3.

1 Gas Pressure & Atmospheric Pressure

Learning Outcomes
1
2 3 4
explain gas pressure explain atmospheric pressure . describe applications of atmospheric pressure . solve problems involving atmospheric pressure and gas pressure .

Explain Gas Pressure
• One common feature of all these balls is that they contain air under high pressure. • You can force air into the balls using an air pump.

ACTIVITY 1:Idea of Gas Pressure
Use a bicycle pump to pump air into a deflated ball. When air is pumped into a ball, what changes do you observe in the ball? The ball will be fully inflated and it expands How would you know when there is enough air in the ball? It will become hard when you press the ball. Feel an opposing force acting on your finger

• When you squeeze a ball filled with air, opposing you will feel an __________ force acting from the inside of the ball.
• The force comes from billions and billions of air molecules striking the inner wall of the ball. random • The molecules are in constant ________ motion. collide • When the molecules _________ with the inner wall of the ball, the force of pushes collisions _________ the wall outwards.

force • The __________ exerted on the inner wall of the ball results in the air / gas pressure in the ball.

Explain Gas Pressure
• The gas pressure in a container is caused by the collision of gas molecules with the walls of the container. • Gas/Air pressure is the force exerted on a surface by air molecules per unit area of the surface.

Atmospheric Pressure
• Have you ever wondered how plastic stickers can be attached on the windscreen of a car without dropping off?

• The stickers are actually pressed on the glass surface by the surrounding ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

Atmospheric Pressure
• The surface of the Earth is in fact the bottom of an ocean of air known as the atmosphere. • The air which is a fluid exerts a force that pushes our body inwards just like water pressure in a swimming pool. • Most of the fluids in our bodies are approximately at the same pressure as the air around us, so we are not crushed by this huge pressure.

Explain atmospheric pressure
• Atmospheric pressure is the pressure caused by the weight of the air above us. • Atmospheric pressure acts equally in all directions.

• Explain the relationship between altitude and atmospheric pressure. • Explain why atmospheric pressure differs at different altitudes

Explain atmospheric pressure
• Atmospheric pressure varies with the height of the object above sea level. • It decreases with the altitude or the height above sea level. • At higher altitudes, the density and the temperature of the air are lower. As a result, the frequency of collisions of the molecules is lower. • Hence, atmospheric pressure is lower.

ACTIVITY 2: Experiments to show the existence of the atmospheric pressure
• Fill an empty plastic bottle with hot water until it is about a quarter full. Tighten the cap immediately and wait for a few seconds.

• Observation

The bottle has been crushed

steam • The _________ from the boiling water drives out the air from the plastic bottle. air • The cap prevents outside _______ from flowing into the bottle. • When cold water is poured on it, the steam condense inside the bottle __________ to water and it vaccuum forms partial __________ inside the bottle. • The atmospheric pressure outside which is higher ________ then compress the bottle.

Application:
• the resultant force caused by the atmospheric pressure acts on the surface of the cardboard is greater than the weight of the water in the glass.

Application:
• When we suck through a straw, the air pressure in the straw is lowered. Then the pressure of the atmosphere acting on the surface of the drink in the glass pushes the water up the straw and into our mouth.

• When the sucker is pressed into place, most of the air behind it is squeezed out. The sucker is held in position by the pressure of atmosphere on the outside surface of the rubber. If the seal between the sucker and the surface is airtight , the sucker will stick permanently.

• The fan inside the vacuum cleaner blows air out of the vents. Which less air inside , the air pressure there drops. The atmospheric pressure outside then pushes air up the cleaner hose ,carrying dust and dirt with it.

Vacuum Cleaner

• The barometer is made by filling a long glass tube with mercury. The tube is then turned upside down in a bow of mercury. The mercury level in the tube will drop until a level h = 76 cm above the mercury level in the bowl.
(a)Why the level does not drop further?

Mercury Barometer

Atmospheric pressure __________________________ support the mercury

(b) Pressure at A is due to the Atmospheric pressure _______________
(b) Pressure at B is due to Mercury column the ________________

Mercury Barometer

0 (d) Pressure at C = ____
(d) Compare the pressure at A and B. PA = PB Atmospheric pressure equal ______ Mercury Pressure

Atmospheric pressure Equal to Mercury Pressure (f) If the density of the mercury is 1.36 x 104 kg m-3 and the acceleration due to gravity is 10 ms-2, calculate the atmospheric pressure in pascal. P = 1.36 x 104 x 10 x 0.76 = 1.03 x 105 Pa

Mercury Barometer

What is the value of the atmospheric pressure in cm Hg? 76 cm Hg
What is the pressure at point x in cm Hg? 76 + 14 = 90 cm Hg The density of water is 1000 kg m-3. If a barometer is made using water instead of mercury, and a very long tube, how high is the water column. h=

Mercury Barometer

• At sea level: Atmospheric pressure
1.03 x 105 • = ………………….. Pa
76 • = ……………….. cm Hg 10 • = ………………. m water 1 • = …………. Atm

Mercury Barometer

• Question 2 • If a mercury barometer were carried up a mountain, how would you expect the height of the mercury column to change? Explain. Decreases, atmospheric pressure decreases as the altitude increases

Question 3 The diagram shows a mercury barometer. Gas X is trapped in a glass tube. If the vertical height of the mercury level is 40 cm of Hg and the atmospheric pressure is 75 cm Hg, calculate the pressure exerted by the gas X 75 – 40 = 35 cm Hg inside the tube.

A manometer consists of a U-tube that is filled with a liquid like water, oil or mercury. In figure (a) when both ends of the tube is exposed to Atmospheric pressure __________ pressure, both levels are the same.

Manometer

Manometer

In figure (b) when one end is connected to a gas supply, the difference in level, h gives the pressure of the gas, P.

What is the total pressure a point W?

Manometer

Compare the pressure at W and the gas pressure.

P W = Patm + Pmerkuri

P W = Pgas At the same level
P gas = Patm + Pmerkuri

Write an equation that relate between Patmopherice , Pmercury and Pgas.

Manometer

Manometer

Manometer

P W = Pgas At the same level

P W = Patm + Pmerkuri P gas = Patm + Pmerkuri

• [Patmospheric = 76 cm Hg, g = 10 Nkg-1 • density of mercury = 1.36 x 104 kg m-3]
• P gas = 32 + 76 = 108 cm Hg What is the gas pressure in Pa? P gas = ρgh 1.36 x 104 x 10 x 1.08 = 1.46 x 105 Pa

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