Topic: Gas Turbine Engines. Submitted By: Abhijit Velhankar. Guide: Prof. V. N. Phadkule.

College: ALL INDIA SHRI SHIVAJI MEMORIAL SOCIETY’S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Year: 2003 – 2004.

Seminar Approval Sheet:
The seminar report entitled “Gas Turbine Engines” by Mr. Velhankar Abhijit A. is approved for the degree of B. E. Mechanical.

Prof. V. N. Phadkule (Head Of Mechanical Dept.) (Examinar)

Prof. V. N. Phadkule (Guide)

I thank my colleagues for their cooperation in making this seminar a success. V. VELHANKAR .ABHIJIT A.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Though it may appear the following “Eulogizing “exposition of monotonous beat of an usual acknowledgement.PHADKULE whose guidance and constant inspiration led me towards the completion of the seminar work. I assert. MR.” I size this opportunity to pass on my deep felt thanks to those who have helped me I express my deep sense of gratitude towards my able and acknowledge guide Prof. beyond the confines of the simple sense of the word “Gratitude.N.

. by steam or water. Advantage of gas turbine engines over reciprocating engines forms the concluding part. A turbine type engine that is operated by gas rather than one operated. for instance. is the product of the combustion that take place when a suitable fuel is mixed and burned with the air passing through the engine. A neutral view has been taken by including the disadvantages as well. which operates the turbine.Abstract The name GAS TURBINE means exactly what it says. The gas. its types and characteristics and its applications in military aircrafts. The seminar includes the working process of gas turbine engines.

Engine Theory Advantages & Disadvantages Conclusion References Title Page No. No.Index: Sr. Introduction. 01 02 03 06 07 6 11 7 8 9 10 17 23 25 26 . 1 2 3 4 5 Abstract.  Centrifugal-Axial flow.  Axial flow. History Gas Turbine Gas Turbine Process Gas Turbine Engine  Centrifugal flow.

The steam runs through a huge and very carefully designed multi-stage turbine to spin an output shaft that drives the plant's generator. The turbines used in a hydroelectric plant look completely different from a steam turbine because water is so much denser (and slower moving) than steam. The heat that comes from burning the fuel expands air. use the wind as their motive force. natural gas. • Hydroelectric dams use water turbines in the same way to generate power. Most power plants use coal. also known as windmills. A wind turbine looks nothing like a steam turbine or a water turbine because wind is slow moving and very light. a pressurized gas spins the turbine. In all modern gas turbine engines. • Wind turbines. kerosene or jet fuel.Introduction There are many different kinds of turbines: • You have probably heard of a steam turbine. but again. and it does this by burning something like propane. the principle is the same. oil or a nuclear reactor to create steam. . In a gas turbine. and the high-speed rush of this hot air spins the turbine. A gas turbine is an extension of the same concept. natural gas. but it is the same principle. the engine produces its own pressurized gas.

40 on May 15. It flew in the British Gloster G. after its manufacturer. 1941 with W 1 Whittle engine installed. The first Whittle engine was called the Power Jet W. Germany . In 1930 Frank Whittle submitted his patent application for a jet aircraft engine.1.HISTORY England Sir Frank Whittle: Whittle is considered by many to be the father of the jet engine.

The Whittle and the von Ohain engines led to successful jet-powered fighter aircraft by the end of World War II.1939. He built and ran his first demonstration engine in 1937. von Ohain in Germany had been at work on the development of a jet engine for aircraft. America America was a latecomer to the jet-propulsion field and with the help of British Government. It might be note that the early English production jet engine used centrifugal compressor where as the production engine in Germany employed the more advanced axial flow compressor. His first flight engine was the HES 3B which used on HE178 and flew on August 27. the General Electric Corporation was awarded the contract to built W. the Messerschmitt Me262 that was used by German Air Force.VON OHAIN At the same time. The first jet engine airplane in America was made in October .1 an American Version.

In late 1941. The two General Electric I-A engines used in this airplane. a working gas (air) is compressed by a compressor and heated by combustion energy of the fuel at the first. . NAVY awarded the contract to Westinghouse. The engine converts the energy of working gas into the rotating energy of the blades. the I-A engine was rated at about 1300 lb of thrust. making use of the interaction between the gas and the blades. several other companies began to design and produce gas turbine engines. Shortly thereafter. Gas Turbine As the principle of the gas turbine.1942. Westinghouse engineers designed an engine with an axial compressor and an annular combustion chamber. The working gas becomes the high temperature and high pressure. in Bell XP-59A.

for example: . extremely simple.Burns the fuel and produces high-pressure. One is the open cycle type (internal type). highTurbine . a combustor and the turbine. They have three parts: • • Compressor . high-velocity gas velocity gas • flowing from the combustion chamber The following figure shows the general layout of an axial-flow gas turbine -.the sort of engine you would find driving the rotor of a helicopter.Extracts the energy from the high-pressure. The gas turbine can handle a larger gas flow than that of the reciprocating internal combustion engines. there are two types of the gas turbine. The Gas Turbine Process Gas turbine engines are. Then the gas turbine is suitable as the high power engine. theoretically.As shown in the below figure.Compresses the incoming air to high pressure Combustion area . Basic components of both types are the air compressor. because it utilizes a continued combustion. The gas turbine for airplanes (called a jet engine) makes use of this advantage. and another is the closed cycle type (external type).

The high-pressure air produced by the compressor is shown in dark blue." The can is a hollow. The compressor is basically a cone-shaped cylinder with small fan blades attached in rows (eight rows of blades are represented here). then you can see the design problem in the combustion area -. the pressure of the air can rise by a factor of 30.In this engine. If you think about how easy it is to blow a candle out. Half of the can in cross-section is shown below: . where a ring of fuel injectors injects a steady stream of fuel. You want to keep a flame burning continuously in that environment. The fuel is generally kerosene.entering this area is highpressure air moving at hundreds of miles per hour. Assuming the light blue represents air at normal air pressure. The piece that solves this problem is called a "flame holder. jet fuel. In some engines. This high-pressure air then enters the combustion area." or sometimes a "can. propane or natural gas. air is sucked in from the right by the compressor. perforated piece of heavy metal. then as the air is forced through the compression stage its pressure rises significantly.

Exhaust gases exit at the left.The injectors are at the right. shown here with a single set of vanes.there is enough energy in the hot gases blowing through the blades of that final output turbine to generate 1. the shaft. You can see in the previous figure that a second set of cylinders wraps around the inside and the outside of this perforated can. guiding the compressed intake air into the perforations. And that is the amazing part about a gas turbine engine -. . The turbines. and the compressor all turn as a single unit: At the far left is a final turbine stage. freewheeling unit.500 horsepower and drive a 63-ton M-1 Tank! A gas turbine engine really is that simple. Compressed air enters through the perforations. This final turbine stage and the output shaft are a completely stand-alone. They spin freely without any connection to the rest of the engine. It drives the output shaft. The first set directly drives the compressor. In this figure there are two sets of turbines. At the left of the engine is the turbine section.

as shown. pressures and spin rates inside the engine. . there really is nothing to do with the exhaust gases but vent them through an exhaust pipe. internal support structures of the engine.In the case of the turbine used in a tank or a power plant. All of these areas become major engineering problems because of the tremendous temperatures. stator vanes and so on. But the basic principles described here govern all gas turbine engines and help you to understand the basic layout and operation of the engine. we have not discussed the areas of bearings. The discussion here is obviously simplified a bit. For example. Sometimes the exhaust will run through some sort of heat exchanger either to extract the heat for some other purpose or to preheat air before it enters the combustion chamber. oiling systems.

Power is produced when the heated. When a turbine engine is directly coupled to a generator. The power output of a turbine is controlled through the amount of fuel injected into the burner.Gas Turbine Engine The gas turbine engine runs on a Brayton cycle using a continuous combustion process. In this cycle. Centrifugal-Axial flow. Aircraft gas turbine engines can be classified according to (1) the type of compressor used and (2) power usage produces by the engine. a compressor (usually radial flow for automotive applications) raises the pressure and temperature of the inlet air. but all jet engines have some parts in common. . Axial flow 3. Centrifugal flow 2. where fuel is injected. Most of modern passenger and military aircraft are powered by gas turbine engines. Many turbines have adjustable vanes and/or gearing to decrease fuel consumption during partial load conditions and to improve acceleration. high-pressure mixture is expanded and cooled through a turbine. The air is then moved into the burner. Compressor types are as follows: 1. There are several types of jet engines. it is often called a turbo generator or turbo alternator. which are also called jet engines. and combusted to raise the temperature of the air.

Simplicity. 2.Power usage produced is as follows: 1. Centrifugal Compressor Engines Centrifugal flows engines are compress the air by accelerating air outward perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the machine. Light Weight. Low cost. Turbo shaft engines. Turbojet engines 2. Turbofan engines. Principal Advantages of Centrifugal Compressor 1. 3. Centrifugal compressor engines are divided into Single-Stage and Two-Stage compressor. The amount of thrust is limited because the maximum compression ratio. 3. .

or three spools (Spool is defined as a group of compressor stages rotating at the same speed). low-pressure compressor by a shaft that passes through the hollow center of the high-pressure compressor and turbine drive shaft. two. Two-spool engine. . the two rotors operate independently of one another. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages: Most of the larger turbine engines use this type of compressor because of its ability to handle large volumes of airflow and high-pressure ratio.Axial Flow Compressor Engines Axial flow compressor engines may incorporate one. The turbine assembly for the low-pressure compressor is the rear turbine unit. This set of turbines is connected to the forward.

Axial-Centrifugal Compressor Engine Centrifugal compressor engine were used in many early jet engines. but still do not match with axial flow compressors. the efficiency level of single stage centrifugal compressor is relatively low. Expensive to manufacture. The multi-stage compressors are somewhat better. and It is very heavy in comparison to the centrifugal compressor with the same compression ratio. Some small modern turbo-prop and turbo-shaft engines achieve good results by using a combination axial flow and centrifugal compressor such as PT6 Pratt and Whitney of Canada which very popular in the market today and T53 Lycoming engine. Characteristics and Applications .Disadvantages: More susceptible to foreign object damage.

The turbo shaft engine: Turbo shaft engine derives its propulsion by the conversion of the majority of gas stream energy into mechanical power to drive the compressor. All of the propulsive force (100% of thrust) produced by a jet engine derived from exhaust gas. or by an independent turbine located to the rear of the compressor drive turbine. and the propeller load. accessories. The fan air can exit separately from the primary engine air. The engine is called turbo shaft. accessories. The turbofan engine: Turbofan engine has a duct-enclosed fan mounted at the front of the engine and driven either mechanically at the same speed as the compressor. The turboprop engine: Turboprop engine derives its propulsion by the conversion of the majority of gas stream energy into mechanical power to drive the compressor. Since a high " jet " velocity is required to obtain an acceptable of thrust. Approximately more than 75% of thrust comes from fan and less than 25% comes from exhaust gas. Approximately 90% of thrust comes from propeller and about only 10% comes from exhaust gas.The turbojet engine: Turbojet engine derives its thrust by highly accelerating a mass of air. the turbine of turbo jet is designed to extract only enough power from the hot gas stream to drive the compressor and accessories. The shaft on which the turbine is mounted drives the propeller through the propeller reduction gear system. . or it can be ducted back to mix with the primary's air at the rear. just like the turboprop engine but The shaft on which the turbine is mounted drives something other than an aircraft propeller such as the rotor of a helicopter through the reduction gearbox. all of which goes through the engine.

Thrust. When the engine has started and its compressor is rotating at sufficient speed.ENGINE THEORY OPERATION The jet engines are essentially a machine designed for the purpose of producing high velocity gasses at the jet nozzle. The engine will then run without further assistance as long as fuel and air in the proper proportions continue to enter the combustion chamber. the outside air enter to the engine. The compressor works on this incoming air and delivery it to the combustion or burner section with as much as 12 times or more pressure the air had at the front. the starter and igniters are turn off. The rest of the air is mixed with the products of combustion for cooling before the gases enter the turbine wheel. The turbine extracts a major portion of energy in the gas stream and uses this energy to turn the compressor and accessories. The engine's thrust comes from taking a large mass of air in at the front and expelling it at a much higher speed than it had when it entered the compressor. The engine is started by rotating the compressor with the starter. the ignition is igniting the mixture of fuel and air in the combustion chamber with one or more igniters which somewhat likes automobile spark plugs. . is equal to mass flow rate time’s change in velocity. Only 25% of the air is taking part in the actual combustion process. then. At the burner or combustion section.

this must be added to the basic of thrust equation. The following formulary is applied when a nozzle of engine is " choked “. JET ENGINE EQUATION Since Fuel flow adds some mass to the air flowing through the engine. Some formulary does not consider the fuel flow effect when computing thrust because the weight of air leakage is approximately equal to the weight of fuel added. .The more air that an engine can compress and use. Even this pressure energy cannot turn into velocity energy but it is not lost. the pressure is such that the gases are traveling through it at the speed of sound and cannot be further accelerated. the greater is the power or thrust that it can produce. Any increase in internal engine pressure will pass out through the nozzle still in the form of pressure. Only what is left over is available to produce the thrust needed to propel the airplane. Roughly 75% of the power generated inside a jet engine is used to drive the compressor.

3. Those are: 1. Amount of air bled from the compressor. Turbine inlet temperature. Weight of fuel flow. 2. Size of nozzle area. . 4.Factors Affecting Thrust The Jet engine is much more sensitive to operating variables. 5. Engine rpm.

N = Speed (rpm or percent) N1 = Low Compressor Speed N2 = High Compressor Speed . Pressure of air 9.9 are the density of air. Note. Temperature of the air. The station numbers coincide with position from front to rear of the engine and are used as subscripts when designating different temperatures and pressures at the front. Speed of aircraft (ram pressure rise). or inside of the engine. Engine Station Designations Station designations are assigned to the various sections of gas turbine engines to enable specific locations within the engine to be easily and accurately identified. 7. For engine configurations other than the picture below should be made to manuals published by the engine manufacturer. item 8. rear. 8.6. Amount of humidity.

: Pt 2 = Total Pressure at Station 2 (low pressure compressor inlet) Pt 7 = Total Pressure at Station 7 (turbine discharge total pressure) . Pt7 / Pt2 Ex.N3 = Free Turbine Speed P = Pressure T = Temperature T = Total EGT = Exhaust Gas Temperature EPR = Engine Pressure Ratio (Engine Thrust in term of EPR).

• A turbine produces low levels of emissions: - Because of its multi-fuel capability. which have prevented its widespread use in automotive applications: • Turbine engines have high manufacturing costs: - Because of the complicated design. • A turbine will run on a variety of fuels: - Any combustible fuel that can be injected into the airstream will burn in a turbine. A turbine has this flexibility because the continuous combustion is not heavily reliant on the combustion characteristics of the fuel. A turbine has no reciprocating motion. can be used to reduce emissions. which burns completely and cleanly. .Advantages • The turbine is light and simple: - The only moving part of a simple turbine is the rotor. and consequently runs smoother than a reciprocating engine. manufacturing is expensive. Disadvantages The turbine engine has a few drawbacks. a fuel.

• A turbine engine changes speed slowly: - A gas turbine is slow to respond (relative to a reciprocating engine) to changes in throttle request. .

Conclusion: Thus we have thoroughly gone through the gas turbine engine. and applications of gas turbine engines. benefits. The seminar information shows the advantages. It clearly states the superiority of gas turbine engines over reciprocating engines. characteristics. . We have taken a neutral view of the topic.

thai-engines.com 3.Reference Text: Following are the sources from where the information for the seminar has been collected: 1.howstuffworks. www.gasturbineengines.com 2. www.com . www.

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