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2 PRESSURE IN LIQUID

LEARNING OUTCOMES

relate depth to pressure in a liquid relate density to pressure in a liquid explain pressure in a liquid and state that P = hρg

**describe applications of pressure in liquids
**

Solve problem involving pressure in liquid

**What is Pressure in Liquids?
**

• A liquid in a container exerts pressure because of its weight. • Pressure in liquid acts in all directions.

**Characteristics of Pressure in a liquid.
**

• The pressure at any point in a liquid, at a particular depth, acts equally in all directions. • The pressure in a liquid does not depend on the area of its surface. • The pressure in a liquid acts equally in all directions and does not depend on the shape of the container.

**Relate depth to pressure in a liquid .
**

• The pressure in a liquid is directly proportional to the depth. • The pressure in a liquid increases with depth.

**Relate density to pressure in a liquid
**

• The pressure in a liquid is directly proportional to the density of the liquid.

**Derive the formula for the pressure in a liquid.
**

• The container on the right has a base area A. It is filled to a depth h with a liquid of density ρ. Calculate: • (a) volume of liquid = Ah • (b) mass of liquid = ρV = ρAh • (c) weight of liquid = mg = ρAhg • (d) force on base = ρAhg • (e) pressure = • ∴Pressure in liquid = ρgh

**Describe applications of pressure in liquids .
**

• The wall of a dam is much thicker at the bottom than at the top because it must withstand the increased lateral pressure in depths of the water.

**Describe applications of pressure in liquids .
**

• Normally a water tank is placed at higher level so as to supply water at greater pressure.

Describe applications of pressure in liquids . • Submarine is built with thick wall so as to withstand enormous pressure at greater depth.

Describe applications of pressure in liquids . • The liquid solution is at a higher pressure so it has sufficient pressure to flow into the veins of the patient.

5. (a) Figure (a) shows a container of herbal

tea. Explain why the tea flows out of the tap at a fast speed. The depth of water is high, so the water pressure is high. The atmospheric pressure in the container also push the water.

5. (b) Explain why when there is very little tea left in the container, it is easier for the tea to flow out of the tap when the container is tilted as shown in figure (b). The depth of water is higher if it is tilted, so the water pressure is higher. So the water is easy to flow out.

6. Why does the water pressure from a tap at the top floor is lower than the water pressure from a tap at the bottom floor of an apartment? The tap at the top floor is at a higher level, so the depth is deeper and the water pressure is higher.

**Solve problems involving pressure in liquid
**

1. If the density of water is 1000 kg m-3, what is the pressure due to the water at the bottom of a swimming pool 2 m deep?

P = (1 000) x (10) x (2) = 20 000 Pa

**Solve problems involving pressure in liquid
**

2. Given that the density of mercury is 13 600 kg m-3. Calculate the pressure of mercury at a point 40 cm from the mercury surface.

P = (13 600) x (10) x (0.4) = 54 400 Pa

**Solve problems involving pressure in liquid
**

3. The figure shows a cross section of a dam. The density of water in the dam is 1000 kgm-3. The pressure exerted by the water at X is …….

P = (1000) x (10) x (4) = 40 000 Pa

**Solve problems involving pressure in liquid
**

4. A deep- sea diver is wearing a watch that can withstand a maximum pressure of 4.5 x 106 Pa due to the sea water. [Density of the sea water = 1030 kg m-3 , g = 10 N kg-1] Calculate the maximum depth the diver can dive without spoiling the watch.

4.5 x 106 = (1 030) x (10) x (h) h = 4 500 000/ 10 300 = 436.89 = 437 m

**Solve problems involving pressure in liquid
**

5. In the diagram on the right: • How does the pressure at A compare with the pressure at B? Pressure at B is higher • How does the pressure at B compare with the pressure at D? Equal • How does the pressure at A compare with the pressure at C? Equal

**Solve problems involving pressure in liquid
**

5. Calculate the pressure at B due to the water. P = 1000 x 10 x 2 = 20 000 Pa If the water in the system were replaced with paraffin, how would this affect the pressure at B? Decrease because paraffin is less dense than water.

**Solve problems involving pressure in liquid
**

6. The figure shows a bottle filled with 40 cm height of liquid A and 70 cm height of liquid B. The densities of liquid A and liquid B are 1000 kg m-3 and 2500 kg m-3 respectively. What is the pressure of • liquid A at point P? P = 1000 x 10 x 0.4 = 4 000 Pa • liquid A and liquid B at point Q? P = 4 000 + (2500 x 10 x 0.7) = 21 500 Pa

P = 1000 x 10 x (4 + 10) = 140 000 Pa

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