squirrels and rabbits or newer "exotic" forms such as camels. it may have been assumed it was used with the imported tea in which it was packed (literally. the teapot design of today is basically European. monkeys. became famous for teapots known to Europeans by the Portuguese name boccarro (large mouth). to prevent breakage during the long trip from China). though she had "designed" the teapot. individual pots which came to Europe with teas and served as models for the first European teapots. a few miles up to Yangtze from Shanghai. It was globular in shape. did not historically use teapots. Europe. the East India Company. however the modern productions are clumsy and rough as compared with those turned out during the latter half of the Ming dynasty.) The second design source might have been the Chinese wine vessels then being imported as a curiosity piece. that though tea was originally Chinese. replaceable spouts unlike the first teapot made by the Chinese which was similar to the wine pourer but very unsuitable for the purpose. At the beginning of the eighteenth century. Instead they brewed tea directly in the cup. letting the leaves sink to the bottom before drinking. The history and design of teapots Teapots: One Possible Historical Overview According to Chou Kao-ch'i. (The latter was important as the pottery was fragile and spouts often broke. The 17 . lacked the porcelain technology to produce a quality teapot. The first teapots created in Europe were of a heavy cast with short. however. Such teacups are still used in many Chinese restaurants today. It may be desirable in some Darjeeling teas. though they provided Europe with her first tea. The Earl Cadogan. but not necessarily strength. was the first Englishman recorded to have owned such a Chinese "wine pourer". The first was the Islamic coffee pots. and bunches of bamboo.) Other variations that occurred during this early period were octagonal and melon shaped teapots as well as "fantasy" teapots designed as plants or animals. for some years there was no design difference between coffee pots and teapots. Some believe the design source for teapots may have come from one of two influences reaching Europe in the mid-1600's. which were first seen in the popular coffee houses of Europe and England during this period.• • • Thick: Describes liquor having substance. The Teapot as a European Invention It can then be said. the future center of English porcelain production. These early teapots were. Toasty: Describes the liquor of a tea which has been slightly overfired during manufacture. These were small. whose estates were located in Staffordshire. early in the sixteenth century.

increased cargo served an additional function-that of ballast in the trade ships. Even though I'm happy to say that our financial picture has improved greatly. designs adapted from European prints (such as the famous Georgian "house" teapots). I read in an 80 year old cookbook that tea could be used to tenderize even the cheapest cuts of beef. It works! I use plain old black tea bags to prepare a pot of tea. Designs fell into four main areas: mock-ups of Oriental designs (such as "Blue Willow" and "The Tree of Life"). I simply add a couple of bags to the bottom of the pan and add 1/4 . The pot roast can be an inexpensive cut like chuck or shoulder roast. people still drink tea and discover new ways of using tea and tea products.I still cook roasts this way. armorials (bearing the coat of arms for major European families). I'll add it to a pot roast which I've just browned. Company directors were especially concerned that teapots not drip and stain the valuable linen that they also marketed. Common Types and Styles of Teapots Chinese Yixing Teapot Japanese Tetsubin Teapot Porcelain Teapot Classic Brown Betty Teapot Silver Teapot Clear Glass Teapot Even nowdays. and the innovative teapots (such as those with the now standard spout drain on the interior of the teapot). Melissa Malcolm Where to start. The roast simmers in the tea while it cooks and by adding a bit of black pepper and herbs. I use a lot of tea in my cooking. and market values. then after it cools. Here are some examples of human ingenuity: We were pretty broke several years ago and our grocery budget was stretched as tightly as three day old chicken. I use lemon for Chicken and orange for pork. using patterns sent from England and geared to European tastes. you can have the taste of London Broil for much less money. when the whole world drinks beverages like Coca Cola. stereotypes.1/2 cup water (mostly for steam) and the flavor penetrates the meat 18 . and a lot non-alcoholic energy drinks. coffee. It makes a wonderful flavor. The company commissioned china directly from Chinese artists and craftsmen.

but we have been making good use of the foil packs. Since the earthquake. I'll dim the lights and put a few mint teabags in a hot bath. however.making it delicious. I'll let them soak for a while. I also sprinkle some cinnamon into my tea and drink it while I am writing. We just tear down one side a bit. This has changed our lives. My apartment building was badly damaged but still upright. Hands don't feel sticky and it makes them smell just fine. 19 . Wright When I have a bad headache. electricity. We drink tea while we watch movies and as a substitute for popcorn we dip vanilla wafers into it. I've often used tea to wash my hands when soap has not been nearby. Maggie H. Bruce Feldman Well we don't do anything unusual with the tea.if it won't stay on it can be inhaled deeply before and after. I drink tea every morning so my mother uses the used tea for her plants. One of our least favorite jobs is CATBOX time. or water. just the brew. the top is already open and jam it on . Strong tea makes a good meat tenderizer. I remained there for three days before some of the train tracks were repaired to enable me to leave town. in January of 1995. Jennifer D. My hair. it helps me think clearly. To make this a more pleasant experience (this is true folks. A lot of times my friends and I use cold tea bags to soothe bad sunburns. Fortunately. and I'll put two of the wet teabags on my eyes/forehead/temples. most particularly the peppermint packs. I was able to stay clean and fresh. there was no heat. By sponge bathing myself with the tea each day. too. not made up to pull anybody's leg) we take a peppermint foil pack and put it over our noses. felt soft and clean! I was told much later by a chemist that certain chemicals in the tea bind with fats and oils and help wash them away. but I don't use the leaves. Japan. It works! Kelly I lived through the terrible earthquake in Kobe. I had cans of liquid oolong tea in the apartment (they are commonly sold that way in soda machines and grocery stores).

itmonline.html 4. http://www. http://www.org/wiki/Tea 3.Mr.wikipedia. http://www.stashtea.kmanibhai.com/index.org 20 .com/index. and Mrs. http://en.html 2. Bargeron Reference: 1.

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