You are on page 1of 19

2012

Musaliar College of Engineering and Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering


2010-2014 Batch

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Our endeavour stands incomplete without expressing our deep gratitude towards someone who had contributed a lot in the successful completion of our Industrial Visit

First of all, we would like to thank Dr. Mytheen kutty, Head Of Mechanical Department ,Musaliar College, for all his help and supportWe sincerely express our gratitude to, Mr. Vimal R Nair and Madhav K, ,Assistant Professors of Mechanical Department for guiding and accompanying us. We also extend our gratefulness to all faculties of our Mechanical department and office staffs for their support

We have made every effort to acknowledge credits , but we apologize in advance for any

omission that may have inadvertently taken place.

Overview of NTPC
Indias largest power company, NTPC was set up in 1975 to accelerate power development in India. NTPC is emerging as a diversified power major with presence in the entire value chain of the power generation business. Apart from power generation, which is the mainstay of the company, NTPC has already ventured into consultancy, power trading, ash utilisation and coal mining. NTPC ranked 341st in the 2010, Forbes Global 2000 ranking of the Worlds biggest companies. NTPC became a Maharatna company in May, 2010, one of the only four companies to be awarded this status The total installed capacity of the company is 36,014 MW (including JVs) with 15 coal based and 7 gas based stations, located across the country. In addition under JVs, 5 stations are coal based & another station uses naptha/LNG as fuel. The company has set a target to have an installed power generating capacity of 1,28,000 MW by the year 2032. The capacity will have a diversified fuel mix comprising 56% coal, 16% Gas, 11% Nuclear and 17% Renewable

Energy Sources(RES) including hydro. By 2032, non fossil fuel based generation capacity shall make up nearly 28% of NTPCs portfolio. NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. Although the company has 17.75% of the total national capacity, it contributes 27.40% of total power generatiON to its focus on high efficiency on due to its focus on high efficiency. At NTPC, People before Plant Load Factor is the mantra that guides all HR related policies. NTPC has been awarded No.1, Best Workplace in India among large organisations and the best PSU for the year 2010, by the Great Places to Work Institute, India Chapter in collaboration with The Economic Times.

NTPC Kayamkulam
Brief Description
The Kayamkulam Rajiv Gandhi Combined Cycle Power Project (RGCCPP) is the first naphtha based plant in the country.

The 350MW combined cycle power is executed by the NTPC Ltd in the Kayamkulam Kayal reclaimed area in Arattupuzha village of Alappuzha backwaters is now the centre of this gigantic project. The project has 3 units comprising of 2 gas turbines of 115MW each and one steam turbine of 129MW. The fuel (naphtha) requirement is 1750MT per day and 0.45million MT annually for full load operation. This is being transported from Irimpanam, Kochi to Cheppad installations\ transit storage area by railway wagons. From Cheppad it is being transferred through 5.5km pipelines to Kayamkulam plant site wherea storage capacity of 4 tanks each of 10000KL are provided.

Combined Cycle Power Plant


In a combined cycle power plant (CCPP), or combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant, a gas turbine generator generates electricity, and the heat of its exhaust is used to make steam, which in turn drives a steam turbine to generate additional electricity. This last

step enhances the efficiency of electricity generation, and combinedcycle plants can achieve efficiencies of 60%. The Gas Turbine is designed for firing multi-fuel such as naphtha and natural gas. The directly coupled compressor of gas turbine sucks air from atmosphere through specially designed air filter and sends to combustion chamber. The hot product of combustion is made to expand in the turbine section where the thermal energy is converted to mechanical energy which drives the turbine and in turn drives the coupled generator. The temperature of the exhaust gas from the turbine is around 5530C and still has considerable heat energy and is capable of producing power. Waste heat recovery steam generators (WHRSG) are used to recover the valuable heat energy. In the WHRSG, DM water is heated by the hot turbine exhaust gases to produce steam before the gases are let out to atmosphere. Achenkovil River through a pipe line of about 8km from the river to raw water treatment plant where it is utilized for producing steam and used for other purposes. A bypass stack is also provided to let the hot gases directly to atmosphere in case WHSRG is shut down for maintenance etc. In the WHSRG steam is produced in two levels viz. low pressure with a pressure of 6kg/cm2 and high pressure with a pressure of 80kg/cm2 which are separately piped to HP/LP cylinders of steam turbine. High pressure steam is produced in HP turbine and low pressure steam is introduced in LP turbine along with the exhaust from HP turbine. In turbine the thermal energy of steam is converted into mechanical energy which drives the turbine which is coupled to the generator to produce electricity. The steam after expansion in steam turbine is condensed in a condenser using circulating water as a cooling medium.

A basic Combined Cycle Power Plant-Design and Arrangements

Combined Cycle to improve efficiency


Combined Cycle power plant integrates two power conversion cycles namely. Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbines) and Rankin Cycle (Conventional steam power plant) with the principal objective of increasing overall plant efficiency. Gas turbine exhaust is at a temperature of 500550 C and in Rankin Cycle heat is required to generate steam at the temperature of 500-550 C. so, why not use the gas-turbine exhaust to generate steam in the Rankin cycle and save the fuel required to heat the water ? Combined Cycle does just the same. Gas turbines exhaust is used to generate steam in the Rankin Cycle . The steam cycle coupled to it significantly raises the efficiency for the entire plant by using the heat energy emitted by the exhaust gases from the gas turbine to produce steam and, therefore, to generate electricity. The efficiency of Gas Turbine cycle alone is 30% and the efficiency of Rankin Cycle is 35%. The overall efficiency of combined cycle comes to 48%.

Working of Combined-Cycle Power Plant


Air Inlet

The amount of air needed for combustion is drawn though the large air inlet section where it is cleaned, cooled and controlled, in order to reduce noise.

Turbine-Generators:

The air then enters the gas turbine where it is compressed, mixed with fuel Naphtha and ignited, which causes it to expand. The pressure created from the expansion spins the turbine blades, which are attached to a shaft and a generator, creating electricity.

Each gas turbine produces 115 megawatts (MW) of electricity. Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG)

The hot exhaust gas exits the turbine at about 550 C and then passes through the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). In the HRSG, there are tubes filled with demineralised water. The hot exhaust gas coming from the turbines passes through these tubes, which act like a radiator, boiling the water inside the tubes, and turning that water into steam. The gas then exits the power plant through the exhaust stack

at a much cooler 100 C, after having given up most of its heat to the steam process. This steam is fed to the steam turbine through large pipes.

Steam Turbine

The steam turbine is capable of producing up to 120 MW. It is located on top of the condenser, across from the cooling tower. Steam enters the turbine with temperatures as high as 550 C and pressure as strong as 2,200 pounds per square inch. The pressure of the steam is used to spin turbine blades which is coupled to a generator, producing additional electricity, about 120 MW per HRSG unit. After the steam is spent in the turbine process, the residual steam leaves the turbine at low pressure and low heat, about 100 C. This exhaust steam passes into a condenser, to be turned back into water.

By using this combined-cycle process, two gas turbines and one steam turbine, we can produce a total of about 350 MW of electricity

Transmission of Generated Power Onto the Grid The Gas Turbine and Steam Turbine generators produce power at 10.5 kV. The transformers take the generated 10.5 kV and transform them to 220 kV, which is the required voltage needed for transmission to the nearby tower that sends power to the substation. A small amount of generation is directed to Auxiliary transformers which transform the generated voltage to a 6.6 kV, so that it may be used by the plant to power its own pumps, fans, and motors.

Gas Insulated Switchyard(GIS)

The most salient feature of NTPC Kayamkulam is the GIS, which is the 1st of its kind in India. GIS is extremely compact compared to other conventional switchyards.

Unlike conventional switchyards here the insulation between three phase lines(R,Y,B) in each bus bar is provided by SF6 which is a highly inert gas. From each transformer, the power passes underground into the switchyard. The power from all of the generators comes together there, where it is measured, metered and directed onto the grid.

Condenser and Cooling Tower The purpose of the condenser is to turn low energy steam back into pure water for use in the Heat Recovery Steam Generator. The purpose of the cooling tower is to cool the circulating water that passes through the condenser. It consists of 8 cells with large fans on top, inside the cone-like stacks, and a basin of water underneath. The cool basin water absorbs all of the heat from the residual steam after being exhausted from the steam turbine and it is then piped back to the top of the cooling tower. As the cool water drops into the basin, hot wet air goes out of the stacks. Normally, hot moist air mixes with cooler dry air, and typically a water vapour plume can be formed.

Demineralising Plant It is the plant where the purified water to condenser is demineralised. Demineralisation is done to prevent the rusting of condensing chamber and its pipes. It has the following five stages: Actuated Carbon Filter (ACF)

Strong Acid- cation exchange bed (SAC) Degasser tower Strong Base Anion exchange bed Mixed Bed Unit (MBU) Passing through these five stages, purified water is demineralised and fed to the condenser.

Condenser and Cooling towers

Central Control System

Control System
The control system in the plants central control room steers, controls and monitors all the processes and operations in the power plant. It records all the major sequences and process variables, and assists human intervention. It is also able to draw comparisons between target and actual conditions by itself and to respond to them. In addition, the continuous feedbacks sent by the many sensors in the power plant trigger automatic responses. Normally speaking, all standard operation sequences within the power plant are fully automated from start to finish. If necessary, operating staff can purposefully intervene and make improvements. The system collects and stores a large volume of operational data that is important for specific analyses. The historical data record also makes it possible to determine maintenance and inspection times precisely.

Conclusion
In today's world, everyone is looking forward for an eco friendly pollution free future, where the necessity for a green energy source is inevitable. Being Mechanical Engineering Students , this one day trip to RGCCPP, Kayamkulam gave us all an opportunity to explore the new dimensions of power generation and its effectiveness.
The knowledge we gained from this training would be highly beneficial in our further studies and career.