This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
“FAG BEARINGS INDIA LIMITED” and
UNDERTAKEN TOWARDS THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF MBA PROGRAMME
SUBMITTED TO: DR. (PROF.) H J JANI
PREPARED BY: SHWETA GODHANI (11039) RUSHANK PATEL (11033) PARTH TRIVEDI (11025) KEYUR VARDE (11019)
G H PATEL POST GRADUATE INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY, VALLABH VIDHYANAGAR (2011 -2013)
As a part of the course curriculum, the second semester MBA students are required to prepare a project report on the production and operations of one large scale and one small scale company. The objective behind preparing this project report is to relate the management subjects taught in the classroom to their practical application and to get insight into practical situation. The group decided to select FAG Bearings India Limited as a large scale company and undertook the study on the production and operation functions of the company. The group has prepared this project report on the basis of the information gathered during the visit to the company and from the website of the company. This project is prepared for the academic purpose and inspite of our best efforts there may be some errors, which may please be excused.
Through this acknowledgement, we express our sincere gratitude towards all those people who have contributed directly or indirectly in preparation of this project report, which has been a great learning experience for all of us. We would like to thank Dr. H.J. Jani, the head of the Department of GHPIBM, Prof. K. Sai. Prasad, faculty of HRM, O.B., S.M., GHPIBM, Mrs. Jagruti Sharma, Executive HR of FAG Bearings India Limited, Mr. J.P. Nair, executive of Training and Development of FAG Bearings India Limited and the librarian of GHPIBM library for their support and for giving us the opportunity to accomplish such a task that has enriched our knowledge.
SR. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
TITLE INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPANY ORGANISATION CHART PLANT LOCATION OF THE COMPANY PLANT LAYOUT OF THE COMPANY PLANT CAPACITY OF THE COMPANY MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS PRODUCTION PROCESS FINAL PRODUCTS OF THE COMPANY PURCHASE MANAGEMENT MATERIAILS HANDLING EQUIPMENTS INVENTORY MANAGEMENT MAINTENANCE OF THE MACHINERIES STORES MANAGEMENT (WAREHOUSING) QUALITY MANGEMENT SAFETY OF THE EMPLOYEES ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND WASTE DISPOSAL BIBLIOGRAPHY HI-TEC PLASTIC ( SMALL SCALE FIRM )
PAGE NO. 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 14 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 27 28
FAG India is a leading OEM supplier to the automotive industry. Bearings produced at the EOU plant have gained ready acceptance and recognition of customers located in Europe. FAG Bearings India Limited set up the country's first 100% EOU for bearings. In 1998. FAG Bearings India Limited. In 1993. Launched Joint Venture company FAG Roller Bearings Private Limited to manufacture taper roller bearings. and ISO 14001 standards. mechanical and electrical engineering industry. The company is certified to ISO/TS 16949. it became first Indian Bearing Company to achieve QS 9000 certification. it became first Indian Bearing Company to achieve ISO 9001 certification. In 1997. feature the most advanced manufacturing technology. INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPANY Fischer Aktien Gesselschaft (FAG) is the oldest ball bearing manufacturer in the world. a member company of FAG group of Germany . Asia and Africa. In 1997.is a leading player in the Indian Bearing industry. located at Vadodara.1. EOU Project for Cylindrical roller bearings inaugurated. it was incorporated as Precision Bearings India Limited. Brief History In 1962. In 2001. set up India's first production facilities to produce hub bearings. the pioneer of the rolling bearing industry. USA. ISO 9001. FAG India's manufacturing plants. 4 . The company manufactures a very wide range of bearings conforming to the stringent international quality standards. In 2000. the company name changed to FAG Precision Bearings Limited. besides the Railways. In 1986. Gujarat.
SARABJIT SINGH AUTOMATION SARABJIT SINGH 5 .2. & PROJECT HJ SHAH PURCHASING PW MHASKAR QUALITY MGMT. NP ACHARYA CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER S C PATEL M SAR SEG. HEAD DGB ND SINHA SEG. S DESPANDE INTERNAL AUDIT PRODUCT MKT. ORGANISATIONAL CHART MANAGING DIRECTOR RJ ANAND PARA PLANT MANAGER SM SHANWARE HUMAN RESOURCE & ADMIN. HEAD CRB/SRB S MATHUR TECH.
Location of the company FAG Bearings India Limited Maneja. 6 .846 sq.3. The company is located its plan here because of: Environmental concerns and situated far away from the residential area.mts of land. Cheap availability of land. Vadodara – 390 013 The company is spread over 98. electricity and basic infrastructure facility Industrial area. Availability of water. PLANT LOCATION OF THE COMPANY Plant Location Plant location is the process of determining a geographical site for a firm’s operations achieving maximum operating economy and effectiveness.
into and within the building. for a heat treatment. rest rooms. and then brought back for grinding. material would be taken to a separate building. work-centers and equipment and machinery with focus on the flow of materials or work through the production system. the party finished product awaiting operations may be taken to the store and later reissued for production. The machine may be situated anywhere in the factory. material would move long distances along crisscrossing path.Thus. utilities. 7 . If machines in one department are engaged. material storage areas. At one stage. equipments. which may be situated in another part of the factory. also known as “Facilities Layout” refers to the configuration of departments. Plant layout or facility layout means planning for location of all machines. and computer rooms and also planning for the patterns of flow of materials and people around. tool servicing areas. aisles. A quantity of raw material is issued to machines which performs the first operation. lunch rooms. a different machine may be required. PLANT LAYOUT OF THE COMPANY Plant Layout Plant layout.4. For the next operation. Types of Layout Process Layout or Functional Layout or Job Shop Layout Product Layout or Line Processing Layout or Flow-Line Layout Fixed Position Layout Cellular Manufacturing Layout Hybrid Layout FAG Bearings India Limited follows process layout which involves a grouping together of similar machines in one department. coffee/tea bays. tool cribs. customer service areas. say. offices. work station. The material should be transported to the other machine for the operation . Partly finished good would be waiting for processing in every department.
7 47.4 9 . hour.e. week.9 7444. Capacity of a plant is the maximum rate of output the plant can produce. Production capacity of the company during the past five years Year 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 Capacity In Millions (Bearings) 50 50 49. quarter.1 43. day. a department. Production capacity The production capacity of a facility or a firm is the maximum rate of production the facility or the firm is capable of producing.1 6413 5420.3 Turnover of the company during the past five years Year 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 Turnover (In Rs. month. a machine. It is usually expressed as volume of output per period of time (i. PLANT CAPACITY OF THE COMPANY Capacity Capacity refers to the maximum load an operating unit can handle. a store or a worker. and year).8 7998.5. The operating unit might be a plant. Millions) 10400.
assemblies and supplies.6. Machines. and Methods. Races Balls Rollers Retainers Cages Seal and Shield Oil and grease Stainless Steel The company purchases all these materials from the domestic suppliers (90%) as well as foreign suppliers (10%). Men. the important inputs are referred to as 5 Ms viz. Material is an important and inevitable input of a production system since the cost of materials and cost on materials (cost incurred in purchasing and storing the materials) put together account for 50 to 85% of the production cost depending on the nature of the product and the type of the production system. 10 . In manufacturing organizations. Money. component parts. The company is also purchasing the raw materials from the group of companies. MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS Material Materials are any commodity used directly or indirectly in producing a product or service such as raw materials. FAG Bearings India Limited uses following material in the producing bearings. Materials.
Types of Processes Conversion Process . It is a process by which.Converting raw material into finished products. storage or preservation and quality assurance A process converts inputs into outputs in a production system. It involves conversion of inputs (resources) into output (products).7. 11 . raw materials and other inputs are converted into finished goods. PRODUCTION PROCESS Production Production implies the creation of goods and services to satisfy human needs. (2) Machining Process and (3) Assembly Process Testing Processes – Involves inspection and testing of products. FAG Bearings India Limited follows the assembly process which involves assembly of bearings. transportation. Manufacturing Process – Processes can be categorized into (1) Forming Process. The addition to inputs is brought about by alteration. The utilities or added value is the difference between the value of outputs and the value of inputs. The conversion processes could be metallurgical or chemical or manufacturing or construct ring processes.
GROOVING TUMBLING HEAT TREATEMENT FLUE GAS TO ATMOSPHERE THROUGH STACKS (OFFLOADED) GRINDING USED COOLANT/OIL GRINDING DUST TO SECURED LAND FILL HONING TO ETP (ETP SOLID WASTE TO SECURED LAND FILL) HONING DUST TO SECURED LAND FILL LAPPING LAPPING COOLANT TO ETP (ETP SOLID WASTE TO SECURED LAND FILL) BEARING ASSEMBLY 12 .BALL BEARING (FLOW CHART) RINGS BALLS RETAINERS RAW MATERIAL TUBE/BAR/FORGING TURNING (OFF-LOADED) BOUGHT OUT DULY GROUND BOUGHT OUT DAILY FINISHED Z.
ROLLER BEARING (FLOW CHART) RETAINERS RINGS ROLLERS RAW MATERIAL TUBE/BAR/FORGING TURNING (OFF-LOADED) BOUGHT OUT DULY HEATED/TURNED BOUGHT OUT DULY FINISHED STAMPING HEAT TREATEMENT HEAT TREATEMENT FLUE GAS TO ATMOSPHERE GRINDING GRINDING USED COOLANT/OIL GRINDING DUST TO SECURED LAND FILL HONING TO ETP (ETP SOLID WASTE TO SECURED LAND FILL) HONING DUST TO SECURED LAND FILL BEARING ASSEMBLY LAPPING COOLANT HONING TO ETP (ETP SOLID WASTE TO SECURED LAND FILL) 13 .
open bearings may have grooves in the outer ring or in the outer and the inner rings for seals or shields. Thanks to these capabilities and their competitive price. this allows a large complement of balls to be filled in. Four point Ball Bearings Four-point bearings are single row angular contact ball bearings which can accommodate high axial loads in both directions and low radial loads. particularly at high speeds. an axial minimum load is required. Four-point bearings which are mounted as thrust bearings are loosely fitted in the housing to avoid radial loading.8. Deep groove ball bearings are non-separable. For manufacturing reasons. FINAL PRODUCTS OF THE COMPANY The company manufactures a very wide range of bearings conforming to the stringent international quality standards. The outer ring with ball set and the inner ring halves can be mounted individually. The self-aligning capacity of deep groove ball bearings is limited. they are the most commonly used bearings. Deep groove ball bearings are available as open basic design and with seals or shields at both sides. Sealed deep groove ball bearings are maintenance-free and make simple constructions possible. Four-point bearings feature a split inner ring. The self-aligning capability is very limited. To ensure low friction. 14 . Products of the company Deep Groove Ball Bearings Single row deep groove ball bearings can accommodate radial and thrust loads and can be used at high speeds.
The various designs of cylindrical roller bearings are distinguished by the arrangement of their lips. the outer ring has none. 22 and 23 are available with cylindrical and tapered bores. FAG Bearings India Limited spherical roller bearings have a maximum number of long rollers with a large diameter. The modified line contact between rollers and raceways eliminates edge stressing. The inner ring of design N has two lips. shaft deflections. Both rings can be fitted tightly. The bearings are not separable. Both bearing rings can be given a tight fit. Cylindrical Roller Bearing Single row cylindrical roller bearings are separable. the inner ring being lipless. Self Aligning Ball Bearings Self-aligning ball bearings are of the double row type. Self-aligning ball bearings of series 12. and housing deformations. Selfaligning ball bearings with a bore taper 1:12 can be mounted either directly on a tapered shaft or on a cylindrical shaft using adapter sleeves. 13. Cylindrical roller bearings of designs NU and N are used as floating bearings. This facilitates mounting and dismounting. Design NU has two lips on the outer ring. They are separable. thus compensating for shaft deflections and misalignment of the bearing seats. The close contact between the rollers and raceways yields a uniform stress distribution and a high load carrying capacity. which simplifies mounting and dismounting. with a spherical outer ring raceway. 15 . Spherical Roller Bearing FAG Bearings India Limited's spherical roller bearings are made for heavy-duty applications. Their self-aligning capability allows them to compensate for misalignments. They feature two rows of symmetrical barrel rollers which can align freely in the spherical outer ring raceway. Self-aligning ball bearings are available with a cylindrical or with a tapered bore.
symmetrically arranged tapered roller bearing is usually needed for counter guidance. ELECTRIC FANS Crompton Polar Usha TRANSMISSION PRODUCTS Kirloskar Pneumatic Greaves Cotton STEEL PLANTS & ROLLING MILLS Flat Products Mukand Iron SAIL THERMAL POWER PLANTS BHEL NTPC INDIAN RAILWAYS ICF DLW CLW RCF DCW Zonal Railways 16 . As tapered roller bearings can transmit axial loads only in one direction. Tapered roller bearings can transmit radial and axial forces. The modified line contact between rollers and raceways eliminates edge stressing. Tapered roller bearings accommodate high radial and axial loads. Tapered Roller Bearing Tapered roller bearings are separable. Hyundai India John Deere Kinetic Motors LML Mahindra & Mahindra Maruti Udhyog New Holland Punjab Tractors TAFE Telco TVS Motor Company Yamaha Motor AUTO ANCILLIARY Autolec Lucas TV PRIME MOVERS ABB BHEL Bharat Bijlee Crompton Greaves Kirloskar Electricals NGEF Siemens MACHINERY HMT LMW LALW Textools MATERIAL HAANDLING Elecon Neyveli Lignite Corp. a second. MAJOR CLIENTS OF THE FAG AUTOMOTIVE Ashok Leyland Bajaj Auto Eicher Tractors FIAT India Ford India General Motors Hero Honda HMT HMSI Ltd. the cone with the roller and cage assembly and the cup can be mounted separately. Due to their particularly large contact angle tapered roller bearings of series 313 are intended for high axial loads.
receiving. equipments. FAG Bearings India Limited has centralized purchase department which responsible for overall requirements of the all the departments of the company. Process approval (Jointly by FAG Bearings India Limited and FAG-Germany). research and development. inwards inspection. Then it is to be sent to the purchase department. stores and accounting (bills payable section). machines. FAG Bearings India Limited requires that any material supplied to it be strictly in accordance with FAG Bearings India Limited guidelines. supplies. PURCHASE MANAGEMENT Purchasing Purchasing refers to the function of procuring of materials. spare parts and services required for meeting the needs of production department and maintenance department. The company makes payment partly as advance and partly after receiving the order from the supplier. follow-up to ensure timely delivery. 17 . It is a managerial activity involving planning and policy formulation. The same includes: Product approval (Both by FAG Bearings India Limited and FAG-Germany).9. In order that FAG Bearings India Limited is supplied the best quality material. strategies required for the proper selection of materials and sources of supply. After successful approval of the above. the company follows a very stringent three-stage process for approval of any steel supplier. negotiating with supplies for the best price terms. Hence. Quality system approval (By FAG Bearings India Limited). The need for purchase in any department is specified trough purchase requisition form which includes in detail description of the need. co-coordinating with other departments’ viz. the supplier should also be in `A' (Very good) category in terms of both the vendor quality and delivery rating evaluation done by FAG every three months. tools. placing purchase order.
18 . This involves the use of material handling equipment. Chain conveyors. In fact.10. Railway cars. In any industrial process. Conveying equipment: Belt conveyors. winches. Cranes: EOT cranes. Overhead monorails. Apron conveyors. Elevators: lift elevator. the product being manufactured passes through various phases and it needs to be transported from place to place. Screw conveyors. Band Truck for internal movement of materials Trucks for the transportation of raw materials into the company and of finished goods into the market. MATERIALS HANDLING EQUIPMENTS Materials Handling Materials handling is the art and science involving the moving. least handling is the best handling. Classifications of Material Handling Equipments The material handling system. but it adds to the cost of the product and is therefore sometimes is referred to as a necessary evil. packaging. and storing of substance in any form. bucket elevator etc. based on design and operational characteristics can be broadly classified in to three groups as shown below: Hoisting equipment Pure hoisting equipment: jacks. This could involve processes such as transporting of raw material to the machines and then shifting the machines from one station to another station and finally to the store or warehouse. Material handling system does not contribute directly to the product value. FAG Bearings India Limited uses the following material handling equipments in its operations: Roller Conveyors Fork Lift Trucks for internal movement of materials. Surface and overhead equipment: Forklifts. Trucks. pulley blocks etc. jib cranes etc.
one at a time. The inventory of FAG Bearings India Limited consists of the raw material. It is based on the simple idea of replacement of containers of parts. 19 . A manufacturing firm maintains inventory of raw materials. bought-out components. inventory of skilled labor. It is the means of signaling to the upstream workstation that the downstream work station is ready for the upstream station to produce another batch or parts. INVENTORY MANAGEMENT Inventory Inventory refers to any resource that has a certain value. spare parts for maintenance of equipment and machinery. liquid funds such as cash and also inventory of plant and equipment. The company is following “KAN-BAN” system. lubricants and the final products. and always contain the same standard number of parts for each part number. Alternatively inventory may be defined as “stock of items kept on hand by an organization to be used to meet customer demand”. and semi finished goods or work in progress items. which can be used at a future occasion when demand arises. These containers are reserved for specific parts. Virtually every type of organization maintains some form of inventory.11. finished goods. are purposely kept small. Here no parts can be produced or moved without a Kanban card.
CIP has become a firm part of its corporate culture. and employees. parking lots. With CIP program. FAG Bearings India Limited believes that only by engaging in continuous process and product oriented innovation. Maintaining equipments. giving each of the employees the freedom to think and try new ideas. materials. machines) etc. Therefore. material handling equipments. test instruments. fences. to improve its position in the bearing industry. FAG can recognize target deviations even more quickly and take immediate counter measures. In addition. popularly known as CIP-culture. CIP makes FAG quicker and flexible. MAINTENANCE OF THE MACHINERIES Maintenance It is defined as “that function of production management that is concerned with the day to day problem of keeping the physical plant in good operating condition. transport vehicles. office equipments (computer. fax. CIP is a concept based on a continuous self-sustaining. metrology tools (inspection gages). building and services needed by other parts of the organization for the performance of their function at an optimum return on investment in machines. tools. It has checks over its machineries once in a week usually Thursday for maintenance purposes. FAG also uses Total Processing Management (TPM) for maintenance purposes. learning and improvement process. After only two years. The company launched the program "CIP for Production" in 1998. services and utilities.12. FAG implemented Continuous Improvement Process (CIP). machinery. The CIP supports FAG on its course to becoming a high performance organization and ensures that the best practices are implemented in all areas of operations. the company launched the program "CIP for Sales" and "CIP for Service" in 1999 and 2000 respectively. lawns. 20 . Two categories of maintenance activities in a firm are: Maintaining building. It is necessary to ensure the availability of the machines. the company will succeed in the future. where the competition is stiff.
tools.13. 21 . In industries. It is a place where all kinds of material and goods are held in stock and storage or storekeeping is defined as the act of storing the goods. lubricants and final products are stored. materials have to be stocked to meet the consumption requirements during the lead time due to delays by suppliers or due to unexpected increase in the consumption rate. semi finished goods. Ware housing Ware housing is not the simple act of storing materials. FAG Bearings India Limited has about three to four warehouses within its factory in which the raw materials. but rather a package of services which enables the smooth flow of materials through the production departments without causing stoppage of production due to shortage of materials. STORES MANAGEMENT (WAREHOUSING) Receiving and storing are important flow control activities in the material management chain. Store and Store-keeping Store is a building where materials and goods are kept and preserved.
Quality Quality is the performance of the product as per the commitment made by the producers to the customer. it is important to ensure that the goods and services produced are of the right quality. It major focus is on zero defects company. It is not enough to produce goods or services in the right quantity and at the right time. The consumer of the final product of a company needs a certain quantity of products of a quality appropriate ho his needs. FAG Bearings India Limited is an ISO/TS 16949 – 2002 certified. 22 . Quality is a requirement at FAG and the basis for its work. Quality Systems It is defined as “the collective plans. QUALITY MANAGEMENT Quality is an important dimension of production and operations management. process or service will satisfy given needs. The result is high quality of its products and services and the trust its customers.14. employees and suppliers place in it. It has also ISO 90012000 an ISO 14001-2004 certificates. activities and events that are provided to ensure that a product.
24 .15. The company aims to ensure the continued existence and success of company by establishing and maintaining a safe working environment that promotes the health and performance of company’s employees as well as taking active measures to protect the environment. Hence. every year. Industrial Safety refers to protection of workers from the dangers of industrial accidents. FAG takes comprehensive measures to protect its employees against health hazards and prevent damage to the environment. the main concern of industrial safety is to minimize hazards in the industries. Safety and Industrial Safety Safety means freedom from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. Comprehensive and effective emergency measures are in place at location to ensure that its employees and visitors are treated properly in the event of injury. Environmental protection and work safety is a fundamental part of FAG’s management principles. SAFETY OF THE EMPLOYEES Tremendous technological developments have taken place. controlling and eliminating hazards in industries. Safety measures must be implemented to reduce the chance of industrial accidents. Thus. A pair of Safety/Electrical/Office shoes is provided to all the permanent employees. are taking place and will take place in all fields of engineering. noise and contagious diseases are ever increasing in industrial environments and accidents in workplace during the course of work are causing partial or total disability to workers and sometimes even death of workers. Two aprons are provided to the employees working on the shop floor. Industrial Safety Management is concerned with reducing. Health hazards due to air pollution. Gumboots are provided to the employees if their use is inevitable. depending upon the nature of their work. the importance of industrial safety and prevention of accidents and health hazards is quite for production/operation managers. Health and safety are the basic need of workers.
So it should also take responsibility for it and act to rectify the damage done and prevent any future damage. The company carries out regular checks across all areas to determine the extent to which these measures have been implemented and to monitor the success of its management system. 25 .Operations wasteful and in excess interfere with nature’s cycles like water cycle. There is increasing emphasis on reducing waste. Steps for elimination of environmental issues: Eliminate waste product Recycle the waste Treatment of waste before it is released into environment Keep on improving the waste disposal methods Cleaner production. oxygen cycle and nitrogen cycle. Non waste technology and Industrial Ecology Elimination of hazardous process Effective Work Safety and Environmental Management FAG actively uses a global work safety and environmental management system that is undergoing continuous improvement.16. Pollution – Operations generating harmful by product wastes/effluents. Operations in organization whether it is a manufacturer or service provider can disturb the environment in many ways. recycling waste. Disturbing nature’s cycles . Resource depletion – Operations using natural resources wastefully and excessively. The company elaborates forward-looking concepts that it implement in collaboration with its contractual partners. processes and products. Causing disaster – Wrong choice of operations systems. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND WASTE DISPOSAL Today’ production managers are concerned more and more with pollution control and waste disposal which are key issues in protection of environment and social responsibility. Operations function has contributed very significantly to environment damage. using less toxic chemicals and using biodegradable materials for packaging. Unsustainability – Operations using/consuming natural resources unsustainably.
Mumbai. BIBLIOGRAPHY Chary S. Singapore. 2010. N. 1st Edition. Production and Operation Management. Operation Management. Bhat K Shridhara. 2003. 2nd Edition. 4th Edition.in Annual Report of FAG for the year 2010. Thomson Asia Pte Ltd.co. www. Gaither Norman and Frazier Greg. New Delhi.fag. Production and Operation Management. Himalaya Publishing House.17.. 27 . McGraw-Hill Companies. 2002.
and hence the growth of the overall economy. SSIs are contributing towards the increase in employment in India. given that their labour intensiveness generates employment. SSIs in countries such as India help in efficient allocation of resources by implementing labour intensive production processes. machinery parts. From the perspective of industrial development in India. SSI sector has made significant contributions to employment generation and also to rural industrialization. capital and innovative marketing practices. By its less capital intensive and high labour absorption nature. Moreover. The food products industry generates the maximum employment. next to agriculture. by infusion of technologies. They also lead to an equitable distribution of income due to the nature of business. given the abundant supply of labour in these countries. The SSI segment also plays a major role in developing countries such as India in an effort to alleviate poverty and propel sustainable growth. This sector is ideally suited to build on the strengths of our traditional skills and knowledge. wherein capital is scarce. SSIs have to play a prominent role. Also chemical and chemical products. paper products and printing. wood products. basic metal industries.SMALL SCALE INDUSTRY (HI-TECH PLASTIC) Small scale industries have been playing a pivotal role in country’s overall economic growth. are promoted and supported by the Government and a number of subsidies are available. 28 . hosiery and garments are contributing towards employment. The opportunities in the small scale sector are enormous as they are less capital intensive. Small industry sector has performed exceedingly well and enabled our country to achieve a wide measure of industrial growth and diversification. and have achieved steady progress over the last couple of years.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TITLE INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPANY PLANT LOCATION MATERIALS REQUIREMENT PRODUCTION PROCESS FINAL PRODUCTS OF THE COMPANY MATERIALS HANDLING STORES MANAGEMENT MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGE NO.INDEX SR NO. 30 31 32 33 36 37 38 38 39 29 .
He also started producing plastic injection moulded items a few years later. He started his production with 4 workers in 1982. The total unit area of the firm is about 5000 sq. as they supply plastic lids & plastic spoons to them. It is an ISO 9001:2008 company. He started production of Plastic bags and the annual turnover of first year was 4-5 lacs. Their recent turnover is 3.5-4 crore per annum. Recently they are having a total of 70 employees. out of which there are 22 workers and others as the technical staff.ft. As the requirement of AMUL increases Hi-tech plastic need to expand their machines. INTRODUCTION TO COMPANY The firm was established in the year 1982 by Dilip Dalal. They started their firm with 1 machine which is now grown to a massive of 14 machines. As the demand of AMUL increase demand for the production also increases simultaneously leads to the growth of this company. 30 .1. AMUL is their major customer.
Availability of water. It is an industrial area. High School.ft.2. The company is located its plan here because of: Cheap availability of land. Nr. of land. electricity and basic infrastructure facility. PLANT LOCATION Location of the company: Ranoli Village. 31 . Gujarat .391350 The company is spread over 5000 sq. Availability of cheap labour. Vadodara.
3. MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS Materials required for the production of PLASTIC SPOONS: Poly-propylene (PP) Poly-styrene Materials required for the production of PLASTIC LIDS: Low density poly-ethylene (LDPE) High density poly-ethylene (HDPE) Raw material suppliers: Reliance Industry ltd. Vadodara Supreme Petro Chem. Maharashtra 32 .
The machine used for the production in Hi-Tech Plastic is Fully Automatic Screw type machine. This projected area is multiplied by a clamp force of from 2 to 8 tons for each square inch of the projected areas. Injection molding is widely used for manufacturing a variety of parts. low labour cost. packaging. with the higher figures used in comparatively few manufacturing operations. and the need to design moldable parts. potentially high running costs. Presses are rated by tonnage. which expresses the amount of clamping force that the machine can exert. Injection molding is the most common method of part manufacturing. 33 . and a heating unit. bottle caps. it will require more injection pressure to fill the mold. Some advantages of injection molding are high production rates. automotive dashboards. repeatable high tolerances. an injection ram or screw-type plunger. minimal scrap losses. After a product is designed. A hopper is there which is completely filled with plastic granules of poly propylene or poly styrene for the production of spoons while high density polyethylene or low density polyethylene for the production of lids. usually either steel or aluminum. larger parts require higher clamping force. 4 or 5tons/inch2 can be used for most products. they hold the molds in which the components are shaped. The total clamp force needed is determined by the projected area of the part being molded. This force keeps the mold closed during the injection process. It is ideal for producing high volumes of the same object. Injection molding machines consist of a material hopper. molds are made by a mold maker (or toolmaker) from metal. mixed. and little need to finish parts after molding. Some disadvantages of this process are expensive equipment investment. and forced into a mold cavity where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the mold cavity. from the smallest component to entire body panels of required product. Injection molding is used to create many things such as wire spools. thus more clamp tonnage to hold the mold closed. Mold or die are the common terms used to describe the tooling used to produce plastic parts in molding. usually by an industrial designer or an engineer. and most other plastic products available today. Granules are allowed to flow through the heater where they are converted to a semi-liquid form by the heat provided by the heater. The required force can also be determined by the material used and the size of the part. As a rule of thumb. There are dies also known as molds which are prepared to form different shapes of spoons and lids as per the requirement of the customer. pocket combs. Tonnage can vary from less than 5 tons to 6000 tons. and the ability to use a wide range of materials. and precision-machined to form the features of the desired part. PRODUCTION PROCESS Injection molding is a manufacturing process for producing parts from both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic materials. They are also known as presses.4. Material is fed into a heated barrel. If the plastic material is very stiff.
Molds are typically constructed from hardened steel. so they are referred to as runners. can be economical for molding tens or even hundreds of thousands of parts. They were usually only used in mass production where thousands of parts were being produced. Beryllium copper is used in areas of the mold which require fast heat removal or areas that see the most shear heat generated. The molten plastic flows through the runner and enters one or more specialized gates and into the cavity geometry to form the desired part. also known as cavity. Pre-hardened steel molds are less wear resistant and are used for lower volume requirements or larger components. The molds can be manufactured by either CNC machining or by using Electrical Discharge Machining processes. To allow for removal of the molded part from the mold. If the trapped air is not allowed to escape. the mold features must 34 . Trapped air in the mold can escape through air vents that are ground into the parting line of the mold. runner and cavities of a mold is a shot. The air can become so compressed that it ignites and burns the surrounding plastic material. and/or beryllium-copper alloy. the sprue bushing is to seal tightly against the nozzle of the injection barrel of the molding machine and to allow molten plastic to flow from the barrel into the mold. where it prevents filling and causes other defects as well. The choice of material to build a mold from is primarily one of economics. Aluminum molds can cost substantially less. The amount of resin required to fill the sprue. and when designed and machined with modern computerized equipment. the injection mold (A plate) and the ejector mold (B plate). These channels allow plastic to run along them. but their longer lifespan will offset the higher initial cost over a higher number of parts made before wearing out. aluminum.Traditionally. pre-hardened steel. it is compressed by the pressure of the incoming material and is squeezed into the corners of the cavity. steel molds generally cost more to construct. The sprue bushing directs the molten plastic to the cavity images through channels that are machined into the faces of the A and B plates. Plastic resin enters the mold through a sprue in the injection mold. molds have been expensive to manufacture. The mold consists of two primary components.
5 kg polythene bags. then the molded part will tend to shrink onto the cores that form them while cooling. also known as knockout pin. AMUL require 12 spoons in a bundle. The coolant absorbs heat from the mold (which has absorbed heat from the hot plastic) and keeps the mold at a proper temperature to solidify the plastic at the most efficient rate.5 kg are packed together in one corrugated box weighing 10 kg. the company makes bundles of these units. If the skin is too thin. The standard method of cooling is passing a coolant (usually water) through a series of holes drilled through the mold plates and connected by hoses to form a continuous pathway. As per the requirement of AMUL. is a circular pin placed in either half of the mold (usually the ejector half) which pushes the finished molded product. or runner system out of a mold. Such four polythene bags of 2. The mold is usually designed so that the molded part reliably remains on the ejector (B) side of the mold when it opens. After producing 10 lakh units the die is to be changed so as to get a proper product without any defect. and cling to those cores or part may warp. unless parts of the mold are designed to move from between such overhangs when the mold opens (utilizing components called Lifters). the more draft necessary. Packing Procedure The die is designed such that 20 spoons can be produced at a time and for lids 1000 to 2000 numbers can be produced together in a sound polythene bags. The part then falls freely when ejected from the (B) side.not overhang one another in the direction that the mold opens. The draft required for mold release is primarily dependent on the depth of the cavity: the deeper the cavity. and draws the runner and the sprue out of the (A) side along with the parts. In a single die 20 to 30 units of spoon can be produced in 10 seconds whereas 8 units of lids are produced in 1 minute. Packing standards are such that these bundles are packed in 2. Sides of the part that appear parallel with the direction of draw (The axis of the cored position (hole) or insert is parallel to the up and down movement of the mold as it opens and closes) are typically angled slightly with (draft) to ease release of the part from the mold. These units are produced as a runner in the die and produced in series. 35 . Insufficient draft can cause deformation or damage. twist. After this each unit is broken to get the final spoon or lid. Shrinkage must also be taken into account when determining the draft required. The molded part is cut (by the mold) from the runner system on ejection from the mold. Ejector pins. blister or crack when the cavity is pulled away.
5. Cheese Lid Nutramul Cap Masti Dahi Lid Ghee Lid Mithai Cap 36 . FINAL PRODUCTS OF THE COMPANY The final products of the company are as below: Various types of plastic SPOONS. Various types of plastic LIDS.
least handling is the best handling. This could involve processes such as transporting of raw material to the machines and then shifting the machines from one station to another station and finally to the store or warehouse. 37 . Material handling equipment: It uses hand truck to move the corrugated box from one place to another. the product being manufactured passes through various phases and it needs to be transported from place to place. but it adds to the cost of the product and is therefore sometimes is referred to as a necessary evil. And also movement of materials is less. In fact. This involves the use of material handling equipment.6. It is a small firm so handling of the material is not a big problem. MATERIALS HANDLING Materials Handling Materials handling is the art and science involving the moving. In any industrial process. Material handling system does not contribute directly to the product value. and storing of substance in any form. packaging.
The company has 14 machines and they are lubricated and 38 . The firm provides free medical facilities to all its employees. Amul is the major customer of HiTech Plastic so their requirements are always known to the firm. But storing the purchased material is essential. And the firm need not to keep large stock as the demand for its product is not fluctuating. Some of its equipments are old so it requires periodic maintenance for its proper functioning and to avoid breakdowns and accidents. MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY Maintaining safety is the prior concern of this firm. STORES Raw materials are easily available in the local market. The company follows scheduled maintenance for maintaining its machines and equipments.7. If sufficient quantity of raw material is stored in the firm any increase in demand can be fulfilled. Even imported raw material can be available. So this firm stores material which can fulfills their customer requirement. 8.
9. The McGraw – Hill companies www.com 39 . production and operation management. N. 4th edition. CHARY. BIBLIOGRAPHY S.asiancerc.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.