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Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments (GB)

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Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments EN 1993-1-1 Laurent Narboux Charles King
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Localized resource for UK

Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments


This example gives the details for the verification of a simple beam under end moments. The beam is laterally restrained at the supports only.
1 1

MA
A B

MB= MA

1 : Lateral restraint

With 0 1 The sign convention for applied moments is positive anticlockwise, as viewed on the page. Thus the moments in this example are negative at end A and positive at end B. The convention for internal bending moments is that positive moment induces compression in the top flange. is the ratio between the internal bending moments at the two ends and in this example its value is positive. The beam is a UKB profile in bending about the strong axis. It is laterally restrained at the supports only. This example includes : the classification of the cross-section, the calculation of bending resistance, including the simplified method for lateral torsional buckling, the calculation of shear resistance, including shear buckling resistance, the calculation of the deflection at serviceability limit state.

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Partial safety factors

G = 1.35 Q = 1.50 M0 = 1.0 M1 = 1.0

(permanent loads) (variable loads)

EN 1990 EN 1993-1-1 6.1 (1)

Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments (GB)

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Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments EN 1993-1-1 Laurent Narboux Charles King
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Basic data Design a non composite beam of a multi-storey building according to the data given below. The beam is assumed to be laterally supported at the ends only.
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Span length : End moment (A) due to permanent load :

L = 9.80 m MG,A = -5 kNm

End moment (B) due to permanent load : MG,B = 5 kNm End moment at support (A) due to variable load : MQ,A = -55 kNm End moment at support (B) due to variable load : MQ,B = 35.2 kNm

Steel grade :

S275
tf z

Try UKB 457x191x89 Steel grade S275 Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Fillet h = 463.4 mm b = 191.9 mm tw = 10.5 mm tf = 17.7 mm r = 10.2 mm

BS4
tw

Corus Advance
y h

z b

Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments (GB)

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SX011a-EN-GB

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Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments EN 1993-1-1 Laurent Narboux Charles King
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Section area

A = 113.8 cm2

Second moment of area /yy Iy = 41015 cm4 Second moment of area /zz Iz = 2089 cm4 Torsion constant Warping constant Elastic modulus /yy Plastic modulus /yy Radius of gyration /zz The self-weight is neglected. It = 91 cm4 Iw = 1037 103 cm6 Wel,y = 1770.2cm3 Wpl,y = 2013.6 cm3 iz = 4.29 cm

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ULS Combination : Bending moment at support (A) : -(G MG,A + Q MQ,A) = -[1.35 (-5) + 1.50 (-55)] = 89.3 kNm Bending moment at support (B) : EN 1990 6.4.3.2 Expression 6.10

G MG,B + Q MQ,B = 1.35 5 + 1.50 35.2 = 59.6 kNm


Ratio of bending moments at the ends : = 59.6 / 89.3 = 0.667 EN 1990 6.4.3.2 permits the alternative use of expressions 6.10a and 6.10b, which could result in a lower design load, depending on the values of the factors in the National Annex. The UK National Annex is likely to permit the alternative use but some National Annexes exclude the use of the alternative expressions. Here, only 6.10 is used. Moment diagram

Maximum moment occurs at support A : My,Ed = 89.3 kNm

Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments (GB)

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Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments EN 1993-1-1 Laurent Narboux Charles King
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Shear force diagram

Shear force is constant along the beam : Vz,Ed = (89.3 59.6) / 9.80 = 3.03 kN Yield strength Steel grade S275 The maximum thickness is 17.7 mm < 40 mm, so : fy = 275 N/mm2 Note :
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EN 1993-1-1 Table 3.1

When published, the National Annex may impose either the values of fy from the Table 3.1 or the values from the product standard. Here, the value given by Table 3.1 is used.

Section classification : The parameter is derived from the yield strength : = Outstand flange : flange under uniform compression

235 = 0.92 f y [N/mm2 ]

EN 1993-1-1 Table 5.2 (sheet 2 of 3)

c = (b tw 2 r) / 2 = (191.9 10.5 2 10.2) / 2 = 80.5 mm c/tf = 80.5 / 17.7 = 4.55 < 9 = 8.28 Class 1

Internal compression part : web under pure bending

c = h 2 tf 2 r = 463.4 2 17.7 2 10.2 = 407.6 mm c / tw = 407.6 / 10.5 = 38.82 < 72 = 66.24 Class 1

EN 1993-1-1 Table 5.2 (sheet 1 of 3)

The class of the cross-section is the highest class (i.e. the least favourable) between the flange and the web, here : Class 1

So the ULS verifications should be based on the plastic resistance of the cross-section since the Class is 1.

Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments (GB)

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Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments EN 1993-1-1 Laurent Narboux Charles King
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Moment resistance

The design resistance for bending of a cross section is given by : Mc,Rd = Mpl,Rd = Wpl,y fy / M0 = (2013.6 275 / 1.0) / 1000 Mc,Rd = 553.74 kNm My,Ed / Mc,Rd = 89.3 / 553.74 = 0.161 < 1 OK

EN 1993-1-1 6.2.5

Reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling

To determine the design buckling resistance moment of a laterally unrestrained beam, the reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling must be determined. The following calculation determines this factor by a simplified method for lateral torsional buckling. This method avoids calculating the elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling.
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Non-dimensional slenderness

The non-dimensional slenderness may be obtained from the simplified method for steel grade S275:

LT =

L/iz 980/4.29 = = 2.380 96 96

See SN002

For rolled profiles, LT,0 = 0.4


Note :

The value of LT,0 may be given in the National Annex when published. Here the recommended value of 0.4 is used.

EN 1993-1-1 6.3.2.3(1)

So

LT = 2.380 > LT,0 = 0.4

LTB verification is required

Reduction factor

For rolled sections, the reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling is EN 1993-1-1 6.3.2.3 (1) calculated from :

LT =

1
2 LT + LT LT 2

where : LT = 0.5 1 + LT LT LT,0 + LT

LT 1.0 but 1 LT 2 LT

Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments (GB)

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Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments EN 1993-1-1 Laurent Narboux Charles King
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LT is the imperfection factor for LTB. When applying the method for rolled
profiles, the LTB curve has to be selected from the table 6.5 : For h/b = 463.4 / 191.9 = 2.41 > 2 use curve c (LT = 0.49)

EN 1993-1-1 Table 6.5 Table 6.3

LT,0 = 0.4 and = 0.75


Note :

The values of LT,0 and may be given in the National Annex when published. The recommended values of 0.4 and 0.75 respectively are used.

We obtain : and :

LT = 0.5 [1 + 0.49 (2.38 0.4) + 0.75 (2.38)2 ] = 3.109


LT =
1 3.109 + (3.109)2 0.75 (2.38)2 = 0.184

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Then, we check : LT = 0.184 < 1.0 but :

LT = 0.184 > 1 / LT = 0.177


2

Then LT = 1 / LT = 0.177

The influence of the moment distribution on the design buckling resistance moment of the beam is taken into account through the f-factor :
f = 1 0,5 (1 k c )1 2 LT 0,8

)]
2

EN 1993-1-1 6.3.2.3 (2) EN 1993-1-1 Table 6.6

but 1

where : = 59.6 / 89.3 = 0.667 1 1 kc = = = 0.901 1,33 0,33 1.33-0.33 0.667 So :

f = 1 0.5 (1 0.901) [1 2 (2.38 0.8)2] = 1.198 > 1 so f = 1.0

We obtain : LT,mod = LT / f = 0.177 / 1.0 = 0.177

Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments (GB)

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Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments EN 1993-1-1 Laurent Narboux Charles King
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Design buckling resistance moment

Mb,Rd = LT,mod Wpl,y fy / M1 Mb,Rd = (0.177 2013600 275 / 1.0) 10-6 = 98 kNm My,Ed / Mb,Rd = 89.3/ 98 = 0.91 < 1 OK
EN 1993-1-1 6.3.2.1

Shear Resistance

In the absence of torsion, the shear plastic resistance depends on the shear area, which is given by:

Av,z = A 2 b tf + (tw + 2 r) tf Av,z = 11380 2 191.9 17.7 + (10.5 + 2 10.2) 17.7 = 5133 mm2
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EN 1993-1-1 6.2.6 (3)

Shear plastic resistance


Vpl,z,Rd = Av,z ( f y / 3 )

M0

5133 (275 / 3 ) 10 3 = 815 kN 1.0

EN 1993-1-1 6.2.6 (2)

Vz,Ed / Vpl,z,Rd = 3.03 / 815 = 0.004 < 1 OK


Note that the verification to shear buckling is not required when : EN 1993-1-1 6.2.6 (6)

hw / tw 72 / conservatively taken equal to 1.0 hw / tw = 428 / 10.5= 40.76 < 72 0.92 / 1.0 = 66.24
No shear buckling verification required.

Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments (GB)

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Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments EN 1993-1-1 Laurent Narboux Charles King
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Serviceability Limit State verification SLS Combination

Bending moment at support A : -(MG,A + MQ,A) = -(-5 55) = 60 kNm Bending moment at support B :

EN 1990 6.5.3

MG,B + MQ,B = 5 + 35.2 = 40.2 kNm


Deflection due to end moments : The maximum deflection is calculated from the values of the end moments and the beam properties. The position of maximum deflection is given by:
xmax =
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+2
3 + 3(1 + + 2 )

xmax =

0.67 + 2 3 + 3(1 + 0.67 + 0.67 2 )

9.8 = 4.739 m

The maximum deflection is given by:

w=
w=

M A 1 3 1 2 2 + 6 L xmax + 2 xmax 6 Lxmax EI


60 10 6 210000 41015 10 4 1 2 + 0.67 0.67 1 3 2 9800 4739 6 9800 4739 + 2 4739 6

= 7 mm This deflection may be expressed as L/1400


Note 1 : The limits of deflection should be specified by the client. The National Annex may specify some limits when it is published.

EN 1993-1-1 7.2.1

Note 2 : Concerning vibrations, the National Annex may specify limits EN 1993-1-1 concerning the frequency. Here the total deflection is so low that 7.2.3 there is no problem of vibration. Generally, designers should consult the National Annex.

Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments (GB)

Example: Unrestrained beam with end moments SX011a-EN-UK

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Created on Wednesday, August 15, 2012 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement